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Jump to: navigation, search This article is about general aspects of water. For a detailed discussion of its properties, see Properties of water. For other uses, see Water (disambiguation).
Water in three states: liquid, solid (ice), and (invisible) water vapor in the air. Clouds are accumulations of water droplets, condensed from vapor-saturated air. Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. Its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state, water vapor or steam. Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface, and is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation. Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. A very small amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Water on Earth moves continually through a cycle of evaporation or transpiration (evapotranspiration), precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Over land, evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land. Clean drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms. Access to safe drinking water has improved steadily and substantially over the last decades in almost every part of the world.  There is a clear correlation between access to safe water and GDP per capita. However, some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability. A recent report (November 2009) suggests that by 2030, in some developing regions of the world, water demand will exceed supply by 50%. Water plays an important role in the world economy, as it functions as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances and facilitates industrial cooling and transportation. Approximately 70% of freshwater is consumed by agriculture.
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1 Chemical and physical properties 2 Taste and odor 3 Distribution of water in nature o 3.1 Water in the universe o 3.2 Water and habitable zone 4 Water on Earth o 4.1 Water cycle o 4.2 Fresh water storage o 4.3 Sea water o 4.4 Tides 5 Effects on life o 5.1 Aquatic life forms 6 Effects on human civilization o 6.1 Health and pollution o 6.2 Human uses 6.2.1 Agriculture 6.2.2 Water as a scientific standard 6.2.3 For drinking 6.2.4 Washing 6.2.5 Chemical uses 6.2.6 Heat exchange 6.2.7 Fire extinction 6.2.8 Recreation 6.2.9 Water industry 6.2.10 Industrial applications 6.2.11 Food processing 7 Water law, water politics and water crisis 8 Water in culture o 8.1 Religion o 8.2 Philosophy o 8.3 Literature 9 See also o 9.1 Other topics 10 References 11 Further reading o 11.1 Water as a natural resource 12 External links
Chemical and physical properties
Main articles: Water (properties), Water (data page), and Water model
Model of hydrogen bonds between molecules of water
Impact from a water drop causes an upward "rebound" jet surrounded by circular capillary waves.
Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902
Dew drops adhering to a spider web Capillary action of water compared to mercury Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H2O: one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom. It is tasteless and odorless. it is argued that water exists as ionic water in which the molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and oxygen ions. seawater and icebergs in the polar oceans. glaciers and rivers in the mountains. The major chemical and physical properties of water are: • Water is a liquid at standard temperature and pressure. Water appears in nature in all three common states of matter and may take many different forms on Earth: water vapor and clouds in the sky. At high temperatures and pressures. Water vapor is essentially invisible as a gas. although both appear colorless in small quantities. and the liquid in aquifers in the ground. . and at even higher pressures as superionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions float around freely within the oxygen lattice. The intrinsic color of water and ice is a very slight blue hue. such as in the interior of giant planets.
it carries a slight negative charge. For example. Ultra-violet and infrared light is strongly absorbed. such as trees. giving rise to water's high surface tension and capillary forces. It has the anomalous property of becoming less dense. but this increases significantly with the dissolution of a small amount of ionic material such as sodium chloride. Pure water has a low electrical conductivity. Water also can form an unusually large number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds (four) for a molecule of its size. Everest water boils at 68 °C (154 °F). are known as hydrophobic (water-fearing) substances. DNA and polysaccharides) are also dissolved in water. fats and oils). Thus aquatic plants can live in water because sunlight can reach them.• Water is transparent in the visible electromagnetic spectrum. Since the water molecule is not linear and the oxygen atom has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen atoms. e.16 °F). Substances that dissolve in water. ice. All the major components in cells (proteins. Water has the second highest molar specific heat capacity of any known substance.. This property is relied upon by all vascular plants.g. These two unusual properties allow water to moderate Earth's climate by buffering large fluctuations in temperature. As a result.65 kJ·mol−1). It expands to occupy 9% greater volume in this solid state. These factors lead to strong attractive forces between molecules of water. Conversely. water deep in the ocean near geothermal vents can reach temperatures of hundreds of degrees and remain liquid. The maximum density of water occurs at 3. Water is a good solvent and is often[quantify] referred to[by whom?] as the universal solvent. after ammonia. and some gases – especially oxygen. on the top of Mt. carbon dioxide (carbonation) are known as hydrophilic (water-loving) substances. The boiling point of water (and all other liquids) is dependent on the barometric pressure.. when it is cooled down to its solid form. alkalis.98 °C (39. The capillary action refers to the tendency of water to move up a narrow tube against the force of gravity. while those that do not mix well with water (e. not more. compared to 100 °C (212 °F) at sea level. which accounts for the fact of ice floating on liquid water. both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. • • • • • • • . as well as a high heat of vaporization (40. sugars. acids.g. whereas the hydrogen atoms are slightly positive. water is a polar molecule with an electrical dipole moment. salts.
However. Water is not a fuel. As an oxide of hydrogen. As a gas. The advertised purity of spring and mineral water refers to absence of toxins. water vapor is completely miscible with air. • • • • Taste and odor Water can dissolve many different substances. Being a flammable gas.ADR label for transporting goods dangerously reactive with water • Water is miscible with many liquids. Humans and other animals have developed senses which enable them to evaluate the potability of water by avoiding water that is too salty or putrid. such as ethanol. water and most oils are immiscible usually forming layers according to increasing density from the top. sodium. in all proportions. often advertised in marketing of consumer products. On the other hand. pure H2O is tasteless and odorless. derives from the minerals dissolved in it. Water can be split by electrolysis into hydrogen and oxygen. calcium. forming a single homogeneous liquid. Distribution of water in nature . The taste of spring water and mineral water. the hydrogen given off is dangerous and the reaction of water with the more electropositive of these elements may be violently explosive. Water forms an azeotrope with many other solvents. The energy required to split water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis or any other means is greater than the energy that can be collected when the hydrogen and oxygen recombine. potassium and caesium displace hydrogen from water. pollutants and microbes. forming hydroxides. water is formed when hydrogen or hydrogen-containing compounds burn or react with oxygen or oxygen-containing compounds. giving it varying tastes and odors. Elements which are more electropositive than hydrogen such as lithium. it is an end-product of the combustion of hydrogen.
