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Jump to: navigation, search This article is about general aspects of water. For a detailed discussion of its properties, see Properties of water. For other uses, see Water (disambiguation).
Water in three states: liquid, solid (ice), and (invisible) water vapor in the air. Clouds are accumulations of water droplets, condensed from vapor-saturated air. Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. Its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state, water vapor or steam. Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface, and is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation. Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. A very small amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Water on Earth moves continually through a cycle of evaporation or transpiration (evapotranspiration), precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Over land, evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land. Clean drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms. Access to safe drinking water has improved steadily and substantially over the last decades in almost every part of the world.  There is a clear correlation between access to safe water and GDP per capita. However, some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability. A recent report (November 2009) suggests that by 2030, in some developing regions of the world, water demand will exceed supply by 50%. Water plays an important role in the world economy, as it functions as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances and facilitates industrial cooling and transportation. Approximately 70% of freshwater is consumed by agriculture.
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1 Chemical and physical properties 2 Taste and odor 3 Distribution of water in nature o 3.1 Water in the universe o 3.2 Water and habitable zone 4 Water on Earth o 4.1 Water cycle o 4.2 Fresh water storage o 4.3 Sea water o 4.4 Tides 5 Effects on life o 5.1 Aquatic life forms 6 Effects on human civilization o 6.1 Health and pollution o 6.2 Human uses 6.2.1 Agriculture 6.2.2 Water as a scientific standard 6.2.3 For drinking 6.2.4 Washing 6.2.5 Chemical uses 6.2.6 Heat exchange 6.2.7 Fire extinction 6.2.8 Recreation 6.2.9 Water industry 6.2.10 Industrial applications 6.2.11 Food processing 7 Water law, water politics and water crisis 8 Water in culture o 8.1 Religion o 8.2 Philosophy o 8.3 Literature 9 See also o 9.1 Other topics 10 References 11 Further reading o 11.1 Water as a natural resource 12 External links
Chemical and physical properties
Main articles: Water (properties), Water (data page), and Water model
Model of hydrogen bonds between molecules of water
Impact from a water drop causes an upward "rebound" jet surrounded by circular capillary waves.
Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902
glaciers and rivers in the mountains. Water vapor is essentially invisible as a gas. Water appears in nature in all three common states of matter and may take many different forms on Earth: water vapor and clouds in the sky. seawater and icebergs in the polar oceans. The intrinsic color of water and ice is a very slight blue hue. and at even higher pressures as superionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions float around freely within the oxygen lattice. It is tasteless and odorless. At high temperatures and pressures.Dew drops adhering to a spider web Capillary action of water compared to mercury Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H2O: one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom. . and the liquid in aquifers in the ground. The major chemical and physical properties of water are: • Water is a liquid at standard temperature and pressure. such as in the interior of giant planets. although both appear colorless in small quantities. it is argued that water exists as ionic water in which the molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and oxygen ions.
water is a polar molecule with an electrical dipole moment. both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. but this increases significantly with the dissolution of a small amount of ionic material such as sodium chloride. when it is cooled down to its solid form. Since the water molecule is not linear and the oxygen atom has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen atoms. salts.98 °C (39. not more. fats and oils). after ammonia. such as trees.16 °F).g.65 kJ·mol−1). Ultra-violet and infrared light is strongly absorbed. Water also can form an unusually large number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds (four) for a molecule of its size. The boiling point of water (and all other liquids) is dependent on the barometric pressure. It has the anomalous property of becoming less dense. it carries a slight negative charge. carbon dioxide (carbonation) are known as hydrophilic (water-loving) substances. and some gases – especially oxygen. The capillary action refers to the tendency of water to move up a narrow tube against the force of gravity. • • • • • • • . These factors lead to strong attractive forces between molecules of water. giving rise to water's high surface tension and capillary forces. acids. Pure water has a low electrical conductivity. For example. Everest water boils at 68 °C (154 °F). These two unusual properties allow water to moderate Earth's climate by buffering large fluctuations in temperature. Thus aquatic plants can live in water because sunlight can reach them. All the major components in cells (proteins. are known as hydrophobic (water-fearing) substances. Water has the second highest molar specific heat capacity of any known substance. As a result. on the top of Mt. water deep in the ocean near geothermal vents can reach temperatures of hundreds of degrees and remain liquid. which accounts for the fact of ice floating on liquid water.g.. compared to 100 °C (212 °F) at sea level.. Substances that dissolve in water. sugars. as well as a high heat of vaporization (40. ice. The maximum density of water occurs at 3. This property is relied upon by all vascular plants. It expands to occupy 9% greater volume in this solid state. whereas the hydrogen atoms are slightly positive. while those that do not mix well with water (e. e. DNA and polysaccharides) are also dissolved in water. alkalis.• Water is transparent in the visible electromagnetic spectrum. Conversely. Water is a good solvent and is often[quantify] referred to[by whom?] as the universal solvent.
