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Sensornet

Abstract
Ad-hoc networks have already been specified in the early seventies, but there
has not been a commercial breakthrough since then. Nevertheless, ad-hoc networks have
received an increased attention recently. An ad-hoc (or "spontaneous") network is a local
area network or other small network, especially one with wireless or temporary plug-in
connections, in which some of the network devices are part of the network only for the
duration of a communications session or, in the case of mobile or portable devices, while
in some close proximity to the rest of the network. This paper discusses various services
provided by the sensor nets in Ad hoc networks. We focus on specific fields of application
and assess the viability of using ad hoc networks in those fields.

Keywords Sensornets, Ad hoc, Services, Mobiles.

Introduction
The term Ad hoc is actually a Latin phrase that means "for this." further meaning "for this
purpose only," and thus usually temporary. The term has been applied to future office or
home networks in which new devices can be quickly added, using, for example, the
proposed Bluetooth technology in which devices communicate with the computer and
perhaps other devices using wireless transmission.

Ad hoc networking refers to a network with no fixed infrastructure. It is a kind of


network where stations or devices communicate directly and not via an access point. It is
interesting for establishing a network where wireless infrastructure does not exist or
where services are not required. When the nodes are assumed to be able of moving, either
on their own or carried by their users, these networks are referred to as Mobile Ad hoc
NETworks (MANET). Otherwise, these networks are simply Ad hoc networks with
fixed nodes but without a pre-existing infrastructure.

Definitions of Ad hoc networks


There is no unique definition for what an Ad-hoc network is, but a few that describe Ad
hoc networks are:

“In computer networking, an Ad hoc network refers to a network connection established


for a single session and does not require a router or a wireless base station.”

“Ad hoc Networks are self organising, self healing, distributed networks which most
often employ wireless transmission techniques.”

“An Ad hoc network requires no formal infrastructure and is limited in temporal and
spatial. A network typically created in a spontaneous manner.”
“An Ad hoc network is a temporary grouping of stations to carry a specific program.”

“A mobile Ad hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile routers”


Working of a Ad hoc network
The working of Ad hoc network can be illustrated with the help of a very simple
example: Let us assume that there is already a small ad-hoc network in place. When a
new node joins the ad-hoc network, there are a number of things to do: The device needs
to set up contact to other nodes in range, telling them: “I am here”. By this, the new node
learns who the neighbor nodes are, and vice versa.

Another point is that the new node needs a unique identifier to make it addressable – an
IP address in IP networks. For all this, the new node is on its own, as there is neither a
central controlling entity nor a pre-existing fixed infrastructure in ad-hoc networks. When
the owner of the node wants to send a message from his node to that of other person’s
node, other nodes serve as a relay station in a process called multi-hop routing.

In multi-hop routing the microwave links require two or more links to get to a destination
that allows link to extend distance, as well as move the link path around buildings or
mountains. The above example shows a few imminent advantages of ad-hoc networks:
They can extend the range of the wireless technology in use, e.g. WLAN or Bluetooth,
they can reduce the node’s power consumption due to a lower transmission power
required, and they increase the node’s mobility. To make this work, though, ad-hoc
networks require a critical mass of well-behaving nodes, willing to forward other’s
traffic.