 Liquid water is present on • Earth – 71% of surface Strong evidence suggests that liquid water is present just under the surface of Saturn's moon Enceladus. because its components. the shock waves that are created compress and heat the gas. The water observed is quickly produced in this warm dense gas. Jupiter's moon Europa may have liquid water in the form as a 100 km deep subsurface ocean. typically 1–4% at surface Atmosphere of Mars: 0. Water and other volatiles probably comprise much of the internal structures of Uranus and Neptune and the water in the deeper layers may be in the form of ionic water in which the molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and . their birth is accompanied by a strong outward wind of gas and dust.03% Atmosphere of Jupiter: 0. When this outflow of material eventually impacts the surrounding gas. Water ice is present on • • • • • • • • • Earth – mainly as ice sheets polar ice caps on Mars Moon Titan Europa Saturn's rings Enceladus Pluto and Charon Comets and comet source populations (Kuiper belt and Oort cloud objects). When stars are born. Water ice may be present on Ceres and Tethys. Water vapor is present in • • • • • • • • Atmosphere of Mercury: 3. Water has been detected in interstellar clouds within our galaxy. the Milky Way.0004% Atmosphere of Saturn – in ices only Enceladus (moon of Saturn): 91% exoplanets known as HD 189733 b and HD 209458 b. Water probably exists in abundance in other galaxies. and large amounts of water in Mercury's exosphere Atmosphere of Venus: 0.40% over full atmosphere. Interstellar clouds eventually condense into solar nebulae and solar systems such as ours.Water in the universe Much of the universe's water is produced as a byproduct of star formation. which would amount to more water than is in all the Earth's oceans. hydrogen and oxygen. are among the most abundant elements in the universe. too.002% Earth's atmosphere: ~0.4%.
the water on it may be solid even at high temperatures. which is determined by the planet's gravity. and to a lesser extent its gaseous and solid forms. Earth's gravity allows it to hold an atmosphere. If a planet is sufficiently massive. If Earth were smaller. if it were slightly closer to or farther from the Sun (about 5%. Water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere provide a temperature buffer (greenhouse effect) which helps maintain a relatively steady surface temperature. The surface temperature of Earth has been relatively constant through geologic time despite varying levels of incoming solar radiation (insolation).oxygen ions. The Earth is located in the habitable zone of the solar system. and deeper down as superionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions float around freely within the oxygen lattice. in 2008 a laboratory device which ejects and identifies particles found small amounts of the compound in the inside of volcanic pearls brought from Moon to Earth by the Apollo 15 crew in 1971. indicating that a dynamic process governs Earth's temperature via a combination of greenhouse gases and surface or atmospheric albedo. a thinner atmosphere would allow temperature extremes. because of the high pressure caused by gravity. The state of water on a planet depends on ambient pressure. Water on Earth Main articles: Hydrology and Water distribution on Earth . the conditions which allow the three forms to be present simultaneously would be far less likely to exist. thus preventing the accumulation of water except in polar ice caps (as on Mars). This proposal is known as the Gaia hypothesis. Some of the Moon's minerals contain water molecules. Water and habitable zone The existence of liquid water. For instance. NASA reported the detection of water molecules by NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper aboard the Indian Space Research Organization's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft in September 2009. as it was observed on exoplanets Gliese 436 b and GJ 1214 b. There are various theories about origin of water on Earth. on Earth are vital to the existence of life on Earth as we know it. or about 8 million kilometers).
The study of the distribution of water is hydrography. which contains 61% of all fresh water on Earth.2% of the Earth's water. Earth's approximate water volume (the total water supply of the world) is 1. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology. The collective mass of water found on.A graphical distribution of the locations of water on Earth. under. is visible at the bottom. Ecological processes with hydrology are in focus of ecohydrology.000 mi3).000.000. of inland waters is limnology and distribution of oceans is oceanography. of glaciers is glaciology. Groundwater and fresh water are useful or potentially useful to humans as water resources.360. .000 km3 (326. contributing to the Earth's albedo. distribution. and quality of water throughout the Earth. the oceans contain 97. Condensed atmospheric water can be seen as clouds. and over the surface of a planet is called the hydrosphere. The Antarctic ice sheet. Hydrology is the study of the movement. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface.
lake. Water is also present in the atmosphere in solid. ice. Water is important in many geological processes. soil water. pond. between the atmosphere. It also exists as groundwater in aquifers. Water and. Water in the mantle is responsible for the melt that produces volcanoes at subduction zones. and vapor states. and the pressure of this groundwater affects patterns of faulting. but winds carry water vapor over land at the same rate as runoff into the sea.Liquid water is found in bodies of water. On the surface of the Earth. from water vapor condensing from the air and falling to earth or ocean. surface water. liquid. Groundwater is present in most rocks. and plants. canal. are also responsible for a large amount of sediment transport that occurs on the surface of the earth. such as an ocean. at a rate of 107 Tt per year over . which make up the geologic record of Earth history. The majority of water on Earth is sea water. sea. precipitation. runoff from the land usually reaching the sea. groundwater. or puddle. Precipitation. Over land. river. Deposition of transported sediment forms many types of sedimentary rocks. stream. Water moves perpetually through each of these regions in the water cycle consisting of following transfer processes: • • • evaporation from oceans and other water bodies into the air and transpiration from land plants and animals into air. to a lesser but still significant extent. Water cycle Water cycle The water cycle (known scientifically as the hydrologic cycle) refers to the continuous exchange of water within the hydrosphere. evaporation and transpiration contribute another 71 Tt per year. about 36 Tt per year. water is important in both chemical and physical weathering processes. Most water vapor over the oceans returns to the oceans.
