BUDDHIST CHINA

BUDDHIST CHINA
BY REGINALD FLEMING JOHNSTON
"LION

AUTHOR OF AND DRAGON IN NORTHERN

CHINA,"

ETC.

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS

LONDON
1913

:

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W.

[All rights reserved.]

a

ft

*
in

ft

ft

Abstain from all evil, In all things act virtuously,

Be pure
This

mind

:

is the

religion of the

Buddhas.

From

the

COMMANDMENTS SUTRA.

tt
ff ff

ft
F

fit

ff

ft

*

A

Z^<?

good deeds ; Read good books ;
Speak good words.
Inscription carved monastery of

on rock near Buddhist Ku - shan, Fuhkien

Province.

ABBREVIATIONS
B.N.

Bunyiu Nanjio

s

Buddhist Tripitalca.

Translation of the Catalogue of the Chinese (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1883.)

E.R.E.

Encyclopedia
Hastings.

of Religion

and

Ethics,

edited

by James

(Edinburgh, T.

&

T. Clark.)
"Canon."

Har.

The Hardoon

edition of the Chinese Buddhist

(See Preface.)

J.R. A.S.

Journal of the Royal Asiatic

Society.

S.B.E.

The Sacred

Books

of

the

East,

edited by

Max

Muller.

(Oxford, Clarendon Press.)

St
J* V

VI

&quot. Vll . and the holy island of Puto (Pootoo). and the finest part of what has issued therefrom in literature and Buddhism. in the province of Anhui. and seventh chapters are concerned with religious pilgrimages in China. the radiating centres Of these favoured seats of religious activity. especially in respect of the forms assumed by that branch of the Buddhist system in its Chinese environment. and with those sacred mountains which are the homes of sixth The and Chinese monasticism arid of Buddhist influence. have been strongly tinged with The truth and justice of this remark art.PREFACE THE origin early chapters of this book deal with the development of some characteristic features of Mahayana Buddhism. the holy mountain of Chiu-hua. An large part of the finest thought and standards of living that have gone into Chinese life. off the coast of Chehkiang. the six last chapters contain detailed accounts of two which are taken as typical namely. accomplished writer on Oriental Art the late Ernest Fenollosa a very has observed that &quot.

who long to Those not of China s foreign regeneration brilliant letters. . it seems more likely that what we are about to witness is not a collapse.politic. have a very imperfect knowledge of Chinese history and the of the past relations of Buddhism with Chinese body . of this great only the political country. or have witchery of Chinese landscape friends painting. Judging from the present activity of the Buddhists themselves. but also a activity in revival of creative fail art and can hardly to take a keen and sym pathetic interest in the fortunes of that wonderful creed. too soon yet to say whether the forces set in motion by the Revolution or rather the It is forces of which the of political revolution was one of the manifestations collapse will Buddhism bring about the total in China. Those Western observers that the Buddhist religion in China is fancy inextricably associated with old-fashioned and dis revival of who credited political and social conventions in general. which for at least powerful an influence artistic and philosophic no less than over the heart and mind religious and ethical fifteen centuries has exercised so of China. but at least a partial Buddhism.viii PREFACE be gainsaid by those Western students have succeeded in finding their way into - will not who fallen the treasure house of Chinese the under potent see poetry. or system of creeds. and with the corruptions of the Manchu dynasty in particular.

ment (which is is very largely a reform movement) genuinely and fundamentally Chinese and this confirmed by the fact that the creation of the is . and that localities branch Councils (composed. why the Buddhists should not look forward to taking a distinguished part in the future progress of their reason no country It in respect of its social. to ix Buddhists had no cause to regret the overthrow whom they were bound by or self-interest . like all parts the parent Council. Tsung Hui itself (which might be described as a National Buddhist Synod or Representative Church Council) has met with the hearty approbation of Buddhists in in many of the empire. no and ties if of sympathy. of both laymen and ordained monks) have been already successfully established. may be Chinese that the present activity of the Buddhists has been inspired to some extent from Japan. the Fo-tisueh Ts ung-pao and the Fo-chiao Yiieh-pao. . and spiritual interests. as for example in the matter of the recent creation of a central organization (the Fo - chiao for Tsung Hui) the which of has been established purpose protecting the But legitimate interests of the Buddhist faith.PREFACE of the Manchus. gratitude. . which have made their appearance during the furnish ample evidence that the move past year. artistic. the rulers of the to their New is China honourably of adhere religious declared there policy complete freedom.edited the admirably Buddhist magazines.

He belongs to the Monastery of Ch ing-liang. at the age of twenty -one. Perhaps the most prominent among the learned and able Buddhists whose names are honourably associated with this undertaking is a native of the district of Ch ang-shu.x PREFACE it is Though movement it is will too early to say whether this lead to any permanent results. Evidence of this may be found in the fact that during the past decade an influential group of Chinese Buddhists has been quietly at work producing a new complete edition of that pro digious collection of Buddhistic literature which is usually but inaccurately referred to as the Chinese Buddhist Canon. and is a writer of vigorous prose and graceful verse. nor can either of revolutionary excitement or of reactionary caprice. He is a man of varied culture. having occupied a large staff of editors and printers for several years past. This great work. self Like all true Buddhists. various duties have required him to reside in . has been quite recently (1913) brought to a happy conclusion. it certainly not of be said to be a mushroom growth mere by-product . and was given the monastic name of Tsung-yang. on not far Wu-mu-shan a mountain from Soochow but since 1903 his the . and courteous towards those whose religious beliefs are different from his own. he shows him tolerant. charitable. has travelled widely in both China and Japan. in entered the Buddhist monkhood He Kiangsu.

amid the flowers and trees that are dear to the hearts of all Buddhists. where he and his colleagues have been the guests of well-known Shanghai residents Mr If and Mrs it is S.homes he has spent the happiest days of his fifteen years sojourn in China. and that it may continue to be China s glory and privilege to provide. Hardoon. is The completed work. mainly through the inspiring influence of a small group of enthusiastic monks and laymen Canon has been that the republication of the &quot. are also due to who not Tsung-yang s munificent hosts and patrons. is glad to record his grateful of the unvarying courtesy and appreciation hospitality extended to him by the abbots and The author monks in whose romantic mountain . but also ensured the success of this very costly undertaking by their generous donations and financial guarantees. A. Whatever may be the ultimate fate of his Buddhism. successfully carried out. &quot. only provided accommodation for him self and his colleagues. driven away from the . he earnestly hopes that neither kindly hosts nor their successors will ever be quiet hermitages which they so justly love. the Buddhist scriptures. and of all students of Buddhism. frequently referred to in the following pages Hardoon edition of under the name of the &quot. which &quot. the thanks of all Buddhists.PREFACE xi Shanghai. deserves to find its way into the hands of all serious students of Chinese Buddhist literature.

F. R. WEIHAIWEI. .xii PREFACE forests amid the cloistral and crags and waterfalls of her mountains. 15th April 1913. pilgrims to homes the or for all shrines resting places of truth and - beauty. J.

356 391 INDEX xi n . BUDDHA . &quot. BUDDHISM UNDER ASOKA AND KANISHKA .CONTENTS PAGE I. 312 THE &quot. MONASTERY &quot. . 207 ^. XII.. 36 56 82 ^ &amp. . . V in PILGRIMAGES AND THE SACRED HILLS OF BUDDHISM vii. !)O\ (IV. OF CHINA . ... . &quot.. . MONKS AND MONASTERIES OF CHIU-HUA PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN. &quot. THE PILGRIM S GUIDE . XIII. PEAK .gt. . &quot. .YIN PUSA . .j i V x VI. . THE &quot. XI.. 230 THE MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN . THE PRINCE-HERMIT OF CHIU-HUA AND HIS SUCCESSORS . EARLY BUDDHISM AND ITS PHILOSOPHY .THREE RELIGIONS&quot. NORTHERN S AND . 1^. 1 II. . VIII.. 122 V 149 170 TI-TSANG PUSA . THE IDEALS OF HINAYANA AND MAHAYANA BUDDHIST SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA _. 20 III. .

.

Chihli . Kiangsi Mountain and Stream.. Western . 98 104 112 . . . :. . Honan Colossal figure at Lung-men. 99 .. . 132 . . . . . Rock-cut colossal figure of a Bodhisat at Lung-men. 92 9i )9 Amitabha Buddha . ... . . .. Jizo (Ti-tsang Pusa) . Lu-shan. . . .. . . . Jizo (Ti-tsang Pusa) The Hearts of Men . : . . .. . . Honan . V . . Hsi . . f . )} 99 140 140 152 162 172 J82 jg2 . . 93 92 Mencius and Tseng-Tzu at the White-deer . Chihli ..50 99 \ - Tombs Pagoda of Monks. . - t ien . Western Hills Hsi-yii Monastery. The White-deer Grotto. Western Hills Part of the Archway at the Pi-yiin Temple . . Pavilion Hsiao ... &quot. . 50 58 . 206 XV . The Ship of Salvation . . Stupa at the Pi-yiin Temple . . Frontispiece Facing p... . &quot. . Chihli . 20 30 Archway Hills in Grounds of Old Summer Palace. Kiangsi .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Kuan-yin (from painting by a Chinese monk) * Archway at the Pi-yiin Temple.162 3J )y }) j. . . 120 99 . . ( Little . . Temples on the Shang-fang Hills. . . At the Southern Base of Chiu-hua A Mountain Stream. . .. . . . Honan . . Honan Colossal rock-cut figures at Lung-men. 99 70 70 78 84 .. . . 42 42 Pagoda. Chihli . . . . . . . Lu-shan.). 10 10 .-. . Western Hills Archway at the Wo-Fo Temple. Form for recording utterances of the name of Amitabha The Western Heaven . 194 . . Heaven . Kiangsi Grotto. Southern Anhui . . . . Hsi-yii Monastery at Hsi-yii Monastery. . . Chiu-hua . . . . Chihli at . ./ . . . In the Shang-fang Hills.. .. Rock-carvings at Lung-men.. Bodhidharma Images of .. . . .

. . The Fa-t f ang. . Chiu-hua Charms from T ien-t ai. . .. Sketch map of Puto-shan . &quot... . . Puto The Lotus-Pond of the Southern Monastery The Yu-t ang Road. Puto-shan . Chiu-hua (from the Eastern Ridge) Eastern Ridge and T ien-t ai. . 276 280 296 . from Puto-shan The Prince s Pagoda. . Pavilion in front of Southern Monastery Courtyard in front of Great Hall of Kuan-yin. Puto-shan . showing rock-carved figures The Lotus-Pond of the Northern Monastery Within the grounds of the Northern Monastery An alabaster image of Buddha. 348 348 358 358 372 372 380 A P u-t ung-t a f f f (for the reception of the ashes of . Chehkiang city . Puto-shan .tung and other Temples. Southern 276 Monastery Chun-t f i A Hermit of Puto at the door of his Hermitage Kuan-yin Pusa (drawn in blood hy a Hermit of Puto-shan) Kuan-yin as Compassionate Father Inscribed Rock near summit of Puto-shan The Chusan Islands. Puto-shan The Grave of the abbot Hsin-chen . Chiu-hua-shan . A &quot. Chiu-hua when offering prayers for . 310 320 320 328 328 . Facing p. 380 388 388 Courtyard in the Northern Monastery. &quot. Hui-chou On and Bridge the Ch ien-t ang River. Chiu-hua . . . Southern Monastery The Kuan-yin. Southern Monastery T ien-Hou. 220 234 Chiu-hua-shan (from the north-west) Central cluster of Monastic Buildings.xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS at Charm used offspring . 234 240 240 244 258 258 264 268 268 . . The Protective Pai-sui Monastery. &quot. deceased monks) A Monastery Garden. Puto-shan . the Taoist Queen of Heaven. . . . Puto The Hall of Imperial Tablets. Pilgrims Pathway.

which signifies ideal unity and completeness. Confucianism. and Taoism. and his crouching figure is skilfully made to assume the appearance of a circle. there is the incised outline of a venerable man holding an open scroll on which a number of wavy lines like tongues of flame converge and blend. the centre of which is occupied by the open scroll. or represents the spherical monad of Chinese cosmological philosophy. or Three Doctrinal Systems of Buddhism. OF CHINA the grounds of one of the most famous Buddhist monasteries in China Shaolin in Honan WITHIN may be seen two stone tablets inscribed with pictorial statements of a doctrine that is familiar to all students of Chinese religion and philosophy the triunity of the San chiao. I THREE RELIGIONS &quot. The old man s draperies are symmetrically arranged.BUDDHIST CHINA CHAPTER THE &quot. the date of which corresponds to the year 1565 of our era. which is . The whole drawing is surrounded by a larger circle. On one of these tablets. The other tablet.

Such teachings strictly social orthodox Confucian. On the the of the central figure stands Lao-chiin. legendary founder of Taoism. if somewhat weak on the religious side. of which the three all &quot. right stands China s most holy sage &quot. the bowl.THREE RELIGIONS&quot. the figures of the representatives of the three systems standing side by side. religions are the three legs.2 THE &quot. who holds that the and moral teachings of Confucius are all that . from which issues head an upward-pointing stream of fire. humanity requires for its proper guidance but they meet with ungrudging acceptance from vast numbers of Buddhists and Taoists. is strong . and on the left &quot.- more than seven hundred years of a less It shows us symbolical or mystical character. is [OH. fanciful in organism or The idea has found one expression in culture and civilization sacrificial comparison of the of China with a bronze &quot. and beneath his feet sacred lotus-flowers are bursting into bloom. Confucius. Sakyamuni Buddha occupies the place of honour in the centre. The words which are ordinarily used to sum up the theory of the triunity of the three ethicothe religious systems of China are San chiao i t i Three^jCults ^incorporated 1 embodying one doctrine. tripod equally indispensable to the as these are abhorrent to the s stability. OF CHINA old. who. while giving precedence to their own cults. is His surrounded by an aureole. are always tolerant enough to recognise that Confucianism.

His strange attire aroused the curiosity of the a whimsical Chinese emperor of those days. Then But the sage merely pointed It is to his Confucian shoe?. Taoists. Then you are a Taoist ? to his Taoist cap. &quot. vivid and picturesque statement of this truth is contained in a quaint little story which is told Chinese people. Fu Hsi again &quot. a far cry from the sixth century to the The China of to-day has crossed. pointed you are a Confucian ? said the emperor.i. who asked him Fu Hsi replied by point if he were a Buddhist. but to his Buddhist scarf. in the hearts of the great majority of the and practices that they can be Buddhists. Will the three cults continue to form one body. a Buddhist scarf.] THE SAGE FU rich HSI 3 find and on the ethical side. said the emperor. will each maintain a separate existence of its own. or are they one and all destined to suffer eclipse and or will they fall apart? death to . and Confucians all at the same time. They an echo. &quot. weal or woe. for twentieth. made no verbal answer. This learned man was in the habit of going about dressed in garb which included a Taoist cap. ? Who will be the Fu Hsi of the centuries come ? What the cap and are the symbols that will replace the shoes and the scarf that Fu Hsi . If they fall apart. indeed.&quot. the threshold of a new era. &quot. who show by their beliefs A of a certain sixth-century scholar named Fu Hsi. ing &quot. and Confucian shoes. What has been true of the Chinese in past ages will not necessarily continue to be true in future.

Taoism is treated as a medley of contemptible superstitions. the peaceful refuge of countless poets and artists and contemplative philosophers. and multitudes of its temples. Buddhism meets with scant courtesy. If the ultimate fate of the &quot.three religions&quot.4 THE &quot. and their interest for Western nations is important from being merely academic.gt. of its and is threatened with the confiscation endowments and the closing of some. with their unquestionably ugly clay images and tinsel ornaments. for better or for worse. The forces that mould the character and shape the aspirations ot one of the greatest sections of mankind cannot be a matter of indifference to the rest of the will human race. ? OF CHINA let [CH. we should be obliged to prophesy a gloomy ending for all three. uncrowned king sovereignty of the &quot.THREE RELIGIONS&quot. by the nature of the ideals and ambitions that inspire the the constructive energies of the makers of new China. moral Confucius . whose future history be pro foundly affected. at of those beautiful monasteries which during the happiest centuries of China s history were least.ai/3 the degree of respect now to them by some of the more zealous spirits among China s foreign educated reformers. The &quot. was proud to wear bated breath is And who us ask with of to take the place Fu Hsi s imperial master ? These are gravely far questions for China. are falling into unlamented decay. were dependent on ^&amp.

material successes of Western civilization. and earnest zeal but many of country s welfare them have been so bewitched by the glamour of Western methods. more illustrious. unquestioned patriotism. Among and the guiding spirits in the destructive since the constructive work undertaken overthrow of the Manchu dynasty are men of fine ability. and so impressed by the for their . spirit that they have lost clastic all touch with the of the icono traditional culture of their own race. and that in the state schools and colleges reverence is no longer to be paid to the canonised representative of Chinese civilization and moral culture.L] THE ALTAR OF HEAVEN totters 5 on the edge of an abyss which has if not already engulfed a throne more ancient. The tendencies of to-day have not been guided by the will of the people for the will of the . than even his the imperial throne of China. There are rumours that the s state subsidies hitherto granted at regular intervals for the upkeep of the great sage at Ch ii-fou will temple and tomb perhaps be withdrawn. There are signs that not even the holiest sanctuary in for the whisper China is to remain inviolate : has gone forth that the silent and spacious grove that surrounds the Altar of Heaven that marble index of a religious system which even in the days of Confucius was hallowed by the traditions of an immemorial antiquity is to be adapted to commercial uses and turned into an experimental farm.

6 THE &quot. It is improbable. 1 Yet perhaps. . more or less violent. on the whole. it will not. with regard to confidence. by further oscillations. after &quot. people itself has not known yet found a means of making and felt. we may assume. no doubt. that the reorganised Chinese State will show hostility to the religious idea as such.THREE RELIGIONS&quot. OF CHINA [CH. three religions glance at the present state of affairs might lead us to suppose. before China can hope to attain that condition of stability and peace without which there can be no permanent reconstruction of her shattered polity. The be succeeded. That the iconoclastic activity of the prospects of the are not quite so dismal as a all. but we need not be surprised that emerges victorious from the political chaos of to-day is found to if the China have quietly gathered up and loyally preserved many of the traditions of imperial China which the triumphant Revolution was supposed to have torn in fragments and trampled under foot. &quot. They have not sprung into activity in obedience to the voice of China for the voice of China has not yet been heard. to-day will be succeeded sooner or later by a reaction in w hich all the traditional conservatism r of the Chinese race will take a is one of the few China s future which able prophecies may be uttered with reason reaction will itself strenuous part. waste its strength in a foolish and necessarily futile attempt to suppress the religious 1 Written in January 1913.

be accepted by the rulers Already we find that the declared policy of the republican pioneers is to grant toleration to all religions. But though China principle will of all complete probably accept the separation between the State and organised or institutional religion.I. it and will (it may in so doing. be suggested) be perfectly right is not therefore to be assumed that the Chinese Government (or Governments) will cease to exercise a paternal supervision over the people s morals. The religious will face the country s rulers will itself : problem that probably narrow the down to this Is the Government to encourage people to make their religious emotions and of religious education _m_Jthe interests flow irf certain7 specified directions. that it is the second It will new China. either by~&quot. judging indications. native and foreign. has nothing whatever to do so long as the religious beliefs or practices of any given individual do not lead him into ? conflict with the ordinary law of the land from present alternative which of the seems probable. the chasm between the old China and the new would indeed be a bridgeless one. There has always been an .the &quot. with which the State . If that were so. but to show special favour to none: and this policy is not unlikely to become a permanent feature of the Chinese constitution.provision State schools or by the official support of a State cult or is religion to be regarded as n private concern of the individual.] RELIGIOUS FREEDOM 7 side of man s nature.

separation between religion and politics will not necessarily. is a view which has never been accepted by Chinese thinkers or rulers. it undoubtedly the fact that in China the distinction between creed and morals or perhaps is we should say their separability has for ages been tacitly recognized. A Chinese Government which disclaimed full responsibility for the moral welfare and guidance of the people. affect the traditional The intimacy between politics and morals. intimate connection of manship in spite in this chosen land of between ethics and states moral philosophers. in the old-fashioned Chinese proclamations and rescripts. OF CHINA [CH. inevitable in the that fact China as elsewhere practice has not always con formed to precept. and to religious ceremonies. in China. or which confined the occasional its activities in this direction to its penal code. all amendment of and would have to face the hostility of the conservative sections of Chinese society. would be regarded as having definitely cut itself adrift from the most sacred traditions of past ages.8 THE &quot. The view that sound is morality impossible except in alliance with a definite religious creed. In spite of the references to supernatural powers and agencies. belief in which is therefore an essential condition of good citizenship.THREE RELIGIONS&quot. It is a curious and instructive fact that while in the West under the influence of a privileged and intolerant Church ethics and institutional religion are regarded. or were till .

&quot. while showing a genial tolerance towards the tenets of popular religion. and to spiritual interpretations of relation to . According to the educational theory which in parts of Europe has for some time dominated the relations between religion and the State. belief in a theological system or a readiness to subscribe to definite : credal ecclesiastical of its The French intellect once emancipated from domination in spiritual matters is not likely to return own accord to a condition of spiritual servitude. in China the association has been rather between part of the practical outcome of the national recognition of Confucius ethics politics.I. moral conduct life. . religious idea. and that tolerance should be shown to 1 all forms of religious expression. France is formulas. that respect should be paid to the nevertheless. This is very probably true man s religious instincts will not suffer themselves to be extinguished at the bidding of a political But a revival of religion does not necessarily imply a revival of party. definite religious instruction forms no necessary part of the content of ethical education and has no vital but it is usually agreed. recom mended his disciples to consider and minister before perplex to the ascertainable needs of men ing themselves over the problematical demands and requirements of the gods. find It is in Confucianism that we the closest approach to a fusion ideals. the speech by the French deputy at the Moral Education Canon Lilley has more Congress held in London in September 1908. as inseparably linked together. between ethical and political and it was Confucius who. ee a new sense of recently (August 1912) told us that in France religous need is everywhere making itself felt throughout the national life. 1 Cf.] RELIGION AND MORALS 9 recently regarded. is and This as the supreme Teacher.

. &quot. no place for an enquiry into the justice or adequacy of such views. including those resulting from the elevation of Confucius to quasi-divine rank. too. but that they are in entire harmony with the letter and spirit of Confucian teachings is a fact which. irreconcilable with Confucian teachings but such persecutions have been undertaken on political and social grounds. might be got rid of. will discover. and their suppression growing restless because she is realizing the insufficiency of a civilization and is whole attention on material interests As for China. or might be ignored by the State. in spite of its outward splendour and its alluring promises. OF CHINA [CH. which concentrates its she. political aims of the &quot.10 THE This is &quot. even the and progressive the conservative parties in China. no doubt. as such. though whether China will find it impossible to satisfy her spiritual spiritual heritage needs except by throwing away her own another race. contemptuous of the needs of the spirit. or were believed to be.THREE RELIGIONS&quot. . that Western civilization. for the ritual solemnities popular prejudices at regular intervals in the that took place Confucian temples were always the affair of the emperor and his officials. sooner or later. if it were fully might go far towards bringing about a permanent reconciliation between the moral and educational and to a great extent realized. definitely religious elements as the system con tains. It has long been recognized that Confucianism is an ethico1 Such political rather than a religious cult. not with the aim of crushing or penalizing religious opinions It is true. is but too prone to pamper the body and starve the soul . 1 and adopting that of is a different question. without gross violence being done to any deep rooted . that Confucian statesmen have been guilty from time to time of persecuting Buddhism and other cults which were.

id.ARCHWAY AT THE PI-YUN TEMPLE. ARCHWAY AT THE WO-FO TEMPLE. {Facing p. WESTERN HILLS. . WESTERN HILLS.

.

This cult it of Confucianism. it . were our task to undertake a full treat ment of religious conditions and prospects in China.I. arising is the consideration of the which in many respects the most deeply-rooted is independent be said to have religious cult in China. in which the family rather than the individual is regarded as the social unit.worship would not necessarily lose its HoTd~~dn tile people if Confucius were dethroned and though It will . and will be seriously menaced by various the gradual disintegration of the present organiza tion of society. doubtless modifications and undergo adaptations. though may grown and prospered under the protection of the Confucian system. interfere Chinese jGayerument which retains Confucianism as a basis for moral training need have no fear that it will be convicted of having betrayed the progress cause of political support to any worship or belief. a special chapter would have to be devoted If to weighty problems out of the so-called worship of ancestors.] ANCESTOR WORSHIP - 11 would not with any cherished religious Thus-^fche customs or practices of the people. so far as is reasonable and practicable. along the lines of its own immemorial it past. Ancestor . organized and such a Government will giving State system of religious or of assuredly gain the glad support of all who wish to see the evolution of China proceeding. and to have received a certain amount of qualified approval from the great sage himself.

the closing not to be the of a Taoist temple.THREE RELIGIONS&quot. OF CHINA in [CH. \ But if Confucianism and the cult of ancestors shorn of their superstitious accretions . quite as long as any other religious cult at present competing for the popular favour. nevertheless seems likely to one form or another. religion let us admit at once that as an organized with temples and a priesthood it is Taoist wizardries shrink from already moribund. The priests of the cult are not only ceasing to enjoy the respect of others.. it may be agnostic . &quot. The opening of every new school nowadays may if be said to synchronize with. but the sound and healthy. &quot. worship its ancestors. and already excite the ridicule of those who once came to marvel and to revere. what to expectation decay awaits anything but ignoble With regard Taoism. direct cause of.may still be destined to play an active and beneficent part in the is moral there their guidance that rivals ? of China. There are superstitions connected with ancestor-worship which the spread of education and of scientific knowledge sweep away. An enlightened China be Confucian. it may possibly be Buddhist. last. they are losing confidence in themselves and in the potencies of their may it may gods and demons.12 THE &quot. contact with the gleaming lances of the knights of modern science. and their forcible removal would constitute the severest moral catastrophe which will infallihly essential ideas at the root of the cult are could befall the Chinese people.

they also contain much that is crude and and the The false may well be cast aside and forgotten. the true will in classified due time be claimed by science and philosophy. Taoism must relinquish its It must be throw away claim to be its &quot. they contain very little that is original. and it may be admitted that the fantastic musings of Taoist sages and mountain- roaming hermits were not wholly unproductive of strange discoveries in certain unfrequented by Yet paths of psychology and natural science. only one way in which Taoism can hope to survive the shocks and changes of the coming years. false. The venerable system of philosophic mysticism from which modern Taoism claims descent is still. The fear has been expressed of late that the triumph of Western civilization in .&quot. gaudy trappings and a way of salvation. the disappearance of Taoism as a distinct cult will not be a thing to be regretted by the friends of China. content to play the humbler parts of a handmaid to art and poetry and a guardian of folklore and romantic legend. indeed.L] TAOISM it 13 or rationalistic. but will certainly not be Taoist. and it will be by treading the narrow There is path of humility and self-sacrifice. very little of lofty value that may not be found in Confucianism or in Buddhism. as distinct from teachings ascribed to Lao-tzu. of interest and value to thinkers of the present day. As for the ethics of popular Taoism. If its teachings contain a good deal that is true.

or by the associated with the beginnings of Chris legends The Greek gods stepped down from their tianity. by the thrones on this Olympus long ago. or ideals of medieval chivalry. In a similar ideal world the divinities and wild-eyed mountainwizards of Taoism forlorn. but the future leaders of China ment will develop be doing an injustice to themselves and aesthetic artistic an injury to the of their race if and spiritual instincts they turn contemptuously away from a wonder-working fountain whence the poets and artists of their country have drawn copious draughts of inspiration for a period of nearly two thousand years. may find themselves not quite and though their clay images may be trampled into mud and their temples levelled with the ground.14 THE &quot. they may still find themselves in a position to take an honourable share in the creation or evocation of the dreams and visions of . but in performing act of humiliation they were fitting them selves to become the occupants of new thrones in an ideal world of poetry and romance. China will involve the irremediable decay of the : country s literature and art indeed many have found reason to doubt whether China has not already ceased to be a producer of beautiful things So and a foster . pessimistic a view as this is hardly justifiable s . OF CHINA [OH. In the imaginative literature and art of is China Taoism has had an influence which not unworthy of comparison with the influence wielded in Western art by the Greek mythology.mother of artists and poets.THREE RELIGIONS&quot.

As to the form of Buddhism China. but no religious genius has yet undertaken the colossal all . regard to this point. what It is to be said of the prospects of Buddhism ? true that Buddhism itself has often been denied the of a religion. the of philosopher and deny him that of religious teacher while if we concede the latter title as the more appropriate. and Taoism are only to survive on condition that they cease to claim the honours If Confucianism and privileges usually accorded to is religion. India. China itself. it is enough to say that the name Indian sages of the time of the Buddha would have been puzzled if they had been asked to draw clear lines of distinction religion.L] BUDDHISM 15 the painters and poets who will guide the fortunes of a Chinese literary and artistic renascence. we must also admit that it name would be difficult to exclude the name of the founder of Buddhism from any comprehensive which prevails in history of Indian philosophy. Persia. and that many people prefer With to regard it as a system of philosophy. perhaps we may fairly say that it is not only both a religion and a philosophy. between philosophy and We may well hesitate to give Sakyamuni . Chinese Buddhism has drawn its doctrines from many sources and from many schools of religious and philosophic thought. and that these are not always consistent with them selves or with one another. have contributed to the final result. Central Asia. hut that it embraces many religions and many philosophies.

16 THE &quot. may all find ample stores of the kind There of literature in which they take delight. the historian. would describe it better). which the Buddhist. it may still continue to wield an. task of fusing the various elements one homogeneous system. and who yet take a deep and intelligent interest in various and there are aspects of Buddhistic philosophy . OF CHINA into [CH. the psychologist. the metaphysician.-immense though perhaps impalpable influence over Chinese thought.cultivated members of polite are many highly society in China who would deny with some vehemence that they were Buddhists. These considerations are enough to convince us that even if Buddhism collapses as a religious system (&quot.system of religions&quot. and who admit that they take a keen intellectual pleasure in much of the fine work bequeathed to Chinese literature by some of the saints of the Buddhist Church. the student of comparative hierology. many people of fine literary discernment its artistic who never will never enter a Buddhist temple except from curiosity or to inspect theless treasures. The Chinese should rather be described as a miscellaneous in library. . Indeed it may actually regain some of the influence which it has been gradually losing over cultivated minds when it shakes itself free from the worthless superstitions with which the . but it Tripitaka has the Buddhists sometimes been called the Bible of . the collector of folklore. the moral philosopher. and the lover of poetry and romance.THREE RELIGIONS&quot.

in the ordinary sense of the word. there is artistic no and poetic inspiration is exhausted. Moreover. Confucianism and Taoism. for many past centuries. in these days of convulsion and transition. would be rash to assume that even as a religion. Buddhism has run its course. not quite certain that Buddhism must follow their example. the fact must not be overlooked that Buddhism has taken a part no less distinguished than that of Taoism in con less .L] BUDDHISM AS A RELIGION 17 need of satisfying the crude religious instincts of an ignorant populace has forced it into more or grudging alliance. must abate something But it of their loftiest claims (or the claims that others have made on their behalf) if they wish to maintain a strong hold on Chinese hearts and minds but it . what the future . It would be rash to attempt to prophesy. wisdom has not and even in so progressive a country as Japan we find that several schools of Buddhism are at present showing signs of renewed vitality and vigour. some of the main currents of the Chinese artistic and poetic imagination. Neither the pictorial art nor the poetry of the Chinese can be properly understood or adequately appreciated without a sympathetic knowledge of Buddhism and Buddhistic lore and proof that Buddhism as a fountain of . Access to Western fountains of is resulted in the disappearance of the Buddhist faith from Ceylon or Siam or Burma. as we have seen reason to believe. structing the channels through which have flowed.