 Elements which are more electropositive than hydrogen such as lithium. giving it varying tastes and odors. The energy required to split water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis or any other means is greater than the energy that can be collected when the hydrogen and oxygen recombine. forming hydroxides.ADR label for transporting goods dangerously reactive with water • Water is miscible with many liquids. Water forms an azeotrope with many other solvents. it is an end-product of the combustion of hydrogen. Water is not a fuel. However. forming a single homogeneous liquid. The taste of spring water and mineral water. water and most oils are immiscible usually forming layers according to increasing density from the top. water is formed when hydrogen or hydrogen-containing compounds burn or react with oxygen or oxygen-containing compounds. pure H2O is tasteless and odorless. sodium. As a gas. Being a flammable gas. water vapor is completely miscible with air. • • • • Taste and odor Water can dissolve many different substances. On the other hand. calcium. often advertised in marketing of consumer products. potassium and caesium displace hydrogen from water. The advertised purity of spring and mineral water refers to absence of toxins. Water can be split by electrolysis into hydrogen and oxygen. Humans and other animals have developed senses which enable them to evaluate the potability of water by avoiding water that is too salty or putrid. As an oxide of hydrogen. the hydrogen given off is dangerous and the reaction of water with the more electropositive of these elements may be violently explosive. derives from the minerals dissolved in it. pollutants and microbes. such as ethanol. in all proportions. Distribution of water in nature .
Water vapor is present in • • • • • • • • Atmosphere of Mercury: 3.4%. hydrogen and oxygen. When stars are born. the Milky Way.002% Earth's atmosphere: ~0. Water has been detected in interstellar clouds within our galaxy.0004% Atmosphere of Saturn – in ices only Enceladus (moon of Saturn): 91% exoplanets known as HD 189733 b and HD 209458 b. which would amount to more water than is in all the Earth's oceans. When this outflow of material eventually impacts the surrounding gas. and large amounts of water in Mercury's exosphere Atmosphere of Venus: 0.03% Atmosphere of Jupiter: 0. Water ice is present on • • • • • • • • • Earth – mainly as ice sheets polar ice caps on Mars Moon Titan Europa Saturn's rings Enceladus Pluto and Charon Comets and comet source populations (Kuiper belt and Oort cloud objects). Water probably exists in abundance in other galaxies. Water and other volatiles probably comprise much of the internal structures of Uranus and Neptune and the water in the deeper layers may be in the form of ionic water in which the molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and . because its components.40% over full atmosphere. are among the most abundant elements in the universe. Interstellar clouds eventually condense into solar nebulae and solar systems such as ours. Jupiter's moon Europa may have liquid water in the form as a 100 km deep subsurface ocean. their birth is accompanied by a strong outward wind of gas and dust.Water in the universe Much of the universe's water is produced as a byproduct of star formation. Water ice may be present on Ceres and Tethys. typically 1–4% at surface Atmosphere of Mars: 0. the shock waves that are created compress and heat the gas. Liquid water is present on • Earth – 71% of surface Strong evidence suggests that liquid water is present just under the surface of Saturn's moon Enceladus. too. The water observed is quickly produced in this warm dense gas.
 Water and habitable zone The existence of liquid water. NASA reported the detection of water molecules by NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper aboard the Indian Space Research Organization's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft in September 2009. thus preventing the accumulation of water except in polar ice caps (as on Mars). which is determined by the planet's gravity. The surface temperature of Earth has been relatively constant through geologic time despite varying levels of incoming solar radiation (insolation). Earth's gravity allows it to hold an atmosphere. or about 8 million kilometers). as it was observed on exoplanets Gliese 436 b and GJ 1214 b. Some of the Moon's minerals contain water molecules. the conditions which allow the three forms to be present simultaneously would be far less likely to exist. Water on Earth Main articles: Hydrology and Water distribution on Earth . the water on it may be solid even at high temperatures. and deeper down as superionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions float around freely within the oxygen lattice. If Earth were smaller. in 2008 a laboratory device which ejects and identifies particles found small amounts of the compound in the inside of volcanic pearls brought from Moon to Earth by the Apollo 15 crew in 1971. and to a lesser extent its gaseous and solid forms. The state of water on a planet depends on ambient pressure. This proposal is known as the Gaia hypothesis.oxygen ions. if it were slightly closer to or farther from the Sun (about 5%. If a planet is sufficiently massive. Water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere provide a temperature buffer (greenhouse effect) which helps maintain a relatively steady surface temperature. a thinner atmosphere would allow temperature extremes. indicating that a dynamic process governs Earth's temperature via a combination of greenhouse gases and surface or atmospheric albedo. on Earth are vital to the existence of life on Earth as we know it. For instance. The Earth is located in the habitable zone of the solar system. There are various theories about origin of water on Earth. because of the high pressure caused by gravity.
000 km3 (326. The Antarctic ice sheet. Earth's approximate water volume (the total water supply of the world) is 1. The collective mass of water found on. contributing to the Earth's albedo.000 mi3). The study of the distribution of water is hydrography.360. Groundwater and fresh water are useful or potentially useful to humans as water resources. of glaciers is glaciology. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology. under. and over the surface of a planet is called the hydrosphere. distribution. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. Ecological processes with hydrology are in focus of ecohydrology.000. . and quality of water throughout the Earth.2% of the Earth's water. the oceans contain 97. which contains 61% of all fresh water on Earth.A graphical distribution of the locations of water on Earth. is visible at the bottom.000. of inland waters is limnology and distribution of oceans is oceanography. Hydrology is the study of the movement. Condensed atmospheric water can be seen as clouds.