is covered with water. plus smaller amounts of other substances. fresh water is essential to human and other land-based life. snow collects in ice caps. Sea water Sea water contains about 3. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. has several forms: most commonly rain. and in the far north and south.5% salt on average. Condensed water in the air may also refract sunlight to produce rainbows. It freezes at a lower temperature (about –1.9 °C) and its density increases with decreasing temperature to the . Groundwater is also extracted artificially in wells. or more spectacularly in hot springs and geysers. it is in short supply. during winter. A mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters is hydrological transport model. snow pack and glaciers. Water also infiltrates the ground and goes into aquifers. with some contribution from fog and dew. At high altitude. A flood occurs when an area of land. for example in lakes. Rivers and seas offer opportunity for travel and commerce. This water storage is important. This occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation. It is when a river overflows its banks or flood from the sea. Some of water is diverted to irrigation for agriculture. The physical properties of sea water differ from fresh water in some important respects. Fresh water storage High tide (left) and low tide (right) Main article: Water resources Some runoff water is trapped for periods of time. Water runoff often collects over watersheds flowing into rivers. runoff shapes the environment creating river valleys and deltas which provide rich soil and level ground for the establishment of population centers.land. This groundwater later flows back to the surface in springs. since clean. usually low-lying. Through erosion. snow. and hail. In many parts of the world.
form oxygen and organic compounds (at left). instead of reaching maximum density at a temperature above freezing. the intertidal zone. It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow replication. water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life that set it apart from other substances. All known forms of life . is an important ecological product of ocean tides.7% in the Baltic Sea to 4.freezing point. The changing tide produced at a given location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth coupled with the effects of Earth rotation and the local bathymetry. The salinity of water in major seas varies from about 0. Water (at right). The strip of seashore that is submerged at high tide and exposed at low tide. together with carbon dioxide (CO2). which can be respired to water and (CO2). Tides cause changes in the depth of the marine and estuarine water bodies and produce oscillating currents known as tidal streams. Tides Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of local sea levels caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the oceans.0% in the Red Sea. Effects on life An oasis is an isolated water source with vegetation in desert Overview of photosynthesis and respiration. From a biological standpoint.
An acid. All living cells use such fuels and oxidize the hydrogen and carbon to capture the sun's energy and reform water and CO2 in the process (cellular respiration). Water is also central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function. Hydrogen is combined with CO2 (absorbed from air or water) to form glucose and release oxygen. Water is fundamental to photosynthesis and respiration. In anabolism. these particular metabolic processes could not exist. Water is vital both as a solvent in which many of the body's solutes dissolve and as an essential part of many metabolic processes within the body. triglycerides and proteins for storage of fuels and information). Photosynthetic cells use the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen. water is removed from molecules (through energy requiring enzymatic chemical reactions) in order to grow larger molecules (e. Without water. In catabolism. Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef Aquatic life forms Main articles: Hydrobiology and Aquatic plant . Metabolism is the sum total of anabolism and catabolism. can be neutralized by a base.g. a proton acceptor such as hydroxide ion (OH−) to form water. Acids have pH values less than 7 while bases have values greater than 7. a proton) donor. with a pH (the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration) of 7. that is. a hydrogen ion (H+.depend on water. fatty acids and amino acids to be used for fuels for energy use or other purposes). Water is considered to be neutral. starches. glucose.g. water is used to break bonds in order to generate smaller molecules (e.
like Singapore.Some marine diatoms – a key phytoplankton group Earth's surface waters are filled with life. Plants such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems. However as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialisation for respiration in water. Mesopotamia. such as amphibians. was situated between the major rivers Tigris and Euphrates. access to clean drinking water was and is a major factor in human development. . Aquatic vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive. Shanghai. Marine mammals. and they do so in various ways. Invertebrates exhibit a wide range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes (see insect and mollusc siphons) and gills (Carcinus). Buenos Aires. and there are many types of marine mammals. where water is more scarce. London. The earliest life forms appeared in water. Tokyo. Some kinds of animals. Effects on human civilization Water fountain Civilization has historically flourished around rivers and major waterways. the socalled cradle of civilization. In places such as North Africa and the Middle East. Large metropolises like Rotterdam. have flourished for the same reason. New York City. Chicago. Plankton is generally the foundation of the ocean food chain. Islands with safe water ports. such as the lungfish. Fish have gills instead of lungs. and seals need to surface periodically to breathe air. such as dolphins and whales. Montreal. such as dolphins. have both. the ancient society of the Egyptians depended entirely upon the Nile. and Hong Kong owe their success in part to their easy accessibility via water and the resultant expansion of trade. nearly all fish live exclusively in water. Paris. spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. otters. whales. although some species of fish. Some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin.
Chlorine is a skin and mucous membrane irritant that is used to make water safe for bathing or drinking. or by a range of other methods. Water. The World Health Organization estimates that safe water could prevent 1.) These terms may have different meanings in other countries and cultures. but not toilets. which is treatable and thus easily able to be made potable again. and is sometimes called safe water. Greywater composes 50-80% of residential wastewater generated by a household's sanitation equipment (sinks. This natural resource is becoming scarcer in certain places. Even if this difficult goal is met. showers and kitchen runoff. that is a non-renewable resource. the distribution of potable and irrigation water which is scarce. Water that is not potable may be made potable by filtration or distillation. non-potable forms of wastewater generated by humans may be referred to as greywater. and its availability is a major social and economic concern. or "safe for bathing".4 million child deaths from diarrhea each year. Water that is not fit for drinking but is not harmful for humans when used for swimming or bathing is called by various names other than potable or drinking water. which is replenished in aquifers around every 1 to 10 years). Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water. Currently. and 1–2 ppm of chlorine not yet reacted with impurities for bathing water). rather. which generally contains sewage and other forms of waste which require further treatment in order to be made reusable. and blackwater. is not a finite resource. which generate blackwater. Its use is highly technical and is usually monitored by government regulations (typically 1 part per million (ppm) for drinking water. In the USA. Therefore. it will still leave more than an estimated half a billion people without access to safe drinking water and over a billion without access to adequate sanitation. it is the relatively small quantity of water in reserve in the earth (about 1% of our drinking water supply. about a billion people around the world routinely drink unhealthy water. Most countries accepted the goal of halving by 2015 the number of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water and sanitation during the 2003 G8 Evian summit. rather than the actual amount of it that exists on the .Health and pollution Environmental Science Program. some five million deaths a year are caused by polluted drinking water. Poor water quality and bad sanitation are deadly. however. but rather re-circulated as potable water in precipitation in quantities many degrees of magnitude higher than human consumption. Iowa State University student sampling water. Water for bathing may be maintained in satisfactory microbiological condition using chemical disinfectants such as chlorine or ozone or by the use of ultraviolet light. and it is.