Selbie in the Expository Times. and to conduct him on imaginary pilgrimage to some of those great monasteries which long have been. if If no other it is incumbent upon the peoples of the West to form some correct notions about the history and present condition of Buddhism in that country which. Yet not have been wholly pilgrimage in vain if it enables him to enter into partial his will mysterious entity which has baffled and bewildered so many Western minds communion with that and has so often been declared inscrutable 1 the Rev. A. An attempt will be introduce the Western in these pages to reader to some of those made aspects of Chinese Buddhism with which he is least likely to be familiar.jr be so.18 THE &quot. OF CHINA in [CH. theologian our own day has recently observed that Buddhism A is the only religion in the world that as &quot. and still are. J. . April 1912. but that the subject is one of interest and importance few students of religion or of world-politics will Christian of feel disposed to deny. It may be that he will return without having formed any exalted conception of the fitness of Buddhism to take a dignified part in the future development of Chinese civilization. contains a greater number of Buddhists than any other country in the world. the strongholds of Buddhist influence among the Chinese people.a can be 1 regarded this serious rival to Christianity. may have in store for Buddhism China .THREE RELIGIONS&quot. then for that reason for spite of the attractions of rival faiths.

and have wandered as they did among the beautiful mountain-homes of monastic Buddhism. on some lonely mountain slope. Perhaps when we are watching a browsing deer that refuses to take see with our approach. soft note of a monastery-bell. and try to hear with Chinese ears and to footsteps of the great poets Chinese eyes. and Ming. and learn how it was that they acquired their wonderful knowledge of the ways of those wild animals that flee in dread from the dwellers in the plains. perhaps when.] MONASTIC BUDDHISM For it is 19 Soul of China. Sung. a fact that few of us can hope to gain true insight into the spiritual core of Chinese culture until we have followed in the and painters of T ang.I. crag and waterfall. cast over us the same spells that they cast over China s hill-roaming painters and minstrel-pilgrims. we are listening to the deep. Only then will stream and wood. we may see a fright at little way into the secret of the intense love of the poets and painters of China for rock - throned pagoda and forest-guarded hermitage. There we must cast aside so far as it is humanly possible for Western men and women to do so all occidental preconceptions and pre judices. but come without fear to share food or shelter with the Buddhist monks whose homes are in the quiet hills. .

patronage and personal support of the emperor Asoka (whose reign probably extended from 264 to 231 B. from one of the Asokan edicts that the emperor formed ambitious plans for the peaceable conversion 20 and beyond its became a missionary . to understand the history and present position of the Buddhist religion in China we must know something of its gave it birth. originated. in fact. and its missionaries proved themselves as It is to be gathered intrepid as they were zealous. Sakyamuni Buddha is now believed to have Under the died in or about the year 483 B.C. without some acquaintance with Buddhist India. Buddhism. therefore.C. Before we can hope.CHAPTER s^^ II BUDDHISM UNDER A^OKA AND KANISHKA BUDDHISM had doctrinal already passed through its main developments before it succeeded in establishing itself as one of the three religions of the Chinese people.) the religion founded by Sakyamuni consolidated its varying fortunes in the land which Buddhist China is unintelligible where it had position in the Gangetic valley. and extended its influence to other countries both in India borders. religion.

.

.

Filial towards teachers and those in authority kindness and courtesy to dependents. outward impression on the of the lands which lay within religious thought the Greek sphere of influence. self-control. thought. Whether Asoka s missionaries reached China or . including Kashmir and Gandhara. as well as through southern India and Ceylon. and such are the essential doctrines of language Asokan Buddhism. toleration of others. there is ample little have made but evidence that responsible religion Asoka s missionary zeal was largely for the victorious march of the Buddhist through the Himalayan states. gratitude. sympathy and con the sideration for all living creatures . and Epirus and though the teachings of the Buddhist preachers seem to .] ASOKA 21 not only of various Central Asiatic states. and are as far as they go they consistent with the ethical teachings ^entirely of Sakyamuni himself. ii. By this time Buddhism possessed its canon and formulated doctrines. . for the beliefs and purity of heart .CH. liberality. but also of Syria. tenderness and pity for . Macedonia. and avoidance of all hatred and uncharitableness in act. and undogmatic piety and respect weak. Egypt. though the religion to which Asoka gave his enthusiastic support was if we may judge from his famous rock and pillar its edicts little more than a refined system of practical ethics. hospitality and charity towards the stranger and the traveller. truthfulness and honesty in word arid deed fidelity.

&quot. &quot. not say Chinese tradition says that in China about the year 217 is a difficult question to answer. reigned from 221 to &quot.C. the builder of the Great Wall. 1 Even the Shan States are supposed to have had a share of the Asokan pagodas. some Buddhist .. possible that the legends and but his his it is which associate name with China in may the early propagation of Buddhism Asoka contain a measure of truth. tracts. All we can that they may possibly have done so. For though there is reason to believe that the canon had not been reduced to writing at that early date. agriculture.C. it is by no means certain that portions of the scriptures did not already exist in literary form indeed. the to Buddhistic literature and monastic chronicles of China himself. p. which might perhaps be described it &quot. was about the year 213 that this policy. The stories of Asoka Chinese pagodas are no doubt fabulous. 1911.A. First Emperor of China (Ch in Shih-huang).E. 921. in J.22 UNDER ASOKA AND KANISHKA is [CH. A Buddhism appeared B. Oct. It is not inconceivable that these books which are believed to have embraced all literature except works relating to existing and divination -. See Sir George Scott s article on Buddhism in the Shan States&quot. if there were no literature . culminated in the burning of the books. contain numerous references Asoka who is declared to have been the founder 1 of a vast erected number of pagodas. Moreover. as Political Futurism.included medicine. The self-styled died about the year 231 B. and monarch s 210.&quot.S. some of which were on Chinese soil.

Scythian king Kanishka. On the other hand. support among Outside India . but it in adapting itself to the needs of the tribes nations of Central Asia and was obliged to submit to various far-reaching compromises.chih in the year 2 B.known story of a Chinese embassy to the Yiieh . There is a passage in a Chinese historical work which distinctly states that Buddhist books had been widely circulated for a long time. century successor B. Very soon to break up.ii. it may possible that he or an early have had something to do with is the facts underlying a well .. after Asoka s death his empire began Buddhism continued to prosper.C. The pressure which it had to encounter was not from external forces only. and names and there is possible that there has been some confusion of events. it is difficult to explain the success of the missionary propaganda in India and Ceylon. some of the Asoka legends bear it is a suspicious similarity to those relating to the Indo.] BUDDHIST MISSIONS 23 of any kind. Whether this be so or not. but dis appeared when the Ch in dynasty established itself on the throne. Some of the old schools of Buddhist thought which had been treated as heterodox and kept in subordination in pre-Asokan days found fresh sources of strength and multitudes of the new converts.C. good reason to believe that Kanishka or one of the other monarchs of his race had diplomatic and other relations with China and if (as high authorities maintain) Kanishka reigned in the first .

In Ceylon. p. we may say that the process is not yet quite complete. Hardy. the orthodoxy of the Pali canon (fixed in the third century B. which thus gradually ceased to maintain a separate religion. 2 Buddhism in India did not owe its extinction to Brahmanical The belief that such was the case has been given up persecutions. devotedly attached to the religion of its choice but in India Buddhism allowed itself to be gradu ally absorbed only in of its influence cess till by more strenuous rivals. had appropriated every E.&quot. if regard Nepal as part of India. and Burma (which embraced Buddhism in comparatively recent times) is still . career from the iconoclastic fury of the decay of Buddhism was also largely due to the influence of the Yogacharya. 2 1 we Buddhism wasted away it after rival sects thing from that they could make any use of.24 UNDER AS OKA AND KANISHKA [CH. or Tantric Buddhists. Buddhism has maintained itself as the religion of the country ever since its establishment there in the Asokan age.) was exposed to the contempt or neglect their which showed a disposition to gather materials for a new canon of of heterodox schools. while within the limits of India itself there was a gradual obliteration of the old lines of demarcation between Buddhism and the other systems of Indian religion. 28. The pro absorption may be said to have lasted 1 the twelfth century of our era. last stages of its Mohammedans. indeed. itself as This helped to obliterate the characteristic features of Buddhism. quoted by Mrs Rhys Davids. however. The It undoubtedly suffered severely. . Buddhism. indeed.C. who from about the sixth century of our era began to admit Saivite deities into what now may be called the Buddhist pantheon. and it is Brahmanical Hinduism that a few traces of may still be found. owing in the to lack of evidence. own .

to which they gave the name of the Hmayana. The two names are beings in all convenient designations of the rival systems. for term would be which a more correct Theravada the School of the l Elders or Presbyters. The Hinayana was so called because. opponents.II. 1 The Theravadins were also known as the Haimavantas. Nirvana only those rare individuals who by their own strenuous exertions had earned for them selves the prize of salvation . and Pali canon that many have tried to trace its characteristic doctrines to sources that were neither Buddhistic nor Indian. The term Mahayana Great Vehicle was adopted by the followers of the new doctrines to distinguish their own system from primitive Buddhism. the School of the Snowy . or (to use the Chinese term) Hmeh-shan-pu Mountains. according to was capable of conveying to the its &quot. whereas the Great all Vehicle the offered salvation to worlds.] THE MAHAYANA 25 But it is not the obscure history of the decline of Buddhism in India that claims our attention here. Our concern is rather with that wonderful system known as the Mahayana a system which in some respects is so different from the Buddhism of the students have been tempted to question its right to claim more than a nominal association with the teachings of Sakyamuni. it of other shore &quot. though it should be noted that the term Hinayana was not accepted by the canonical Buddhists of their as a correct description own school. or Small Vehicle.

i.26 UNDER ASOKA AND KANISHKA [OH.. and Kashmir for the belief that it reasons have been given but a race. and parts of what is known in his to - day as Chinese Turkestan. 124. recently It has been s Kanishka whether however. Kennedy in J.A. 1 2 See Waiters. various patriarchs and doctors have been handed down in connection with the traditions relating to the king s religious activities. line of allied was not Kanishka himself.S. Kashmir. questioned. if an indirect one. In any case the name of Kanishka is a great one in the history of Buddhism. direct rule extended beyond India. of travels passage implies that A Hsiian Tsang s book extended 1 influence even to the western confines of China. Parthia. Yuan Chwany. for it was he who who is believed to have Buddhist Council of summoned the great The names of Kashmir. Very little is known at present of the details of this monarch s reign even the extent of his dominion is uncertain. kings of the same Kushan 2 reigned in the northerly regions. .R. See J. 665 /. the most famous being and Asvaghosha. A great impetus. Unfortunately for the cause of historical accuracy. is believed to have been given to the spread of the Mahay anist doctrines by the conversion to Buddhism of the the powerful Indian ruler already mentioned Kushan king Kanishka. but also portions of Afghanistan. It : has been supposed that he ruled over a loosely.Western India. July 1912. Parsva. Gandhara.confederated empire which included not only North. Gandhara. Vasumitra. pp. .

&quot. p.] ASVAGHOSHA is 27 it hardly possible to make any very positive statements about the part taken by these venerable figures in Buddhist developments. . 112. &quot. another tradition. that an Asvaghosha probably took a prominent part (perhaps as vice-president) in Kanishka s Council that this may have been the Asvaghosha who figures in the lists of Indian patriarchs which have . 2 This is recorded in the Life of Asvaghosha. 1 Paramartha s Life of Vasubandhu (Har. which English readers in Suzuki s translation.) 3 A Japanese scholar (M. Anesaki) has described the Mahayanist the Buddhist Origen. xxiv. Chinese Ma-miny. l . in accordance with according the peace conditions imposed by that monarch after 2 a successful war with a neighbouring Indian ruler . This is the Ch c i-hsin-lun referred to below. according to one Buddhist monk the named Council of to Vasumitra became of Kashmir that.ii. Har. which means Horses neighing. 115118) gives Katyayani-putra as the name of the president. ix. pp. been preserved by the Buddhists of China that date) in . by Kumarajiva. (Hence the name Asvaghosha. for there were several Vasumitras say tradition. vol. xxiv. and ascribes to him the first Asvaghosha as The systematization of the Buddhist Trinitarian (trikaya) theory. a president we can is and several Asvaghoshas. ix. a monk named Asvaghosha was sent to the court of a king. All that. vol. reference is to should consult AsVaghosha s Awakening of Faith. and a writer named Asvaghosha (of uncertain was the author of certain religious treatises which some of the Mahayanist doctrines literary expression for the first 3 may have found time. The same authority gives us the foolish story about the six starving horses which (with ample supplies of food in front of them) refused to eat in order that they might give their undivided attention to Asvaghosha s sermons. who may have been Kanishka.

importance of the religious still In view of to the movements which be hoped took place in his time. or in the first half of the first century the so-called Vikrama era. Between the earliest and the latest dates which have been suggested there is a difference of no less than three hundred and fifty.. which is dated from a religious origin. in his History of Fine Art in India and Ceylon Mr 2nd ed. A. 1 1 con V. At present the best auth orities hold that the reign began either in 78 of our era B. and by others to the first.28 UNDER ASOKA AND KANISHKA All this is [CH. The beginning assigned of by some century B. pp. it is much that the fresh literary and archaeological material recently discovered in Khotan and the neighbour ing regions of Turkestan will produce evidence whereby the matter will be put beyond the reach of further dispute.C. . probably in the year 120 or 125 .C.C. commenced with the year of Kanishka s accession according to another. that era had . the second. Smith formerly held (see his Early History of India. but more recently. 58 B. and even the third centuries of the Christian era.. and was dated from the vocation of the great Buddhist Council. 1908. and the vagueness is increased by the unfortunate fact that the chronological position of Kanishka himself is a matter of controversy. very vague. According to one high authority..) that Kanishka began to reign in the first half of the second century of our era. 239 /.six years a fact which reign Kanishka s has been scholars to the first is sufficient to indicate the chaotic state of Indian chronology.

but it is it the belief. . after the event.C. Yuan Chwang. B. century B. 1 . Kanishka his reign in seems that the or a few years prophecy was correct within twenty-five years. and Watters. than whom there is no higher authority on Indian chronology.C. he pronounces himself in favour of the year 78 of our era. i. F.patriarchs&quot. The view quite recently put forward by Mr J. of the of years that had elapsed between the death of Buddha and the accession of Kanishka. say that Buddha died in a year which corresponds to 949 B. that the B. Dr J..C. 203.A. B.] BUDDHIST PATRIARCHS The view 29 Tsang concerning Buddha s a king named Kanishka alleged prophecy that would reign four hundred years after his death. yet an examination of the list of the patriarchs through whom the Ch an much (Dhyana) Buddhists of China trace their spiritual descent from Sakyamuni may perhaps be found suggestive. number If Buddha commenced earlier. served by Hsiian that Kanishka reigned in the first is supported by the tradition pre &quot. and that the first and second &quot. July and October 1912) is to the effect that Kanishka s reign began a few years earlier than this Buddhist Council was held in his reign.R. It is doubtful whether writings can give us Chinese Buddhistic help in solving the chronological problem. at the time of interest as giving was recorded.S. and &quot. was no doubt manufactured The prophecy 1 &quot.C.ii. in the year 58 that the Vikrama era is dated from that event. were These Chinese Buddhists (1911). Kennedy (J. maintains that Kanishka s reign began with the so-called Vikrama era in 68 B. Fleet. . it died in 483 58 &quot.C.C..

C. The correction of all the dates in the list of The initial patriarchs would be a hopeless task. who was the twenty-eighth Indian and first Chinese patriarch. B. we should have 867. that chronology. find was succeeded the by 212 . is correctly placed by the Chinese monkish chroniclers about the year 528. error in the date assigned to Buddha s death is all the subsequent not impossible. though tradition has gone astray in the matter of itself sufficient to vitiate It is has correctly preserved the names of the patriarchs and the order of their succession. who died in 905 and If these dates were correct. survived the Master by no less than eighty-two years Coming ! lower down the list we patriarch) died Asvaghosha in his turn (twelfth that Asvaghosha about the year 330. of dates. as the Chinese call him about the year 520 of our era is a well-attested and there is no reason to doubt that the . Tamo. however. to assume that Ananda. death of Tamo. The arrival in China of Bodhi solid dharma fact or &quot. Mahakasyapa and Ananda. and Kapimala by celebrated in Nagarjuna (fourteenth patriarch) who died Obviously all these dates are unreliable indeed we cannot feel sure that we are touching ground till we come to the illustrious name of Bodhidharma. it According to the Chinese chronology the lives . with whom the Indian patriarchate came to an end.&quot.30 UNDER ASOKA AND KANISHKA [CH. though he was Buddha s own cousin and intimate disciple. Kapimala.

A AT THE PI-YUN TEMPLJt-.1. . .

.

Each must have survived his pre patriarch. 240. if we calculate the average length of each patriarchate on this new basis. F. Fleet s article in J.A. extended of the twenty. . no means of think that this result cannot is.eight over a period not of 1. especially when we assume (as we are entitled to do) that each patriarch made a point of selecting a youthful successor in order to preserve an analogy between the physical succession of father and son and the If spiritual succession of teacher and disciple. That this was the as the Chinese say..477 but only of 1.477 years. to 528 of our era) covered a period of 1. then.C. decessor years.011 years. be bettered. we find that it is no more than thirty-six years.IL] BUDDHIST CHRONOLOGY 31 of the twenty-eight patriarchs (949 B.&quot. Arguing in favour of the year 483. This is not impossibly long. But I of course. therefore. But a different solution of the question at once suggests itself when we assume that Buddha s death took place not in 949. he says ( : There attaining absolute certainty. p. we now test our new scheme of dates by assign ing to Avaghosha the chronogical place which he ought to occupy on the assumption that each 1 See Dr J. Now.R. by an average period of about is It improbable it have elapsed between each of the successive deaths fifty-two to point out how hardly necessary is that so long a period as this can of twenty-eight patriarchs. true date of the death of at Buddha is the conclusion which Western scholars have recently arrived. 1912. but in 483. and we are justified in assuming it to be approxi mately correct.S. 1 The lives patriarchs.

reasons council. must be abandoned. and it is in equally precise agreement with the new theory that the Council was held in 58 B. there are strong for believing that it was a Hmayanist On and that one of its principal objects was to promote but to check the expansion of the Mahayanist heresies. of course. There is no evidence that the Council tampered in any way with the existing canon or even that it was Mahayanist in sympathy.32 UNDER ASOKA AND KANISHKA [CH. manner but it is Asvaghosha s relations with Kanishka and the part taken by him in the work of the Council of Kashmir. patriarchate lasted thirty-six years on an average. The no solution of the chronological problem will doubt enable students of Buddhism to speak is with more confidence than possible at present concerning the early history of the Great Vehicle. If Hsiian Tsang s account is to be trusted. we arrive at once at the interesting discovery that AsVaghosha s death may be placed in the cannot. riot the contrary. place much reliance on the accuracy of a date arrived at in year 51 B. and to the labours of the Council of Kashmir in compiling a new Sanskrit canon which was to supersede the Pali canon. But the once-prevalent theory that the rise and expansion of the Mahayana school was directly due to the personal support of Kanishka.C. We in exact conformity with the requirements of the tradition concerning this arbitrary .C. it is clear that earnest Buddhists of the old school (or rather the Sarvastivadin branch of .

IL]

COUNCIL OF KASHMIR

33

the old school) were alarmed by the doctrinal confusion that existed throughout the Buddhist
world, and that they therefore induced the king who has been called the Clovis of Buddhism to

summon a Council in defence of the interests of Various places were their own type of orthodoxy.
suggested for the meeting of the Council, and Kashmir seems to have been selected partly for the
significant reason that

was surrounded with hills as a city is surrounded by its walls," and could only be entered by a single pass and that in this
"

it

;

secluded region the Council (or rather the com mittee of monks who carried out the literary and

imposed upon them by the Council) would not be liable to be disturbed by heretics and 1 The Council seems to have occupied schismatics.
editorial duties

mainly with religious discussions and debates which were subsequently reduced to writing in the form of Sanskrit commentaries. 2 The editorial
itself

work is said to have been entrusted to Asvaghosha, who was specially invited to Kashmir for the pur
pose; and the principal result after twelve years of literary labour was the great philosophical 3 Hsuan compilation known as the Mahavibhasha.
Paramartha, Life of Vasubandhu, Har. xxiv. vol. ix. p. 116. The is to the king s proclamation issued after the Council had See also Watters, op. cit. i. 271. completed its labours. 2 See J. Takakusu, J.R.A.S., 1905, p. 415. s See Paramartha, loc. cit. ; Watters, op. cit., i. 271, ii. 104. The commentaries are included in the Chinese Tripitaka (so-called) under the section of Hsiao Sheng Lun the Abhidharma of the Hinayana. See
reference
J.
1

Takakusu

in J.R.A.S., 1905, pp. 52, 160-162,

and 414-415

;

also his

C

34

UNDER ASOKA AND KANISHKA
tells

[CH.

us that the approved treatises were on sheets of copper, which were enclosed engraved in stone caskets and buried under a stupa some where near the modern Srmagar. When this was done an edict was carved on stone whereby it was forbidden to remove the sacred literature from

Tsang

of our authorities makes the very significant observation that these measures were taken with a view to the protection of orthodox

Kashmir.

One

religion from the corrupting and destructive in fluences of hostile schools and the Great Vehicle. 1
It
is

clear, then, that it is

erroneous to speak
"
"

of the Council of Kashmir as having given official to the Mahayana authority and a sacred canon

form of Buddhism. 2
article in the

Indeed

it

is

not strictly
The Abhi"all

Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1904-5, on
Sarvastivadins."

dharma Literature of the

He

observes that

arguments about the Council and its works will be valueless until the an encyclopedia of Buddhist philosophy is trans Mahavibhasha For the Chinese version, lated into one of the European languages."
see

Har.

xxii. vols.

i.-viii.

(B.N.

1263).

The Chinese
is

attribute

the

Mahavibhasha to the I-ch
Sarvastivadin
*

ieh-pu,

which

one of their names for the
of the

Another Chinese name
tf>

school (also known as Hetuvada) for the school was Sa-p o-to.

Hinayana.

ft JE ftffc fP Paramartha, I am inclined to Life of Vasubandhu, Har. xxiv. vol. ix. p. 116 (6). believe that it was the fame of the Council and the general recognition of the value of its literary labours that impelled some Mahayanist
writers of a later age to pretend that the Council had been attended by Mahayanists as well as by Hinayanists. The strange story of Vasumitra,

& * m

recorded by Hsuan Tsang (see Watters, Yuan Ghwang, i. 271), reads like a Mahayanist writer s invention and it is a significant fact that while, according to one tradition (probably the most reliable) the Council was another attended by arahants only (that is, Hmayanist ( saints tradition asserts that it was also attended by an equal number of
;
"),

bodhisats (that
2

is,

Mahayanist

ff

saints

").

The words quoted

are those of

Mr

J.

Kennedy

in

J.R.A.S.,

1912, p. 674.

ii.]

THE BUDDHIST CANON
"

35

accurate

to any canon apply the term Buddhist writings except that which collection of was apparently fixed in the third century B.C. or
to
"

earlier,
first

and was reduced to writing
B.C.
1

(in Pali) in

the

century

All

we can

say with regard to

the so-called Mahayana canon is that the Mahayana schools recognize certain works as more sacred or

more
the

authoritative than others, and that each of
into

Mahayanists divided themselves in China and Japan based its teach
sects

which

the

ings on a limited number of sutras carefully selected from the available accumulations of sacred
literature.

or sect practically constructed a miniature canon for itself, and the

Thus each school

sanctity or canonicity of any individual work in the so-called Chinese Tripitaka varies with the
sectarian standpoint
1

from which

it

is

2

regarded.

See Max Muller, S.B.E., vol. x. pp. xx.-xxii. xxxiv.-xliii. ; Rhys Davids, S.B.E., vol. xxxv. pp. xxxvii.-xl., vol. xxxvi. pp. xv.-xvii. ;

and Dialogues
2

of the

Buddha,

pt.

i.

pp. ix.-xx., pt.

ii.

pp. 77-8.

a very limited extent the same eclectic tendency was shown by some of the Hmayana schools also. Rhys Davids points out that several of these schools "had their different arrangements of the
canonical books, differing also, no doubt, in minor details
of the
"

To

(Dialogues

Buddha,

pt.

i.

p. xix.).

CHAPTER
EARLY BUDDHISM AND
IT
a matter of

III

ITS

PHILOSOPHY

is

common knowledge
Mahayana

that

some of

the doctrines of the
its ritual

(not to mention

practices) bear a remarkable resemblance

to

some of the teachings of
is

Christianity.

This

is

one of the reasons
of Kanishka

why the question of the date of considerable interest and import
It

ance to Western enquirers.

seems reasonable,

at first sight, to suppose that if certain important features of Buddhism, which are also characteristic

of Christianity, did not develop until the time of Kanishka or later, and if the reign of that king belonged to as late a period as the first or second

then the Mahayana must have borrowed from Christianity. One critic has been
century of our
era,

venturesome enough to assert that Avaghosha and the apostle St Thomas actually became
personally acquainted with one another at the court of St Thomas s supposed Indian patron, Gondophares, or Gondophernes, and that such
Christian elements
as

are 36

to

be found in the

CH. in.]

THE

11

"NEW

BUDDHISM

37

Mahayana were
course between

therefore the result of the inter

the
1

Christian

apostle

and the

Buddhist patriarch.

of the nature of the relationship between Christianity and Buddhism is not to be

The problem

explained by any such airy suggestion as this and, indeed, the evidence adduced in favour of
;

this particular

theory

is

worthless.

On

the whole

there

is

something to

be said for the view that
Christianity and the

the resemblances
"New"

between
(as

Buddhism
are not

the

Mahayana has been

due to borrowing either on one side or the other, but to the fact that both had access to the same sources of doctrinal inspiration sources which in themselves were not specifically
called)

either Christian or Buddhist.

It

is

now

a matter

common knowledge that Christianity and Mithraism were in many respects amazingly alike
of
;

yet the best authorities assure us that at the root of those two religions "lay a common Eastern
origin [Persian

and Babylonian] rather than any

See the late T. W. Kingsmill s article, which contains several rash and questionable statements, in The Anglican (a missionary periodical Mr Kingsmill, published in the Far East), June 1909, pp. 22 ff. Dr Richard, and Professor Arthur Lloyd all seem to assume that the AsVaghosha who wrote certain Mahayanist works such as the Sraddhotpada-sastra (the Chinese Ch i-hsin-lun, B.N. 1250) must have been no other than the Asvaghosha who attended Kanishka s Council and helped to edit the commentaries. As we have already seen (p. 27), there were several Asvaghoshas (or several persons who wrote under that name), and it is at present impossible to distinguish between them
1

all

or to assign
ii.

them

to their proper dates.
s

in E.R.E.,

159, and T. Suzuki

See Mr Anesaki s article Awakening of Faith (Chicago
:

1900), pp. 6-17.

38

EARLY BUDDHISM
l

ITS
so,

PHILOSOPHY

[CH.

borrowing."

If this

be

we need not con

sider ourselves

under any obligation to look for

evidence

borrowing when we come across strange similarities between Christianity and the
of

Mahayana, whose common features are probably less striking than those which were shared by the religions of Christ and Mithras. That the Mahayana doctrines were not of
frankly admitted to-day even by some who might have felt tempted to give wellChristianity the benefit of the doubt.
Christian origin
is

A

known Anglican missionary
Buddhist and Christian
cannot
always
trace

in Japan, writing

on
is

origins,

remarks that
contact
;

"we

an

actual

it

perhaps enough to recognize the fact that these 2 thoughts were in the According to another
air."

writer, a missionary in China, every day that these common

"it

getting clearer doctrines of new
is

Buddhism and
from

Christianity were not borrowed one another, but that both came from a
3

common
1

source."

This writer believes that the

Dr Grant Showerman, "Mithraism" (Encycl. Brit., llth ed.). Mgr. Louis Duchesne, in his Early History of the Christian Church
(Eng. trans., 1910, i. 396), admits that "the religion of Mithras contained elements in theology, morality, ritual, and in its doctrine of the end of all things bearing a strange resemblance to
Christianity."
2

Lloyd

s

Creed of Half Japan,
"

p.

340.

Prof. Percy

Gardner holds

similar views of the alleged borrowing by Christianity from the pagan Ideas are propagated from school to school and teacher mysteries.
to teacher less often

by the direct borrowing which comes of admiration than by the parallel working of similar forces in various minds. When ideas are in the air, as the saying is, men catch them by a sort of infection, and often without any notion whence they come." 3 Dr Timothy Richard, The Awakening of Faith, p. xiii.

in.]

SOURCES OF DOGMA

39

source was Babylonian, and that "from this centre those great life-giving inspiring truths

common

were carried
different

like

seeds into both the East and

West, where they were somewhat modified under
conditions."
l

We may, then,
and the Mahayana
in divine or

admit the possibility that some

of the characteristic doctrines shared

by Christianity

such as the efficacy of belief

superhuman saviours incarnating them selves in man s form for the world s salvation were partly drawn from sources to which the builders of both religions had equally ready access.

We may accept

the view that each of these creeds

incorporated certain ideas which had long fascinated the religious imagination of a considerable portion of south-western Asia. Yet while we recognize

the palpable truth that
its

Buddhism

in the course of

expansion in foreign lands absorbed some alien

beliefs

which were important factors in determining the course of its subsequent development, we are by no means obliged to assume that there was a dissolution of continuity between the old Buddhism and the new. In spite of the differences and con
trasts that

tive
1

undoubtedly exist between the primi Buddhism of the Pali canon and the mature

It would be a mistake to give undue emphasis to the Babylonian theory, yet the history of Mithraism, Mariichaeism, Mandaeism, and certain early Gnostic cults such as that of the Ophites, shows us how far-reaching the Babylonian Assyrian influence undoubtedly was.
"

Babylonia/ says
its

Mr

J.