sea. Deposition of transported sediment forms many types of sedimentary rocks. from water vapor condensing from the air and falling to earth or ocean. Water is important in many geological processes. Water and. stream. to a lesser but still significant extent. and vapor states. precipitation.Liquid water is found in bodies of water. Water is also present in the atmosphere in solid. surface water. and the pressure of this groundwater affects patterns of faulting. which make up the geologic record of Earth history. between the atmosphere. groundwater. ice. about 36 Tt per year. lake. runoff from the land usually reaching the sea. or puddle. canal. river. soil water. Water cycle Water cycle The water cycle (known scientifically as the hydrologic cycle) refers to the continuous exchange of water within the hydrosphere. Water moves perpetually through each of these regions in the water cycle consisting of following transfer processes: • • • evaporation from oceans and other water bodies into the air and transpiration from land plants and animals into air. evaporation and transpiration contribute another 71 Tt per year. pond. Precipitation. Groundwater is present in most rocks. It also exists as groundwater in aquifers. Water in the mantle is responsible for the melt that produces volcanoes at subduction zones. but winds carry water vapor over land at the same rate as runoff into the sea. are also responsible for a large amount of sediment transport that occurs on the surface of the earth. such as an ocean. liquid. Most water vapor over the oceans returns to the oceans. On the surface of the Earth. water is important in both chemical and physical weathering processes. Over land. and plants. The majority of water on Earth is sea water. at a rate of 107 Tt per year over .
A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. At high altitude. fresh water is essential to human and other land-based life. Some of water is diverted to irrigation for agriculture. It is when a river overflows its banks or flood from the sea. This groundwater later flows back to the surface in springs. In many parts of the world. Sea water Sea water contains about 3. Water runoff often collects over watersheds flowing into rivers. or more spectacularly in hot springs and geysers. A flood occurs when an area of land. is covered with water. since clean. with some contribution from fog and dew. This occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation. plus smaller amounts of other substances. snow. Through erosion. and hail. Condensed water in the air may also refract sunlight to produce rainbows. and in the far north and south. usually low-lying. Water also infiltrates the ground and goes into aquifers. A mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters is hydrological transport model. snow collects in ice caps. The physical properties of sea water differ from fresh water in some important respects. Fresh water storage High tide (left) and low tide (right) Main article: Water resources Some runoff water is trapped for periods of time.land. It freezes at a lower temperature (about –1. This water storage is important. runoff shapes the environment creating river valleys and deltas which provide rich soil and level ground for the establishment of population centers. snow pack and glaciers.9 °C) and its density increases with decreasing temperature to the . Rivers and seas offer opportunity for travel and commerce. it is in short supply. during winter.5% salt on average. for example in lakes. has several forms: most commonly rain. Groundwater is also extracted artificially in wells.
0% in the Red Sea. From a biological standpoint. instead of reaching maximum density at a temperature above freezing. Tides cause changes in the depth of the marine and estuarine water bodies and produce oscillating currents known as tidal streams. Effects on life An oasis is an isolated water source with vegetation in desert Overview of photosynthesis and respiration. The changing tide produced at a given location is the result of the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth coupled with the effects of Earth rotation and the local bathymetry. The salinity of water in major seas varies from about 0. Water (at right). Tides Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of local sea levels caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the oceans. together with carbon dioxide (CO2). It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow replication. which can be respired to water and (CO2). form oxygen and organic compounds (at left). is an important ecological product of ocean tides. All known forms of life . The strip of seashore that is submerged at high tide and exposed at low tide.freezing point. water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life that set it apart from other substances.7% in the Baltic Sea to 4. the intertidal zone.
fatty acids and amino acids to be used for fuels for energy use or other purposes). these particular metabolic processes could not exist. a hydrogen ion (H+. Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef Aquatic life forms Main articles: Hydrobiology and Aquatic plant . Photosynthetic cells use the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen. All living cells use such fuels and oxidize the hydrogen and carbon to capture the sun's energy and reform water and CO2 in the process (cellular respiration). water is used to break bonds in order to generate smaller molecules (e. glucose. a proton acceptor such as hydroxide ion (OH−) to form water.depend on water. Water is fundamental to photosynthesis and respiration.g. starches. Without water. In catabolism. that is. Water is considered to be neutral. water is removed from molecules (through energy requiring enzymatic chemical reactions) in order to grow larger molecules (e. with a pH (the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration) of 7. Water is also central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function.g. An acid. Hydrogen is combined with CO2 (absorbed from air or water) to form glucose and release oxygen. Water is vital both as a solvent in which many of the body's solutes dissolve and as an essential part of many metabolic processes within the body. In anabolism. Acids have pH values less than 7 while bases have values greater than 7. Metabolism is the sum total of anabolism and catabolism. triglycerides and proteins for storage of fuels and information). can be neutralized by a base. a proton) donor.
Some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin. Some kinds of animals. and seals need to surface periodically to breathe air. Chicago. Effects on human civilization Water fountain Civilization has historically flourished around rivers and major waterways. However as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialisation for respiration in water. have both. where water is more scarce. Plankton is generally the foundation of the ocean food chain. The earliest life forms appeared in water. Aquatic vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive. spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land.Some marine diatoms – a key phytoplankton group Earth's surface waters are filled with life. Fish have gills instead of lungs. Shanghai. Montreal. Mesopotamia. Tokyo. Plants such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems. Paris. otters. the socalled cradle of civilization. was situated between the major rivers Tigris and Euphrates. New York City. and there are many types of marine mammals. and Hong Kong owe their success in part to their easy accessibility via water and the resultant expansion of trade. Islands with safe water ports. like Singapore. such as amphibians. such as dolphins. the ancient society of the Egyptians depended entirely upon the Nile. have flourished for the same reason. and they do so in various ways. access to clean drinking water was and is a major factor in human development. In places such as North Africa and the Middle East. although some species of fish. . whales. such as the lungfish. Buenos Aires. London. such as dolphins and whales. Marine mammals. Large metropolises like Rotterdam. nearly all fish live exclusively in water. Invertebrates exhibit a wide range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes (see insect and mollusc siphons) and gills (Carcinus).