The scale is an absolute temperature scale with the same increment as the Celsius temperature scale. .01 °C. 30% of freshwater usage is for irrigation). since the manufacturing process uses around 10 to 100 times products' masses in water. Irrigation takes up to 90% of water withdrawn in some developing countries and significant proportions in more economically developed countries (United States. In spite of the fact that the decreed definition of the gram specified water at 0 °C—a highly reproducible temperature—the scientists chose to redefine the standard and to perform their measurements at the temperature of highest water density. Water-poor countries use importation of goods as the primary method of importing water (to leave enough for local human consumption)." For practical purposes though. In the developing world. the kilogram. Work was therefore commissioned to determine precisely the mass of one liter of water. a metallic reference standard was required. which was originally defined according the boiling point (set to 100 °C) and melting point (set to 0 °C) of water. Water as a scientific standard On 7 April 1795.16 K or 0. and to the temperature of the melting ice. with roughly a third of the world’s population.  Some 50 countries. The Kelvin temperature scale of the SI system is based on the triple point of water. the gram was defined in France to be equal to "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to a cube of one hundredth of a meter. The strain not only affects surface freshwater bodies like rivers and lakes. one thousand times more massive. also suffer from medium or high water stress. and 17 of these extract more water annually than is recharged through their natural water cycles. which is a key component to produce enough food. Human uses Agriculture Irrigation of field crops The most important use of water in agriculture is for irrigation.earth. which was measured at the time as 4 °C (39 °F). but it also degrades groundwater resources. defined as exactly 273. 90% of all wastewater still goes untreated into local rivers and streams.
Most of this is ingested through foods or beverages other than drinking straight water. It is not clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people. it is rather difficult to drink too much water. For drinking Main article: Drinking water A young girl drinking bottled water Water quality: fraction of population using improved water sources by country The human body contains anywhere from 55% to 78% water depending on body size. however. Similar misconceptions concerning the effect of water on weight loss and constipation have also been dispelled. which can be fatal. excluding extra requirements due to fluid loss from exercise or warm weather. The amount of deuterium oxides or heavy water is very small. For those who have healthy kidneys. To function properly.Natural water consists mainly of the isotopes hydrogen-1 and oxygen-16. The popular claim that "a person should consume eight glasses of water per day" seems to have no real basis in science. humidity. Medical literature favors a lower consumption. typically 1 liter of water for an average male. but there is also small quantity of heavier isotopes such as hydrogen-2 (deuterium). the body requires between one and seven liters of water per day to avoid dehydration. but (especially in warm humid weather and while exercising) it is dangerous to drink too little. though most advocates agree that 6–7 glasses of water (approximately 2 liters) daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration. and other factors. temperature. putting them at risk of water intoxication (hyperhydration). standard water is defined in the Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water specification. but it still affects the properties of water. . Water from rivers and lakes tends to contain less deuterium than seawater. Therefore. People can drink far more water than necessary while exercising. the precise amount depends on the level of activity.
Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms.7 liters for men.Hazard symbol for Not drinking water An original recommendation for water intake in 1945 by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council read: "An ordinary standard for diverse persons is 1 milliliter for each calorie of food. Many industrial processes rely on reactions using chemicals dissolved in water.4 liters (10 cups) for pregnant women and 3 liters (12 cups) for breastfeeding women since an especially large amount of fluid is lost during nursing. Washing The propensity of water to form solutions and emulsions is useful in various washing processes. Also noted is that normally. through sweating. while the rest comes from drinking water and beverages (caffeinated included). on average.2 liters and men 3. about 20% of water intake comes from food. Washing is also an important component of several aspects of personal body hygiene.7 liters of water total for women and 3. and by exhalation of water vapor in the breath." The latest dietary reference intake report by the United States National Research Council in general recommended (including food sources): 2. through urine and faeces. Some solutes are acceptable and even desirable for taste enhancement and to provide needed electrolytes. suspension of solids in water slurries or using water to dissolve and extract substances. calcium and lead) and/or harmful bacteria. The single largest (by volume) freshwater resource suitable for drinking is Lake Baikal in Siberia. women consume 2. such as Vibrio. Common impurities include metal salts and oxides (including copper. Chemical uses .0 liters—this is recommended to be 2. Specifically. With physical exertion and heat exposure. Humans require water that does not contain too many impurities. Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods. water loss will increase and daily fluid needs may increase as well. iron. pregnant and breastfeeding women need additional fluids to stay hydrated. According to the Institute of Medicine—who recommend that.
dissolving many ionic compounds. Water and steam are used as heat transfer fluids in diverse heat exchange systems. water can also be used as a neutron moderator.Water is widely used in chemical reactions as a solvent or reactant and less commonly as a solute or catalyst..S. because it does not dissolve the reactants well and is amphoteric (acidic and basic) and nucleophilic. water is both a coolant and a moderator. Cool water may even be naturally available from a lake or the sea. cooling power plants is the largest use of water. both as a coolant and for heating. Supercritical water has recently been a topic of research. Heat exchange Ice used for cooling. In most nuclear reactors. This provides something of a passive safety measure. it is not usually used as a reaction solvent. Condensing steam is a particularly efficient heating fluid because of the large heat of vaporization. as removing the water from the reactor also slows the nuclear reaction down . Nevertheless. In almost all electric power stations. water is the coolant. In inorganic reactions. due to its availability and high heat capacity. In organic reactions. Also. Oxygen-saturated supercritical water combusts organic pollutants efficiently. these properties are sometimes desirable. acceleration of Diels-Alder reactions by water has been observed. In the nuclear power industry.however other methods are favored for stopping a reaction and it is preferred to keep the nuclear core covered with water so as to ensure adequate cooling. Fire extinction . In the U. water is a common solvent. A disadvantage is that water and steam are somewhat corrosive. which vaporizes and drives steam turbines to drive generators.