Kennedy

(J.R.A.S., 1912, p. 1005),

"with

mixed populations, had been for centuries the exchange-mart of the popular religions, and this process was in full swing at the commence

ment

of the Christian

era."

40
(or,

EARLY BUDDHISM
as

ITS

PHILOSOPHY

[CH.

some would

say,

degenerate)

Buddhism

which we

find in the later

Mahayanist schools, we

are not obliged to accept the conclusion that the two Buddhisms are separated from one another by

should an unbridged and fathomless chasm. be warned against any such conclusion by our knowledge of the fact, vouched for by the Chinese
pilgrims, that for many centuries after the new teachings had risen into prominence (shortly after or shortly before the beginning of the Christian
era) the adherents of the

We

two systems studied

their

scriptures side

by

side within the great religious

university of Nalanda, and lived harmoniously to gether in many monasteries. Even in the matter

The of language there was no real cleavage. rather prevalent idea that Pali was exclusively the
was
sacred language of the Hinayana and that Sanskrit exclusively the sacred language of the

being strictly accurate, the adoption of Sanskrit by though as their literary vehicle the Mahayanist doctors were better able to move away from the strict
it is

Mahayana

is

far

from

true that

orthodoxy of the Pali canon than if they had been obliged to adhere to the Pali language. It may not be always possible to trace every
link in the evolutionary chain,
it
is

and

in

some

cases

quite conceivable that the evolution would never have taken place had not the Buddhist

organism reacted to stimuli from a non-Buddhist environment but it would be difficult to point to
;

many

characteristic doctrines of the

Mahayana of

in.]

THE MAHAYANA
least the

41

which at
earlier

germs cannot be traced
of the

in the

or

later

speculations

Hinayanist

schools.

of Buddhism is obliged at an of his investigations to recognize two early stage important facts. One is that the Mahayana is not

The student

a

single

homogeneous
It
is

system with

a

definite
its

formulated creed.

erroneous to ascribe

foundation to any single man or even to any single l and the uniformity group of religious teachers
;

which was lacking at the commencement was

The never achieved at any subsequent period. Mahayana includes a large number of schools and
sects,

each of which, as
its

we have
;

already noticed,
sects

compiled

own canon

and some of these

from one another much more widely than the early Mahayanists differed from some of

came

to differ

the Hinayanists of their own time. The other important fact, the significance of which is less
generally recognized, is that the Hlnayana itself was subdivided into various schools which, though professed adherence to the canon, and all regarded it as their ultimate authority, did not always agree in their interpretations of its mean

they

all

2

ing.

These schools were not the result

of a

1

Dr Timothy Richard
founder"

describes the Asvaghosha of the Ch i-hsin-lun

as

"the

of the

Mahayana (The Awakening of

Faith, p. xiv.,

and The

Testament of Higher Buddhism, pp. 37, 38, and 50). With regard to some of the theories and suggestions of Dr Richard and Mr A. Lloyd, see the author s article on Buddhist and Christian Origins
"
"

New

in The Quest, October 1912. 2 See above, p. 35, footnote 2.

42

EARLY BUDDHISM
of
its

ITS
;

PHILOSOPHY

[CH.

disintegration

Buddhism

rather were they a

Eighteen is the traditional number of the schools that had come into exist
proof of
vitality.

ence before A3oka

s

time, and in

name

at

least

they existed for

many

centuries after his death.

the year 559 of our era we hear of a monastery which contained representatives of all the eighteen Hinayanist schools a very
late

As

as

remarkable testimony to Buddhist tolerance. 1 The schools of the Hinayana debated among
themselves

many

questions of great philosophical

importance which Buddha was supposed to have answered enigmatically or not at all, and they were founded as much on attempts

and

religious

to penetrate the mystery of the Master s cryptic silence as on varying interpretations of his spoken word. It is in the discussions of these schools,

orthodox

and

unorthodox,

not

in

Babylonian

poetry or prophecy or in the missionary activity of a St Thomas, that we must look for the ultimate
sources of the principal streams that flow into the ocean of Mahayanist belief. As for that ocean
itself, let

fringed with many a sheltered inlet and quiet haven, it also contains wreck-strewn rocks and perilous shallows and
if it is

us admit that

profound waters that no man can fathom. But which of all the streams that issue from the
fountain

thought and emotion of mankind does not flow at last into an ocean
of the
religious

that

is
1

very

much

like this

?

See Journal of

the

Pali Text Society, 1904-5, p. 67.

.

.

&quot. do with his system and outside the scope of his teachings. that Buddha us remember. desire. it is he had himself deeply pondered many profound questions which for frankly. and the attainment of the passion Certain ultimate serenity of arahantship. disciples to discard what he conceived to be false and harmful ideas concerning the human person and to pursue a definite method ality or &quot. On the contrary. but a brief glance at certain aspects of Buddhist thought in a few of its successive stages will help us to understand the point of view here set forth. was a philosopher in a nation of philosophers ignored the existence of who. problems with which philosophy loves to grapple and which some other religious teachers profess to have solved through revelation were deliber ately set aside by Buddha as having nothing to &quot.in.] TEACHINGS OF BUDDHA 43 attempt can here be made to follow the intricate windings of Mahayanist speculation. let clear that such ultimate problems. less malevolence.soul. the extinction of the three-fold fire of delusion. It is not to be supposed.&quot. &quot. &quot. and &quot. but their testimony leaves no room for doubt as to the He taught his general trend of his teachings. indeed. No The records of primitive Buddhism leave unanswered many interesting questions relating to the beliefs of the historical Buddha. of self-culture and self-discipline which would lead to the annihilation of sorrow.stated reasons . &quot.

my disciples. Eng. 1882. he refused to discuss with of the canonical texts that his disciples.&quot. .&quot. de la V. &quot. have I not spoken to you of these And he goes on to explain that it is things ? &quot. 1 &quot. as quoted in L. they are far more numerous than those in the hand of the Holy One. Among scarcely help forming the impression that it was not a mere idle statement which the sacred texts preserve to us. &quot.. (Qldeiiberg. Bouddhisme. Even in such measure. that the Perfect One knew much more which he thought inadvisable to say. tells It is one us the story of how Buddha once plucked a few leaves from a tree and asked his disciples whether these leaves which he had plucked. and ignoble desire. are the things which I have learned. The leaves on all the trees of the grove. said Buddha. said.44 EARLY BUDDHISM ITS PHILOSOPHY 1 [CH. p. all the leaves on all the trees of the neighbouring grove. p. 208). illusion. trans. or &quot. were the more numerous. 58. Buddha. Poussin. because the subjects on which he maintains silence have no relation to the truths w hich it is his T mission to impart the truths concerning sorrow and the cessation of sorrow and have no bear ing on that process of self-discipline whereby he would have his disciples achieve the destruction of passion. &quot. 2 See the Samyutta Nikaya. and have not communicated to you. And why. and attain the inward illumination and perfect peace which culminate in Nirvana. more numerous than those of which I have spoken.&quot. We can than what he esteemed it profitable to his disciples to unfold&quot. The canonical books contain many stories similar in significance to that about the leaves of those which are accessible to the trees.

though neither who lived was known to the other. the problems propounded or frankly confess his 3 ignorance yet the Master does neither. cit. but for not for Buddha s reasons. &quot.C. Confucius was born about twelve years after Buddha. who insists eagerly and almost rudely that Buddha should either solve . pp. Warren.] THE &quot. and thus &quot. 254-5. pp. pp.ill. 274-6. . Buddha s silence about matters on which he knew that speech would only lead to misunder standings may be compared with the somewhat &quot. i. See Oldenberg. pt. 4 Buddha. op. 272-3. no.. c. . See Olderiberg. He merely observed that extravagance the living . 1906. pp.. . the dead would be neglected for the sake of and that if he said filial piety and the bodies of the dead might might decay. 117-122.&quot. he said this yes.SILENCE&quot. We him an answer to the question as to whether the dead retain consciousness. : &quot. op.. similar attitude of another Asiatic sage in Buddha s own time. in might lead to unnecessary sacrifices and funerals. 2 and the greeted by Buddha with perfect silence questions of Malunkyaputta. 1 See * * T Rhj s Davids. Buddhism in Translations. &quot. Confucius declined to if give a direct reply.&quot. cit. 551-479 B. Dialogues of the Buddha. and survived him about four 4 are told that a disciple once pressed years. OF BUDDHA 45 English readers may be mentioned the passages to dealing with the questions of Potthapada that is a each of which Buddha makes reply l matter on which I have expressed no opinion the questions of Vacchagotta. 563 to c 483 B. Like Buddha.. Confucius. whose problems are &quot.C.

. The way as their guide may travel safely to the supreme blessedness of sainthood the ineffable 1 Confucius would have agreed with our own philosopher Caird.&quot. our fittest eloquence is silence.nrep PlotillUS O-IWTTO) ^XPW A6 ^ ^ epwrav.&quot. of the words of &&amp. eyu Readers of Chinese literature will remember that the founder of Taoism (whose great and lonely figure is but dimly visible through the mists of the Tao-te-ching) was even less willing than were Confucius and Buddha to discuss matters which were beyond the reach of verbal analysis. (The Evolution of Religion. . who warned us that &quot. xii. problem unsolved. knowing why he is silent and St ( si dixi non est quod dicere volui. Sextus Pythagoricus even in silence honours God.46 EARLY BUDDHISM 1 ITS PHILOSOPHY [CH.&quot. might define the attitude of Buddha We towards the ultimate problems on which he kept silence by the use of a simple parable.. ch. passage is Hence he left the Perhaps a more remarkable disciple that in which his Tzu-kung the spoke social of the difference frankness with which ready Confucius expounded his between and ethical principles and the reticence which he observed in discoursing about meta 2 According physical subjects and the law of God.the belief in immortality may easily become an unhealthy occupation with a future salvation. Of Thee/ says Hooker Augustine in his fine prayer. The passage occurs in Lun Yii. this passage means that Confucius spoke freely to all his disciples on such subjects as he thought were suited to their capacities. : . but only allowed a chosen few to share his 3 thoughts on problems of a deeper kind. &quot. 1893. 243). avvi. The Tao which can be expressed in words is not the eternal Tao the name which can be uttered is not its eternal name.) Wise is the man who Gf. ii. to the Chinese commentators.lt. &quot. dXXot. : &quot. Kal OVK etdurfMi \tyeiv. be treated with disrespect. Both Buddha and Confucius would have approved ef : T ien-Tao. v. which prevents us from Buddha accept him of is a road along which all who wish to seeking for salvation here 2 3 &quot. bk. (&quot.vai real avrbv crionrj/. &quot.

- hearted way I he says. &quot. &quot.in. But if to will lead you you.&quot. you will lose sight of the road which splendour aside those distant hills.&quot.] A PARABLE of 47 But there are pleasant seductive gardens within sight of meadows and the road. and amid the trees and flowers there state the arahant. the stout &quot. those in wonderful secrets is dark forests. and whose shining cliffs are a perpetual farer.Yes. to explore those forests heights. in your I have made for Who stumblings. the dauntless spirit of man will try to scale them. Beyond these are there rises a many-pinnacled range of glorious mountains. The fact that Buddha so in the future.&quot. safely through those fens and marshes and over those pitiless crags? Where will you. and to says his scale those mountain there are hidden in guide. fair reply would be that bold and enquiring A spirits have always risked the danger of failure and disaster in the past and will continue to do So long as there are heights that remain unsealed. and there a you wander among those trees and step flowers. whose snowy peaks seem to touch the heavens. and to solve the mystery of forest and mountain. discouraged his disciples from attempting to find a way to the shining pinnacles that looked down upon them from afar off did not have the . challenge to long. winding pathways that lead into many a trackless forest and deadly morass. &quot. come across another path that will bring you safely to your journey s end?&quot.

48 EARLY BUDDHISM of ITS PHILOSOPHY philosophy in [OH. that if passages in the sacred books they correctly embody to the belief of Buddha he himself. . their secrets to none his but Buddhist If Buddha discouraged followers from ascending the perilous heights of metaphysical speculation. seem in indicate not only rejected all soul-theories that had been held or the past. keeping Buddhist the High up among the snows of thought. For Chinese versions. 54. though it was a subject on which both speech and silence were liable to mislead. There are which. see Har. xxxv. It must be admitted at once that the ordinary soul-theories current in Buddha s own time were by him uncompromisingly several rejected. adventurous Western mountaineers have found the footsteps of Buddhist explorers who reached those heights long before them and perhaps there are some glittering peaks that have : yielded climbers. viii. vol. but also that his teach suggested ings were incompatible with any soul-theory that human ingenuity might excogitate in the future.. which seems to leave us no way of escape from the 1 See S. 43-5. This was the question of the existence or non-existence of a permanent entity in human personality. chariot passage at 1 the beginning of the JMilinda Dialogues.B.E. result plains. xxiv. &quot. Such is the well - known &quot. pp. there was one question of pressing interest which could not be ignored. 45.

But it does not appear in the Pali original as translated by Rhys Davids moreover. also Dr Sanday in his Personality in Christ and in &quot. in the Chinese version of the dialogues the names of king and monk are given as Mi-Ian and Na-hsien. 1911. elements &quot. 1912. p. 4 suspiciously like Milinda The names of king and monk (Pi-lin-t o and Lung-chun) are and Nagasena (Ndga is the Chinese Lung). but which binds together all these various organs and faculties in one. x.in. 101-2. put together in such a way as to make them serve a certain useful purpose. 1 4 The skandhas (Chinese wu-yiin) are the five &quot. To use the words of * in Translations. which is not either reason or emotion or will. more than the sum of its parts that is the cardinal &quot. PASSAGE 49 conclusion that just as a chariot is merely a name given to a collection of wheels. aggregates which compose a living being (see Warren.] THE &quot. 108 (B.The whole is characteristic of evolution as understood by the pluralist. 23). p. 1267). unity that is not more than its constituent elements is no real unity at all it is only a formal or mathematical whole. For personality we want something more than the mere congeries of thoughts and impulses and appetites and passions which go to make up the individual man. D . spokes. Buddhism A somewhat similar idea found its way 487-96). Giles. Cf.N.CHARIOT&quot. vol. 20 : something within us which is not either foot or hand or eye. 2 even more uncompromising passage is to be found in one of the works belonging to the Chinese translation of the It describes a visit paid An Hmayana Abhidharma. to exist when those &quot. There is a Ourselves. fall apart. and ceases (sensations. pp. pieces of wood. Taoist Teachings.&quot. &quot. &quot. 2 The (e chariot passage is not quite so conclusive against the soul-theory as the unwary reader may suppose. pp. from which it might be inferred that this story comes out of the Milinda Dialogues. xxii. .&quot. and other materials. 3 See Har. into Taoist specula James Ward in his Realm of Ends. tion (see L.There is a Self within the Self. so a man is nothing but a bundle l elements of skandhas or integration of grouped and the like). by a 3 certain king to a learned monk. perceptions. 1911. All real synthesis entails new : A properties which its component factors in their previous isolation did not possess. p.

said the monk. I. Ask your or are they sweet in * ? I haven t any mango-trees my not garden. You. people. said the king. fair. he said. All the other it is I have questioned are very talkative but your majesty is an exceptional monarch. whether the soul is or is not That is a question which distinct from the body. are an exceptional monk. fair. said the king. thing so what was the use of asking me whether it was distinct or not distinct from the body ? same in the There is no such Those of us who climax to this quaint feel rather little crushed by the dialogue may console . said the monk. to ask you about All the other a matter which perplexes me. said the king. . but they tell me nothing to the purpose. and I believe you will readily give me a straight I question. too. I am sure. monks I have visited are full of words. EARLY BUDDHISM I ITS PHILOSOPHY ( [CH. he said.50 &quot. my turn to be the questioner. Why don t you give me a plain answer to my question ? But. me. What is it your majesty wishes I want you to tell know ? asked the monk. said the king why will you not give Well plain answer to a plain question ? me a said the monk. said the king. am kings whom answer. This is not admits of no reply. in doubt about something. your majesty. The monk looked This at the is monarch with a severe countenance. how can I tell you about the taste of my mangoes if I have no mango-trees 6 in my garden : ? Well. want your majesty to tell me what the mangoes Are they bitter in your palace-garden taste like. have come. and will readily solve my to difficulty. it is just the 6 matter of the soul.

. HSI-YU MONASTERY. TOMBS OF MONKS. CHIHLI.HSI-YU MONASTERY.

.

theory of his own.&quot. Cf.&quot. also ibid.in. sented as having disposed of the soul question in so thorough-going a fashion as did the monk with his analogy of the non-existing mangoes. not be more accurate to say that Buddhism ignored the soul as a quasi -material entity which dwelling in the physical body and flew away from it at death ? That Buddha denied the existence of this kind of soul and therefore its had which found popular support in the India of his day is undeniably true but there is much to be said for the view that he had a loftier soul-theory or rather selfrejected all the soul-theories . A true story which gives us a hint of meaning is that which tells us ascetic Buddha s how the wandering Vaccha after asked what that is. in this respect. pt. from all other religious systems then existing in the world. . 188-9. i. in this who Does Nirvana 1 (a blessed state attainable &quot. Dialogues of the Buddha. Rhys Davids. p. He adds that the vigour and originality of this new departure are evident from the complete isolation in which Buddhism stands. 242. pp.] SOUL THEORIES - 51 ourselves with the reflection that the monk was only voicing the opinion of a school though that school was for a long time regarded as the citadel Buddha himself is never repre of orthodoxy.. foremost exponent of Buddhism has told us A it that stands alone among the religion India in ignoring the soul. 1 Would religions of this &quot. of the Tathagata death became what is the state of the sage ordinary human life has passed away from after having attained Nirvana.

after death. immeasurable. away from earth does or does not The nun replies that it is not say is correct exists .&quot. Dr Schrader has ably argued against the theory op. and tion will teaching. inclinations. It was the Buddha and no one else who made the doctrine of anatta a moral the Absolute One. or does this lead to a different state of replies being? To question Buddha is by telling Vaccha &quot. endurance. cit. . Nirvana was followed by not entitled to say that &quot. Otto Schrader in the Journal of the Pali Text Society (1904-5). A king asks the nun whether the Tathagata liberated sage who has attained Nirvana has passed still the and exist. will hardly understand he says.. The doctrine of anatta (no soul) &quot. is deep.&quot. not the stability of a substance. teaching. . and by Warren. but presupposing principle.&quot. that he trying to probe a very deep mystery &quot.. death. different views. 165-6. 123-8. according to He annihilation. pp. F.&quot. in extinction.embraces the five Buddha s own observes that khandas or constituent parts of nature. efforts. difficult to 1 fathom. like the vast ocean. But he attempts a behind at veiled explana and be after declaring that everything material left &quot. You which only the wise can comprehend. that. not more. but only that for him duration in time was duration of a flux and not immutability in any sense. it ITS PHILOSOPHY total [CH. Tathagata very similar story is told about the king The of Kosala and the learned nun Khema. and that not by denying it as the true self.we are Buddha denied the soul. to of the it is nor . you having it.52 life) EARLY BUDDHISM result. correct it Tathagata that he still to say that he does not exist 1 nor correct to say that he both See the Aggi-Vacchagotta-sutta.&quot. pp.. the only reality. quoted by Dr. says that the when thus liberated from the category of materiality. .

1 We &quot.be gauged by he is deep.] PERSONALITY and does not exist. unfathomable. Buddha s deepest thoughts on we compare them with of those 1 the utterances of some (often Western thinkers who unknown Western mystics See Okleiiberg.in.. personality. comparisons of the deceased Tathagata with the deep immeasurable ocean indicate nothing more than a kind of vague pantheism. 53 exists After some further that the great ocean discussion the is nun observes The being deep. It is interesting to note that also speak of in vastissimum divinitatis pelagus navigare. must beware of supposing that these &quot. cit. and imply the utter extinction of the human personality. The whole problem is this very word If we knew what personality was.&quot. goes on to say that the king repeated his question in an interview with Buddha himself.&quot. pp. op. . and that the Master s reply was word for word identical with the reply previously given by the nun. It is in vain to probe the secret of this subject yet the meaning of such passages as those perhaps above quoted will become clearer to us when . unfathomable as the great ocean. of the deepest mysteries before which humanity stands baffled. the measure of the corporeal world . That this reply of the nun Khema was recognized as thoroughly orthodox is shown by the care taken to represent Buddha as having given her words the stamp of his approval for the story . immeasurable. of the Tathagata can no longer &quot. immeasurable. 278-80. we should possess a key that would unlock some crux of the &quot.

. consciousness is our true personality. that we can only attain personality. it is our own &quot. like that of the writer of the Theologia Germanica is and such mystics as Blake ( annihilate the Selfhood in me the position of perhaps nearer to that of the Upanishads than it is to Buddha. R. for the golden thread is not missing from the woven &quot. philosophical kinsmen. 507-8. . et Of. far &quot.54 EARLY BUDDHISM Buddha s ITS PHILOSOPHY [CH. It is very necessary to avoid reading into Buddhism meanings which are Vedantist and not Buddhist yet Dr Coomaraswamy is undoubtedly justified in his remark that through all Indian schools of of thought there runs like a golden thread the fundamental idealism He is right to make no exception the Upanishads the Vedanta.). Inge Christian Mysticism (2nd ed. as spiritual and rational beings. is &quot. continues the English thinker. of interest to find here a parallel drawn between the real (as distinct from the phenomenal) is personality and it the deep ocean precisely the same So &quot. as that employed by from being true. Couldst thou annihilate thyself for a moment. passim.&quot. ness of self an error to regard conscious The as the measure of personality. s Dr W. as an eloquent writer of tells us. realizing our true privileges as persons. 30. also Underbill. depths of personality are unfathomable. Mysticism. p.).&quot. the bar which prevents us from say. fabric of 2 Buddhist thought. pp. that the self of our immediate parallel is Buddha. said Eckhart. . of Buddhism. Separate individuality. . thou 1 God time in himself.&quot. to themselves) are &quot. &quot. possess all that According to the mystic s wouldst psychology.&quot. by passing beyond the limits which mark us off as separate individuals. we may is 1 Eckhart s position.&quot. as the light of conscious Heraclitus already knew 2 It ness only plays on the surface of the water.&quot.

&quot. 1910 ed.. Mead iii. factory term to the transcendental or spiritual self (what sometimes called the mystical I ). is it S. if we could have some satis &quot. It is very necessary. R. F. C. R.&quot. Cf. is an instructive fact that several centuries before of the birth of Christianity this &quot. pp. G69). Speaking of the tion false ego. 103. a bastard &quot. S. would be convenient distinguish observes in a recent essay (The Quest. Schiller (the apostle of Humanism) in his Riddles of the Sphinx.. 2 Dr VV. Inge. . 1 same &quot.in. to guard against the rash application to the philosophical notions of ancient special India terms in which have acquired . 275-6. of the ordinary a half-way abstrac understanding. the fundamental being or life beyond subject and object. prominent thinkers of our own day. bad metaphysics and bad science. in entire conson ance with the authentic thought and utterance of the Buddha. 55 I believe. no doubt. product the English writer last quoted observes that 2 It Christianity from the very first rejected it.. p. a significance Western but it may nevertheless thought be confidently maintained that there is a close association between the Buddhist idea of a personality liberated from the phenomenal ego and the belief of Western mystics and others in a transcendental self freed from the 1 limita tions of temporal individuality. Personal Idealism and Mysticism. from the ever-changing me which Buddhism insists quite rightly on regarding as the impermanent The Buddhist view of the ego is close to that of several ego.] THE FALSE EGO These words are.bastard had already been who As Mr G. } for example. besides those mentioned in the text. product of bad metaphysics rejected and cast out by the great thinker founded Buddhism. 1907.

See above. 56 . 40-42. and partly. of the gradual process of the deification of the great Indian teacher may be traced in the earliest records of primitive Buddhism for the trustful reverence shown towards their The beginnings much-loved Master by all his disciples removed from religious adoration. It was further pointed out that in the discussions and disputes of the Hinayana schools. orthodox and unorthodox. also. on different interpretations of his mysterious silence. the belief in the efficacy of faith. pp. 1 w as r not far cite We may the enthusiastic words of the disciple Sariputta. and the belief in saviour-bodhisats.CHAPTER IV THE IDEALS OF HINAYANA AND MAHAYANA THE reflections contained in the foregoing chapter may help the reader to understand the significance of the statement that the numerous schools of the Hinayana were founded partly on the results of the discussions of questions to which Buddha was supposed to have given enigmatic replies. we may trace the origin of most of the characteristic beliefs of the Let us now glance briefly at the Mahayana. 1 growth of three of those beliefs the belief in the divinity of Buddha.

&quot. enthusiasm in a of gentle irony. do this. If Buddha would ordinary men. l &quot. &quot. but how do &quot. 1 he added.&quot. you know that there never has been and never will be any greater or wiser teacher than I am ? And then in the Socratic manner he cross-examines Sariputta on the meaning of his words. In another canonical &quot. and compels him to admit that he does not really know &quot. : ! that methinks there never has been. by power surpassing that of a mystic wonder.&quot. and having saluted said Now him. Rhys Davids. that thereby might recognize him he as disciples to the people &quot.young householder&quot. he says. &quot. we hear of a who went to Buddha and dialogue his all begged him to empower one of perform a miracle.CH. and Lord such faith have I in the Exalted One. whether wanderer who is greater and wiser than the that is Exalted One wisdom.This their lord. . &quot. took his seat respectfully at his side. as regards the higher The Master meets spirit his disciple s &quot. Dialogues of the Buddha. pt. iv. is a said. p. now any other. You have burst forth into a song of ecstasy. and now He only knows the lineage of the faith. are.&quot. nor is there or brahmin.] &quot. and are to come.crowded with people It were well if the Exalted One were to give command to some brother to perform. Sariputta.the hearts of the Able Awakened Ones that have been.&quot. 87. BUDDHA AND MIRACLES 57 the venerable Sariputta came to the place where the Exalted One was. prosperous place. devoted to the Exalted One. to say. nor will there be. it would increase the devotion ii.

aspects of Christianity. pt. i. Through Facts to Faith. 2 (( simply says that he loathes the practice of them and that a greater and better wonder than any or all of them is education in the system of self-training which culminates in Arahantship. So we may sum up the case by saying that the critical conclusion. miracles or to others to perform them the greatest and most wonderful thing that can be shown even by empower a that leads to arahantship. As usual. Cf. p.58 IDEALS OF HINAYANA AND MAHAYANA But [CH. 1912. finds a welcome waiting for it in the ( And faith is set free religious experience miracles do not matter. : &quot. p. 2 is Buddha the way dialogue contains one of the most de servedly famous of Buddhist stories that which narrates how a certain monk by the exercise of This miraculous powers ascended to the various heavens ruled over by the gods of the Hindu pantheon. i. He would not let according to them. eays the Rev. But to any high religious experience they are most often a hindrance and a distraction. C. Miracles. p. Thompson. Headlam s observation that Jesus of Nazareth disappointed He would not work any conspicuous miraculous some people because There was no thaumaturgic display such as the Messiah. 49 (Longmans. attitude which some Christian theologians are beginning up with regard to the &quot. in 1 the hope of obtaining from those mighty Dialogues of the Buddha..miraculous&quot. the Buddha is represented as not taking the trouble to He doubt or dispute the fact of the existence of [miraculous] powers. 75. might be expected to make. of course. J. cit. In this connection it is of great interest to note op. Green & Co. p. 276. being that He had a far higher and more spiritual aim than anything that they understood Miracles: Papers and Sermons. with which the people regarded him. them make Him king the reason. There is no evidence of a similarly reasonable view of this question of wonders having been put . pt. sign. 1911). 272. miracles do not happen. the Rev. the self-discipline that ends in the extirpation of the roots of all sorrow. Rhys Davids.are a useful means of rousing and reviving popular religion of a lower type. A.&quot. 1 the Master refuses to perform common . &quot. M.&quot. the new to take to reconstitute its world with greater sincerity both towards history and towards religion. forward by any Indian teacher before the Buddha. .

58. . CHIHLI. [Facing p.PAGODA AT HSI-YU MONASTERY.

.

the Ancient of days. &quot. the Father of all that are and are to be. the the Controller. the Ruler. Brahma at last him aside and makes an admission which he was ashamed to make in the presence of the assembled deities. i. the great Brahma. however.&quot. He bids the monk go to Buddha. is unable to solve the problem. p. appointing to each his place. each group of deities referring more potent to the group that was They will know glorious than we. the Ancient of days.But there &quot.] BRAHMA an answer to a 59 beings profound metaphysical all problem. tries to evade the question. they Supreme One. he comes at last to the gods of the retinue of Brahma . the Controller. all. pt. When the monk takes insists upon a direct answer. confessed their ignorance. confessed their inability to solve monk and more it. even they. the Mighty One. &quot. Even he. the Creator.&quot. . the One after another. anxious to escape the humilia tion of confessing that there are mysteries beyond the reach of even so mighty and glorious a god as himself. the great Brahma. the great Brahma.the said. like all the lesser gods. arid once more states his problem 1 it. the is All-seeing One.&quot. it. After passing through all the heavens from the lowest to the highest. He is the Father of all that are and are to be ! more potent and more glorious than we. He will know Then the monk approaches the great but Brahma.iv. the Lord of Chief of all. . 281. Brahma. and chides him for having vainly sought an answer 1 Dialogues of the Buddha.

&quot. was immeasur ably superior. had an inevitable result which might easily have been foreseen. it is a characteristic feature of already implicit in the dogmatics of the primitive Buddhists. the mightiest of the known gods. though the Mahayana. did not deny the existence of the Hindu gods. and as debarred (so long as they remained gods) from the attainment of supreme wisdom and felicity. that the deification We of Buddha. The problem Buddha without may be termed and the obvious solution was superdivinity so to exalt the conception of godhead as to make it include the conception of Buddhahood. then. ask him the question. of the Mahayanists was to deify depriving Buddhahood of what its . return to the Exalted One. let us remember. as liable to rebirth in a lower sphere. Go you now. as unemancipated from change and illusion. the notion of the efficacy of faith a notion which was . But to withhold the title of god from a being wiser and greater than all the gods is to place an arbitrary limitation on the idea of god head therefore the elevation of Buddha to a loftier that is . and accept the answer according as he shall make reply. Similarly. MAHAY AN A [CH. To all such beings Buddha. may say. and indeed every arahant.60 IDEALS OF HINAYANA AND &quot. and to which the greatest of the gods cannot aspire. sphere than that assigned to Brahma. but they regarded The knowledge and power. Buddhists. for arahantship is a state which far as limited in them transcends in glory the highest of the heavens. from the mere gods.