 Water. Water that is not fit for drinking but is not harmful for humans when used for swimming or bathing is called by various names other than potable or drinking water. Water for bathing may be maintained in satisfactory microbiological condition using chemical disinfectants such as chlorine or ozone or by the use of ultraviolet light. rather. it will still leave more than an estimated half a billion people without access to safe drinking water and over a billion without access to adequate sanitation. that is a non-renewable resource. but rather re-circulated as potable water in precipitation in quantities many degrees of magnitude higher than human consumption. Poor water quality and bad sanitation are deadly. and it is. Greywater composes 50-80% of residential wastewater generated by a household's sanitation equipment (sinks. In the USA. which generate blackwater. and 1–2 ppm of chlorine not yet reacted with impurities for bathing water). showers and kitchen runoff. however. Water that is not potable may be made potable by filtration or distillation. Currently. it is the relatively small quantity of water in reserve in the earth (about 1% of our drinking water supply. which generally contains sewage and other forms of waste which require further treatment in order to be made reusable. the distribution of potable and irrigation water which is scarce. which is replenished in aquifers around every 1 to 10 years). rather than the actual amount of it that exists on the . Even if this difficult goal is met. or "safe for bathing".Health and pollution Environmental Science Program. Chlorine is a skin and mucous membrane irritant that is used to make water safe for bathing or drinking. Its use is highly technical and is usually monitored by government regulations (typically 1 part per million (ppm) for drinking water. Iowa State University student sampling water. Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water. The World Health Organization estimates that safe water could prevent 1. and blackwater.) These terms may have different meanings in other countries and cultures. and its availability is a major social and economic concern. about a billion people around the world routinely drink unhealthy water. Most countries accepted the goal of halving by 2015 the number of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water and sanitation during the 2003 G8 Evian summit. Therefore. non-potable forms of wastewater generated by humans may be referred to as greywater. some five million deaths a year are caused by polluted drinking water.4 million child deaths from diarrhea each year. or by a range of other methods. which is treatable and thus easily able to be made potable again. and is sometimes called safe water. is not a finite resource. This natural resource is becoming scarcer in certain places. but not toilets.
In the developing world. a metallic reference standard was required. defined as exactly 273. Water-poor countries use importation of goods as the primary method of importing water (to leave enough for local human consumption). also suffer from medium or high water stress. Human uses Agriculture Irrigation of field crops The most important use of water in agriculture is for irrigation. the gram was defined in France to be equal to "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to a cube of one hundredth of a meter. which was measured at the time as 4 °C (39 °F). the kilogram.16 K or 0. since the manufacturing process uses around 10 to 100 times products' masses in water. The Kelvin temperature scale of the SI system is based on the triple point of water. which is a key component to produce enough food. and 17 of these extract more water annually than is recharged through their natural water cycles. .  Some 50 countries. with roughly a third of the world’s population. Irrigation takes up to 90% of water withdrawn in some developing countries and significant proportions in more economically developed countries (United States. The strain not only affects surface freshwater bodies like rivers and lakes. Water as a scientific standard On 7 April 1795. and to the temperature of the melting ice. but it also degrades groundwater resources. which was originally defined according the boiling point (set to 100 °C) and melting point (set to 0 °C) of water." For practical purposes though. one thousand times more massive. The scale is an absolute temperature scale with the same increment as the Celsius temperature scale. In spite of the fact that the decreed definition of the gram specified water at 0 °C—a highly reproducible temperature—the scientists chose to redefine the standard and to perform their measurements at the temperature of highest water density.earth. 90% of all wastewater still goes untreated into local rivers and streams. 30% of freshwater usage is for irrigation). Work was therefore commissioned to determine precisely the mass of one liter of water.01 °C.
putting them at risk of water intoxication (hyperhydration). Most of this is ingested through foods or beverages other than drinking straight water. The amount of deuterium oxides or heavy water is very small. but there is also small quantity of heavier isotopes such as hydrogen-2 (deuterium). . It is not clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people. For drinking Main article: Drinking water A young girl drinking bottled water Water quality: fraction of population using improved water sources by country The human body contains anywhere from 55% to 78% water depending on body size. The popular claim that "a person should consume eight glasses of water per day" seems to have no real basis in science. it is rather difficult to drink too much water. though most advocates agree that 6–7 glasses of water (approximately 2 liters) daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration. standard water is defined in the Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water specification. but (especially in warm humid weather and while exercising) it is dangerous to drink too little. humidity. which can be fatal. temperature. Water from rivers and lakes tends to contain less deuterium than seawater.Natural water consists mainly of the isotopes hydrogen-1 and oxygen-16. To function properly. Medical literature favors a lower consumption. however. the body requires between one and seven liters of water per day to avoid dehydration. Similar misconceptions concerning the effect of water on weight loss and constipation have also been dispelled. excluding extra requirements due to fluid loss from exercise or warm weather. the precise amount depends on the level of activity. People can drink far more water than necessary while exercising. but it still affects the properties of water. typically 1 liter of water for an average male. Therefore. and other factors. For those who have healthy kidneys.