which may occur when water is used on very hot fires in confined spaces. The power of such explosions was seen in the Chernobyl disaster. beaches and waterparks are popular places for people to go to relax and enjoy recreation. Lakesides. as well as for exercising and for sports. because impure water is electrically conductive. A hydrogen explosion may have occurred as a result of reaction between steam and hot zirconium. Use of water in fire fighting should also take into account the hazards of a steam explosion. Some of these include swimming. some sports. St.Water is used for fighting wildfires. decompose the water. often reported as one of the top 10 beaches in the world. although the water involved did not come from fire-fighting at that time but the reactor's own water cooling system. Grenada. Water has a high heat of vaporization and is relatively inert. George's. only distilled water can be used to fight fires of electric equipment. However. waterskiing. West Indies. which makes it a good fire extinguishing fluid. because they float on water and the explosive boiling of water tends to spread the burning liquid. such as certain metals or hot graphite. Water is not suitable for use on fires of oils and organic solvents. producing hydrogen gas. are played on ice. Many find the sound and appearance of . A steam explosion occurred when the extreme over-heating of the core caused water to flash into steam. In addition. Main article: Water sport (recreation) Humans use water for many recreational purposes. The evaporation of water carries heat away from the fire. and of a hydrogen explosion. like ice hockey and ice skating. boating. surfing and diving. Recreation Grand Anse Beach. when substances which react with water.
snowmobiling or snowboarding. In many places where running water was not available.e. water had to be transported by people. and fountains and other water features are popular decorations. Water industry A water-carrier in India. skiing. water guns or water balloons.flowing water to be calming. Some keep fish and other life in aquariums or ponds for show. and companionship. sledding. fun. Humans also use water for snow sports i. which requires the water to be frozen. A manual water pump in China . People may also use water for play fighting such as with snowballs. 1882.
assuming the aquifers can supply an adequate flow. Water supply facilities include water wells cisterns for rainwater harvesting. or pumped from lakes and rivers. water tanks. non-polluting. In some cities such as Hong Kong. water pipes including old aqueducts. sea water is extensively used for flushing toilets citywide in order to conserve fresh water resources. it becomes a waste of the resource. Reducing usage by using drinking (potable) water only for human consumption is another option. while the private firms' profits are not redistributed to the local population victim of this pollution. which condenses as rain in higher altitudes. being conceived as externalities for which the market cannot account. Industrial applications Water is used in power generation. Pharmaceuticals consumed by humans often end up in the waterways and can have detrimental effects on aquatic life if they bioaccumulate and if they are not biodegradable. The energy is supplied by the sun. from where it flows down. such as reverse osmosis. Others[who?] argue that the market mechanism and free enterprise are best to manage this rare resource and to finance the boring of wells or the construction of dams and reservoirs. regardless of benefits to the polluter. Atmospheric water generators are in development. Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydropower. Drinking water is often collected at springs. renewable energy source.Water purification facility The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to households and industry. Desalination of abundant seawater is a more expensive solution used in coastal arid climates. Hydroelectric power comes from water driving a water turbine connected to a generator. This may involve removal of undissolved substances. extracted from artificial borings (wells) in the ground. The distribution of drinking water is done through municipal water systems. More advanced techniques exist. Popular methods are filtering with sand which only removes undissolved material. water towers. water supply network. Other water sources include rainwater collection. Thus other people pay the price of water pollution. Governments in many countries have programs to distribute water to the needy at no charge. Like other types of pollution. Wastewater facilities are storm sewers and wastewater treatment plants. Another way to remove pollution from surface runoff water is bioswale. Water may require purification for human consumption. Distillation does all three functions. water purification facilities. dissolved substances and harmful microbes. Building more wells in adequate places is thus a possible way to produce more water. Polluting water may be the biggest single misuse of water. tanker delivery or as bottled water. Heat from the sun evaporates water. . to the extent that a pollutant limits other uses of the water. Hydroelectricity is a low-cost. this does not enter standard accounting of market costs. while chlorination and boiling kill harmful microbes.
and is not harmful to the environment. Also. Food processing Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles. Pollution includes discharged solutes (chemical pollution) and discharged coolant water (thermal pollution). Pressurized water is used in water blasting and water jet cutters. Industry requires pure water for many applications and utilizes a variety of purification techniques both in water supply and discharge. Water is also used in many industrial processes and machines. It works very well. . Discharge of untreated water from industrial uses is pollution. in addition to its use as a chemical solvent. such as the steam turbine and heat exchanger. It is also used in the cooling of machinery to prevent over-heating.Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydro-electric power station. It is important for a food scientist to understand the roles that water plays within food processing to ensure the success of their products. very high pressure water guns are used for precise cutting. Water plays many critical roles within the field of food science. or prevent saw blades from over-heating. is relatively safe.