2 S. at the moment of death. J See p. ? Yes.iv. 57. indeed. And thus do they also say By one case of destruction of life a man may be born in purgatory. that though a man should have lived a hundred years an evil life. Here. sects has become all- important s easily traced to Hmayanist origins. 123-4. But tell me. 666 &quot.] SALVATION BY FAITH certain 61 in Mahayanist is &quot. 1 &quot. 1 song of ecstasy. Very well but would not a hundred cart . they would float right enough. Perhaps one of the earliest passages in which this doctrine is suggested is to be found in the Milinda Dialogues. we have no hint of the later doctrine of salvation by faith alone. One of the questions which King Milinda puts follows &quot. That. Certainly not. Sariputta is simply a declaration of faith in one who is described as the greatest and wisest of teachers. good deeds are like the boat. This I don t believe.. he will be reborn among the gods. to the monk Nagasena is as : You people say.B. which are Hmayanist but extra-canonical that is to say.&quot. O king. xxxv. they were not put together until after the canon had been closed. &quot. Nagasena. too. loads of stones float on the water if they were loaded in a boat &quot. thoughts of the Buddha should enter his mind. . would even a tiny stone float on the water without a boat ? : &quot. Well. already referred to. I cannot believe.E. yet if.

It indicates that when the book was written the ordinary lay Buddhist looked forward to a re-birth one of the age-long but not eternal heavens rather than to the more exalted state of Nirvana. be annulled.purgatory&quot. that the king was not prepared to swallow certain tenets of popular Buddhism without a grimace : indeed he. he disbelieves. There is. it is Chinese term ti-yii is more appropriately rendered by the word As Asoka s Rock Edict. Like Buddha himself. it can be lived over past live The effects of the in the present. there is no way of escape from the law that as a man sows. Man is master of his fate. will be also the moulded by the Rupnath Edict. indeed. 2 The passage just quoted shows us. was a Mahayanist invention or innovation.&quot. reason to believe that even in Asoka s time this was in full accordance with the unwritten Buddhism of the lay masses as distinct from the canonical Buddhism of the cloistered 1 philosophers. in &quot. Of.. 1 and the future vi. 2 not taught by Buddhism in any of The inaccurate to speak of Buddhist hells. shows himself more in sympathy with actually more orthodox the philosophical Buddhism of the canon his than monkish preceptor. any more than again. however. its forms. but the past cannot bed repentance. purgatory.&quot. . &quot. so shall he reap. Neither &quot. in the efficacy of death According to strict Buddhist teaching. This little fragment throws an interesting light on certain popular Buddhist beliefs of the time. the unconverted layman. &quot.62 IDEALS OF HINAYANA AND MAHAY ANA [CH. eternal punishment and is &quot. for example.heaven&quot. or &quot.

2 It is hardly necessary to say that strict Buddhism would regard as gravely erroneous and immoral all such doctrines as that which condemns the unbaptized infant to an eternal (i limbo and to ex clusion from participation in the beatific vision. 11)09. If Buddha himself he would had been asked to deal with have solved the 1 this point. can : accelerate the attainment of a state of blessedness nor can their absence retard passage quoted it is clear a falling away from the uncompromising sternness But from the that there was already it. tee Father Wolferstan. wiped out. posed at a time of doctrinal confusion indicated is plainly by the incomplete and evasive manner in which the monk Nagasena attempts to deal with the ethical problem raised by the king a problem. strict literalness &quot. Every smallest stroke of vice and .iv. . 405-6. difficulty by simply denying the &quot.unearned&quot. be it noted.&quot. No supernatural magical grace.] BUDDHIST ETHICS 63 &quot. pp. no priestly absolution. its never so little sear. . Thus spoke William James. which in one form or another has perplexed the minds of many to whom Buddhism What the king found it difficult was that a man who has lived a life of consistent sinfulness could win salvation merely by fixing his thoughts on Buddha during the last is a sealed book. 2 of primitive Buddhist ethics. and that the doctrine of salvation by faith alone had already become That the Milinda Dialogues were com popular. 1 thoughts and acts of to-day. We virtue leaves are spinning our fates. Catholic Church in China. no or sacramental rites ceremonies. echoing the teachings of Buddha. For the teaching of Catholic missionaries in China 011 this point. to believe moments of his ill-spent life. Nothing we ever do is in .

64 IDEALS OF HINAYANA AND MAHAYANA [CH. is not saved that is to say. the inexorable law of retribution will not cease to work at the mere bidding of a tardy repentance. The first part of the Chinese version of the above -quoted dialogue agrees with the Pali that is to say. If the sinner has in very truth undergone a fundamental change of character. In some such way as this. have dealt with the problem of King Milinda. he would have said. Such a man. if his repentance is not due merely to fear or to a temporary quiescence of evil im owing to physical weakness or pain. efficacy of faith. that is in question. truth of the alleged fact. Instead of expounding the orthodox he merely draws a rather inconsequential analogy between good deeds and a boat ignoring the fact that it is the alleged doctrine of &quot. however. however sincere. Buddha would pulses . The monk Nagasena. we may assume.&quot.karma. Now if we turn to the Chinese version of the Milinda Dialogues a version which was not made till the fourth or perhaps the fifth century of our era we find a much bolder and more explicit statement of the doctrine of the efficacy of faith than we have found in the Pali original. then in his next life he will assuredly find himself in a less miserable and ignoble state than if no such fundamental change of character had taken place but no death-bed repentance. can save him from the necessity of expiating the wrong doing or wrong-thinking of the past. not the efficacy of good deeds. the . evades the real point at issue.

and will bear the weight of many large stones. he will not enter purgatory. 50. when is he dies must descend to purgatory. ship strong.. &quot. Introduction).J NAGASENA who 65 king expresses his disbelief in the doctrine that the life-long sinner turns religious on his death bed will for that reason be transported to heaven. and Na-hsien (Nagasena) in is his reply makes use on to of the illustration of the stones and the ship. E .&quot. It certainly differed from the Pali text now known 4 (see S. He may have a wicked nature. see Har.). 1358).B.E. The dialogue quoted will be found (B. course impossible to say from what text of Milinda the Chinese translator worked. So with a man and his sins. though certainly inconsistent with the teachings of the historical Buddha.iv.N. xxxvi.&quot. When taken it from remembered that this passage is a work which belongs to the Hinayanist section of Buddhist literature. but will be re-born in heaven. But the man who has done evil and is ignorant of 1 the word of Buddha 2 he 3 is like the small stone that sank. Salvation by faith is the distinguishing feature of what 1 we may call the Amidist theology (see below. For the two incomplete Chinese versions of Milinda. 43 ff. he goes say. pp. pp. It is of .The &quot. viii. on p. We are forced 3 to a similar conclusion even in vol. it will be realized that the doctrine of faith. xxiv. as 4 is not one which can of be the regarded the exclusive property Mahayana. 92 ff. but if only he will once direct his thoughts earnestly towards Buddha.

ignorance. &quot. this clear pool beyond the this jungle.&quot. sensuality.66 IDEALS OF HINAYANA AND of MAHAYANA of all [CH. akyamuni taught that the man should aim is arahantship. this &quot. passionlessness. desires. respect the most characteristic the the important doctrines Mahayanist teachings relating to the saving or redeeming power of the But it is in the peculiar emphasis bodhisats. of doubt. harmony. and is saved for all eternity. which each is An arahant one who has travelled along the Eightfold Path that leads to peace.island amid the raging waters. enlightenment. He has reached the &quot. blissful state of Nirvana. egotistic hopes and arahant sums self-righteousness. (to use a common Buddhist expression). Having once attained this mountain-summit. . other shore &quot. hatred. up in himself all the qualities The and characteristics of the ineffable state of sambodhi the perfection of tranquil joy.&quot. This state of salvation. insight. this &quot. pride. according to Sakyamuni. and has emancipated himself from the delusion. given to the theory of the bodhisats that we must recognize the most pronounced contrast between the doctrinal systems . bonds &quot. home of tranquillity. of the smaller and the greater Vehicles and some insight into the rival conceptions of arahantship and bodhisatship is essential to a clear understanding of the relative positions of the two great branches of Buddhist ideal at thought. the arahant will never again be subject to the pains and sorrows of phenomenal existence. and wisdom.

In spoken English the letters p and t before a vowel are usually pronounced is may with a slight aspirate the sound of the two Chinese characters p u-xa therefore be appropriately rendered in English by the word pusa. Look not for refuge to any one besides yourselves.E. and usually appears in the abbreviated form p u-t o. This clumsy term is almost always written by Chinese authors in the abbreviated form p u-sa. to no external Betake yourselves. under whose guidance men were to tread the Path. Hold fast to the truth as a lamp. 38. 1 Mahayana Buddhism. which is represented in Chinese by characters ( bearing the Pekingese sounds p u-t o-lo-chia (7ca). 2 The word bodhisat (bodhlmttva essence of perfect enlightenment) &quot. The first syllable of this word should be pronounced (approximately) as an syllable of the Englishman would pronounce poo. to rely on himself for his has in his own nature inherent is Pelagius was unconsciously repeating the wise counsel given long before by the Buddha when he said. is rendered in this book by the word Puto. Hence in these pages this word will be used to represent the Chinese transcription of the Sanskrit word bodhisattva.&quot. xi. as much more worthy of reverence. &quot.. corpus non frangendum sed regendum est&quot. Similarly. in the case of the sacred hill or island which forms the subject of chapters xi.. himself was merely the Master of Wisdom. S. Apart from the two words Pusa and Puto. the ideal of bodhisatship. dis credits or dethrones the ideal of arahantship. Hold refuge. he said. represented in Chinese by four characters (see Index 8). and that he Moreover like Pelagius.B. nearly all Chinese terms and names employed in this volume are transcribed in strict accordance with the system known as Wade s. 2 The bodhisat is one who contains within himself the essence. the name Potala or Potalaka. which in modern Pekingese are read p u-t i-sa-t o. from his teaching that man own spiritual development.-xiii. years after him the Buddha was not in favour of an extreme asceticism.&quot. fast as a refuge to the truth.iv.] BODHISATSHIP 67 each man must Buddha &quot. . as in the case of the first word pusa. Buddha would have found himself in much closer sympathy than with the orthodox with Pelagius and Ctelestius clear Augustine. and sets up. or rather the 1 respects the as is In some important Mahfi-parinibbana-suttanta. a thousand capacity for moral progress. reach through his own efforts. . on the other hand.

&quot. has registered a solemn vow (pranidhana) that he He will become a Buddha . through count if thereby he may save less successive re-births I wish. for he abstains from salvation but his participation in eternal blessedness so long as there remains in the universe a single being who The arahant. saves no one but him like one who has been confined with dungeon. for the sake of the world s approach to Buddhahood may be described as asymptotic. The bodhisat be said to possess in a supreme degree both the xP r (TT T)i$ an d the ayaOao-vvJi of the New Testament selfless benevolence as well as may ) active goodness.HAYANA [CH. on the in darkness and captivity. and who.&quot. hastens to set himself at liberty. is still enmeshed in pain or misery. drink for the thirsty. while callously leaving his fellow-prisoners The bodhisat.68 IDEALS OF HINAYANA AND MA. ness. the embodiment of supreme unselfish Freedom and Nirvana are within his reach. complains the self.&quot. He is Mahay anist. of succour . &quot. He would . of perfect knowledge. he says.to for the hungry. He self to the service of all beings has solemnly dedicated him who stand in need and his infinite charity and compassion are such that he will suffer the most atrocious torments for aeons of time that is. is but he will not avail himself of the fruits of his virtue and wisdom until all beings that exist in all the worlds have passed before him through the gateway that leads to liberty and utter bliss. having found a others secret in a of escape. be food souls from pain. is one who potentiality. way contrary.

While he was waiting at the entrance he saw a tame goose enter the house and swallow a sole beautiful jewel. condemned to hell. servitor. if soul. He utterly resigns all thoughts of pleasures. the house of a certain man. he says. Barnett Wisdom of the East series). &quot. only I may save this sinner or assuage the misery of that suffering &quot. that all creatures may win to their end.a the sorrows of creatures. &quot. (The Path of Light. with begging-bowl in hand. he fell upon room he noticed him with blows and 1 curses.&quot.&quot. 69 all fain a soother of all &quot. tells One us of a to monk who came. My own being and and take upon himself the inevitable consequences of sin. if by so sin.iv. and promptly assumed that the monk was the thief. 1 He would even commit doing he could alleviate the present or future It matters little if I am sufferings of another. D. Of this incident the monk was the When the lord of house entered the that the jewel had vanished. and future. I surrender indifferently. by L. until sickness come never self.&quot.&quot. The monk endured The Bodhicharydvatara of Santi-Deva.] SELFLESSNESS become &quot. their healer again. He and would be balm to the sick. Mahayanist stories literature contains many fanciful saints analogous to the legends of the Christian which are intended to illustrate the selfactivity sacrificing of those who have taken of these legends rich the vows of a bodhisat.&quot. all my my righteous ness in the past. Greatly enraged. present. 45 : . p. witness. trans.

It is noteworthy that another version of the story is to be found in Arabic literature of the eighth century of our era. They are fables. which occurs in a commentary on the Fo-i-chiao-ching. endanger the life of the ostrich they preferred to its place (E. ii.. . would be dead It I is killed. &quot. am replied the 1 free to speak. who own at first sight. and had they informed their accusers of this fact they would have escaped a flogging that nearly but rather than make a statement which would cost them their lives &quot. 1 who apparently has no higher I am unable to assign a date to the first appearance of this Chinese story. with utter disregard of his interests. &quot. gems had been swallowed by an ostrich. monk.&quot. Beat me no more I &quot.R. told for purposes of edification. his castigation with patience and in when &quot. 189). suffer innocently in . There we read of were unjustly accused of having two Mohammedan sceptics&quot.70 IDEALS OF HINAYANA AND MAHAYANA silence. ! saw the goose swallow the jewel. &quot.&quot. The good Catholic is not expected to regulate accordance with the ascetic prac nor is the good tices of an Antony or a Suso his daily life in . &quot. &quot. to be a loftier ideal than that of the Hinayanist arahant.E. Now it is hardly necessary to say that such stories as these are not supposed to be taken too literally. Buddhist expected to conduct himself as though the interests of mankind were subordinate to those of dumb animals. Why did asked the you not tell me that at once ? I was afraid that the goose astonished master. suddenly a servant appeared and reported the sudden and unexpected death of the goose.&quot. ideal The Mahayanist of the bodhisat devotes himself. said the monk. who It was known to the supposed culprits that the stolen certain gems. [CH. to the service of others certainly seems.

.

.

and if the text as thus rendered were in accordance with the ethics of Way : some of the I Buddhism. this were the correct interpretation of the original Pali. In a of the of Virtue. worthiness of a kind Dhammapada (The Buddha s &quot. is represented as having been a bodhisat up to the moment when. verse 166 appears on p. he became the himself is &quot. we shall be obliged to admit the justice of the claim of the Mahayanists that their system is the nobler of the two. Mahayanists would be fully justified. bodhisat to the Great Vehicle. second place. who 1 possesses worthiness recent translation &quot. 1912) the following version of ch. ship recognized as the state which immediately Gotama precedes the attainment of Buddhahood..E. When he has realized what is for his own good. x. Wisdom of the East series. no adherent of canonical Buddhism would admit that an arahant is entirely occupied with his interests own salvation and love is careless of the of his fellow-men. Max Miiller (S. 45 Even for great benefit to another let no man imperil his own henefit. But the matter the first not to be disposed of so easily.iv. In the tree.B.&quot. In place. On the contrary.&quot. But strongly suspect that the translators have misapprehended the true strictures of the meaning of this passage.] ARAHANTSHIP in 71 . aim view than his own salvation and if this conception of the relative ethical positions of the two systems is the true one. the ideal of universal inculcated in the and benevolence is canonical books in many beautiful and striking passages which unquestion ably enshrine the authentic message of primitive Buddhism. we must take note of the fact is that the theory of bodhisatship is not peculiar In the Hmayana. under the sacred BoAwakened One. 46) observes . xii. 1 the state of one Arahantship is &quot. let him pursue that If earnestly.

cit.&quot. Elsewhere we read that &quot. The Buddhist goes further to give one is not only to forgive. bound to seek the good of others. . v.E. p. advantage. but none of the Chinese passages in any of the Chinese versions which may be said to correspond to it can be made to bear the meaning ascribed to it in The Buddha s Path of Virtue. . &quot.all the means that can be used as bases for doing right are not worth one sixteenth part of heart through love. attano ca parassa ca. says a French all. 1365. xxiv. l outshining them in radiance all and Of that attha f the passages in which Buddha is represented as having taught the duty of charity. 1321. however great let a man. the Buddhist seeks his own good.N. itself. duty one forget his own duty for the sake of another s. the emancipation of the That takes all those up into in glory.&quot.as therefore translates ( let no . p.object&quot.72 IDEALS OF HINAYANA AND cannot MAHAYANA any form [CH. also E.Even as a creatures. (lit. is to forgive all.&quot. &quot. 229. 1353. . after he has discerned his own duty. According to the true canonical doctrine. and let us set ourselves utterly free from all ill-will and enmity. epigram.) 1 The Iti-vuttaka. vols. mother watcheth over her only the Sutta-Nipdtd &quot. 1439]). The Buddha who Cf. 243: op. 121. insight into other s need. says and minds be filled with boundless love for all &quot. 234. 19.&quot.) must here be taken &quot. and vi.&quot. [B. to understand s self through . quoted by Mrs Rhys Davids. The translation is by Mrs Rhys Davids. devotes his life to helping mankind was termed. v..R. be always attentive to his It may be observed that all the various Chinese versions of the duty. but is also : rather than as He in a moral sense. Dhammapada seem to have been made from texts which are not now in The passage now under discussion is not exactly paralleled existence. that be reconciled with of selfishness. also her remark on p. Buddhism. but to give Cf. great and small let us practise bene volence towards the whole world. see Har. not Saviour.. but Omniscient (sabbafmu) Buddha. To understand all. (For the Chinese books which correspond to the Dhammapada.so let our hearts child. ( Ubkinnam attham carati .

that the candidate for arahantship strove for the full realization of what we must call his transcendental self.. Bouddhisme. 104. 7.] ALTRUISM AND EGOISM that in 73 perhaps the most interesting to Western readers is which to he chides sick. indeed. Arahantship. of In what aims at intelligible sense temporal can a of system which the elimination as egoistic? the It is phenomenal ego be described true. while to with the principle that each to impoverish. it is possible to bring about a reconciliation between altruism and egoism is a neglect them Whether is de la V. .&quot. p. vraiment remarquables : l If there be one of you who would wish to cherish me. and. 2 1 Of. let him go and cherish his sick comrade. p. L. it necessarily involves self-sacrifice.iv. the Mahayanist failed to realize that a selfish being could not become an arahant. but self-realization in the highest sense is far removed from selfishness. Matthew xxv. The arahant could not have reached development if full spiritual he had failed to act in accordance man forms part of a whole of which all his fellow-men are also spiritual parts. Poussin. 1909. his own higher self. indeed. 2 In finding fault with the Hmayanist ideal. and Al Ghazzali (T-$e Alchemy of Happiness : Wisdom of the East series). as we have seen. and that to serve them is to enrich. 40. consisted in a spiritual exaltation which transcended the limitations individuality. his disciples for his neglecting tend the He French closes remarks with words scholar describes as which a Catholic &quot.

&quot. 1901. there are thinkers who argue eloquently in favour of the opposite and far more cheering view that adjusted. On is no self-expenditure without self-enrich no self-enrichment without self.&quot. Very similar was the belief of some of the old Roman philosophers. Problem of Conduct. 183. higher category can be discovered. 105.culture which &quot. Inge. we are reminded by a recent authority. p. it is that of one of the most brilliant writers and thinkers in the Church of England to-day.expenditure. we are &quot.74 IDEALS OF HINAYANA AND MAHAYANA [CH. is the view of twentieth- century Christianity at any rate. R. p.the philosophers. conceived an ideal of self-realization or self. . This. Taylor. are &quot. and unrealizable except as two aspects of the same &quot. 1907. The Stoics. ment. We are assured by some that the altruistic and egoistic tendencies human nature from the common ethical divergent developments psychological root of primitive that both are unavoidable. and that they are ultimately irreconcilable. Personal Idealism and Mysticism. are inseparable. so far from being hopelessly contradictory. Dr W. E. The ideals of self-culture and self-sacrifice. we may assume. question crux of of all ethical speculation. just because the self which the Stoic 1 2 A. sentiment. whereby l their rival claims may be finally the other hand. there process.&quot.&quot. No told. which is still debated by Western Herbert Spencer called it &quot. was not and could not possibly be purely selfish or self-regarding.

Extreme as the selfishness of many may still be. entertain (p. 133). and the following remarks by James Ward in his Realm of Ends (1911) 2 1 James Adam. 141. The virtuous man was no but at bodhisatship longer to aim at arahantship. altruism. Schopenhauer. and Sir Leslie Stephen (Science of Ethics} on this subject. The It is are significant: &quot. .iv. 1911. they morally contemptible. That self-advancement and social service. This progress may seem small. he was to purge himself from the slightest taint of selflove or self-regarding interest.] SELF-RENUNCIATION 75 endeavours to realize is essentially the universal. Herbert Spencer. and not what we should call the individual self at 1 all. is the view which This being so. seems destined to 2 ness and of the ideal of arahantship did not content themselves with giving it a new selfishness and higher interpretation in the light of what they believed to be their own loftier conception of ethical values. and rare as is any whole-hearted enthusiasm for humanity. or if we prefer the extreme terms egoism and are not eternally opposed to one another. partly because to us the time it has taken looks immense.&quot. to devote himself. p. hardly necessary to refer to the familiar speculations of such writers as Comte. it is perhaps regrettable that those Buddhists who were dissatisfied with what they took to be the narrow prevail. Vitality of Platonism. A more recent work by Delvolve (Rationalisme et Tradition) contains some brilliant suggestions . that is to say. and partly because it still falls indefinitely short of the ideal that we &quot. yet the progress already made is amply sufficient to show that the direction in which it has moved and is conciliation of self-interest still moving points towards the ultimate and the common good. and replaced by a new ideal of utter self-renunciation. but are ultimately reconcilable. set it aside as it Instead of doing this.

&quot. were nevertheless believed to be within the scope of every man Buddhist. from the world of mankind.&quot. was and it it produced momentous changes religious in the moral and outlook the zealous would-be arahant. being capable of purely altruistic actions alone. on the contrary. activities of the The of properly disciplined will.). but practical disadvantages of . hopes. &quot. that is to say. The new not without necessarily ideal its was a sublime one. true that in the early days of the Mahayana title of bodhisat was bestowed upon many A is the saints of the Church who were known to have as lived beings. tended to draw ever farther and farther away &quot. arahantship.76 IDEALS OF HlNAYANA AND MAHAYANA [CH. to sacrifice on behalf of others all personal ambitions. without the faintest thought of reward. But the speculative fancy of the Mahayanist creed-makers . exceptional of learning and sanctity and only respect the present time the vows of a bodhisat even at in . and therefore had an abiding ethical significance for ordinary humanity. and desires. on earth human are taken every year by scores of newly-ordained monks.great their disciples and bodhisat&quot. as Nietzsche is more fabulous than the Phoenix. and to extend boundless sympathy and measure less love to all suffering beings. was rooted in normal human nature. who thereafter (at least in China) are by respectfully addressed novices as ta-pusa (&quot. however arduous they might be. The bodhisat. to the service of all creatures. It said.

2 1 2 The Chinese pusa maha-sa. the bodhisattvas mahasattva.R. A of L. who. The Dharmakaya is literally c Body of the Law. 835 /. 943 ff.R.A. the Trikaya or Three-fold Body The reader is referred to to Vallee Poussin s contributions Hastings E.E. In connection with the Nirmanakaya. Bouddhiwne. pp. full discussion of the doctrine of Buddha cannot be attempted de la here. as distinct from the supramundane Body of Bliss.&quot. exalted far above be humanity. having employed themselves for immeasurable ages in the merciful work of bringing suffering souls to salvation. especially in the teachings of the heterodox or semi . and it to his article in J. These ordinary great bodhisats. ..] THE CELESTIAL BODHISATS 77 very soon created a broad line of demarcation between those humble persons who were merely stumbling along the stony paths of the preliminary stages of majestic bodhisatship. and were in direct communion with the supreme Buddhas.E. in . de la Vallee Poussiu. and those serene and 1 beings.. of the regarded as nature of the the view of the all Mahayanists.Mahay aiiist Mahusanghika school (see Anesaki s article on &quot. p. and L. iv.Docetism&quot. in which the Buddhas appear to the eyes of men.8. and also to Suzuki s Outlines of Mahdydna Buddhism.iv. 259).. (Buddhist) in E. in which the Sambhogakiiya Buddhas appear to the eyes of the saints. in number.R. gradually came partakers to Buddhas some of super celestial themselves indeed. incalculable were now rare invisible to mankind (except on the incarnated themselves personal occasions when they in human form). may be noted that docetic tendencies made their appearance in Buddhist speculation at an early date. 1906. mystical schools of the later the Buddhas and all the bodhi sattvas find ultimate unification in the Dharmakaya or Absolute One. and Nirmanakaya the Illusory Body.

are The accumulated supposed to be so merits of the bodhisats superabundant that each bodhisat is able to transfer immeasurable quantities of surplus merit to the account of sinful men. whose salvation is thus due not to any works or merit of their own. dela V. bodhisats celestial gradually glory. and perhaps earlier. Mahay anist According to the tenets of schools which to-day enjoy greater prosperity and influence than any others 2 in China and Japan.. 1)2 j}\ ..bearing the same relation to the Buddhas as Sakyamuni bore to the arahants&quot. Poussin. E. characteristics of the great disappeared in a blaze of From emerged the humanity divinity. 56. i.E. pp. and 1 the equals.R. to be regarded as divine beings to be worshipped. rather than as supermen Later dogmatic to be respected and imitated. 65 . pp. they twilight of mere into the radiance of From being heroes among men they practically became the divine companions. 2 See above. 60^ . (L. 96).78 IDEALS OF HINAYANA AND Thus the human MAHAYANA [CH. of the deified Buddhas. but solely to the merit transferred to them 1 In Nepalese Buddhism there is a tendency for the bodhisats to be elevated to a position even more exalted than that of the divine Buddhas &quot. the bodhisats had come developments were associated with the idea of salvation certain by faith. and below. the Buddhist who wishes to qualify for salvation need do no more than cultivate in himself an attitude of unquestioning faith in a divine saviour his a celestial bodhisat it who will receive soul and conduct to a blissful home in Paradise. Already in the first century of our era.

.

.

an obvious tendency for morality to be to faith . rationalistic in its ethic. and less catholic in its sympathies interests than the older system. heing superfluous in their own offering of the satisfaction due to divine have remained in the spiritual arid common treasury of the &quot. doctrine. and effective as a practical would be unjust to ignore the great of many of the religious imaginings of beauty the Mahayanists and the splendour of many of it Yet their conceptions. of which more remains there is to be said in succeeding chapters. which nullifies This theory of diverted merit.whose merits. but includes also primarily of the the superfluous merit and satisfaction of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints&quot. of Christ. the old law of retribution and Buddha s own teaching that each man must work out his own salvation. Church p. more accom More modating to the weaknesses of human nature. if it as the term is religion is commonly understood apt to become less guide of life. it It was not confirmed by the Pope (Clement VI.) till 1350. (Philip Hold s Catholic Doctrine and Discipline (London. merit and satisfaction of Christ. .&quot. &quot. and the Saints. &quot. subordinated becomes more of a Buddhism.iv. indulgences/ says a Catholic writer. 1 In such forms of Buddhism as these. the Mahayana 1 The doctrine is practically identical with the Roman Catholic The &quot.outflows from the infinite merits&quot. appeared more than a century earlier in the Summa.) represents a comparatively late development of Catholic &quot. &quot.virtue of teaching concerning the theory of indulgences. an Englishman. 1896) This theory of the Treasure of the Church (which consists &quot. the Virgin.] THE TWO VEHICLES 79 by the bodhisat who has endowed them with his saving grace. is directly contradicts one of the few Mahayanist doctrines which are not traceable to any source in primitive Buddhism. &quot. the Irrefragable Alexander Halensis. 257). justice. Theologiae Doctor. though of &quot.

80 IDEALS OF HINAYANA AND MAHAYANA its [CH. to suffer from undue com pression or distortion in times of moral stagnation Like all other systems of self-culture or decay. of arahantship. though trodden by the most magnanimous of was nevertheless one which could be usurped by ignoble adventurers and made to subserve the unholy purposes of a mean-spirited selfishness. the Mahay anists were hardly But it must be admitted that the ethical fair. might seem to sanction the exaltation of an ideal of glorified selfishness the other set up an ideal of altruism which could . they later . if instead of unjustly arahantship as essentially selfish. the way worthy of being saints. never be realized under earthly conditions. under unfavourable conditions. content of the ideal of arahantship was peculiarly liable. Perhaps both Hinayana and Mahayana were perilously liable to be exploited by extremists the one system. undoubtedly owed much of that it success to the fact could make a strong appeal to the religious In charging the arahant with being over-mindful of his own development and salvation emotions. and well self-discipline. it can hardly be denied that the Mahayanists would have deserved greater honour than they have received moralists at the hands of the of denouncing had resolutely set themselves to solve one of the most important and perplexing of all moral problems by showing us how the two ideals of ages. from its nature. and with ignoring the moral and spiritual condition of his fellow-men. On the whole.

after are essentially the same may we all. the distinction which Buddhism draws between the false personality and the true between the impermanent ego and the transcendental self- not say. ? that the two ideals .iv. and self-sacrifice might be reconciled It is not difficult to see the and made one. lines on which such a reconciliation might take The arahant is one who has aimed at place. immeasurable but if we are careful to remember . whereas in considerations of self are utterly bodhisatship The difference seems quenched and destroyed. and has attained all self - realization.] SELF-CULTURE AND SELF-SACRIFICE in 81 arahantship and bodhisatship self-culture other words.