 Washing The propensity of water to form solutions and emulsions is useful in various washing processes.7 liters of water total for women and 3. through sweating. Many industrial processes rely on reactions using chemicals dissolved in water." The latest dietary reference intake report by the United States National Research Council in general recommended (including food sources): 2. Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms. Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods. suspension of solids in water slurries or using water to dissolve and extract substances. The single largest (by volume) freshwater resource suitable for drinking is Lake Baikal in Siberia. on average. and by exhalation of water vapor in the breath.7 liters for men. Also noted is that normally. about 20% of water intake comes from food.4 liters (10 cups) for pregnant women and 3 liters (12 cups) for breastfeeding women since an especially large amount of fluid is lost during nursing. Chemical uses . Humans require water that does not contain too many impurities.0 liters—this is recommended to be 2. calcium and lead) and/or harmful bacteria. iron. women consume 2. According to the Institute of Medicine—who recommend that. Common impurities include metal salts and oxides (including copper. water loss will increase and daily fluid needs may increase as well.Hazard symbol for Not drinking water An original recommendation for water intake in 1945 by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council read: "An ordinary standard for diverse persons is 1 milliliter for each calorie of food. Some solutes are acceptable and even desirable for taste enhancement and to provide needed electrolytes. through urine and faeces. such as Vibrio. Washing is also an important component of several aspects of personal body hygiene. pregnant and breastfeeding women need additional fluids to stay hydrated. while the rest comes from drinking water and beverages (caffeinated included).2 liters and men 3. Specifically. With physical exertion and heat exposure.
In the U. In organic reactions. water can also be used as a neutron moderator. Oxygen-saturated supercritical water combusts organic pollutants efficiently. which vaporizes and drives steam turbines to drive generators.. dissolving many ionic compounds. acceleration of Diels-Alder reactions by water has been observed. Nevertheless. because it does not dissolve the reactants well and is amphoteric (acidic and basic) and nucleophilic. Also. In inorganic reactions. In almost all electric power stations. Fire extinction . In the nuclear power industry. it is not usually used as a reaction solvent. A disadvantage is that water and steam are somewhat corrosive. cooling power plants is the largest use of water. In most nuclear reactors.however other methods are favored for stopping a reaction and it is preferred to keep the nuclear core covered with water so as to ensure adequate cooling. Supercritical water has recently been a topic of research. Heat exchange Ice used for cooling. water is a common solvent. Cool water may even be naturally available from a lake or the sea.S. due to its availability and high heat capacity. Water and steam are used as heat transfer fluids in diverse heat exchange systems. Condensing steam is a particularly efficient heating fluid because of the large heat of vaporization. water is both a coolant and a moderator. water is the coolant.Water is widely used in chemical reactions as a solvent or reactant and less commonly as a solute or catalyst. This provides something of a passive safety measure. both as a coolant and for heating. as removing the water from the reactor also slows the nuclear reaction down . these properties are sometimes desirable.
surfing and diving. Lakesides. However. A steam explosion occurred when the extreme over-heating of the core caused water to flash into steam. Recreation Grand Anse Beach. In addition. although the water involved did not come from fire-fighting at that time but the reactor's own water cooling system. producing hydrogen gas. some sports. and of a hydrogen explosion. West Indies. Use of water in fire fighting should also take into account the hazards of a steam explosion. often reported as one of the top 10 beaches in the world. Water is not suitable for use on fires of oils and organic solvents. Some of these include swimming. as well as for exercising and for sports. like ice hockey and ice skating. because they float on water and the explosive boiling of water tends to spread the burning liquid. George's. decompose the water. such as certain metals or hot graphite. Many find the sound and appearance of . beaches and waterparks are popular places for people to go to relax and enjoy recreation. St. Grenada. are played on ice. The power of such explosions was seen in the Chernobyl disaster. which makes it a good fire extinguishing fluid. Main article: Water sport (recreation) Humans use water for many recreational purposes. A hydrogen explosion may have occurred as a result of reaction between steam and hot zirconium. only distilled water can be used to fight fires of electric equipment. Water has a high heat of vaporization and is relatively inert. The evaporation of water carries heat away from the fire. waterskiing.Water is used for fighting wildfires. because impure water is electrically conductive. which may occur when water is used on very hot fires in confined spaces. boating. when substances which react with water.
In many places where running water was not available. Water industry A water-carrier in India. fun. 1882. People may also use water for play fighting such as with snowballs. Humans also use water for snow sports i. Some keep fish and other life in aquariums or ponds for show. which requires the water to be frozen. A manual water pump in China . sledding. water had to be transported by people. snowmobiling or snowboarding. water guns or water balloons.e. skiing.flowing water to be calming. and fountains and other water features are popular decorations. and companionship.
or pumped from lakes and rivers. while the private firms' profits are not redistributed to the local population victim of this pollution. water supply network. In some cities such as Hong Kong. Drinking water is often collected at springs. Heat from the sun evaporates water. such as reverse osmosis. Popular methods are filtering with sand which only removes undissolved material. Another way to remove pollution from surface runoff water is bioswale. sea water is extensively used for flushing toilets citywide in order to conserve fresh water resources. water pipes including old aqueducts. Water may require purification for human consumption. while chlorination and boiling kill harmful microbes. water purification facilities. Building more wells in adequate places is thus a possible way to produce more water. Reducing usage by using drinking (potable) water only for human consumption is another option. Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydropower. renewable energy source. water towers. More advanced techniques exist. Wastewater facilities are storm sewers and wastewater treatment plants. Atmospheric water generators are in development. dissolved substances and harmful microbes. Thus other people pay the price of water pollution. Governments in many countries have programs to distribute water to the needy at no charge. . extracted from artificial borings (wells) in the ground. Hydroelectric power comes from water driving a water turbine connected to a generator. Industrial applications Water is used in power generation. non-polluting. from where it flows down. Water supply facilities include water wells cisterns for rainwater harvesting.Water purification facility The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to households and industry. water tanks. which condenses as rain in higher altitudes. Polluting water may be the biggest single misuse of water. Distillation does all three functions. Desalination of abundant seawater is a more expensive solution used in coastal arid climates. assuming the aquifers can supply an adequate flow. Other water sources include rainwater collection. Others[who?] argue that the market mechanism and free enterprise are best to manage this rare resource and to finance the boring of wells or the construction of dams and reservoirs. The energy is supplied by the sun. The distribution of drinking water is done through municipal water systems. This may involve removal of undissolved substances. it becomes a waste of the resource. to the extent that a pollutant limits other uses of the water. tanker delivery or as bottled water. Like other types of pollution. being conceived as externalities for which the market cannot account. this does not enter standard accounting of market costs. Hydroelectricity is a low-cost. Pharmaceuticals consumed by humans often end up in the waterways and can have detrimental effects on aquatic life if they bioaccumulate and if they are not biodegradable. regardless of benefits to the polluter.