One mole of sucrose (sugar) per kilogram of water raises the boiling point of water by 0. steaming. Solutes in water also affect water activity which affects many chemical reactions and the growth of microbes in food. Water right. and one mole of salt per kg raises the boiling point by 1. Water law. with increasing hardness. hard water prevents successful production of clear beverages. Water hardness is measured in grains. Water hardness is also a critical factor in food processing. Water is classified as soft if it contains 1 to 4 grains. The hardness of water also affects its pH balance which plays a critical role in food processing. Solutes in water lower water activity. Water activity can be described as a ratio of the vapor pressure of water in a solution to the vapor pressure of pure water. Not only does microbial growth affect the safety of food but also the preservation and shelf life of food.064 g calcium carbonate is equivalent to one grain of hardness. Water hardness is classified based on the amounts of removable calcium carbonate salt it contains per gallon.[vague]  The hardness of water may be altered or treated by using a chemical ion exchange system. 0. and Water crisis . Water hardness also affects sanitation.02 °C. water politics and water crisis An estimate of the share of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970– 2000 Main articles: Water law. similarly. Water is also used for dishwashing. The boiling and freezing points of water are affected by solutes. For example. which is in turn affected by altitude. Boiling. Water boils at lower temperatures with the lower air pressure which occurs at higher elevations.51 °C. This is important to know because most bacterial growth ceases at low levels of water activity. there is a loss of effectiveness for its use as a sanitizer. increasing the number of dissolved particles lowers water's freezing point. It can dramatically affect the quality of a product as well as playing a role in sanitation. steam. and simmering are popular cooking methods that often require immersing food in water or its gaseous state. as well as air pressure. medium if it contains 5 to 10 grains and hard if it contains 11 to 20 grains.Solutes such as salts and sugars found in water affect the physical properties of water.
For this reason. in the next 20 years. 1. it is also a part of the practice of other religions. by 2015. Organizations concerned with water protection include International Water Association (IWA). It causes health impacts and damage to biodiversity. but that access to it is hampered by mismanagement and corruption. 79% in 2000 and 84% in 2004. Judaism. Water 1st. This trend is projected to continue. global initiatives to improve the efficiency of aid delivery. In 2004. including Judaism (mikvah) and Sikhism (Amrit Sanskar). Immersion (or aspersion or affusion) of a person in water is a central sacrament of Christianity (where it is called baptism). More than 2. the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water is one of the Millennium Development Goals. potentially leaving multiple donors working on overlapping projects and recipient governments without empowerment to act. World Day for Water takes place on 22 March and World Ocean Day on 8 June. 2003) from the World Water Assessment Program indicates that. In addition. the UK charity WaterAid reported that a child dies every 15 seconds from easily preventable water-related diseases. To halve. Taoism. Hinduism. and Wicca. a ritual bath in pure water . American Water Resources Association. Water related conventions are United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). The proportion of people in developing countries with access to safe water is calculated to have improved from 30% in 1970 to 71% in 1990. Shinto.2 million people died in 2000 from waterborne diseases (related to the consumption of contaminated water) or drought.6 billion people have gained access to a safe water source since 1990. Water in culture Religion Main article: Water and religion Water is considered a purifier in most religions. often this means lack of sewage disposal. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships.Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. have not been taken up by water sector donors as effectively as they have in education and health. Major faiths that incorporate ritual washing (ablution) include Christianity. the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world's inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. This goal is projected to be reached. see toilet. WaterAid. Islam. water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. such as the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. Rastafari movement. Water used in the production of a good or service is virtual water. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and Ramsar Convention. The UN World Water Development Report (WWDR. In addition. A 2006 United Nations report stated that "there is enough water for everyone".
and metal. In Shinto. the low place which all men dislike. The excellence of water appears in its benefiting all things. and was regarded as the ylem. water is used in almost all rituals to cleanse a person or an area (e. fire. Sherlock Holmes held that "From a drop of water. The classical element of Water was also one of the five elements in traditional Chinese philosophy. a logician could infer the possibility of an Atlantic or a Niagara without having seen or heard of one or the other." Literature Water is used in literature as a symbol of purification. Water was considered cold and moist.. and yet for attacking things that are firm and strong there is nothing that can take precedence of it—for there is nothing (so effectual) for which it can be changed. James Legge's 1891 translation of the Dao De Jing states "The highest excellence is like (that of) water. Water is described in many terms and contexts: • according to state o solid – ice o liquid – water . wood. earth and air.g. in the ritual of misogi). and in its occupying. Water is also taken as a role model in some parts of traditional and popular Asian philosophy. In Islam. In the theory of the four bodily humors. the five daily prayers can be done in most cases (see Tayammum) after completing washing certain parts of the body using clean water (wudu). or basic substance of the universe. Examples include the critical importance of a river in As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner and the drowning of Ophelia in Hamlet.is performed for the dead in many religions including Judaism and Islam. water was associated with phlegm." See also Water portal Sustainable development portal Main article: List of water topics • The water (data page) is a collection of the chemical and physical properties of water. In the Qur'an it is stated that "Living things are made of water" and it is often used to described Paradise. Water is mentioned numerous times in the Bible. along with earth. Philosophy The Ancient Greek philosopher Empedocles held that water is one of the four classical elements along with fire. Hence (its way) is near to (that of) the Tao" and "There is nothing in the world more soft and weak than water. for example: "The earth was formed out of water and by water" (NIV). without striving (to the contrary).
o o • gaseous – water vapor plasma according to meteorology: o hydrometeor precipitation precipitation according to movement • vertical (falling) precipitation o rain o freezing rain o drizzle o freezing drizzle o snow o snow pellets o snow grains o ice pellets o frozen rain o hail o ice crystals • horizontal (seated) precipitation o dew o hoarfrost o atmospheric icing o glaze ice precipitation according to state • liquid precipitation o rain o freezing rain o drizzle o freezing drizzle o dew • solid precipitation o snow o snow pellets o snow grains o ice pellets o frozen rain o hail o ice crystals o hoarfrost o atmospheric icing o glaze ice • mixed precipitation o in temperatures around 0 °C • • levitating particles clouds fog mist o ascending particles (drifted by wind) spindrift stirred snow according to occurrence o groundwater o meltwater o meteoric water o connate water o fresh water o surface water o mineral water – contains many minerals o brackish water o .
but is not limited to.• dead water – strange phenomenon which can occur when a layer of fresh or brackish water rests on top of denser salt water. o tritiated water according to microbiology o drinking water o wastewater o stormwater or surface water according to religion o holy water • • Other topics • • • • Dihydrogen monoxide hoax Water Pasteurization Indicator Water intoxication Water pinch analysis . o seawater o brine according to uses o tap water o bottled water o drinking water or potable water – useful for everyday drinking. Often broadly classified as Type I. double distilled water. the following: distilled water double distilled water deionized water Reverse osmosis plant Water o • according to other features o soft water – contains fewer minerals o hard water – from underground. It was used in construction of first nuclear reactors. or Type III. without the two layers mixing. this category of water includes. analytical-grade or reagent-grade water – water which has been highly purified for specific uses in science or engineering. It is dangerous for ship traveling. without fouling. contains more minerals o distilled water. It is in nature in normal water in very low concentration. laboratory-grade. deionized water – contains no minerals o water of crystallization — water incorporated into crystalline structures o hydrates — water bound into other chemical substances o heavy water – made from heavy atoms of hydrogen – deuterium. Type II. it contains balanced minerals that are not harmful to health (see below) o purified water.