The lines of sectarian demarcation are now is almost obliterated has so extended would be truer to say that the great Dhyana (Chinese Ch an) school or perhaps it its boundaries that in Buddhist China there (or at least in is Chinese monastic Buddhism) comparatively little territory left for it to It should be observed. The Ch an doctrines are supposed to be trace1 Seep?. must content ourselves a task with the little more than some general knowledge of Buddhism that enters into the lives of the religious laity at the present time and the Buddhism that professed in the great mountain-monasteries. 92 /. as mere pilgrims in the religious historian.CHAPTER V BUDDHIST SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA To soil follow the varied fortunes of the numerous sects that Mahayanist is have flourished on Chinese which we may well leave to the We. 1 that victoriously encroached upon the territories of its rivals. that conquer. however. 82 . but rather the Ch an in alliance with the Amidist schools. in some respects the victory of the Ch an school It was not has been more apparent than real. the Ch an alone. Buddhist China of to-day.

is still the beautiful habitation of a its group of Buddhist monks. and seems His Chinese to have died about nine years later.CH. .mind.&quot.&quot. 83 able to and to have been handed 1 down through twenty-eight patriarchs.] BODHIDHARMA Buddha himself. but once splendid One buildings are now to a great extent ruinous. E. was founded in the last quarter of the fifth century of our era. this searcher of hearts scorner of books.heart. Look for own it heart : where you will find The Chinese word should be noted. and we often come across religious or philosophical passages in which the word might more appropriately. images or is books.&quot. of the school of Buddhism. though even then inadequately. has a very complex significance. Nagarjuna the fourteenth. founder. (P u-t i-ta-mo in Chinese. The last-named usually shortened to Tamo] arrived in China in the year 520. Cf. : 1 See above.&quot. of its greatest treasures is the stone in front of which tion. 85. Mysticism. in China. p. which in the province of Honan. This monastery. pp. and Bodhidharma the twenty-eighth. was the teaching of the venerable that Tamo. &quot. 29-32. near Loyang. &quot. v. situated at the base of the Shao-shih mountain. home was the famous monastery of Shao-lin. Underbill. Tamo It is is said to have sat in silent medita and Indian sage. in Ch an or Contemplative You will not find Buddha into your Buddha. be rendered by The Chinese term is hsin. and this may &quot. who is regarded as the this &quot. of whom Asvaghosha (as we saw in an earlier chapter ) was the twelfth.

the Buddhist counterpart of the Spiritual Exercises l but there are other of St Ignatius Loyola &quot. favour of &quot. Hand me my less readily No kindred stone&quot. be regarded as the key-word of the Ch an Buddhism which has for many centuries dominated Chinese religious great &quot. if he might be allowed to possess a psalter knows. heart or in St Augustine. in words which 1 Lloyd. Tamo s system has been described as &quot. Wheat among the Tares. the seals of the heart. Tamo would have heartily approved of that reply which St Francis of Assisi is said to have given to a monk who asked &quot. p.&quot. &quot. or to receive. Just as a civil magistrate when vacating his post hands over the tangible and material seals of office to the official who is to succeed him. would Tamo have welcomed a spirit in St Paul. so the Ch an abbot when about to die transmits to his successor in religion &quot. . 53. Christian saints and mystics with whom he may be compared even more fittingly. and thou wilt If Man end by saying. who in . . to morrow thou wilt want a breviary.&quot. sitting in thy chair like any prelate and breviary. who. can learn nothing but what he already to-day thou gettest a psalter. meet with the curious expression shou hsin yin to transmit.84 SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA [CH. Ch In reading the lives of the an patriarchs and abbots we frequently thought.the tablets of rejected fleshy tablets of the &quot. the intangible and spiritual seals of the heart. This expression is used to denote what we might describe as the apostolical succession.

84. (The original figure from which this is reduced 4 //.) From a rubbing from a Ming Dynasty stone tablet (dated 1624) in the Shaolin is Monastery. Honan. .BODHIDHARMA. 5 in. in height. (TAMO.} {Facing 6.

.

Sink into thyself and thou wilt find Him. bade men look for truth in the depths of their : own being : In te ipsum redi in interiorc hominc habitat veritas. However this may be. search out the depths of thine own to 1 spirit. or it may be that the most successful both truthseeker combines methods methods which we Europeans may perhaps conveniently label as Platonic and Aristotelian.&quot. ascend to for Similarly spoke Hugo: &quot. with the spirit of mystical Sink into thyself and thou wilt Christianity. Find whom ? Christ. Find whom ? Buddha. of truth has been gained by looking outward at nature than by looking inward at one s own &quot. .&quot. .If thou wishest to search out the deep things of God. 222-3. Underbill. says Eckhart.] MYSTICISM IN EAST AND WEST 85 contain the essence of Tamo s own teaching.v. heart &quot. Cf. as well Allowing as it harmonizes 2 &quot. E. find Him. Mysticism. Sanday s much-criticized theory that Jesus s &quot. 97. this teaching harmonizes with the spirit that animates the contemplative school of Buddhism.The way God is to descend into oneself. says Bodhidharma. Tamo s teachings have been both good On the one hand they are partially responsible for the decay of learning in the Chinese 1 Gf.&quot.&quot. he achieved oneness with the 2 divine. 103. Perhaps his the is &quot. Dr W.sub liminal was the seat of his divinity or the medium through which self&quot. The same thought recurs in Richard of St Victor s utterance : &quot. theory of Tamo and school imagined. 56. pp. it must be admitted that in China the results of and bad. not quite so satisfactory as they It may be that a better knowledge heart &quot. &quot. differences in terminology.

and there is reason to suspect that some of the monks who believed themselves monasteries. and images and relics. Tamo s advice was taken too literally. .. There are monks in China to-day who would not be sorry to see the temples cleared of every image that they contain. and monkish energy con centrated itself on ecstatic meditation. E. p. and there are many others who would plead for the retention of the images only for the sake of those simpleminded and unenlightened souls who cling to the material symbolises is symbol because the truth that it beyond 1 their grasp. the influence of Tamo and his suc 1 cessors &quot. The great sutras of the Mahay ana are. Underbill. held in deep reverence by all Chinese Buddhists. Tamo was succeeded by Hui-k o cit. including the gorgeous chapels attached to the great Ch an monasteries but these things are not regarded . undoubtedly tended to save Chinese Buddhism from the evils of priestcraft and clericalism and from a slavish worship of images &quot. dogmas. and sacred books. indeed. The patriarch Of.86 SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA [CH. On the other hand. to have attained the exalted state of mystical union were apt to confuse that state with the less honour able condition of physical somnolence. 385. In many cases religious zeal died away for want of sub stantial nourishment. Books were neglected. are to be found in all Buddhist temples as ultimate objects of religious reverence except by those to whom spiritual religion is an unattain able experience. op.

The subdivision into sects which took place after the time of the sixth patriarch was not a consequence of any disruptive forces set in motion by Confucianism. . are concerned. Seng-ts an (d. and to the fact that after the death of Hui-neng the leading Ch an Buddhists separated into two branches the Northern and the Southern. The rivalry between the Wu Tsung the Five Sects that regarded Hui-neng and his predecessors as their common patriarchs was as a rule healthy and friendly. which had been transmitted from patriarch to patriarch.] BUDDHIST SUBDIVISIONS 593). this does not imply that there usually regarded as having Though come was any cataclysm in Buddhist fortunes in China at this time. but was due rather to the growth of what may be described as a sort of religious individualism within the pale of Buddhism itself. Tao-hsin (d. but the Chinese are an essentially tolerant people so far as religious beliefs.persecutions&quot. (d. 651). is said to have been buried with Hui-neng. would scarcely be regarded as deserving of so disreputable a name if they had taken place in Western Europe instead of Eastern Asia. Both before and after the eighth century of our era the Buddhists were. indeed. subjected to spasmodic and sometimes very severe persecutions at the hands of orthodox Confucianism. the patriarchate is to an end with the death of Hui-neng. 87 (d. 606). 1 Hung-jen and Hui-neng (d. the sixth Chinese patriarch.v. as such. 713). 675). and it was not till 1 The begging-bowl as token of investiture of Bodhidharma. and most of the &quot.

about 850) and finally by I-hsiian (d. The Ch an first and greatest of the Five Sects of the school was and is the Lin-chi I sung. It was from the name of . . 1 The writers of this school trace their descent from Hui-neng through Huai-jang. the Fa-yen. Ma. and as came to be regarded by his disciples He an incarnation of the great bodhisat Kuan-yin. monks and scng or seng-jen to Ts ao-tuug monks. Huai-jang is sometimes described as the Seventh Patriarch. s home (Lin-chi) that the sect derived the name by which it is known to Buddhist historians. 2 Of their patriarchs. 814) by Hsi-yim (d. 867). The Northern soon became extinct. the second is chiefly confined to books. 788) by Huaihai (d. ee and are ho-shang of these is the term generally used by laymen and in ordinary conversation . however. . who was one of the first of that large their company who made Sacred home of distinguished monks on the Nan Yo or Southern Mountain. it belongs to the Southern branch. 2 The ordinary Chinese terms for Nowadays the first Buddhist monk &quot. and was succeeded by the patriarch . comparatively recent times that a tendency towards reunion was brought about by the gradual decay of learning and of religious fervour in the monasteries. the Yun-men. commonly known as Tao-I (d. in the province of Hunan. full 1 Like the other four sects. and the TVao-tung all of which may be said to have come into I-hsiian T existence (as separate sects) in the tenth century of the Christian era. died in 744. ho-shang was applied to Lin-chi seny-jen. The remaining four sects w ere the Hui-yang.88 SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA [CH. At one time. when the principal Ch an sects were the Lin-chi and the Ts f ao-tung.

). &quot.). One of the most famous of the sect &quot.v. he had a tongue that (&quot. he had eyes like a tiger s. which occupy is of course laid by the monkish on the miracles and prodigies associated chroniclers with their heroes. When his parents insisted upon his marriage. . His secular name was Ma horse he walked like an ox. and personal peculiarities are Emphasis Of Hui-chi (Hui-yang sect) lovingly depicted. in whose reign he died (790). ancestors of the was Hsi-ch ien of the Rock. feet. we are told that from boyhood his heart had been set on a religious life. reached beyond the tip of his Buddhistic wheel (the &quot. Of Tao-I s personal appearance strange things are told. &quot.] FAMOUS RELIGIOUS LEADERS is 89 information given us in the various compilations in Buddhist China a place similar to that of the Ada Sanctorum in Christendom.) was nose. He got his own way after he had deliberately broken two of his own fingers in token of his sincerity. He received titles of honour not only from the Emperor Te Tsung of the T ang dynasty. he knelt before them and implored them to allow him to enter the monkhood. are all subdivisions of the Ch an or (&quot. who lived as a recluse on the Nan Yo. but again from the third emperor of Ts ao-tung the late Manchu the dynasty. him &quot. who in 1734 conferred upon posthumous honorific title of Chih-hai Ocean of Wisdom It should be remembered that the Wu Tsung.wheel imprinted by nature on the soles of his and a of the law&quot. or Five Sects.

B. Ch eng-kuan. Buddhism of the China of to-day but other schools have flourished in the past. named Tu-shun. as [CH. i. The school &quot.N. who made amid the beautiful scenery of the T ien- Ch i mountains in north-eastern Chehkiang. of the Northern but by his t ai far home dynasty. vol. Har. vii. the most famous was Chih-i. i. was a voluminous writer who received marks of distinction from seven emperors. dogmatic system on the well-known SaddharmaOne of its chief Fathers was the pundarika-sutra. 88 . vols. xxi. Its favourite sutra was the Hua-yen-ching a long work supposed to have been miraculously &quot. He spent most of his life on the mountain of originated imperial teacher a very distinguished Wu-t ai. Another school was the Hua-yen Hsien-shou2 chiao.. these schools One of the most famous of one which has had a great history is the T ien-t ai in Japan as well as in China which founds its (Japanese Tendai) school. see S.-ix. who was succeeded in turn by Ylin-hua and Hsien-shou. His suc cessor. seen.90 SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA The Ch an school. and died 1 in 838 at the age of one hundred. Yet another school of importance was the Nan2 For English translation. B. early in the T ang dynasty. &quot. 87. The last-named is re garded as the second founder of the school. is we have monastic almost coterminous with the . discovered by the patriarch Nagarjuna. Meditation school. 1 venerable Hui-wen. and some of them have not wholly ceased to exist even in this twentieth century.E. . Avatamsaka-sutra. with &quot.-iv.

. but it is 1 See chaps. The 1 rich monasteries of Puto-shan were among the many which exchanged at the a definite date in their history Lii teachings for the Ch an. most famous representative of the Chinese Mahayanist Lti school was a monk of the Chungnan mountain named Tao Hsiian. itself in In the eighth century the Lii school established Japan. under the name of the Ritsu-shu it took its place among the twelve Buddhist sects of that country. on the Western Lake. and Chao-ch ing. to The school seems have come under the suspicion of unduly emphasizing the letter and neglecting the spirit of Buddhism. Lu The Vinaya scriptures is that division of the Buddhist which treats of the moral codes of Buddhism and the disciplinary rules of the monk hood it should be noted. 91 shan Nan-shan is the Chung-nan mountain.-xiii. the Pao-hua mountain. faded away before the ris ing sun of the Ch an and Amidist schools. &quot. where. xi. that each of the great systems of Buddhism the Hinayana and . in both China and Japan. The strongholds of the school in later days were in the provinces of Kiangsu and Chehkiang. and word which stands for the Sanskrit Vinaya.v.] VINAYA SCHOOL Lii. who lived in the middle of the seventh century. Chief among them were the monasteries of Ku-lin (Nanking). the Mahay ana The has a Vinaya or Lii of its own. however.&quot. is the Chinese in the province of Shensi . It was only by slow degrees that its influence and prestige.

distinct &quot.&quot. right perhaps not far wrong in arguing that conduct may result only from a slavish obedience to a written code. and holds out the promise of a future salvation life of unalloyed happiness in the Pure Paradise.- in the mind. school. from the &quot.92 SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA the [CH. Land or in Western where Amitabha is reigns unending glory. not only because of great prominence in the occupies a position religious systems of both China and Japan. are taken from the . 2 m ^ *&amp.gt. &quot. and may have no root thinking &quot. arid the Ch an monks were &quot. this school from not to say antagonistic to quite separate the other great schools of Buddhist thought. doubtful whether It is true. however. right thinking meditation &quot.) through faith in the god Buddha Amitabha. almost necessarily There is one school which deserves special it attention. but also because it inculcates the form of Buddhism which appeals most strongly This is the Ching-t u to the Buddhist layman. l . Strictly speaking. 2 or Amidist school. that the Ltl school laid as stress on &quot. which emphasized &quot. whereas &quot. A Chinese writer justly observes that believers in the Pure Land (& in at The convenient terms Amidism and Amidist Japanese form (Amida) of the name Amitabha. Ch an or &quot.right the attainment of a correct mental attitude results in right action. charge was a just one.right conduct. which teaches Pure Land (&quot.

THE WHITE-DEER GROTTO. IMAGES OF MENCIUS AND TSENG-TZU AT THE WHITE-DEER GROTTO. KIANGSI. LU-SHAN. [Facing p. KIANGSI. . 92.

.

but that the Ch an doctrines are to the educated Buddhist what the Amidist doctrines are to the ignorant. . and is carved on the rocks and cliffs of a hundred . The layman s creed in China His as in other countries a nebulous one. is inscribed on the tablets and walls of countless temples. he is liable. Ch an tion monasteries of that is to say.v. is a highly-trained religious conceptions are often crude. to mistake is for truth. will declare that the Ch an and Ching-t u teachings are not really inconsistent with one another. irrational. But a matter of fact we is nowadays that nearly every Ch an monk more or less of an Amidist and most of the find . and superstitious objective that faith is fact. a large propor the great monasteries now existing in China are perfectly tolerant of the Pure Land Many enlightened Chinese Buddhists teachings. a and he apt to symbol assume sufficient guarantee of historic or Amidist. teachings have given rise to one phrase which may be said to sum up the hopes and beliefs of a very large part The Pure Land.] AMIDISM do not 93 to doctrines belong 1 either as the Ch an school or to the Lli. of Buddhist China a phrase which is constantly on the lips of monks and laymen alike. At the same time the fact must be admitted that the religion of the average Chinese layman has little in common with the religion of and perhaps mystically-minded Buddhist monk.

Poussin doubts whether the terms Dhyanibuddha and Dhyanibodhisattva are actually used in the Sanskrit texts. Buddhas. de la V. or 2 Chinese Chen-yen (Japanese Shin-gori). simply These words are nothing more than an invoca tion of the name of Amitabha. and whether the five Amitabha and the rest should not rather be described as the five Jinas (see E.&quot.94 SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA [CH. are represented as proceeding or emanating but from a supreme being named Adibuddha &quot. L. or Omito-Fo. .. i.E.R. Buddhas&quot. . we should be obliged to devote some attention to the complicated or Tibet Buddhologies mysterious associated not Adibuddha but Buddhas besides Amitabha whom Adibuddha &quot. seen. 1 &quot. with the only also with the four is supposed to have brought forth by meditation. This is Namo Omito-Fo. 94). the most revered caverned mountains. Meditation &quot. it will be earthly reflexes. called &quot. If it were our task to study the Buddhism of Nepal (Lamaism) or the doctrinal history of 2 the Tantric or Mantra sects. the only Buddha with whom we shall have much concern in the pages that follow is Amitabha. of the so-called Dhyani or &quot. 1 following table will show the relations between these Buddhas and their bodhisats and their so- The The Buddhas. &quot. &quot.

198. though Buddhist scholars in the East. which are often collectively described by Chinese Buddhists as the Ching-t u San Ching. the historical Sakyamuni is mystically associated with the Buddha Amitabha through l being his earthly embodiment. that the Amida world evening doctrines were actually delivered to the by of Sakyamuni his life. is admit that Amidism inculcates any doctrine that not at least implicit in the teachings of the Indian sage. xlix. They declare.E. in a great part of the Buddhist world. liang-shou-ching seems to have been made in the second Christian The popular Chinese version century. or rather reflex and worshippers of Amitabha will not readily . Buddha himself and that in the they contain the quintessence of Buddhist truth. but is lost (see B.B. 23 [5]). This view is still that of the Shinshu and Jodo sects of shared by the Amidists of China. English translations of the first and second from the Sanskrit and of the third from the Chinese may be found in S.] AMITABHA The Amidist branch of 95 the Mahayanist Buddhology has elevated Amitabha to a position which. the Omitoching.N.. vol. footnote. 2 . however. in 1 With regard These sutras to Buddhist docetism.N. Theoretically. indeed. 27. f is that of Seng K ai. are well aware of the fact that the sutras it is Japan.v. see above. &quot. 77. The Three Sutras of the Pure Land/ are known in Chinese as the Wu-liang-shou-ching. and which Amidism is enshrined especially the larger and smaller Sukhavati and the Amitayurwere not the product of early dhyana sutras 2 Buddhism.. whose labours are to be assigned to the middle of the third century. as in the West. p. is one of unchallenged supremacy. and the Kuan Wu-liang-shou-ching. 200). The first Chinese translation of the Wu(see B. The extant Chinese translations of the three sutras belong to the third and fifth centuries of our era.

68). Chinese yilan-tu (see above.vol. For an English translation of the Sanskrit. The vows of Fa-tsang are set out at full length in the Wu-liang-shou-clung} These vows.B. and to establish a heavenly of perfect blessedness in which all living all creatures might enjoy an age-long existence in a state of supreme happiness. and wisdom. He attained to bodhisatship under the guidance of the Buddha of that distant age Shih-tzu-tsai- or (in Sanskrit) Lokesvararaja and in the presence of that Buddha (who is as mythical as Fa-tsang himself) he made a series of great wang 1 prayer-vows or pranidhanas. see S. which in the Sanskrit original are forty-six in number and in the Chinese version forty-eight. and became an ascetic under the name of Fa-tsang or Fa-hsing a word which corresponds to the Sanskrit Dharmakara. pp.. pt. whereby he under took to become a Buddha for the sake of the salvation of kingdom beings. xlix.96 SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA [CH.E. Hsi-Vien Western * ii. he gave up his throne. sinlessness. 12-22. this region of ineffable blessedness and loveliness are 1 Ching-t u Pure Land. contain minute descriptions of the glories and wonders of the Paradise to which Fa-tsang undertook to welcome The ordinary Chinese names for all creatures. Filled Nature of True Religion or the Divine Essence. and signifies the are told that countless ages a rich and powerful monarch. . Of Amitabha we ago he was with religious zeal and with profound love and compassion for his fellow-men. p.

therefore. and which to the Sanskrit Sukhavati. See table. all the heavens are co-extensive. geographical terms should these Buddha . To the mind of him who has attained a high degree of spiritual enlightenment. Mystical Buddhism even goes so far as to say that the Buddhas and their heavens are countless in number. ultimate truth. understood to preside over one of of the universe regions example.v. for East as Amitabha rules in : Each of the Buddhas has these &quot. a &quot. 94. not be applied to. heaven &quot. are supposed to be situated at an incalculable distance from heavens &quot. the world of men. 2 It is or manifestations of the one the eighteenth of the forty-eight 1 &quot. Land corresponds of Supreme misconceptions. rules in the the West. 97 heaven. 1 of his own. 77. G . just as the Buddhas are external to or independent of both space and time.] BUDDHIST HEAVENS Chi-lo-shih-chieh. for they are outside space. and that each heaven is co.heavens. and all Akshobhya.extensive with the universe. not only with the universe. the Bliss. p. and all the Buddhas who these countless heavens are sambhogakdya. but with rule one in another. it should perhaps be explained that the supposed western position of Amitabha s heaven has no reference save possible To to mundane is Buddhas the Each of the Five geography. 2 See p. vows &quot. Strictly speaking.

If this be not so. let all living beings of the future Amitabha. even he who has committed the five great sins will at last be saved and reborn in the Pure Land. let be only ten times or less then. was more than fulfilled for . and especially for developments the doctrine that mere faith in Amitabha and of repetitions of his name are sufficient to ensure a rebirth in the Western Heaven. Buddha. and causing schisms in the Buddhist Church. 106). though he deserve to suifer torments through a myriad ages. however. may I never receive the perfect enlighten of ment of Buddhahood. The & The * **$ IE ft mRa m & IE a Mahayanists invented a somewhat different classification.&quot. though it and have not slandered or the desire vilified the true religion. if we may believe the assurances of the Omito-ching. that largely responsible for the popular Amidism.&quot. According to the Kuan Wu-liang-shou-ching. The position of the final clause in the Chinese text suggests that it was a late addition. such beings to be born in my Paradise will surely be fulfilled. 1 This vow. the ten regions of the universe maintain a con fident and joyful faith in me let them concentrate and their longings on a rebirth in my Paradise &quot. &quot.&quot. provided only that they have not been guilty of the five heinous sins. . however (see p. says Fa-tsang. the foregoing are included. shedding the blood of a Buddha . His lotus-flower. .98 SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA is [OH. there we are told that it is merit that the Paradise not through personal of Amitabha may be 5i ( Wu-niy or five heinous sins/ were originally these murder of a mother. of a father. will not open till after an enormous lapse of time twelve greater kalpas. of an arahant . in which. call them upon : my name. When I become .

AMITABHA BUDDHA. (For explanation of circles see pp. 109-110.) .

.

78. pp. see above. however. : .&quot. work. pp. may face death with perfect serenity for Amitabha. It is always easier &quot. to sing a psalm than to be cf. pp. We are not without a Christian or pseudoare reminded of the apocryphal Transitut . by the future Amitabha Buddha in the presence (a name which has the significant meaning of &quot. the theory at one time held in Christendom (see. and a mechanical dispensation from all sins of omission and commission is naturally attractive. 2 Cf. 72-3. . standpoint. . 1 The sutra itself informs us that the man who with steadfast faith for a period and quiet mind calls upon that name .] REBIRTH but through IN PARADISE in 99 attained trust that Buddha s abounding might and pity and through faithful The Chinese com repetitions of his holy name. but it is nevertheless a doctrine which is repug (t nant to the spirit of early Buddhism as preached by akyamuni. 60-65. of only a week. attended will assuredly before his dying eyes.&quot. Unfortunately. With regard to the origin of the Buddhist theory of salvation by faith.v. It is undoubtedly this doctrine which is answerable for the enormous popularity of Amidism in China and Japan . 1912.Lord Universe&quot. indeed. which sorrow and sighing are no more. or even for a single day. who would have regarded it as highly objectionable from the moral As Lord Ernest Hamilton observes in his Involution. e.g. and will carry him appear away to a joyful rebirth in that Pure Land in by a host of celestial bodhisats. the thirteenth of the Thirty-nine Articles) that the virtues practised by those who do not put their faith in Christ are devoid of spiritual efficacy or are but splendid vices. mentators do not hesitate.) Christian parallel. 157-167 Any religion which guarantees immunity from the consequences of sin in return for an attitude of passive confidence is manifestly immoral. 1910. and 2 Tyrrell s of the The vows made Buddha Lokesvararaja of the See also pp. no religion is popular for long which is not proffered as a substitute for morals. Christianity at the Cross-roads. to assert that no amount of virtue will ensure a rebirth in the Western Paradise of the if name of unaccompanied by invocations Amitabha.. Morals are irksome. 289-290 of the same good.

whose ^. takes a more prominent place in the sacred literature than he has secured in the religious affections of the people. .) pp. In China Ta-shih-chih (Mahasthama)...ching? and both act as the protectors and guides of men in their perilous journey over the ocean of life and death. Kuan-yin (Avalokitesvara) larger probably _ receives in a amount of willing China to-day than any other object jgyerence not only on account of of Buddhist worship his association with the divine Amitabha. Kuan-yin and See S.B. Of Amitabha s attendant bodhisats. 412). 181-189. are the Japanese Kwannou and Seishi. Avalokitesvara ing being on the left and Mahasthama on the right. the bodhisat of Great Power. Prof. son. xlix. Yrjo Hirn observes that it was introduced from some Eastern country into the Roman Church during p. 176. Both are described chih). for he has - been overshadowed by the ever increasing popularity of his brother-bodhisat. 2 vol. 1 the fifth century of our Ta-shih-chih era (The Sacred tihrine. but also on account of his own transcendent^ Sanctue Marine. which relates how the Virgin offers up a prayer in Christ s presence that he will extend his help to all who call upon her name. (ii. Writing of this work. by far the most conspicuous are Avalokitesvara (Chinese Kuan-yin) and Mahasthama (Chinese Ta-shih- These are popularly represented as stand on either side of Amitabha. he is represented to be.1 . in a mystical sense.100 SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA [CH.E. 1912. These bodhisats are hardly inferior in glory and majesty to Amitabha himself.| ^ . 1 with much - Wu Hang - luxuriance of language in the Kuan shou .

who is never weary of succour ing those who are in danger_. easily understood by the It is of interest to note that. but it is unworthy of comparison with that of the Virgin in Catholic - Christendom. . Amitabha sends&quot.&quot. xi. his son Avalokitesvara to bring men to him. The change explained. in pain. like the the Johannine Gospel. see L.v.^ There are various jnterpretations of the meane J2S_2Lj!? is ^I^AY^L or ^ ^^ 6 1 1 &quot.&quot. She is the being who is for in Chinese known the has to Europeans of in China and Japan as &quot. de la Vallee Poussiii haustive article in E. down upon.. of sex never been satisfactorily That Christianity had anything to do with the matter hardly an exaggeration to say that in the eyes of multitudes of devout Buddhists Kuan-yin occupies a place that is not is improbable . - Kuan-yin is the patron itself bodhisat of Puto sufficient shan a fact which in is to account for the fame and often The language mystical and not 1 of the sutras is highly laity. 256 ff.draws&quot.the Lord who looks of. for regarded as tjhe^Lord of Love and Compassion. 2 For a full discussion of the name. This meaning is supposed to be expressed in the Chinese Kuan-yin or Kuan-sfiih-yin.E. But in one important Avalokitesvara respect : Kuan-yin differs from and popular Japanese Buddhisn^ Kuan-yin is not a male but a female bodhisat. ii. &quot.] KUAN-YIN he is 101 virtues.o. of the mystical writer of both &quot.Goddess Mercy.R. the cries the 2 world. but tne name usually taken to signify hears &quot. men to himself and God s ex 3 See chap.

and are usually as simple in doctrine as they are artless in style. of them contain excellent discourses on subjects as filial Many such piety. the holy name of TEose~who&quot. who in China as elsewhere like to flavour their religion with the strong spices of To regard these popular tracts as superstition. love.that as we must they often contain a good crude and unspiritual.Land sects never ing. charity. but of the simple . For benefit popular teach good tracts large numbers of and devotional handbooks which there exist Chinese Buddhists how they may best follow the path that leads to Amitabha and the Pure Land. Their moral tone and teachings are generally irreproachable. the evils of self-indulgence and if we admit .SIIow other methods of . brotherly . are characteristic of Christianity at its highest spiritual level.102 SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA their [CH. we must bear in mind that they are intended for the edification. authoritative statements of the creed of an enlightened unfair as to Buddhist or Amidist would be as suppose that the beliefs professed by a Spanish peasant or a mestizo of Ecuador. Books of this or a similar kind (Taoist as well as Buddhist) are often printed and distributed at the expense of pious monks and laymen. fail with to emphasize the advantages of repeat a faithful heart..minded deal that is masses. not of the learned. The tracts issued by the Pure . or the theological views entertained by the rank and file of the Salvation Army.

the Son Avalokitesvara. whereas those trust in who _glace_ their_ whole said sjtrearn^ to be borne along easily. from whose aureoled heads shafts of light dart forth into the sombre places of the universe. sea&quot. each bearing calyx the spiritual body of one of those fortunate beings who by the grace of Amitabha or the guidance of Avalokitesvara have attained the felicity of a rebirth in the Western Paradise. The canonical 1 The ship was also used as a symhol in early Christianity. the surface of which in its is starred with lotus-flowers. It indicated the Church. the Spirit of Power Mahasthama are often pictured the sparkling waters of the sacred lake of the Pure Land. There is much beautiful religious symbolism associated with the lotus a flower which may be said to occupy in the Buddhist imagination a place somewhat analogous to that occupied in Christian thought by the Cross.] THE PURE LAND advancemejit_aTeJ^ejie^ 103 v religious slpwljrjfin^^ mountain. or portray his the the captainship of of Omito figures (Amitabha) and two bodhisats. . in which the faithful are safely carried over the sea of life. In front of the three divine beings the Father Amitabha. The journey are oftelS Amitabha to the represented in more or less crude woodcuts. of human sorrow under 1 Kuan-yin.v. which show us shiploads of Amitabha s worshippers sailing over the bitter Pure~Land~is &quot. like a boalf that sails downwith a favourable wind.

104

SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA

[CH.

scriptures have

which
lotus
:

preserved the striking words in akyamuni compared himself with the

Just as a lotus, born in water, bred in water, overcomes water and is not defiled by water, even so I, born in the world and bred
"

the world, have now overcome the world." In Buddhist temples the images of the Buddhas and bodhisats are usually represented as sitting
in

enthroned,
lotuses
;

or standing, on the open calyxes of and the Mahay ana sutras which serve

Amidism make a symbolic use of the same beautiful flower in connexion
as the foundation of

with the passing of the souls of the blessed into

*The theory (as set forth in the sutras and popularized in number less manuals of Amidist piety) is that when a believer in Amitabha is about to die, a multitude
the Pure
of Amitabha.
.