Discharge of untreated water from industrial uses is pollution. or prevent saw blades from over-heating. Water is also used in many industrial processes and machines. It is important for a food scientist to understand the roles that water plays within food processing to ensure the success of their products. and is not harmful to the environment.Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydro-electric power station. Food processing Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles. Also. is relatively safe. It is also used in the cooling of machinery to prevent over-heating. Industry requires pure water for many applications and utilizes a variety of purification techniques both in water supply and discharge. It works very well. . such as the steam turbine and heat exchanger. Pressurized water is used in water blasting and water jet cutters. Water plays many critical roles within the field of food science. Pollution includes discharged solutes (chemical pollution) and discharged coolant water (thermal pollution). very high pressure water guns are used for precise cutting. in addition to its use as a chemical solvent.
[vague]  The hardness of water may be altered or treated by using a chemical ion exchange system. Water hardness is measured in grains. medium if it contains 5 to 10 grains and hard if it contains 11 to 20 grains. and Water crisis . Water hardness also affects sanitation. The hardness of water also affects its pH balance which plays a critical role in food processing. as well as air pressure. with increasing hardness. and one mole of salt per kg raises the boiling point by 1. Water is classified as soft if it contains 1 to 4 grains. steaming.064 g calcium carbonate is equivalent to one grain of hardness. Water activity can be described as a ratio of the vapor pressure of water in a solution to the vapor pressure of pure water.Solutes such as salts and sugars found in water affect the physical properties of water. which is in turn affected by altitude.02 °C. The boiling and freezing points of water are affected by solutes. Water hardness is also a critical factor in food processing. and simmering are popular cooking methods that often require immersing food in water or its gaseous state. Water right. Water law. steam. 0. This is important to know because most bacterial growth ceases at low levels of water activity. One mole of sucrose (sugar) per kilogram of water raises the boiling point of water by 0. hard water prevents successful production of clear beverages. Boiling. It can dramatically affect the quality of a product as well as playing a role in sanitation. Water is also used for dishwashing. Solutes in water also affect water activity which affects many chemical reactions and the growth of microbes in food. similarly. Water boils at lower temperatures with the lower air pressure which occurs at higher elevations. increasing the number of dissolved particles lowers water's freezing point. Water hardness is classified based on the amounts of removable calcium carbonate salt it contains per gallon. Solutes in water lower water activity. water politics and water crisis An estimate of the share of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970– 2000 Main articles: Water law. there is a loss of effectiveness for its use as a sanitizer. For example.51 °C. Not only does microbial growth affect the safety of food but also the preservation and shelf life of food.
in the next 20 years. In addition. Water 1st. the UK charity WaterAid reported that a child dies every 15 seconds from easily preventable water-related diseases. 2003) from the World Water Assessment Program indicates that. World Day for Water takes place on 22 March and World Ocean Day on 8 June. In 2004. It causes health impacts and damage to biodiversity. Major faiths that incorporate ritual washing (ablution) include Christianity. Organizations concerned with water protection include International Water Association (IWA). Hinduism. see toilet. the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water is one of the Millennium Development Goals.2 million people died in 2000 from waterborne diseases (related to the consumption of contaminated water) or drought. A 2006 United Nations report stated that "there is enough water for everyone". The proportion of people in developing countries with access to safe water is calculated to have improved from 30% in 1970 to 71% in 1990. 79% in 2000 and 84% in 2004. 40% of the world's inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. have not been taken up by water sector donors as effectively as they have in education and health. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and Ramsar Convention. often this means lack of sewage disposal. including Judaism (mikvah) and Sikhism (Amrit Sanskar). This trend is projected to continue. global initiatives to improve the efficiency of aid delivery. More than 2. water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Water in culture Religion Main article: Water and religion Water is considered a purifier in most religions. and Wicca. American Water Resources Association. Immersion (or aspersion or affusion) of a person in water is a central sacrament of Christianity (where it is called baptism). WaterAid. Judaism. a ritual bath in pure water . by 2015. Water related conventions are United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). such as the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. potentially leaving multiple donors working on overlapping projects and recipient governments without empowerment to act. but that access to it is hampered by mismanagement and corruption. 1. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships.6 billion people have gained access to a safe water source since 1990. Taoism. Islam. Water used in the production of a good or service is virtual water. Shinto. In addition. it is also a part of the practice of other religions. To halve.Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. For this reason. Rastafari movement. The UN World Water Development Report (WWDR. This goal is projected to be reached.