^ Braun.^ Campbell. Retrieved 2010-07-25. Sergei N. 1999.org/unsd/mdg/Resources/Static/Products/Progress2008/MDG_Report_2008_En. Chem.html. Heyden (2006). ^ "Charting Our Water Future: Economic frameworks to inform decision-making" (PDF).html.com/news/2007/070910/full/070910-13.org/news/2008/0703_MESSENGER_Scientists_Astonished_to. ISBN 1592235794.^ a b Sparrow.edu/~etrnsfer/water..^ Gary Melnick. 14.com/el_marketing. ^ Kulshreshtha.html. [AGU]. Time 18.pdf.html. Retrieved 2007-09-14.. The Solar System. C.The world fact book".^ Water Found on Distant Planet July 12. Nature News. Retrieved 2010-07-25. "Burning water and other myths".html. ^ a b "MDG Report 2008". . G..gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx. Cenci. Boston. Un. ISBN 0-13-250882-6. Vital Water UNEP. http://www.phschool.. February 25.lomborg. Charles L.org/waterforlifedecade/background. doi:10.un. The Harvard University Gazette. Tettamanti. April 23. Retrieved 2008-07-05.. Gapminder video 7. Biology: Exploring Life.jhu.^ Kotz. Special Report. Brad Williamson.1023/A:1007957229865.htm. "Water.com 19.23/DiscoverofWater. Water Resources Management 12 (3): 167–184.^ a b Weird water lurking inside giant planets. New Scientist. 4.(linked 4/2007) 16.edu/gazette/1999/02.1602522. The Skeptical Environmentalist. (2007).^ "MESSENGER Scientists 'Astonished' to Find Water in Mercury's Thin Atmosphere". Neil A. 2007 By Laura Blue.^ Water Found in Extrasolar Planet's Atmosphere – Space. 13. 2005-03-22. Philip (14 September 2007). Smirnov (1993). http://news.news.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-25. Cambridge University Press.. "Why is water blue?". ^ Water Vapor in the Climate System. Berati.25/telescope. http://www. http://mdgs. S. Headlines@Hopkins. http://www. Central Intelligence Agency.com/App_Media/Reports/Water/Charting_Our_Water_Future_Full_Report _001.References 1. ^ "United Nations".1038/sj.edu/news_info/news/home98/apr98/clouds. Robin J. "Evaluating the environmental impact of various dietary patterns combined with different food production systems". L. 10. 9. 22. April 9. Retrieved 200812-20. 3. The Harvard University Gazette. 17. PMID 17035955. ISBN 0521010683.01 September 2010.org. J. 1998.. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and David Neufeld. 8. http://www. 15. doi:10. Treichel. December 1995 (linked 4/2007). "A Global Outlook for Water Resources to the Year 2025". C. ISBN 053439597X. M.ejcn. 11.edu/gazette/1998/04. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity.html. ^ Baroni. M.html.^ Ball. Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall.mckinsey. (2005). p.harvard. P. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Educ. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61 (2): 279–286.harvard. http://www.planetary. http://www. Magazine issue 2776. 2008-07-03.html#Geo. http://www.dartmouth. 5. Planetary Society. L. http://www. 12.nature.cia. http://www. Giles (2006). 6. 1998.com/dyn/files/basic_items/69file/skeptenvironChap1.N (1998). 2. 70 (8): 612. ^ a b Lomborg.1021/ed070p612. doi:10. J. Johns Hopkins University quoted in: "Discover of Water Vapor Near Orion Nebula Suggests Possible Origin of H20 in Solar System (sic)". & Weaver. "Space Cloud Holds Enough Water to Fill Earth's Oceans 1 Million Times". https://www. Water Everywhere: Radio telescope finds water is common in universe".pd f#page=44. JHU. Thunder Bay Press. ^ "Public Services".un. ^ "CIA. Björn (2001).