Land

of divine beings will attend to soothe his last moments and protect his soul from the clutches

of evil spirits
will

;

and
off

as

soon as he

is

dead he
heaven,

be

carried
will

instantaneously

to

where he

be reborn with a spiritual body within the calyx of one of the lotuses of the
sacred lake.

Pure

One of the Japanese leaders (Honen) - Land school taught that when
Amitabha
is

of the
a
true

at the point of death his friends should put into his hand some parti believer in

coloured threads, the other ends of which were to be fastened to one of the hands of an image or picture of Amitabha placed at the foot of

v.]

AMIDIST CREED
bed. 1
is

105
faithful

his

Thus the dying gaze of the

Amidist
the lord

directed towards the radiant figure of Amitabha, just as the dying Catholic

contemplates his crucified Saviour s image upheld before his failing eyes by the ministering priest.

The Amidist
value.
is

As

practice has, of course, a symbolical the physical body of the dying Amidist

united by silken bonds to a material image or portrait of his Lord, so, it is taught, will the
spirit,

when

it is

released from the flesh, be

drawn

by the divine Buddha into his glorious Paradise and into communion with himself. Those who are happily destined to be reborn in the PureTLand do not necessarily "enteTlmmediately after death into the joys of their heavenly

f

)

home.
is

saved supposed that each of the assigned to one or other of nine different
It
"

"

is

\

Those who throughout their earth-lives were always steadfast in faith and blameless in
classes.

conduct are placed in the highest class, while the rest are assigned to the classes appropriate to the degree of their faith or merit. Faith in

j

Amitabha

is

of itself sufficient, as
in

we have
;

seen,
j

to ensure an eventual birth

his

heaven, and

without faith good works are of no avail
the candidate
to his credit,

but
j
\

who

has virtue

and good works
be

as well

as a strong faith, will

|

placed in a higher class
1

than one

who

has gained

For some remarks on this subject, and on Japanese Amidism in general, especially in its relations with fine art, see the Kokka (a Japanese art journal published in Tokyo), May 1912, pp. 243 ff.

106

SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA

[OH.

Paradise through faith alone. The virtues which receive the strongest emphasis in this con

nexion are

of three
;

kinds

social,

ceremonial,
is

and
to

religious
filial

and the place of honour
1

piety.
class

He who
enter

is

highest

will

into

given assigned to the the joys of the
after

Western Heaven immediately
his lotus-flower will

death,

for

open out
sacred
s

as soon as

he has

been

lake, and he will form and body with "see Buddha of perfection complete, and also the every sign perfect forms and signs of all the bodhisats." He who belongs to one of the inferior classes

reborn

in

the

therefore

be carried_nq^Jess speedily to the lake of but his own lotus will not unfold lotuses,
will

immediately, and until it unfolds he will be excluded from the radiant light that^ streams In the case of fron^the^glprious Amitabha.
assigned to one of lowest classes, the lotus will not open for

those

who have been

the

im
"

measurable ages. The ninth who have committed the

class includes those
five

"

heinous sins

2

and other enormities, and who, if they saved themselves on their deathbeds centrating their last thoughts on the the Buddha Amitabha, would have

had not

by con

name
had

of
to

expiate their evil deeds through ages of torment. Their lotuses will not open till after the lapse

of

"

twelve greater kalpas
1

"

a

period of
(ii.) p.

time
167.

2

See the Wu-liang-shou-cUng , S.B.E., vol. xlix. See p. 98.

v.]

THE BEATIFIC
vast
as

VISION

107

so

thought. within the closed calyxes of their lotuses may be regarded as a kind of painless purgatory.

be almost beyond the reach of The state of those who lie imprisoned
to

are in heaven and yet not of it, for they have no share in its delights, and are deprived

They
of

the joy of contemplating the glory of

the

lord

Amitabha,
belief of the
will

The

Amidist that the sinner s

be a temporary exclusion from the punishment presence of Buddha is strangely similar to that of Catholic Christendom that the real pain of hell
consists in the carentia visionis

Dei

exclusion from

the sight of God. According to Catholic doctrine, the greatest of all heavenly joys is the beatific vision optatissima beatitudo in Dei visione consistit ;

and

"all

"

priest,

theologians agree," writes a Catholic that whatever other torments there may

be, the loss of

God

is

worse than any
difference

other."

immeasurably, transcendently l But there is one enormous

between the Christian theory and the
the de fide doctrine of the Catholic that the punishments of hell are eternal
is

Buddhist

Church

is

;
;

the Buddhist holds that there
things
evil,

no eternity

in
,
"

A
r

and

that

the

whole universe

will

ultimately enter into Buddhahood. Perhaps it is not too rash to say that many devout Christian
thinkers of the present time
1

would subscribe to the

This

Rev. John Gerard, S.J.,,m The Hibbert Journal, Oct. 1906, p. 125. is the punishment inflicted upon infants who die unbaptized (see

above, p. 63).

108

SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA

[CH.

Buddhistic doctrine on this subject much more readily than to the doctrine of eternal damnation

which has been
Churches.
1

taught by the Christian Indeed the Buddhistic view is not an
officially

unknown one
earlier

day

:

Christian speculation of an did not Duns Scotus declare that evil
in the
is

has no substance, and
that
all

destined to disappear, and

will ultimately

be

God ?

An

Anglican

theologian of to-day even finds traces of this belief 2 in one of the Pauline Epistles, and his own views

on the subject are hardly distinguishable from
the
universally-recognized
3

tenets

of

Mahayana

Buddhism.
f

The religious imagination

has added various

em

bellishments to the lotus symbolism of Mahayanist orthodoxy. It is said, for instance, that when

any one becomes a disciple of Amitfibha Buddha by invoking his name, a lotus-plant representing that person makes its appearance in the sacred lake.
If during his earthly career he is devout, virtuous, and zealous in his religious and social duties, his
lotus will thrive
;

if

he

is

irreligious, vicious, or

G. Lowes Dickinson, in his Religion and Immortality, 1911, p. I am aware, of course, that many modern people calling them selves Christians do not accept the doctrine of Hell but it has been an essential doctrine of Christian theology at least from the time
47>

1

says

:

;

of

Augustine."
2
3

Romans
See Dr.
ff

W.

chap. viii. R. Inge
hope,"

328-9.
salvation,

In this

we may

s Christian Mysticism, ed. 1912, pp. 68-9, says Dean Inge, meaning the hope of eternal include all creation." See especially the fine

(<

passage beginning,
space and
grave."
time,"

The human
"

spirit

beats against

the bars of over the

and ending,

an earnest of a

final victory

v.]

HOLY NAME OF AMITABHA
it

109
It
is

negligent, said that

will languish or shrivel up.

also

when

the worshipper of
will

about to die

Kuan-yin

Amitabha is appear before him

holding the dying
spirit,

man s

lotus in his hand.

The

when it immediately be placed by Kuan-yin in the heart of the lotus, which will then be carried back to the waters of
leaves the body, will

the appointed time the closed flower will re- open on the surface of the sacred lake, and the happy spirit will awake to find itself

the Pure Land.

At

enthroned in Paradise.

The
of mere

excessive emphasis laid on the efficacy repetitions of the name of Amitabha has
It

-

led to various foolish fancies.
for

may

be noticed,
its

example, that many relating to the Western Heaven and

of the crude woodcuts

Buddha

and bodhisats are starred with little circles. These do not serve a merely decorative purpose. They are supposed to be used as a means of recording
the

number

of times that the possessor of the

When he picture has invoked Amitabha s name. completes a hundred (or a thousand) invocations
he takes a brush-pen, dips it in red ink, and fills in one of the circles. When all the circles are
filled in

he begins the process over again by using

ink of a different colour.

Having made the most of the circles on one sheet or tract, he puts it away in a safe place and starts work on another. If

he perseveres in these proceedings for a few years, his sheets of inked circles will reach the thickness
of a book, and the total

number of

invocations

110

SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA
will represent

[CH.

which they

may amount
all

to millions.

He

must

carefully preserve

his circled sheets

until his last illness deprives

him of the hope of

making any

further

additions to their number.

When
them

he

is

at the point of death he should cause

to be ceremonially

committed to the flames

:

then become his spiritual passport to the Western Heaven, and he will receive full
they will
credit
for

each invocation uttered and recorded

during his life on earth. This childish faith in the efficacy of a mechanical
repetition of a sacred in other countries and

name
in

has

many

parallels

other religions. The Bengali Vaishnavas, for example, believe that the mere utterance of the name of Krishna is a re

ligious act of great merit,

even though such utter

ance

unaccompanied by any feeling of religious A European observer has defended the devotion.
is

this

worshippers of Krishna against hostile critics of practice by remarking that the mechanical
repetition of the
principles,

holy

name

is

based on sound

inasmuch

as the practice

was
"

prompted by a devotional
tention
is
is

intention,

which

originally in

virtually continued so long as the act
1

in performance."

In _the_jcase_of Amidisnr-it_is.~quite__true- that
Growse s Mathura, p. 197, cited in Hastings, E.R.E., Growse (himself a Roman Catholic) quotes a Catholic manual in which it is explained that (C it is not necessary that the
1

See

ii.

493.

is is

intention should be actual throughout ; only a virtual intention required that is to say, an intention which has been actual and
. . .

supposed to continue, although, through inadvertence or
lost sight of
it."

distraction,,

we may have

v.]

NOMEN EST NUMEN

111
&
is.

a genuine_,ajid__steadast,-faitb__in__Amitab_ha

enjoined upon,..all_who call upon his .name__._Tke. enlightened^ ^Amidist holds that the invocation

of Amitabfaa

is

efficacious because^ the^jnan

who

with a^ure_and faithful heart call^jipori _that holy name will thereby awaken the Buddha that is
within^the depths of his own being. ^The sense of egojsm_jmd of individuality will fade away, and he will become conscious of essential oneness

with the_^Dharmakaya the Buddha that is~ at the heart of the unive^s^^^tjmiistjbe admitted,
however, that the more ignorant Amidists believe and are allowed, if not encouraged,
spiritual

teachers

to

believe

that

the

mere

utterance of the

name

of Amitabha has a quasi-

magical efBcacy proper to itself, alncT That such efficacy is not necessarily ^pendenF on
istence of a robust faith in the person

by

whom

the

name

In other words, the spoken^or written name of Amitabha (as is the case with
is

uttered.

manyjpther names^nd phrases) is regardedLas a P^cjj[j^g^jy jpotent.charm. Nomen estjnmnen has been considered a sound maxim in most of the great^eligious systems of East andJW^gjt? Its validity was unquestioned by the ancient Egyptians, whose magical use of the holy name of Osiris is

known to

us through the Book of the Dead ; it was accepted by the followers of the Gnostic Basilides, and the formula retains a remnant of vitality in

some of the darker corners of Christendom
1

to-day.
est."

Gf.

Minucius Felix

"

:

Nee nomen Deo quaeras

;

Deus nomen

be it mentioned in passing. and essays of monkish philosophers. the ethical welfare of its Buddhism seldom forgets. others from the poems. Some times exhortations to good conduct are accom panied by quaint diagrams such as the following a pictorial illustration of the fate that overwhelms the &quot.112 SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA [CH. its more austere functions as a teacher of sound morals. Fortunately for votaries. therefore. unknown. sermons. spells and charms occupy a far more conspicuous position than they do in Buddhism and even in certain popular adaptations of Confucianism they are not . De votional manuals of even the simplest and most popular description do not suffer from any lack of wise saws and moral apothegms. In Taoism. We need spells still not be surprised. or character of a man This is .heart&quot. to find word- in the occupying a somewhat important place machinery of Buddhist priestcraft in China. some taken from the recognized scriptures. in spite of its occasional leanings towards magic.

FORM FOR RECORDING UTTERANCES OF THE NAME OF AMITABHA. . (For explanation of circles see pp. 109-110.) Facing p.

.

As he grows who way to evil older the heart becomes gradually darker.] TIME AND SPACE gives 115 Reading the impulses. higher potentialities. stand for cases in which the inherited karma was thoroughly bad and indicate how the possessor of such a karma. we see that the heart of the child is pure and guileless. or karma. But the criticism is a mistaken one. English w riter on Buddhism refers to the r fondness of the Buddhists for associating sacred persons and events with incalculable periods of time and immeasurable regions of space. They to deal with immense numbers. for the frequent and rather tiresome immense numbers They unphilosophic mind some conceptions of meaningless. after a long struggle against the . and at These are the retrograde last it is wholly black.&quot. are very far from are intended to convey to the truths which are independent of the limitations of space and time. There are corresponding diagrams in which the heart shows a progressive improvement from blackness to whiteness. &quot. said that poetry was a more philosophical and a higher H . he says. but failed to maintain its pristine purity or to develop &quot. in love. victorious over evil rebirth An may finally emerge and ready for an immediate in the Pure Land of Amitabha. diagram from right to left. stages in the life of the man who was born with a good endowment of character.&quot. Aristotle. sinful tendencies of his nature. in a famous passage. a meaningless references to fashion. These its &quot.v. &quot.

There are some interesting passages bearing on this subject in a Japanese Buddhist Catechism 1 0iXoo-o0wre/)oi&amp. who is above time. is That : Buddha s life does Buddha is the I &quot. more . 3). KOA. (r-rrovdaioTepov (Poetics. &quot..) Dr Shirley Case.gt. in his recent book on The Historicity of Jesus.&quot. emphasizes the need &quot. that independent of history because transcends it. because poetry tends to express the universal. M. : it is especially Through Facts to Faith. ix. for example. whereas the Hlnayana cannot set itself free from the domination of the historical fact. philosophical than the former because. 1 thing than history.to break the entangling alliance between religion and history in order to give the spirit liberty. to say. The Mahayanist would not. but he it is 2 would affirm. it expresses the universal. 1912. not belong to the time-series am&quot. under the forms of religious or mystical imagery. admit is in so many words that his form of Buddhism it unhistorical. Somewhat similar in kind so the Mahayanist doctors would say are the relations between the Hlnayana and the Mahayana forms The latter is higher and more of Buddhism. J. the works of the Rev. 2 religion.114 SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA [CH. Thompson. This feature of the Mahayana is of interest to Western students in view of the efforts of a large and growing body of Christian scholars to secure a similar independence of historical fact for their own This tendency does not show itself in Catholic c Modernism also very prominent in recent developments of Anglican only (Cf. whereas history deals with the particular. perhaps. or every grain of matter that composes a vast mountain. than to reckon the duration of the life The Ckin-kuang-ming of Buddha. sutra says it would be easier to count every drop of water in the ocean. nevertheless. scholarship.

Both are terms suited to meet the degree of intelligence to which they are revealed. by A. some say in the eternities of the past. not matter. inasmuch a great as these have no religious significance. 1912 (aee vol. pp.&quot. xxxviii.] BUDDHISM INDEPENDENT OF HISTORY 115 which has recently been translated into English. is for the essence of the universe not subject to Still it is the free and eternal space and time. This vow was fulfilled when he from the made the world of &quot. White Way &quot. v. When say ten ages ago. pt. continues our catechist.v. . and in reality there is no difference between them. trans. not perplex ourselves. that leads men is to the so-called Western Heaven. of which he the ever-compassionate Lord. says our Buddhist whether we say ten kalpas or eternity. Catechism. made The Buddha Amida (Amitftbha) vow that he would prepare a way to attain the perfection of for all living beings Buddhahood. with questions as to the time or place at We need which the Buddha (that is. this great ? &quot. Amitabha) performed A Catechism of the Shin Sect. truth which belongs to the timeless and measure less which is eternity that after all has value for a world is conditioned by space and time. Reischauer in 1 Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan.&quot. There fore the Amida who ago hood in the explained in the same as the one eternities attained perfection ten kalpas who attained Buddha- of the past. was work performed Some But it does &quot. 1 The pupil is warned by the catechist not to lay too much stress on mere matters of historical fact. K. 362-7).

fills the ends of the universe. as the scriptures say.&quot. on the other hand. Geology and astronomy were not long ago re to quote because they made havoc Tennyson expression of current religious notions and taught truths garded in Europe as s &quot.116 SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA [CH. hardly necessary to emphasize another standpoint from which the Buddhist practice of It is associating religious truths with vast periods of time and immeasurable space may be defended. The important thing is that Buddha s body. China) observes that As a substitute . firmations of the teachings which is working Even the doctrine of evolution. &quot. the antiquity of man. The Buddhist. The late Dr Moule cc (a missionary bishop in in Buddhism creation is unknown or frankly denied. so remarkable a transformation in the treatment of many of his own striking con many branches 1 of scientific knowledge. the great works associated with his name. which (before the development of new apologetic methods) were seen to be inconsistent with the theory of scriptural inspiration. finds nothing to shock or disturb his religious faith in modern discoveries concerning the immensities of stellar space. 1 is in perfect harmony with Buddhist thought. but he sees in these new discoveries sacred books. or the age of the globe. It is revealed to all living beings everywhere and always in a manner suited to meet the needs of the life to which it appears. terrible Muses &quot. Not only does he accept with perfect equanimity all that science has to teach him on these and other subjects.

] THE WHITE WAY to 117 The White Way of Amitabha.JE.R. of the T ang dynasty. reference was made on a foregoing which is page. or an extremely narrow path or bridge which must be crossed by the souls of the dead. It is as a reproachful critic that the bishop makes this observation . is to be met with in many parts of the world and in association with 852-4). something to be said for the Buddhist position even as thus crudely stated ? 1 The conception of a road or bridge which must be crossed by the souls of the dead ii. but is there not. of the bridge. after all.&quot. stand the radiant figures of Amitabha and his two great bodhisats. which touches the shining coasts of heaven. . by whose gracious guidance and cheering counsel the faithful pilgrim is rivers are separated The two White Way and to reach his enabled to defy the perils of the White Way in safety the blissful shores where divine 1 Saviours stand waiting to receive him. many faiths (see Hastings. we find emanation. who did much to make the East. E.. He taught that between the w orld of men and the T Paradise of Amitabha there flow two rivers turbulent one of water. The dangers are so great and the bridge so narrow that without divine help no wayfaring soul could hope to But at the western extremity escape destruction.v. evolution under the persistent influence of the chain of causation. the other of fire. a subject which has kindled the religious imagination of many Buddhist poets and artists in the Far origin of the allegory is traced by Japanese writers to the Chinese monk Shan-tao. by the Pai-tao. permutation. The Amidist doctrines popular among his countrymen.

we accept the belief of many Western critics of Buddhism that the goal of Buddhist ambition is non-existence. for is com ego pounded of shifting unrealities which only the ignorant and unenlightened mistake for permanent the reason that this &quot. If. Nirvana is in this life a state of blissful tranquillity attainable (not necessarily terminable in this life). But this belief is not accurate. it is true to say that the Buddhist who has attained Nirvana cannot substance. and is conditioned by a passing lusts and cravings. or terminates in. annihilation. &quot. or that the extinction of the .118 SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA [CH. According to canonical Buddhism. that Nirvana is another But this does not mean name for blank Nothing phenomenal ego ness. away of all egoistic Buddhism taught that it was only through the persistence of these lusts and cravings that the reincarnations of human karma could take place. then. then it is only by means of a somewhat violent exegesis that the two doctrines can be harmonized. In a sense. look forward to a continuation of his conscious individuality after death. At first Paradise sight the doctrine of a quasi-material seems wholly irreconcilable with that theory of Nirvana which is usually associated with orthodox Buddhism. On his death his false and dis &quot. indeed. and &quot. impermanent ego would be disintegrated or solved. and that Nirvana is practically equivalent to. rebirths were necessarily followed that at an end for the man who had it attained Nirvana.

that Clement apparently objects to saying that God mind&quot. the world. and God is above the idea of the Monad. because he is nothing that can be named and . pp. In the state of Nirvana there no is no separated self. Maximus the Confessor. &quot. remarks above Being. Clement of Alexandria. speaks of Basilides No-thing which is above all existence &quot. no life and death. can tell us what God is not he cannot tell us what God is. .&quot. and John of Damascus. matter &quot. . enlightenment. Buddhist. If Nirvana is &quot. we compare nihilism of certain Buddhist philosophers in their treatment of the Nirvana problem with the via negativa of some of the Gnostic and Christian mystics in their theorizings concerning the nature of the Deity. it is only so in a sense similar to that 1 Prof. R. .. deliverance from suffering. for example. 1912. for a point numerical unit. Japanese 2 (The Quest. 67-8). too. Yoshio Noda. This was the most profound philosophical thought ever presented to the desire. pp. 1911. 87. .] NIRVANA 119 equivalent to the annihilation of the real or transcendental self. no fear. &quot. Origen. 48-55. the absorption of the individual into the Absolute. nothing. It is salvation from the misery of of absolute bliss. nothing is left but a p. consequently It is the consciousness of absolute peace. because God transcends all that exists..&quot. in Christian Mysticism. shall if understand the the &quot. 2 The the absolute Pseudo-Dionysius. Oct. Dr W. Justin Martyr. ed. describes Nirvana (from the psychological point of view) as 1( It is thus the consciousness that supervenes on the negation of self. too. he would eliminate.v. Inge. is is a . better. much the same doctrines are to be found in Minucius Felix. himself a Japanese See above. of absolute truth. but he strips him of all attributes and qualities till nameless point and this. and blessedness. 1 is We perhaps. says that no assertion can be made about God. no sorrow.

hardly necessary to say that definitions by negatives were not likely to make a very strong or lasting appeal to the religious emotions. and l and therefore not improperly called Nothing the Buddhist would see no startling novelty in &quot. which Duns Scotus says of God that he is predicateless Being. Realm of Ends. 2 In Christian theology such views as these are traceable to Neoplatonism and . The word used by Duns Scotus is nihilum. 3 &quot. (Hoffdiug. 2 A mind that lived.&quot. It is A Nirvana which of admittedly transcended the possibilities ceivably bring faction to a philosophic mind. are far better than those which are. 35). flippant waywardness fantastic Chinese may perhaps lead some of us to call to emperor who never died because he never In the mystical concept of God. as well as in the Buddhist concept it is precisely the inexhaustible positivity which bursts through every conceptual form and turns every determination into an impossibility&quot. quoted by James Ward. Pringle-Pattison. of Nirvana^ 1911. that assertion of the that &quot. and need be traced to no source extraneous to Indian 3 philosophy. p. S.. same Christian philosopher the things which are not. them excepting however. but positive description might con a certain amount of cold satis it could not be expected to arouse devotional exaltation or religious enthusiasm in the hearts of the lay 1 A. associated In with Buddhism. . very early developments in its own dogmatic system. above all categories. . we not find came affecting the thought of all who within the range of Neoplatonic influence. SCHOOLS AND SECTS IN CHINA [CH.120 in &quot. they St are Augustine.

103.ft a -at i* & #? * - -!-# . .} [See p. (From Chinese Woodcut. ___J^5 THE WESTERN HEAVEN.] [Facing p. izq.

.

are symbols of divine are says the Buddhist monk.v.&quot. the jewelled streets and glassy seas. 1 Those who complain of the emptiness of the conception may be reminded of Bergson. This truth was fully recognized by the Mahayanist teachers. or Meditation. Creative Evolution pp. who allowed and encouraged the more ignorant and simple-minded members of their flock to picture Nirvana to themselves in the form of a Paradise in which the individual soul is represented as continuing to exist in a state of perpetual. (Latham) 1911). school) no more believes in the literal truth of the tales of Sukhavati s lotus-pond. Faust. if But the enlightened Amidist (especially he be a monk of the Ch an. as George Tyrrell &quot. &quot. For in the Nought I trust to find the All.&quot. called it. .&quot. than the educated Christian of to in the real existence of the day believes winged cherubim. Those. whate er befall. pt. Act i. or at least age-long. we ll plumb the Deep. These. that characterize the bric-a-brac rococo heaven.&quot. parables of Buddhahood. the golden crowns and white thrones.] SYMBOLS AND PARABLES 1 masses. &quot.&quot. 290-314 (Mitchell s trans. truth. says the Christian priest.&quot. and in the personal and separate existences of its divine lords. Cf. ii. of hymnal and Apocalypse. &quot. blessedness under the loving rule of the celestial Buddha Amitabha and his bodhisats. &quot. But on.

speedy beaten Already Old China far . not be one of them. she seems to be re its conciling herself with a light heart to forfeiture. The civilizations of East and West had developed on different lines. medievalism shall It may be doubted. largely consists in the impression which carried it gives him that he has been magically backwards into the European Middle Ages. whether there may disfigure was more than a superficial resemblance between the China of pre-reform days and the Europe of the Middle Ages. &quot. &quot. for the jaded visitor from the West. after all. and social 122 .CHAPTER BUDDHISM VI PILGRIMAGES AND THE SACRED HILLS OF IT was lately remarked by a writer on China that the charm of this country. If this be China s principal title to the homage of mankind. is retreating to various remote fastnesses off the tracks of commerce and is travel while that section of young China which and at present in somewhat bewildered country s determined of one thing only faults precarious strategic centres possession of the seems to be fully that whatever other its future proceedings.

century civiliza tion. part of the price payable for the material advantages of twentieth. the fever. vi. and the fret&quot. culture.The heir of all the ages&quot. matter of religious The in is traveller who finds much to charm him China what he regards as the medievalism of perhaps only giving unconscious testimony to feelings common to many a harassed victim of &quot.the weariness. But such questions as these soon . that years of Europe are in respects will to be be preferred to a cycle of Cathay. &quot. there is strong foundly dissimilar. which are. impression we gain from a perusal of the chronicles of Marco Polo and other early travellers.CH. he tempted to ask whether it fifty perhaps sometimes true.] CHINESE CIVILIZATION 123 respects pro the whole. sometimes his birth gets a right. most of whom express admiration as well as wonder at the outstanding features of Chinese of the with the necessary exception deplorable errors of the people in the civilization. unfortunately. and even from the works of some of the pioneer Catholic missionaries. the civilization. little weary under the load of is is and if a kind destiny guides his pilgrim- steps to the Far East. reason to believe that until the inauguration of conditions were in many important On the modern scientific and industrial era in Europe. and wealth of China were on a higher and grander scale than anything but the difference that the West could show was in kind as well as in degree. belief. after all all. Such is the .

poet had in his The Cathay which the English mind is already rivalling the change.&quot. asked no more. to excite either interest disdainful censure. It is sympathetic a matter of however.The anything but chilling disapproval? of your misdirected admiration. object may observe. ! this remark with &quot. under the protection of various disguises. ages after they have been formally This being so. all the world over. he &quot. indeed a hideous survival from that grotesque and barbarous age which was happily brought is to a close by our glorious Revolution. foreign to this or that quaint feature point of the national life and exclaim with enthusiasm West in its headlong haste and desire for The time is not far off when China s guest will &quot. to common carry on a more or less maimed existence for discarded. : What a picturesque relic and courteous China of Will his Chinese host receive of the grave the good old days is this &quot.&quot. a century or hence. it is fairly safe to prophesy that the old customs and institutions of the Chinese which will survive the longest will be those which possess some religious significance. observation. It would be difficult to specify which of the characteristics of Old China is likely to be life so tenacious of as to be still in a position.124 SACRED HILLS OF BUDDHISM [CH. that religious observances and superstitions. Among such customs is one which is of interest as forming a link not only with the China of a . possess a wonderful vitality which enables them.

to the Holy House tombs of at Loretto in at Ancona. they were obeying the same imperious religious instinct as that which sent the ancient Egyptians to the shrines of Tours.] PILGRIMAGES IN CHRISTENDOM 125 very remote age. west of Ireland. cult of saints and martyrs in the West cult of canonized heroes. and even with the Roman The Catholic countries of to-day. . might surprise some of the devout Catholic pilgrims of to-day. In nearly all lands which have reached a moder ately high level of religious development we find that a favourite mode of imploring the favour of spiritual beings or of paying reverence to the popular ideals of virtue and holiness has been to lay offerings of prayer or sacrifice before the images or sepulchres of the sanctified dead. Thus the performance of pilgrimages is is a practice which associated with the religious history civilized of nearly every of which country it civilized or semi- we have authentic record. and still more those of a few centuries ago. to to St the Dauphine. is paralleled by the bodhisattvas. if they were told that Perhaps in journeying to their favourite shrine of St Anne d Auray. or to the grotto of Our Lady of Lourdes.vi. and incarnate divinities in the East. Isis at Busiris. to the the grave of in apostolic Rome. but also with the Europe of the Dark and Middle Ages. to Martin Cruach Phadraig La Salette in Sekhet at Bubastis. or St James of Compostella.

Nemean and Isthmian games There was an annual Semitic are believed to have been. religious pilgrims. and Ammon at Thebes. indeed. too. as every one knows. gatherings of pilgrimage to the temple of Ashtoreth at Hierapolis. for pilgrims also go in their thousands to worship at Meshhed Ali in Nejef and at the tomb of the Prophet at Medina. Apollo at Delphi and Zeus at Dodona . The list of Hindu pilgrimages alone.maligned shrine . the classic land of pilgrimages. Rome. The Bahaist Mohammedanism) is has already commenced Tabriz. had her pilgrimages to the temples of and. the famous periodical gatherings at the Olympic. to make his pilgrimages to religion Akka and sprang into though only existence in the nineteenth century. Greece. and of Sun at Cuzco The pilgrimage . Even place in the so-called New World that the invaders from to to Europe found the that shrine pilgrimages in took in of the to Quetzalcoatl Mexico Peru. the temple of Vishnu at Badarinath. in that nursery of religions. in origin. had its pilgrimages in Pagan times as well as in Christian. indeed. is far from exhausted when we have taken note of the Panch-kosi and the five ghats of Benares. was a holy place before of not unique in Islam. nearly In India.126 SACRED HILLS OF BUDDHISM [OH. Pythian. is a religious duty but incumbent upon all true Mohammedans Mecca the rise (which. Apis at Memphis. we know. Mecca. every racial and social group has sacred places of its own. and the much .

and certainly no student of Chinese life can hope to arrive at a sympathetic understanding of existing religious conditions in China unless he is prepared to become if only imaginatively a member of one of those merit -making (and merry-making) bands of pilgrims who annually traverse the plains of China on their way to the Sacred Hills and the wonder-working shrines of pusas and immortals. is being a land in which pilgrimages have flourished in the past and continue to enjoy a great if gradually China. to the deified peaks of Fuji and Ontake. in But pilgrimages China possess certain features of their own which make them well worthy of special study.vi. sixteenth - century super Europe condemned the stitious cult of saints as or idolatrous.&quot. &quot. pilgrimages into disrepute among the peoples naturally fell that accepted Protestant principles. alone in not diminishing popularity to-day.] CHINESE PILGRIMAGES 1 127 Even Jagannatha (Juggernaut) in Orissa. to the reputed grave of Jimmu Tenno. When the Reformers in &quot. which enshrines the relics of the revered Buddhist saint Kobo. then. &quot. . near Nara. and it Catholic countries in which 1 is now only the we may still witness It has been proved that there is no truth in the hideous stories of the mangling of pilgrims under the Car of Juggernaut. and to that holy hill of Koya. enlightened and modernized Japan still annually of sends forth untold numbers of pilgrims to the shrines of Ise.