Philosophy The Ancient Greek philosopher Empedocles held that water is one of the four classical elements along with fire. Water is described in many terms and contexts: • according to state o solid – ice o liquid – water . The classical element of Water was also one of the five elements in traditional Chinese philosophy. in the ritual of misogi). fire. Sherlock Holmes held that "From a drop of water. along with earth. In Islam.g. and in its occupying. or basic substance of the universe. and was regarded as the ylem. The excellence of water appears in its benefiting all things. wood. the five daily prayers can be done in most cases (see Tayammum) after completing washing certain parts of the body using clean water (wudu). earth and air. In the theory of the four bodily humors. for example: "The earth was formed out of water and by water" (NIV). In the Qur'an it is stated that "Living things are made of water" and it is often used to described Paradise. Hence (its way) is near to (that of) the Tao" and "There is nothing in the world more soft and weak than water." See also Water portal Sustainable development portal Main article: List of water topics • The water (data page) is a collection of the chemical and physical properties of water." Literature Water is used in literature as a symbol of purification. James Legge's 1891 translation of the Dao De Jing states "The highest excellence is like (that of) water. Examples include the critical importance of a river in As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner and the drowning of Ophelia in Hamlet. Water was considered cold and moist.is performed for the dead in many religions including Judaism and Islam. a logician could infer the possibility of an Atlantic or a Niagara without having seen or heard of one or the other. water is used in almost all rituals to cleanse a person or an area (e. without striving (to the contrary).. and metal. In Shinto. Water is mentioned numerous times in the Bible. and yet for attacking things that are firm and strong there is nothing that can take precedence of it—for there is nothing (so effectual) for which it can be changed. the low place which all men dislike. water was associated with phlegm. Water is also taken as a role model in some parts of traditional and popular Asian philosophy.
o o • gaseous – water vapor plasma according to meteorology: o hydrometeor precipitation precipitation according to movement • vertical (falling) precipitation o rain o freezing rain o drizzle o freezing drizzle o snow o snow pellets o snow grains o ice pellets o frozen rain o hail o ice crystals • horizontal (seated) precipitation o dew o hoarfrost o atmospheric icing o glaze ice precipitation according to state • liquid precipitation o rain o freezing rain o drizzle o freezing drizzle o dew • solid precipitation o snow o snow pellets o snow grains o ice pellets o frozen rain o hail o ice crystals o hoarfrost o atmospheric icing o glaze ice • mixed precipitation o in temperatures around 0 °C • • levitating particles clouds fog mist o ascending particles (drifted by wind) spindrift stirred snow according to occurrence o groundwater o meltwater o meteoric water o connate water o fresh water o surface water o mineral water – contains many minerals o brackish water o .
without the two layers mixing. Type II. or Type III. analytical-grade or reagent-grade water – water which has been highly purified for specific uses in science or engineering. without fouling. contains more minerals o distilled water. o tritiated water according to microbiology o drinking water o wastewater o stormwater or surface water according to religion o holy water • • Other topics • • • • Dihydrogen monoxide hoax Water Pasteurization Indicator Water intoxication Water pinch analysis . the following: distilled water double distilled water deionized water Reverse osmosis plant Water o • according to other features o soft water – contains fewer minerals o hard water – from underground. double distilled water.• dead water – strange phenomenon which can occur when a layer of fresh or brackish water rests on top of denser salt water. this category of water includes. It is dangerous for ship traveling. but is not limited to. o seawater o brine according to uses o tap water o bottled water o drinking water or potable water – useful for everyday drinking. it contains balanced minerals that are not harmful to health (see below) o purified water. It was used in construction of first nuclear reactors. Often broadly classified as Type I. laboratory-grade. deionized water – contains no minerals o water of crystallization — water incorporated into crystalline structures o hydrates — water bound into other chemical substances o heavy water – made from heavy atoms of hydrogen – deuterium. It is in nature in normal water in very low concentration.
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National Research Council. 36.fr/evian/english/navigation/2003_g8_summit/summit_documents/water__a_g8_action_plan. and interactions. 31.^ Ehlers. BBC. Department of Physiology.com/article/dn11864-strange-alien-world-made-of-hot-ice-andsteam.^ "G8 "Action plan" decided upon at the 2003 Evian summit". 30.org web site and references within 39. No. Retrieved 2010-07-25. IWA Publishing.^ "Drink at least eight glasses of water a day. http://www. Potassium.who. ed (2001). Retrieved 2010-07-25. http://www.20. Springer.harvard. "Integrated Management of Water Resources"". http://www.newscientist. La Détermination De L'Unité De Poids 34.^ David A. Sathaye (2002). OCLC 231965991. The MadSci Network 35. "J. Published 2008 43.^ Dietary Reference Intakes: Water. Reprint and Circular Series.wbcsd. T. Retrieved 2010-03-28.^ a b Water Use in the United States.int. Charles William McLaughlin. M.