^ Ravindranath. 26.^ Water Molecules Found on the Moon. Tanner GA (2003).^ Decree relating to the weights and measurements 33. Nijavalli H.^ UNEP International Environment (2002).daviddarling.asp? type=d&id=MTYyNTA.uk/health/healthy_living/nutrition/drinks_water. Understanding the Earth System: compartments.^ "Water: How much should you drink every day? –". http://www. pp. Jayant A.^ here L'Histoire Du Mètre. OCLC 231965991. .^ Rhoades RA. Aguilar (16 December 2009).int. ISBN 1843390086. Factsmart. Jill D. Sathaye (2002). La Détermination De L'Unité De Poids 34. Susan Johnson.html.^ a b Water Use in the United States. http://books.^ Food and Nutrition Board.^ Versteckt in Glasperlen: Auf dem Mond gibt es Wasser – Wissenschaft – Der Spiegel – Nachrichten 21. Recommended Dietary Allowances. 30. Dooge. OCLC 50554808. 29.^ David A. Retrieved 2010-07-25. New Hampshire 38. 40. Retrieved 2007-02-01. Astronomy and Spaceflight. 37. and Sulfate.cfa. p. New Scientist.. No. M. 125.20. http://www. Springer.^ Maton.mayoclinic. New Jersey. Who.^ "Conquering Chemistry" 4th Ed. 2003-06-02.fr. http://www. NASA. Medical Physiology (2nd ed. Berghahn Books. 36. Springer. ISBN 0781719364. http://space. Retrieved 2010-03-28. Offthe-Shelf Technology". Wright (1993).com. Maryanna Quon Warner.gov 32.fr/evian/english/navigation/2003_g8_summit/summit_documents/water__a_g8_action_plan. 44. http://www.bbc. The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology.^ "Drink at least eight glasses of water a day.^ "World Health Organization. 24. ISBN 1845451775. Retrieved 2010-07-25.newscientist.D.. David (6 May 2007). 2008-06-25.). OCLC 32308337.^ Dietary Reference Intakes: Water.^ "Healthy Water Living". The MadSci Network 35.html.^ Unesco (2006). BBC.int/features/qa/70/en/.^ Ehlers. Human Biology and Health.html. Retrieved 2010-03-28. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. http://www.info/encyclopedia/H/habzone. T. OCLC 49204666. C. IWA Publishing.^ Re: What percentage of the human body is composed of water? Jeffrey Utz. Environmentally Sound Technology for Wastewater and Stormwater Management: An International Source Book. Englewood Cliffs. G8. September 24.shtml. David LaHart. 42. http://www. Mayoclinic.. 27.wbcsd. p. Krafft. "Strange alien world made of "hot ice"".html. Lebanon. National Academy of Sciences. 122.edu/news/2009/pr200924. 31.^ "WBCSD Water Faacts & Trends".^ Shiga. E.g8. Potassium. I. Sodium. Dartmouth Medical School.. Water: a shared responsibility.google.co. Reprint and Circular Series. Charles William McLaughlin. 3–18. Jean Hopkins.^ Drinking Water – How Much?. 23. 2009 22. "J.com/article/dn11864-strange-alien-world-made-of-hot-ice-andsteam. ed (2001).org web site and references within 39.com/health/water/NU00283. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.org/includes/getTarget. 116.harvard. http://www.who.^ "Habitable Zone". Climate Change and Developing Countries. Safe Water and Global Health". processes. Department of Physiology. Retrieved 2010-07-25. National Research Council. Anthea. ISBN 0-13-981176-1.com/?id=1cV8tziHZ5sC&pg=PA125. USA: Prentice Hall. and interactions. 1945. Retrieved 2010-07-25.^ "G8 "Action plan" decided upon at the 2003 Evian summit". "Integrated Management of Water Resources""." Really? Is there scientific evidence for "8 × 8"? by Heinz Valdin. ISBN 1402001045. Chloride. 25. Published 2008 43. National Atlas. "Astronomers Find Super-Earth Using Amateur. Food and Nutrition Board 41. 28.
Josephine Tucker and Alan Nicol (2008) Is water lagging behind on Aid Effectiveness?  50. Pollution. Physics Today 56 (6). Great Barrington. Springer. ISBN 0387699392. 46. Blue Gold: The Fight to Stop the Corporate Theft of the World's Water. ISBN 0670199273.^ The Millennium Development Goals Report.^ Arthur Conan Doyle. Plenum Press. Essentials of Food Science. Water Wars: Privatization. and Profit. Vandana Shiva (2002). Reisner. ISBN 1565848136. beginning in 1998. ISBN 083421234X. Gleick. Marc (1993). MA. Vickie A.. H. Chapter 2. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2. Washington: Island Press. Maude Barlow. Lowi (1995). Retrieved 2010-07-25.C. "The Science of Deduction" Further reading • • • • • OA Jones.com/?id=iCCsvwZrguUC&printsec=frontcover. (published every two years. 1972–1982 PH Gleick and associates. 47. John M (1999).com/tao/taote. Anita Roddick. Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. ISBN 1559637927. The Holy Order of Water: Healing Earth's Waters and Ourselves. Peter H. Water. D. Water. William E. London: Pluto Press [u. ISBN 095439593X. JN Lester and N Voulvoulis. November 2001 [ISBN 088010-483-X] Debenedetti. Downloadable PDF (1. P. Principles of Food Chemistry. Sacred-texts. The World's Water: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources.. United Nations. Barbara Evans.^ Katharina Welle. 40–46 (2003). of Steiner Books). Pharmaceuticals: a threat to drinking water? TRENDS in Biotechnology 23(4): 163. et al (2004). Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. p..45. Marks (2001). 2008 48. The Holy Order of Water: Healing Earths Waters and Ourselves. Washington. Sandra (1997. E. Truth And Lies About The Global Water Crisis. ISBN 0393034283. http://www.a. ISBN 0-7453-1837-1.sacredtexts. (Cambridge Middle East Library) William E.) Marks. Island Press. Troubled Water: Saints. Miriam R. Springer.com/?id=kDYJ7a1HbD0C&pg=PA434..^ a b c d e Vaclavik. G. ISBN 0521431646. 2005 Franks. A Study in Scarlet. Bureaucracy.]. second edition).com. A comprehensive treatise. Tony Clarke (2003). and Stanley. a shared responsibility. and the Environment. .google. ISBN 0884103900. New York: Norton Press. Postel. Water and Power: The Politics of a Scarce Resource in the Jordan River Basin. F (Ed). Sinners. (2006). http://books. "Supercooled and Glassy Water". Elizabeth W (2007). OCLC 231955339. Water Rights: Scarce Resource Allocation. 49. Bell Pond Books ( a div. http://books.htm.^ "Internet Sacred Text Archive Home". and Christian. 51. The World's Water: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources.google.^ a b DeMan. New York.9 MB) Water as a natural resource • • • • • • • • • Anderson (1991).^ UNESCO.
Aridity. External links Find more about water on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Images and media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks • OECD Water statistics . Rivers of Empire: Water. Worster. ISBN 1573222291. Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource. ISBN 039451680X. Folly and the Politics of Thirst. Donald (1992). ISBN 0618030093. Water Wars: Drought. Diane Raines Ward (2002). Flood. revised edition). and the Growth of the American West.• • • Marq de Villiers (2003.
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