: it was to found a new one. perhaps. indeed.128 SACRED HILLS OF BUDDHISM [OH. Perhaps this type of pilgrim was inclined to be more truculent and masterful themselves. ages of faith the pilgrims of Europe were of many classes. crusaders moated pilgrims as well as soldiers. and sword-bearing crusaders too. it was none the less a brave little band of Puritans that made the most momentous of all - pilgrimages visit recorded in history. It is a curious fact that though the Puritan Protestants discouraged pilgrimages on principle. Conspicuous palmer. But if . We of British race have had palm-bearing wanderers among our ancestors. bringing tidings to its lonely lady of her lord s heroic deeds and piteous death The upon the crimson plains of Palestine. In the far-off &quot. scenes comparable with the religious pilgrimages of Eastern lands. as many coats-armorial in our village-churches and manor-houses still remain to testify. whom most of us now regard only through the filmy haze of romance. whom devotion was tempered by martial ambition. were than the patient disciple of Christ should be but such characteristics were hardly to be wondered . at in men whose and in lot was cast religious in a bellicose world. think of him. as among them was the sandalled We a travel-worn wanderer to who appeared from time time before the raised drawbridge of some castle. But it was not to Fathers an old shrine that the the Pilgrim crossed wide Atlantic &quot.

will who took part in them by any one who has imbibed source of the popularity and vitality of ordinary religious pilgrimages in all parts of the world seems to be this that they are among the few The main mundane activities in and mental early in life enjoyment all which keen physical may co . Pilgrimshrines existed in large and southern Scotland 1 numbers all over England no fewer than thirty-eight of them were to be found in a single English shire. That Englishmen entered upon such : pilgrimages with all the zest of their fellowChristians on the Continent there is no reason to doubt. and that the things which are alleged to be good for us are we make the seldom the things we staff like best.vi. But he who assumes the script and 1 This was Middle Ages. and the fact that such undertakings were a source of delight (not always of an exclusively spiritual kind) to those not be disputed the spirit of the Canterbury Tales.] THE CANTERBURY TALES 129 pilgrimages to the Holy Sepulchre.exist with an fulfilment. of the conscientious s Norfolk. exhilarating sense of religious Very rather dismal discovery that duty does not always coincide with pleasure. there were always multitudes of pilgrimages in which even the poor could take part without having to leave their native shores. See Sidney Heath Pilgrim Life in the . whether warlike or peaceful. were beyond either the hope or the ambition of the masses of our people.

and enough spirituality to make him appreciative of the religious significance of his pilgrimage. .a himself in the perfect epitome of life. abuses which in Christendom sometimes assumed so serious a character that princes and bishops were occasionally obliged. No doubt there were many abuses connected with pilgrimages. these words are pre-eminently true of the religious pilgrimage. mind. perhaps. and body all at the same Travel has been aptly described as time.&quot.&quot. because it presents to us character. Provided only that he possesses enough worldliness to make him heartily responsive to beautiful sights and sounds and the joys that accompany a relaxation from the routine of daily toil or business. pilgrim has no qualms about any possible conflict between the pleasant and the good. who in the fourth century wrote a letter de euntibus Hierosolyma.ISO SACRED HILLS OF BUDDHISM [CH. in the interests of public and private morality. to recommend the intending pilgrim to stay at home and to expend the sum thou hast gathered for the journey on the support of the poor. saints (unconscious. Even &quot. 1 an infinite fluidity of circumstances and demands flexibility from us an equal of If applicable to travel in general. in 1 See The Spectator (13th July 1912). he will find fortunate position of being able to gratify soul. of the reverence with which mortal remains might be regarded by the pilgrims of a later age) have been known to their own One of these express disapproval of pilgrimages. was St Gregory of Nyssa. &quot.

is but of a grim tragical Yet there nothing in the theory of pilgrimages to coun tenance a loose morality or a morbid fanaticism. there have of a semi. devotees. Thus in both Europe and Asia we hear of self-inflicted agonies caused by spiked shirts. by the Protestant reformers of Christendom did right in suppressing Yet it pilgrimages in north-western Europe. too. who have been most human passion. more uncertain voice. or by way of penance. deliberate self-torture of almost every imaginable kind. nomen clature. Far oftener. Manifestations of religious frenzy are not peculiar to pilgrims. significant. summits of some of the holy mountains of and the name given to these precipices not of a grotesque fancy in reality. or Suicide Cliffs. terrible lacerations of the body. been cases in which pilgrimages of a painful and excessively arduous kind were undertaken in consequence of a vow.vi.savage code of religious ethics. at the China is .] RELIGIOUS FANATICISM 131 which he expressed himself on the subject with no In both East and West. In well-authenticated cases in the East we many read of pilgrimages that ended in the wilful selfdestruction of hapless and ignorant pilgrimThere are she-shen-yai. they accompany the psychological eccentricities of the solitary mystic and the cave-dwelling hermit just as it is these. or in accordance with the gloomy tenets over. iron chains and girdles. From many points of view devils of fiercely assailed the must be admitted that the change involved losses . indeed.

survives to this with the globe-trotting instinct. but rather because. indeed. if we may and though cases it has become &quot. Most of us. being the shrine that is consecrated to that nomen daemonis Mammon. for the open air and all the sweetness of an English . secular rather than religious tends to identify itself in many &quot. longen folk to goon on pilgrimages&quot. day. in its aims. as well as gains. call it so. indeed. though instead of seeking the tomb of a saint we now direct our pilgrim-steps towards shrines of another kind the most popular of all. of the pilgrims of medieval Europe. it is to be feared. In Chaucer s age the most popular months for the period pilgrimages were April and May of the year that has been always greeted with exuberant &quot. and that they alone were the potters who had the power and the right to mould it into new shapes. who are the best representatives &quot. not necessarily. Then delight by the poets of England. many them other matters. &quot. as our poet so well divined. though doubtless this was often the case too.132 SACRED HILLS OF BUDDHISM Moreover. but the pilgriminstinct. the zeal of the reformers led into the delusion that nature was soft clay. are pilgrims still. Nature then pricked their hearts with a longing &quot. of humanity (as distinct from the saints of the Catholic Church). in their reverent visits to the places associated with the lives of the saints &quot. in this as in [OH. because the lamp of piety then burned more brightly in their souls than at other times. human Pilgrimages might be suppressed. It is perhaps the Positivists.

.

.

pilgrim-seasons. too. English winter the torpor and gloom of an because tender fowles maken &quot. but of three. spring and the west wind with its warm breath. and had a glad song for the welcoming of man. last signs of . the seasons for pilgrimages vary with local climatic conditions. PILGRIM-SEASONS 135 because April with its fragrant showers. In China. there are &quot. The places of pilgrimage recognized by the . as in fourteenth century England. and that the shrines and temples in the tropical and sub-tropical southern provinces should receive their winter. if only man would come out under the blue sky to hear it. and at these seasons that the roads to the popular shrines of Shinto and Buddhism are worn smooth by pilgrim-feet. - In the Far East. had driven away the &quot. and the competing shrines far more numerous and widely-scattered. It is fitting that the sacred peaks of the lofty mountains of north and west should be the pilgrim s goal during the scorching summer. meed of homage during the attempt can be made in these pages to enumerate and describe all the great pilgrim-centres of China.VL] . where the diversities of climate are greater. melodye to welcome the birth of summer. In Japan the blossoming of the plum and cherry in spring and the tinting of the maple-leaf in autumn are signals that send young and it is old out to the hills and woodlands. for No we should have to deal with the sacred places not of one religion only.&quot.

the Yo. Of Confucianists. They consist of the grave of the famous Duke of Chou. it can hardly be said that they are in the habit of travelling in the guise of religious pilgrims. whose saintliness was such as to haunt Confucius according to a well-known anecdote even in his dreams the temple and tomb of Mencius. and was conducted by the emperor and his delegates in their official or priestly capacity. in a south-western corner of the province of Shantung. sanctity of which is indeed of pre-Taoist date but has come to be associated with Taoist develop ments. as distinct from Con fucianism as a rule of life and code of moral law. 10-11. as such. as a matter of fact. and . . most important of these places are to be found within a radius of a few miles. 1 See above.134. because the cult of the canonized Confucius. Confucian worship is (or was) a part of the State ritual. Yet there are certain holy places in China which. devotees of the heterogeneous system of Taoism are so numerous that a mere catalogue of them would fill several them are the Wu pages. pp. and which will doubtless continue to be visited by Chinese and foreigners of every creed long after the Confucian system has ceased to occupy in China a position The of semi-religious pre-eminence. Conspicuous among or Five Sacred Hills. SACRED HILLS OF BUDDHISM [CH. is not a cult which requires or expects the religious The co-operation of the masses of the people. are visited 1 by thousands of professing Confucianists every year.

] CONFUCIAN AND BUDDHIST SHRINES 135 the grave of Mencius s mother the Chinese model of what a good mother should be the splendid . it The had to truth of the matter probably is that be introduced on several different it occasions before foothold. have taken place in the year 2 1 In that year a See pp.. to The next attempt seems to Buddhism enter China B. . China possesses innumerable shrines of Buddhism. which to this day is chiefly populated by men of his own clan and surname. and it is with these. As we succeeded in gaining a firm have seen. possibly as a result of the by Asoka.vi. that we shall be mainly occupied in the later chapters of this book.C. within the walls of his own venerable city of Ch ii-fou. or rather with a few of the most famous and important of them. addition to the sacred places of Taoism and Con fucianism. situated in one of the most beauti In ful and impressive cemeteries in the world. and within which resides the ducal representative of the seventy his direct - sixth generation of and. temple to Confucius himself.C. but that it speedily disappeared under the discouraging influence of the book-burning and wall-building missions sent out from India emperor of Ch in Shih-huang. There are various theories held by the Chinese as to the date at which Buddhism entered their country. 1 there is some reason to believe that the religion first reached China in the third century B. lastly. descendants . the great sage s own grave. 22-3.

Indo-Scythians. the prince-royal. It was not till about the fourth century of our era that Buddhism began to emerge from obscurity and to occupy a conspicuous place in the religious life 1 into the scriptures not to be supposed that of the Chinese people. 23. it is the progress of the religion was uninterrupted from that time forward.136 SACRED HILLS OF BUDDHISM [CH.true envoys religion. is said to have ordered his son. to instruct the Chinese envoys in the Buddhist scriptures. Kasyapa-Matanga and Gobharana (in Chinese. dream by a Man of gold. whose Buddhism must have been of a hetero geneous type. having been visited in a vision or sent envoys to Central Asia in the sixty-sixth year of our era to look for him. in order that on their return to China these &quot. the beginnings of the continuous history of Buddhism in China are associated with the reign of the Emperor Ming Ti. might act as missionaries of the But Chinese to these Buddhists do not attach stories. Mo-t eng and Chu Fa-Ian) who were accommodated at the capital in a building which subsequently became famous as the of two Buddhist missionaries Monastery of the White Horse. much importance According to the popular account. Chinese embassy was sent to the Yiieh-chih.&quot.&quot. p. This resulted in the arrival &quot. See . who. or 1 The king of the Yiieh-chih. Although these monks or missionaries made a modest beginning of the prodigious task of the translating Buddhist Chinese language.

and as adepts in demonology and sorcery. as the generally recognized guardians of occult secrets. but the priests of Taoism. who. p. each of the contesting parties striving to vanquish its rival by giving evidence of a known Buddhist legend wellsuperior skill in the working of miracles. . the whole Buddhist system declared enemy especially has it been the of the Buddhistic institution of . 2 See p.VL] STRUGGLES OF EARLY BUDDHISM 137 Confucianism has always been more or less hostile to. 10. 1 Most But there is reason to believe that the first enemies against whom Buddhism had to strive in China were not Confucians. 134. tells us how certain priests of the Five Sacred Hills 2 submitted a memorial A to the throne shortly after the arrival of 1 Mo-t eng But see above. were jealous of the appearance of a foreign doctrine which would or might prove a rival. by Buddhism. or severely critical of. which with a good deal of reason it regards as inconsistent with a sound social ethic. The two Eastern religions seem to have competed China just as St Patrick for the royal favour in (to take one example) is said to have competed with the Druids in Ireland for the favour of King Loigaire. more monasticism. dangerous The contests between Buddhism and Taoism are commemorated in stories which often remind us of the legends relating to the early struggles in Europe between paganism and Christianity. have been initiated by Confucian state therefore. of the persecutions undergone craft.

and Chu Fa-Ian in the first century of our era. &quot. that our teachings and those of the Buddhists should be put to the his We proof. . horrified to find that all their magical powers had mysteriously deserted them. they said. we This suggestion the emperor s sense of justice. on the scene of the competition full They of confidence in themselves and full of contempt for their Buddhist rivals but when the time came for a public demonstration of their skill they were through the arrived . Elaborate prepara tions were made for a public competition in wizardry between the rival priesthoods. let theirs are if the barbarians be banished . ours are burned. The over the forces of nature and enabled ride them to air on dragons made of straw. seems to have appealed to Taoist priests. Take the books of the Buddhists and our own holy writings and set them afire. If consumed. were ordinarily in possession of various supernormal or spiritualistic faculties which gave them control fire. protest against the friendly attitude assumed by the emperor towards the religion of Western barbarians and reproached him the &quot. .1S8 SACRED HILLS OF BUDDHISM [CH. we are told. In this memorial the Taoist priests recorded their solemn &quot. Complete failure attended all their efforts to produce what modern and no term phenomena spiritists would &quot. for neglect of the native wisdom of China. and for testing the truth or falsity of their respective teachings by submitting their sacred books to the ordeal of are prepared to suffer death. are willing.

The Sutra of Forty-two Sections . There. they remained absolutely uninjured. while others shaved their heads which means that they entered the Buddhist monkhood. in full view of the emperor and his court. by which all the books and images were enfolded and supported. had existed in China many centuries possibly thousands of years before before 1 it Taoism came into existence. indeed. It is 1 is needless to speculate as to whether there any basis of fact in this story. for the flames were miraculously transformed into petals of waterlilies. vol. see also B. One book only was saved : this was the fire Tao-te-ching. pp. Without hesitation they took their images of Buddha and their volumes of sutras and thrust them into the midst of the flames.N. That followed in the text is taken from a commentator s notes to a edition of Ming dynasty the work which was translated by the f pioneer-missionaries Mo-t eng and Chu Fa-Ian (B. Har. 678.VL] DEFEAT OF THE TAOISTS 139 sooner were their holy writings placed on the pyre than the flames attacked them with irreverent fury. v. xxiv. 1471. The turn of the Buddhists came next. 1-2 . Its chief interest for us lies in its reference to the position of the Taoists as priests of the Five Sacred Hills.worship. Mountain.N. which was snatched from the by one of the priests. The chronicler concludes by telling us that of the vanquished and discredited suicide Taoists some committed by hanging and drowning themselves. or at least had evolved itself out of its primeval Another account says that the Taoists fell dead in the presence of the assembled company. 1472). There are several versions of the story of the contest between the Taoists and Buddhists.

. but the rather in obedience to a strong instinct to place sanctuaries of Buddha high up amid the of crag and forest and lonely ravine. or but the Buddhists were not their rivals allow in to monopolize mountains general. of the first pages of Chinese with events ascribed to the third history. we learn how the Emperor Shun nebula. a solemn pilgrimage to the sacred hills of the four quarters^ of his empire and it is clearly implied that in doing this he was carrying out . far out of reach of sights and sounds hurtful to the serenity of souls that had abjured the solitudes vanities of the world and the flesh.C. From one made state-ceremonies which were part of the religious inheritance of his race. Buddhism had itself originated in a land where mountain-worship was deeply-rooted. dealing millennium B. It adherents a strong was not through mere its imitation of establish Taoism that the Buddhists began to themselves on mountain .heights. and in the days when Buddhism in China was still in what may be called its constructive and .140 SACREJD HILLS OF BUDDHISM [CH. The selves Taoists were the first to associate them and their traditions with the Hills. and it has always tended directly or indirectly to foster in love of wild nature. Some amid of the they hermitages romantic scenery of the most beautiful mountains in which built the China grew into great and famous monasteries. Five Sacred disposed to Wu Yo.

) .COLOSSAL FIGURE AT LUNG-MEN. HONAN. (The small figures are life-size. HONAN. COLOSSAL ROCK-CUT FIGURES AT LUNG-MEN.

.

&quot. Among the great mountain strongholds of the Buddhist faith in China four emerged into translation work of a position of relative prominence. lives Chinese pilgrims spent years of their in visiting the holy land of their faith and and collating palm -leaf manuscripts of the sacred siitras. 394. Ssu ta-ming shan &quot. having become honoured in residents the great Chinese monasteries. Wu-t ai-shan Omei-shan . . They of of are . Shansi in the northern province in the western province Ssuch uan Chiu . collaborated with native monks in the arduous and exposition. for Lion and Dragon in Northern China. especially as These are known as the objects of pilgrimage. translators.vi. were in collecting in the habit of paying of Buddhist long visits to the seats learning in China. too. The Four Famous 1 Hills.] THE FOUR FAMOUS HILLS 141 productive period (which closed about a thousand years ago) such monasteries were thronged with learned scholars. Natives of India. for it has 1 already been fully described p. and many of these Indian pilgrims. - hua - shan in the central and Puto-shan off the east province of Anhui coast of the province of Chehkiang. Of Omeishan we shall have little to say in these pages. religious phil So India long as Buddhism remained a was uninterrupted inter course of a most friendly and inspiring kind between the great religious houses of the two power in there countries. and osophers.

From Manda/ay. Chiu-hua and Puto. are distinguished as having establishments. . A Wayfarer in Ohina. to Peking Mount Omi and Beyond. customary or statutory. but the monasteries of the Four Hills are not in in this Some respect. over the abbots of other Buddhist it establishments. the present writer. is 1 English readers. especially when we remember that there were other groups of mountain - monasteries centres which were no less celebrated learning. again. been the centre of some important movement exclusively favoured in having sheltered a monk or group of monks who founded a new but these are to be found on sect or school or as . It is mainly to the shrines of the remaining two. Kendall. Only a restricted number of monasteries China possess the right of granting ordination. that the reader s attention will be directed in the following chapters. many mountains other than the privileged Four. nor does their position carry with any dignity to which other abbots may not aspire.. Little. for this mountain has to a great extent become a seat of Mongol Lamaism.142 SACRED HILLS OF BUDDHISM The position [CH. of Wu-t ai somewhat exceptional. Buddhist history. At why first the sight it seems difficult to understand four mountains just named were singled out for exceptional distinction. Thus we are obliged to conclude that the rank or precedence accorded by 1 common consent See A. as of Buddhist light and The abbots of the monasteries of the Four Famous Hills have no control. and Miss E.

to go to the Taoists to he taught a love of numerous houses mountains. Of the sacred isle of Puto we hear little until we reach the closing four The claim . Chiu-hua has had a longer monastic history than Puto. but it was not included in the category of Famous associations cannot &quot. tion of it seems likely enough that it was in imitation of the Taoist or pre-Taoist classifica Four (afterwards Five) Sacred Mountains that the Buddhists resolved to create a kind of nobility or aristocratic pre-eminence for certain favourite mountains of their own. famous hills of Buddhism can lay no such antiquity. .] HILLS SACRED TO BUDDHISM 143 to the Famous Hills belongs to the mountains themselves. the T ang &quot. irrespective religious of the fame of the perched on their Though the Buddhists did not require slopes. The history goes back for thousands of years indeed four of the five peaks were regarded with religious veneration at a period anterior to the of the earliest Wu Yo days of which to we have written record. Buddhist mountains until a date that was sub sequent even to that of the inclusion of Puto. and its Buddhist be proved to be much more than a thousand years old. years of dynasty. Two of the number Wu-t ai and Omei are associated by the beginnings of history and legend with Buddhism in China but the other two Chiuhua and Puto did not come into prominence until Buddhist prosperity in China had already reached and passed its climax.vi.

are concerned in the alternating processes of construction and ments which.Famous why the four for elevation to peerage of mountains should have been Wu-t ai. Puto. and Chiu-hua. Shui. or &quot. &quot.&quot. unanswered as to why the Buddhistic writers of the Sung and this dynasty should as the proper have finally decided upon four Hills. fire. dissolution through universe called &quot. . It interesting unnecessary here to go into question of the origin of the is &quot. Shui. They occupied a prominent place in the semi-mystical system of the Taoists of the Han dynasty. number of selected &quot. 1 the (C Feng. and consisted of metal. antiquity is ele Its indicated by the fact that it was adopted. T u). Huo. the first question. by some of the earliest Greek speculators in physics. These are the Historical vegetable matter. hsing. is which the whole phenomenal These four socontinually passing. Mu.144 SACRED HILLS OF BUDDHISM But the two questions are still [CH. elements 1 were wind or air.ele &quot. Huo. and Classic were the subject of much theorizing on the part of the orthodox Chinese philosophy of the Sung period. according to the ancient Hindu philosophy adopted by Buddhism. Ti. With regard to Omei. water. water. it seems clear that the number was be chosen called in order corner - to establish what might the four stones of Buddhist faith in China and to bring them into mystical association with the four cosmogonical &quot. and the earth.&quot.five elements. ment&quot. fire. system of cosmogony of which this great or mahdbhuta theory forms a part. According to another Chinese classification of elements/ they were five in number. mentioned in the Wu (Shu Ching). with or without modification. and earth (Chin.

Ssuch uan be chosen what more for it fitting element is could Fire : ? Puto is entirely surrounded by the sea it obviously - the Chiu hua is region of the element Water. situated in : the warm than region &quot. &quot. associated with Chiu-hua must be ti Earth. and are known to the Chinese by a word prison. extreme K . that Wu-t ai Earth.&quot.vi. which sented in the Chinese language by a character Omei is commonly used to denote Wind. in indeed. These regions are supposed by the ignorant to be situated somewhere under the earth. Wu-t ai and Omei.&quot. are if among the loftiest we rule out the vast ranges of the China. these hills. As to the second question why &quot. rather than any others. is associated with the element Air. Puto with Water. sacred to a bodhisat or saint whose works of mercy are associated with the Buddhist &quot.hells. and Chiu-hua pairs These were not selected at appropriately for the random. were honoured with the it distinctive epithet of Famous at once that their mere altitude may be said little had very hills to do with the matter. Omei with with Fire. of Southern &quot.] THE FOUR ELEMENTS connect the 145 Four Hills of Buddhism with the Four Elements is for it is explicitly stated by no mere guess Chinese writers on the subject of these mountains That the intention was to . (ti-yu) It is clear which signifies earththat the element correctly &quot. Wu-t ai stands in this connexion is repre element Air.

as It Wu-t ai. west. that nearly all the territory on the right bank of the Yangtse the lay to south of the so-called &quot. Wu Yo were chosen as sacred mountains on account of their positions in the north. Similarly.146 SACRED HILLS OF BUDDHISM [CH. The matter was simply determined by a desire to place a physical pillar of Buddhism at each of the four It is certain that the points of the compass. eastern. and central regions of the China of classical was considered pillars or pre-classical antiquity. therefore. and Puto barely reaches even the . south. . modest elevation of a thousand feet. Puto the is and Chiu-hua is the southern. east. which geographically belong to Tibet and Turkestan but Chiu-hua is of no excep tional height. was selected the as as the northern mountain. true that Chiu-hua in the south of the It is in the centre rather than China that we know to-day. orthodox &quot. to be remembered. it that the four mountainfitting which in occupy positions would justify their assuming the duties of wardens and protectors of religous interests each of of Buddhism should the four quarters of the empire. and pedantic spirit of literary and historical conservatism would prevent the Sung scholars from admitting that the southern expansion of China in the intervening centuries could render obsolete the geographical and political demarca tions of the classical epoch. west. states of the the China of the Chou dynasty. however. Omei as western.

if only because it includes the names of also visited certain monastic centres which are by multitudes of pilgrims. in Yunnan WuKuangtung (Hainan island) Ch iyiin. p. Chiu-hua. . and Kuan yin divine beings are the spiritual patrons of Wu-t ai. &quot. The mountains that come within this category are eight in number and are known as their the Pa-hsiao-ming slian &quot. Yiint ai They T and Tamao. for the promotion of our four mountains to the Famous was that all four exclusive rank of had already become celebrated in Buddhistic lore &quot. and Puto respectively. to distinguish them from the pre-eminent are ient ai. P u-hsien.Eight Small Famous Hills Four. and which. But there is another category of Buddhist mountains which is worthy of notice. . to use the ordinary Chinese term ) who play so important a part in the mythological and symbolic system of the Mahayana. chih. 1 See above. in Kiangsu Chitsu. Omei. . We have now seen that certain of the numerous hills sacred to Buddhism in China have been selected for promotion to a position of special honour. in Chehkiang . &quot. .vi. The four in question are Wen-shu. and these Ti-tsang. on account of historical and religious importance. through their legendary association with four of those great Bodhisats l (or Pusas. 43.] THE EIGHT MOUNTAINS 147 Another reason. in in . would necessarily occupy a conspicuous place in any comprehensive account of Buddhism in China. and a very important one.

to two of the Four Famous Hills. religious and artistic sides . When it is realized that the shan-chih. Fuhkien. . T ien-mu. in Shantung. in Shensi the Nan-Yo. for in Hupei . and Wu-i but all are . annually visited Among by numerous bands of worshippers. other holy mountains and monasteries which occupy a prominent place in the Buddhistic history of China may be mentioned Chiao-shan Chin-shan and Pao - hua. we it shall is which has be only touching the fringe of a subject well worthy of far closer attention than hitherto received from students of the of Chinese culture. Wutang. and other mountains. in Yti-wang and . [CH. Shang-fang. VI. would alone con stitute a library of thousands of volumes. to the north-west of T ai-shan. in Some of these and Wu-i (Bohea (Tamao and Wutang. in Western Chihli and the monasteries of Shaolin.148 SACRED HILLS OF BUDDHISM . in Hunan Miao-feng. and Ling-yen. on the Shao-shih mountain in Honan. . Anhui Wutang. Kuangtang . of a single book. in Kiangsu . in later chapters. Ku-shan in Fuhkien . example) are celebrated in the annals of Taoism no less than in those of Buddhism. . Chao-ch ing and others on the Western Lake near Hangchow. or mountain-chronicles of China. Hills). The most famous from the Buddhist point of view are T ient ai. in Chehkiang . in Kiangsi Lofou. Lu-shan. it will be understood that the subject is not one that can receive exhaustive treatment in the narrow limits In devoting special attention. Chung-nan.

We must chiefly applicable also take into account the numerous pilgrims who are ordained members of the Buddhist monkhood. who unite their forces with a view to mutual convenience and protection. stop at the same inns. These remarks. are Many such groups composed of subscribers to a pilgrim-fund. special vow. as solitude tread the pilgrim-path in he is fulfilling a. THE PILGRIM S GUIDE pilgrim a rule. keep a common purse. are to lay-pilgrims. however. and discharge the religious duties of the pilgrimage under the guidance of a selected leader. or certificates of ordination 149 .CHAPTER &quot. to THE Chinese unless the holy mountains does not. for their chieh-tieh. personal friends. VII &quot. Such persons are able to travel from mountain to mountain with greater comfort and security than laymen. from which a certain sum is drawn each year and allocated to scribers selected a restricted lot . or members of the same trading guild. form themselves into bands of comrades. Pilgrims who tramp together day by day. number of sub by others are composed of fellow-villagers.

of have is Handbooks. as early as the seventh century. If there were to Baedekers in Itineraria those days. One these a little modern work named The Pilgrim s Ch ao Ssu Ta-ming Shan Lu-yin Guide to the Four Famous Hills&quot. [CH. which they always occasions entitle carry with to food lie them on such and lodging at the various monasteries that Monks. The Buddhists of of China. was written by Adamnan. Murray s or there were numerous have no equally One well adapted to the needs of their time. benefit past. able than laymen to by the for many best experience of the travelled monks have furnished accumulated their own monasteries with detailed information as to the means of journeying from one shrine to another. In the Middle Ages in Europe there existed a class of literature specially designed to provide Christian pilgrims with information of both a and a secular character concerning the routes they were to follow and the shrines at which they were to bend the knee and open sacred the purse. which is printed and issued by the monks of the monastery .THE PILGRIM S them GUIDE&quot. Pilgrims &quot. based on to the Holy Land. are better along their route. which seem been abbot of lona. like the their Europe.150 &quot. and this was followed by innumerable treatises and pamphlets dealing more or with the favourite loci less exhaustively Christians sanctorum martyrum. too. a French bishop s journey such book.

relating monastic of religion and morals and will perhaps be found to throw a welcome glimmer of light on the Chinese theory of pilgrimages and on the present state of popular Buddhism. 1 with com (which deals pilation besides those of the intended for many sanctuaries Four Hills) is primarily the use of monkish travellers. and the Order. See p. on Ku-shan. of those who have entered upon the &quot. humility of spirit must be at a his When he arrives his shrine guiding principles.. but the preliminary maxims and instructions . of Buddha let him bow the Three head and in due reverence worship Holy Ones the Buddha.eight-fold path&quot. 2 1 . and the Company of the Saints. of vexation. but and at least one English have found it useful and Chinese lay-pilgrims pilgrim as well interesting. to cultivate reverent and decorous habits of thought and conduct while engaged in the serious business of visiting the holy mountainFrom his mind all feelings shrines of Buddha. In early Buddhism the Three Holy or Blessed Ones are the Buddha. or company. and with that we need The not concern ourselves here part. 148. the Law of Buddha. The short preface urges the pilgrim.vii. 2 Let This mountain overlooks the city of Foochow.] BUDDHISM IN PRACTICE This little 151 of Yung-chTian.. in general terms. the Law preached by the Buddha. eradicated. greater portion of the book consists of a description of routes.will must be Gentleness and compassion and hatred. which contains to matters etiquette. and ill .