^ here L'Histoire Du Mètre.com. 2009 22. Mayoclinic. Understanding the Earth System: compartments. Aguilar (16 December 2009). http://www. p. Nijavalli H. "Strange alien world made of "hot ice"".^ Versteckt in Glasperlen: Auf dem Mond gibt es Wasser – Wissenschaft – Der Spiegel – Nachrichten 21. Lebanon.^ Maton.^ "WBCSD Water Faacts & Trends".asp? type=d&id=MTYyNTA. 40. Climate Change and Developing Countries.shtml. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. E. David LaHart. 1945.fr. 28. p. Krafft. Chloride.^ "Healthy Water Living". http://books. ISBN 1402001045. Retrieved 2010-07-25.html.co.daviddarling. 125. Water: a shared responsibility. . Retrieved 2010-07-25.gov 32.mayoclinic.^ Food and Nutrition Board. Anthea. Retrieved 2010-03-28. http://space.uk/health/healthy_living/nutrition/drinks_water.com/health/water/NU00283. G8. 42. National Atlas.int/features/qa/70/en/. 3–18. The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology. Jean Hopkins.^ "World Health Organization. Englewood Cliffs. 24. 29.^ Re: What percentage of the human body is composed of water? Jeffrey Utz. OCLC 49204666. New Scientist. OCLC 32308337. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Recommended Dietary Allowances.D.. Astronomy and Spaceflight.^ Decree relating to the weights and measurements 33.^ Water Molecules Found on the Moon. OCLC 50554808. ISBN 0781719364. Wright (1993). Jill D. National Academy of Sciences. Springer.org/includes/getTarget. New Hampshire 38. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 1845451775.. Food and Nutrition Board 41. 2003-06-02. NASA. September 24.google. "Astronomers Find Super-Earth Using Amateur.^ Unesco (2006). http://www. Susan Johnson. Human Biology and Health.^ "Habitable Zone". 26. New Jersey. Tanner GA (2003).^ "Water: How much should you drink every day? –". 122.com/?id=1cV8tziHZ5sC&pg=PA125.g8. 23. Factsmart.^ UNEP International Environment (2002). C. Retrieved 2007-02-01. 37. 44. Dooge. Who. I. http://www.^ Drinking Water – How Much?. http://www. and Sulfate.^ Rhoades RA.^ Ravindranath. Offthe-Shelf Technology". Dartmouth Medical School. USA: Prentice Hall.html. ISBN 1843390086.cfa.html." Really? Is there scientific evidence for "8 × 8"? by Heinz Valdin. Environmentally Sound Technology for Wastewater and Stormwater Management: An International Source Book. processes. Sodium. Jayant A. Safe Water and Global Health".info/encyclopedia/H/habzone. Berghahn Books.^ Shiga.edu/news/2009/pr200924. 2008-06-25. 116. pp. 25. David (6 May 2007). Medical Physiology (2nd ed..html.bbc.^ "Conquering Chemistry" 4th Ed. Maryanna Quon Warner. 27.)..
November 2001 [ISBN 088010-483-X] Debenedetti. Water Rights: Scarce Resource Allocation. 40–46 (2003). G.^ a b c d e Vaclavik. Water and Power: The Politics of a Scarce Resource in the Jordan River Basin. Blue Gold: The Fight to Stop the Corporate Theft of the World's Water.. Water Wars: Privatization. Barbara Evans. Washington. OCLC 231955339. Sandra (1997.9 MB) Water as a natural resource • • • • • • • • • Anderson (1991). Peter H. Lowi (1995). second edition).com/?id=kDYJ7a1HbD0C&pg=PA434.^ "Internet Sacred Text Archive Home". Tony Clarke (2003). United Nations. (2006). Elizabeth W (2007). ISBN 0387699392.) Marks.C. Island Press.a.google. New York. (published every two years. 46. et al (2004). and the Environment.^ Arthur Conan Doyle.45.. Physics Today 56 (6). 2008 48. The World's Water: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Pharmaceuticals: a threat to drinking water? TRENDS in Biotechnology 23(4): 163. The World's Water: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Springer.].^ UNESCO.. H. A Study in Scarlet. 51. Bureaucracy. Josephine Tucker and Alan Nicol (2008) Is water lagging behind on Aid Effectiveness?  50. ISBN 1565848136. New York: Norton Press.htm. A comprehensive treatise. http://www. 49. London: Pluto Press [u. ISBN 0393034283. JN Lester and N Voulvoulis. Principles of Food Chemistry. ISBN 0-7453-1837-1. Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water.^ a b DeMan. Water. Vickie A. p. (Cambridge Middle East Library) William E. Vandana Shiva (2002). Gleick. William E. F (Ed). Downloadable PDF (1. Pollution. ISBN 083421234X. Anita Roddick. Plenum Press. "Supercooled and Glassy Water". of Steiner Books).google. Sacred-texts. ISBN 0670199273. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2. Springer. The Holy Order of Water: Healing Earth's Waters and Ourselves. Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. John M (1999). Washington: Island Press. Postel. MA.^ Katharina Welle. 47. ISBN 0884103900. Retrieved 2010-07-25. P. Truth And Lies About The Global Water Crisis. The Holy Order of Water: Healing Earths Waters and Ourselves. Troubled Water: Saints. Miriam R. beginning in 1998. http://books.com/tao/taote. 2005 Franks. Water. Essentials of Food Science. 1972–1982 PH Gleick and associates. and Profit. Chapter 2. Maude Barlow. Marks (2001).com/?id=iCCsvwZrguUC&printsec=frontcover.. ISBN 1559637927. Reisner. E. ISBN 095439593X. Bell Pond Books ( a div. and Christian. http://books.^ The Millennium Development Goals Report. ISBN 0521431646. a shared responsibility.sacredtexts. Marc (1993). .com. Sinners. D. and Stanley. "The Science of Deduction" Further reading • • • • • OA Jones. Great Barrington.
Aridity. Flood. Donald (1992). Worster.• • • Marq de Villiers (2003. ISBN 0618030093. External links Find more about water on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Images and media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks • OECD Water statistics . and the Growth of the American West. Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource. ISBN 039451680X. revised edition). ISBN 1573222291. Folly and the Politics of Thirst. Water Wars: Drought. Diane Raines Ward (2002). Rivers of Empire: Water.
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