Love and kindness must be shown These are the &quot. . Dhamma (Sanskrit Dharma). It is considered any paper that bears written These are the symbols or printed ideographs. of the ordained monk Buddha. reward. which con of all the wisdom of all the Buddhas (see above. : . Buddhahood tains . that leads to Nirvana. thoughts of worldly ambition let him wholly cease from and personal gain eovetousness and selfish anger.. 77). first The of the characteristically Chinese notion as to the sanctity of written characters is well known. (3) the essence the Dharmakaya. Three Refuges&quot. followed by a page contain Hold written characters in ing four precepts Regard all living things with love and respect preface is : The . him extirpate all . .THE PILGRIM S GUIDE&quot. or Body of the Law. and they are therefore to be held wrong to misuse sacred. spiritual you and respected old age you will not be contaminated by the foulness of the world and heaven will be your final good . The second injunction is thoroughly Buddhistic. four precepts is Confucian The prevalence of this rather than Buddhistic. In the Mahayana system the Three Blessed Ones are f the same with a difference namely (1) The whole company of Buddhas (2) the Sons of the Buddhas the bodhisattvas and all men of good-will who aim at the salvation of the world and the final attainment of &quot. pity Keep your mind free from evil thoughts Let your mind be directed unswervingly towards . and Sangha. . [CH. and physical enjoy a prosperous . enjoy will By observing these precepts you will health.152 &quot. p. which conserve the great thoughts and teachings of the wise. Buddha.

. {Facing -b.ROCK-CUT COLOSSAL FIGURE OF A BODHISAT AT LUNG-MEN. HONAN. 152.

.

101. in which the Mahayana Buddhists have placed &quot. yin ( may may Ttfu-pei-Kuan-sliih-yin Pusa) that this heaven be reached. 2 follows a little Next poem of four &quot. 1 monkhood no See above. 2 See pp. the Paradise of Amitabha Buddha. &quot. The third precept The heaven referred &quot. 103.VIL] BUDDHIST TEACHINGS all 153 only. pp. but to all beings that have life is not men is kinds of animals. The living things should be regarded with absolutely pure and unselfish feelings of love and compassion is deeply rooted in Buddhist doctrine that all ethics. lines. This not. &quot. In popular Chinese Buddhism it is chiefly through the good offices of the gracious and compassionate Kuan&quot. because the bodies of the lower animals may contain transmigrated human souls. . &quot. The true disciple of Buddha has delivered himself from all sensuous fetters . are chief claim that the great bodhisats supposed to have upon the adoration and The based on the boundless charity and pity extended by them towards all things gratitude of 1 men is that live. requires no elucidationto in the fourth is literally the western region (hsi fang) of the universe. as sometimes supposed.. he who has entered the longer allows his mind to be occupied with the countless vain cares of worldly life. 77-81. which be prosaically rendered thus Better is it to live the lowly life of a monk than to return : again and again to mundane vanities and illusions.&quot.

It perhaps require some expansion or is better to pursue the contem says the Buddhist. The enlighten ment towards which Buddha pointed the way is r not attainable with equal facility by all. These lines explanation. [CH. after all.THE PILGRIM S GUIDE&quot. He knows that the things of this world are impermanent and unreal. There are some who devote their energies throughout life to its attainment and are not successful . than to condemn yourself to future human lives of woe (through metempsychosis) by neglecting the quest of truth and giving yourself up to worldly pleasures and ambitions. plative life. The root of all evil lies in delusion and ignorance.154 &quot. that Until we extinguish the desires accompany or result from ignorance. . but mists and shadows. we shall continue to be bound to the wheel of phenomenal existence. The perfect Enlightenment to which the Buddhist aspires implies the complete removal of all delusion concerning the apparent differentia tion of objective existences and the annihilation of the appearances that veil reality. In the next pages of the book emphasis is laid on the dignity of the religious life. The monk will not allow his intellectual and moral energies to be dissipated in futile strivings and longings. and that the prizes so earnestly sought after by the ignorant and deluded masses of mankind are nothing. and monks are warned that those who cannot live up to the high ideals w hich they profess should withdraw from the monkhood.

Next comes a short model dialogue for the guidance of pilgrim-monks when they arrive at a strange monastery. 1 taught the good law for forty-nine is all that his followers can do in his to follow faithfully steps as far as they are able. It may be necessary to explain that in a Chinese guest room the chairs are so arranged that host and guests may seat themselves in accordance with the recognized rules of etiquette.] ETIQUETTE FOR PILGRIMS 155 there are some who.&quot. the visitor. and going only then seating himself. as Kasyapa and Ananda were. go three paces into the room. and seat himself decorously on half the seat of a chair. Having reached the reception-room. and yet the prize is theirs. content himself with half the seat of a chair The is A of 1 quite in accordance with Chinese propriety. Sakyamuni years . to see the Master face to face. though they have not been privileged. . do at last succeed and there are some who seem to make no effort at all. one of the of Gotama . a subordinate official in the presence his superior. young man in the presence of an elderly or one. deposit his bundle outside we the are told. seats are those nearest the door. three The humblest By paces into the room. the visitor is therefore acting with due further injunction that he is to modesty.the akya Sage. must (unless is the meeting titles is the Sakyamuni (Chinese Shih-chia Fo) Buddha &quot. after a life-long struggle. should door.vii.

2 The guest would be made first .156 &quot. Chih-k o. to receive guests and offer them the hospitality of the establishment. Chih-k o. what my reverend brother 1 s name Mores mutantur. your honourable is monastery Visitor. would be taken for granted by Chinese readers. The Chinese are rapidly growing less punctilious in these small matters. &quot. 1 The Guide goes on to inform the pilgrim that when the chih-k o enters the room he must stand up and make a ceremonious bow. [CH.sect.THE PILGRIM S GUIDE&quot. to take a higher seat than that modestly occupied by him at the humblest seats. Chih-k o. and the dialogue 2 ensues will be somewhat as follows. am fully ordained. Chih-k o.] Visitor. that May I I ask where you have come from? Visitor. After the usual greetings the chih-k o and his whose special duty it is guest will sit down. What sect do you belong belong to the May I enquire is ? to ? Visitor. The chih-k o is a member of the monastic fraternity &quot. ? have come from May I ask where A is . bolt upright on a corner sit quite informal) in an attitude of respectful chair of his attention. while the . the monastery of Chih-k o. Have you outward I received the robe and are bowl ? [The signs of monkhood the robe and begging-bowl. chih-Jc o himself would take one of This manoeuvre^ and also the serving of the usual cups of tea. I . My B humble place of residence .

rise. which is also a Here the chapel and contains sacred images. Have you been here Visitor. May 1 venture to ask what your honourable business is in this place. My humble name is &quot. is. monastery. (If he intends to go elsewhere. [Buddhists receive a fa-ming.VIL] HOST AND GUEST Visitor. or they ch u-chia that name in religion. This is my first visit. May I enquire what is the name of your reverend father-in-religion ? The name of my father-in-religion Visitor.&quot. Please bring your papers. 1 A similar practice is in vogue in India^ where the priests in charge of places of pilgrimage issue sealed certificates to the Sadhus or wander ing Hindu ascetics. 157 . The two then and the visitor follows his host to an upper reception-room. enter world and a 1 lij o &quot. . papers sealed by. as proof that they receive certificates own have carried out their Chih-k before ? task. I purposely come here with the desire of devoting myself to the study of the lofty rules and principles of this monastery.&quot. when when they leave the is.} I propose to go on to May I ask you to endorse my certificate for me ? have .) My (If he proposes to remain where he intention is not to go elsewhere. Certainly. Chih-k o. or whither you intend to proceed ? Visitor.] Chih-k o. [Monks on pilgrimage or have their from. the different monasteries which they visit. Thenceforward their family and personal names are ignored. ^ Chih-k o. 1 ] o.

the pilgrim is told that a journey to the sacred hills will not only foster habits of reverent study and research. to the abbot. do not be discouraged. &quot. each of which closes with the phrase tz u nien wei yao behoves you to ponder on &quot.158 visitor is &quot. while visiting the holy mountains. deavour to find some experienced person to act If it is not your as your guide and teacher. These ten subjects are discussed in a series of miniature sermons. been sealed or endorsed and the time has come for his him to depart. [CH. as It should be your en things of no substance. Regard your troubles as dreams and illusions. taking care to adapt himself to cir arise. he takes ceremonious leave of hosts. though he does not address them until he has knelt in When his papers have prayer before Buddha. . the pilgrim. &quot.&quot. Perhaps he may be In this case his demeanour should be scrupulously modest and The next section of our Pilgrim s Guide Ten important subjects for reflection consists of &quot. cumstances as they presented reverential. will meet with varied experiences. presented to two or three of the heads of the various monastic departments.it these is things. some pleasant and others disagreeable or vexatious.&quot. : The general sense of the sermons as follows Firstly. Should you meet with unexpected hardships. as shadows or echoes. but will also enable him to acquire a useful knowledge of the world. You.THE PILGRIM S GUIDE&quot.

Conduct like this is altogether to be condemned it reveals : . and you will address one another with seemly respect and treat one another with courtesy. for the sake of avoiding a lonely journey. and when they come to a temple which is unable to offer them hospitality they will defiantly help themselves to supplies of food and drink.VIL] WARNINGS TO PILGRIMS 159 good fortune to come across any such person. guard one another from robbery. : may at last attain Secondly. behalf that through them you the goal of spiritual wisdom. By this means you and your fellow-pilgrims will be honoured comrades in religion. you must cultivate steadiness and then will the unseen sincerity of moral purpose powers be moved to grant you their spiritual guidance and protection. which cannot give them lodging -room they will forcibly establish themselves on the premises. then put your faith in the holy pusas of the mountains and when you burn incense at their that their shrines let your supplication be this spiritual powers may be so put forth on your . and be one another s support in the hour of danger and during the night watches. be yourself a loyal friend. On a long one is sure to fall in with false friends pilgrimage and true. If. they must watch over one another in sickness. two or three travel in company. and. having made your selection. But in choosing his associates the pilgrim must seek only those who are of upright and religious nature. It sometimes happens that a band of pilgrims will give a loose rein to the basest propensities of When they arrive at a monastery lawless natures. Select as your companions only men of good character.

always remembering observance . be particularly of such rules. a disposition that is quite contrary to the spirit of religion. and exalted character you should honour him with all the marks of respect that you would show to your religious instructor. and simply follow others in an aimless way. should do all in your power to relieve you should begin by acquiring full information concerning your route. but you will also show yourself If while to be a person of irresolute character. go thither. Be careful never to acquire such bad habits as these. you should make careful enquiries as to whether the report is true or false. definitely about the places to be visited. which will certainly ruin your But when you meet any one of noble reputation. and when you have done this you may go on your way with a You should make up your mind trusting heart. you will find yourself continually footsteps. and when you come across people who are crippled and in misery you them.THE PILGRIM S GUIDE&quot. If you neglect to make preliminary arrangements of this kind. If you find If you perceive while it to be true. and map Thirdly. on the road you hear of some monastery which is inhabited by men of distinguished virtue and wisdom. Not only will you fail to carry out your original intentions regarding your pilgrimage. [CH. wasting time your own and thus you by retracing will become bewildered and embarrassed. in a monastery that the rules of the lodging monkhood are observed with great strictness and careful in your own fidelity. out your journey in accordance with the position of the different mountains.160 &quot.

on the find that the monastic regulations are but laxly observed. directed towards the all Keep your thoughts way of truth. other hand. you should be guided by circumstances. when on pilgrimage it is : to count the time spent in travelling not fitting look on the road as your home for the time being. and fling aside fame or personal profit. so that you may be always near him. when to take long stages and when to take short ideas of ones. If you are in the company of a truly wise and noble companion. Make it your business at all costs to follow the good and eschew evil. do not run away from them reflect that they have come to you only because the sins committed by you in a former life must be expiated by you in this fare that placed before : one. Cherishing a frank joyousness in your heart.VIL] FOLLOW GOOD. expect to find his path an easy one. ESCHEW EVIL 161 that you are on a religious pilgrimage and should therefore be specially zealous in your obedience to religious law. it should be remembered that the proper object of the pilgrim s quest is truth he must not . and make in spite of difficulties. Fifthly. Cultivate humility and patience. Fourthly. In making up your mind when to halt and when to proceed. In this world . pursue day by day your wanderer s path. you should carefully abstain from any expressions of reproach or criticism. you If. regulate your own stages in accordance with his. If hardships beset you. not in what you eat and drink. and firm resolutions to carry out your pilgrimage Do be too particular is do not reject the on the plea that you it is tasteless.

provided with money. or who speak a strange dialect. Sometimes you will meet wise men whose language is different from yours.162 &quot. When you have the good fortune to meet a sage. [CH. so that it is difficult for you to derive full benefit from their discourse. If. his diploma fails to command the expected hospitality. Neglect no opportunity of cultivating wisdom and virtue. he should be grateful. if they are Lay-pilgrims. and they. let him instantly quell any rising anger or ill-will against those who turn . In that case you should take notes of what they say. Ponder earnestly the teachings of the wise. so that you may ponder their words at leisure. is granted. a monk asks for hospitality at the But when door of a strange monastery he should do so as a lowly If his suppliant and in a spirit of humility. It is not till the pilgrim has won his way with zeal and courage through all the pains and woes of human life that he can hope to attain the object of his quest. Sixthly. at the monasteries along their route. must claim their privilege of free board and lodging . can find lodgings for themselves without diffi but Buddhist and Taoist monks are culty scantily furnished with the wherewithal to meet the expenses of travel. request however. therefore. It is not till the has endured the icy rigours of winter plum-tree that its blossoming time will come.THE PILGRIM S GUIDE&quot. it should be remembered that there are two classes of pilgrims laymen and monks. of ours we cannot hope that heaven will make Buddhas of us for the asking. treat him with the same respect that a child is taught to pay to his schoolmasters or his elders.

KIANGSI. SOUTHERN ANHUI. [Facing p. 162. MOUNTAIN AND STREAM. .LU-SHAN.

.

but it would also be injurious to his own character. carrying your begging. or if he is by wearied with a long day s tramp. among people poverty that they can spare nothing for strangers or you will meet with people who are parsimonious or avaricious. find that old customs have undergone great changes.observance of religious usages. and who will supply you with no means of support whatever. and hinder him from maintaining that serenity of mind which they resolutely refuse to receive is necessary to the attainment of true wisdom. . let him make a courteous appeal to their pity and charity. thenhe should still without any show of impatience ask to be directed elsewhere. you may go on your way as a mendicant. Seventhly. in the course of your pilgrimage you will come to places which are the resort of Sometimes you will people from every quarter. conduct hospitable In these reception to far travelled circumstances you should in accordance with local yourself and beware of showing resentment conditions. He must refrain from uttering a word of reproach. for not only would that stir up feelings of resentment in those whom he addressed. and that there is no longer any one to give monks. darkness or caught in the rain. If him from him. In such cases you must refrain from referring to such people as ungenerous or uncharitable.vn.bowl who are themselves so sunk in . If there is really nothing else for you to do. Sometimes you or will pass through decayed villages. against the people of the district on the ground of their non .l FORBEARANCE AND PATIENCE 163 If he has been overtaken their door.

xx. . therefore. pp. ask your own of others conscience how you yourself : would treat a pilgrim-stranger at your gates have cause for shame. work. J. by Dr J. 69-71 of De Groot s &quot. Let the good be an incentive to yourself. and annotated. M. 1087 in B. the Buddhist monk not dangerous places or 1 which to strictly admonishes into risks. no one. The Chinese version has been translated into French. 88. charity of others. and translated by Rhys Davids in his Dialogues of the Buddha.. and xxxvi. need feel shame in relying upon charity. &quot.. 2 make journeys unnecessary to incur The Chinese and pi-ch iu represents the &quot. fail when occasion arises perhaps you you accept the not to register a vow that will When now must you will treat others as considerately as others are treating you. example When you are receiving alms. Sanskrit bhikshu. see above. 376. De The thirty-seventh Groot. or Pali to a for bhikJchu..B.164 in &quot. [CH. the pilgrim the the thirty-seventh secondary commandment of Fan-wang-ching. yet a solitary mendicant will not starve even on a journey of three thousand miles.N. in his Le Code du Mahdydna en Chine.THE PILGRIM S GUIDE&quot. There is a saying that it takes a thousand families to fill a offerings single begging bowl. xxiii. 2 The Chinese Fan-wang-ching (Brahmajala-siitra). literally Buddhist monk. secondary commandment will be found on pp. carefully observe Eighthly. p. which is No. The word iu when applied to a Buddhist monk has an pi-ch accordance blessed 1 the mendicant outer and an inner significance for food that he may nourish his body. religious means beggar/ but is technically applied For the more ordinary Chinese terms mendicant. To beg one s food is to act in your hand. the of with the rules laid down by the Buddha himself.E.-xxv. is riot to be confused with the Brahmajala Suttanta mentioned in S. he begs begs for instruction in the law of Buddha that : he may nourish his character.

and whether the roads are open to travellers. moreover. not with the object of providing for the wants of people like himself and that the stored in such establishments were in provisions tended to be used primarily for sacrificial purposes and secondarily for the support of the resident monks.vii. If you show anger or discontent. He must remind himself. how can you expect to escape the charge of being covetous and illtempered ? You should train yourself to be happy and satisfied with your lot.] BE CONTENT WITH LITTLE 165 should make enquiries as to whether the places he proposes to visit are in a state of prosperity or decay. and were not meant to be at the disposal of chance comers. Do not grumble if you are cramped for want of space or if the food and drink are not of superior quality. that temples and monasteries were built for the purpose of paying worship to Buddha and the unseen powers. Buddhist Literature in China. wherever situated. on his . There was a time when your lord Buddha himself was supplied with nothing better than the coarse fodder of horses l remind yourself that at least you fare better than your Master did. is in itself It is for this equivalent to a holy mountain. p. 1 see Beal s Lectures on . remember that every temple and every monastery. 52. 1882. If you are offered hospitality. reason that its principal gate is known as shan-men For the canonical story referred to here. : Ninthly. The contented man will be cheerful even if he has to sleep on the bare ground. take gratefully the quarters and the food that your hosts may provide for you. Only when the answers to such enquiries are satisfactory may he proceed He way.

2 . [CH.THE PILGRIM S 1 GUIDE&quot. be regarded by him with equal reverence and their inmates treated with equal respect. he must be careful to adapt himself to the different customs in vogue in the If he arrives different monasteries which he visits. Gate of the Hill. or at invidious must not make the time of the burning of incense. at the hour of morning or evening service. bears above its f gateway an inscription to this effect Why do you wander far from : 1 Here. on his way to the holy mountains the pilgrim must keep a careful watch over his moral conduct. into the the refectory. Tenthly. it is freely admitted by both Buddhists and Taoists that a man can worship the divine powers quite as well by staying at home as by going on a long journey. and lastly. close to your own doors. Many a little Taoist temple. He comparisons between them. a distant shrine ? ! Hill. Both lay and monastic Buddhists are bound by commandments. The temples and monasteries which offer hospitality to the pilgrim must all. In spite of the popularity of pilgrimages in China. Moreover.&quot. but those imposed on the monks are much stricter and more numerous than those enjoined on laymen. He must rigorously keep the commandments. and must not abandon him 2 He should self to self-indulgence of any kind. a Sacred home and seek &quot. or when the monks are going out to labour in the fields or when they are about to go let him strictly conform to fraternity. therefore. and must excuse himself from doing so that he is on no account on the false plea wearied with travel and must needs seek rest. rules of the He to join the should also show himself willing brethren in the performance of their prescribed duties. is T ai-shan In this and many similar sayings (Buddhist as well as Taoist) a reference is understood to the theory mentioned in the text that every temple or monastery is.166 &quot. &quot. unknown to fame. or is equivalent to.

style simple and unpretentious and quite devoid of the classicisms and artifices which appeal to the is literary instincts of the The average Chinese scholar. Where fore let the pilgrim rigidly abstain from making yields to free who with the property of another. have been observed that some of the and suggestions contained in these little warnings sermons are evidently intended for the edification of pilgrims of a humble and unlettered class.VIL] AVOID COVETOUSNESS 167 not allow his mind to be occupied except by pure and honourable thoughts. perhaps require a word of comment. in the seventh sermon. but also from the manner of the discourses for their It will . remarks on the subject of mendicancy. As a matter of fact. Such objects as these are all liable to corrupt the character of those who long for them overmuch. be set on books and scrolls or on gold and jade and precious stones. Worldly-minded men may value such things to the pilgrim they should be : of no account. all reckless covetousness whether his desires . of others will covet the material possessions assuredly bring discredit on the To pilgrim temptation. and he must not be Amid all the led astray by carnal enticements. That this is so is clear not only from the matter. beautiful scenes that meet his gaze let it be his first avoid Let him also object to be master of himself. irrespective of whether the coveted object be a thing of real value or only a worthless trifle. and his deeds may even be injurious to other pilgrims who in future happen to traverse the same road. the orthodox .

begging - bowls in hand. To witness a procession of yellow-robed their monks wending way. not. are supported their The Chinese monastic communities by endowments and by the monasteries at festival - offerings brought to the seasons and on special occasions of private and and the other in monks urgency by pilgrims Buddhist and worshippers. through a Burmese village or through the streets of a city like Mandalay. but he will be disappointed if he expects to see anything of the same kind in China.168 &quot. It is only when their lot is cast among a lay population of devout Buddhists that Buddhist monks can hope to support themselves out of the voluntary daily offerings of the faithful and lay China is . and never has been. [CH. is an experience that may fall to the lot of any Western visitor to south-eastern Asia. and might even meet with a good deal of abuse. He would be more likely to get his bowl filled and would run less risk of insult by throwing off the monkish garb altogether and . go into the towns visitors villages with or subscription - books a for the purpose of collecting rebuilding money for such objects as restoration of temple or building. indeed. so enthusiastically Buddhist as the people of Burma. Buddhist practice of mendicancy is not carried out in China to any appreciable extent. Ceylon.THE PILGRIM S GUIDE&quot. and Siam. China often. but a monk who tried to procure his daily food by carrying a begging-bowl from door to door would probably suffer from monastic chronic hunger.

however. whether Buddhist or Taoist. that religious pilgrims. It is true.VIL] HOSPITALITY IN CHINA 169 his appeal to the charitable in the guise of an ordinary lay beggar. little fear The of suffering from lack of food Chinese are a hospitable and . making need have or shelter. . kind-hearted people and they will rarely allow a stranger to turn away hungry from their doors.

N. 05. 1003. (Har. on f Chiu-hua. According to one of the cosmological theories of the Tantric 1 The name See B. etc. The Sanskrit name of this bodhisat is Kshitigarbha. 1457.CHAPTER VIII TI-TSANG PUSA THE mountain of Chiu-hua. consists of a range of pinnacled hills which lie at a distance of a score of miles from the south bank of the of Anhui. frequently published at the monasteries of Pai-sui and Ch i-yiian. Mahayana which tell literature contains several 1 sutras us about Ti-tsang and his works. or Earth . 170 . iii. - tsang are a trans explained thus. of meaning Earth Womb is which the Chinese words Ti lation. 981.). and several other sutras Chinese editions of the Ti-tsarig sutras are vii. the pusa divinity or bodhisat whose gracious function it is to fling Yangtse in the province is open the gates and lighten the gloom of hell and rescue tortured souls from the pitiless grasp of the lictors of Yenlo-wang (Yama-raja). and also at the Yung-ch iian monastery of Ku-shan. one of the principal objects of pilgrimage in Buddhist China. the king of devils. 997. vol. G4.Treasury.. Its patron the compassionate Ti-tsang. near Foochow.

the B. Ti-tsang swerve from earth rests tion. He will take on himself the burden of the woes of all who trust him. 126. Having uttered his his vow.N As expounded. six million 180.CH. and from sorrow and danger and pain he will not shrink. is the and courage which fill the heart of Ti-tsang. which ing and unbreakable. VIIL] THE VOW OF TI-TSANG 1 171 Buddhists. is say. It is with reference to his position as nourisher and consoler and rock of refuge that Ti-tsang is sometimes known as the Earth-spirit 1 (ti-shen). it is said. and he will never regard his work as finished so long as a single soul languishes in sorrow or in pain.earth (Chinese chin-kang-ti]. Just as the so immovably on its adamantine founda will mankind find its surest support 2 in the diamond-like firmness of the will of the The hosts of evil spirits unconquerable Ti-tsang. 127). the Earth miles. for he has uttered a vow before the throne of the eternal Buddha) (the glorified that he will devote himself to the salva God tion of suffering mankind. . J Yen-mintj Ti-tsang Ghing. nothing can make purpose. Even inflexibility of the virtue absolutely unyield so. cannot daunt him. and that he will not be deterred for a single instant from his self-imposed task until. for instance. after the lapse of aeons. he has brought all living beings safely to the haven of Buddha- hood. in the Ghin-kuznq-minq-chinq (see .000 yojanas thickThe deepest or lowest of is the various earth -layers the is Diamond .

he is the bearer of the gleaming pearl which by the reflection of its light cracks and bursts the iron walls of hell.supporting spirit [CH. According to another by Ti-tsang. 145. or Adamantine bears the spirit He name (Chin-kang chienof Earth partly sympathy and compassion are allembracing. when we consider how the Oriental mind understands the use of stress is laid symbolism. Indeed. not to be supposed that the educated Buddhist really believes that the hells in which erring human souls are tormented are situated in the bowels of the earth. and the Diamond ku-sheri). is which means earth-prison. But there is also an allusion to his special function as opener of the gates of hell &quot. when he passes the gloomy portals and holds forth his radiant jewel the darkness of hell is dispelled by rays of celestial 2 light. 2 3- f & am e * at & n * t % *m . account of the articles carried and of the golden It is crozier with which he causes the dark halls of death to shake and tremble.TI-TSANG PUS A world . and what 1 by Buddhist See p. : for the literally Chinese name for 1 &quot. When he touches the doors of hell with his staff they are burst asunder. generally represented as carrying a staff or crozier in one hand and a miraculous jewel Ti-tsang in the other. hell is ti-yu.ti shen). and partly because his will to afford help and the means of salvation to struggling souls because his is unchangeable and indomitable. - (ch ih .

(Tl-TSANG PUSA. . i 1? .\ I IV : JIZO.) [Faring 6.

.

in the Not the most and abject wretch profoundest and most hideous of the hells need be without hope of sharing in the bounteous gifts of Ti-tsang. even by the very or eternal devils themselves.still teaches not only that the purgatorial fire is material. The Dean is careful to add that educated Romanists no longer p. referred to on p. 79 above. but that it is situated in the middle of the earth (Personal Idealism and Mysticism. the Catholic theory of the Treasure of the Church. punishment is not. and all its riches are distributed freely among who seek them. 2 3 See p.VIIL] THE TREASURE-HOUSE OF TI-TSANG that pertains to the 178 metaphysics on the impermanence and non-reality of all phenomenal world. is symboli of the pusa. &quot. too. The second part of the name Ti-tsang means a storehouse or treasury. &quot. This. Everlasting &quot. 3 1 &quot. but rather with Purgatory. hells are comparable point that the Buddhist eternal Hell of which Christianity not with the 2 teaches. whose love and cally descriptive compassion are an inexhaustible treasure which poured forth for the benefit of souls in sorrow. The treasure-house of Ti-tsang is is for ever open to the whole forlorn world.The Roman Catholic Church/ &quot. Salvation is eventually to be attained by all living beings. and never was. . 150). as Dean Inge tells us. taught by Buddhism. 62. believe this. Cf. we ever may doubt whether Buddhists held such crudely materialistic views of the unseen world as those which till recent years were current in 1 In any case it is well to emphasize the Europe.

The Just as great bodhisats are independent by Buddhahood can be realized only by him who has himself become Buddha. But a creed that is to meet the religious and emotional needs of the unlearned multitude as well as those of the philosopher and the mystic is obliged not only to soar starwards.incarnations&quot. so Ti-tsang is truly knowable only by history of and unconditioned space and time. if it would be recognized as such.174 TI-TSANG PUSA [CH. Ti-tsang.) For the true personage. but keep in touch with homely earth. must undergo a partial humanization the sublimest ideals must be interpreted in terms of human thought and knowledge the divine. i See pp. become incarnate. or Wen-shu. This gracious pusa appears as a speaker in but it will be several of the Mahayana sutras . P u-hsien. must also to . 1 the man who has first unfettered Self an sought and found his own achievement which will be discovery that Ti- followed by the additional tsang and all his fellow-pusas are but as starflashes from the aureole of Buddha. and that Buddha and the unfettered Self are One. 113-116. we may search historical with any historical records in vain. as for the true Amitabha. in short. Kuan-yin. readily understood from what has been said in an earlier attempt distinct to chapter that the Buddhists make no identify the original Ti tsang (as his from subsequent &quot. . Deity.

but its Sanskrit original is The in greater antiquity. represented as having visited this &quot. There are sutras dealing with this subject (see B. The a sutra which deals with the is of Ti-tsang which. the same as that taken by every practically bodhisat and by the glorious Amitabha Buddha Vow vow himself in the days of his bodhisatship may be 1 has regarded as typical of its class. is the same and yet not the same as the historic founder of the Buddhist himself. This work existed in a Chinese form since the last years of the seventh century of our era. for the purpose of preaching the Law to his mother Maya. The description of the opening scene is 1 The Ti-tsang is p u-sci-pim-yuan-ching. He Buddhahood the same. it must be observed.N. human or divine. who had been re-born there after her life on earth.) 2 He . Over this vast crowd of presides divinities who. 2 the Buddha religion. sutra opens with a description of a great of much assembly of pusas and other supernatural beings the paradise known in Chinese as Taoli and in Sanskrit as Trayastrimsa the heaven of the Brahmanic god Indra.VIIL] THE TI-TSANG SUTRA how is 175 It will perhaps help us to understand the by the Mahayanists if we problem briefly examine one of the numerous sutras in which the doctrine of the bodhisats is instruc dealt with tively handled.heaven&quot. because he has transcended the category of human personality. as we shall see. because in attaining Gotama reached the highest state is which can be reached by any being. 153 and 382. yet not the same.

Buddha turns to the great pusa Wen-shu (Manjusri).176 TI-TSANG PUSA [CH. and asks him whether he can count the number of these beings. worlds demons do home to us by Buddha s opening speech and the answer thereto. though he were to devote to this sole task a should be wrong if we were thousand geons. Wenshu replies natural that even with the aid of super power he would be unable to do so. realize the utter futility of all efforts to measure and an indication that we have been lifted into a region in which mundane standards and qualifications are inadequate and inapplic the infinite. This point is emphasized by the fact that the confession of incapability is put into the mouth of Wen-shu. of whom to do so. is nothing he does not know. and honour to Buddha is brought &quot. angels. We to regard this merely as an example of Oriental It is an attempt to make us grandiloquence. men. He grander and vaster scale than is possible or conceivable within the narrow bounds far warned are on a is at once that the events to be related mundane life. nothing he does not said that there . obviously intended to attune the reader s imagina tion to the keynote of a celestial melody. If even he the wisest of able. from all the to &quot. the number of of The unimaginable immensity of spiritual beings who assemble of gods. all the pusas it is unable to answer Buddha s question. any one it is else would be obviously impossible for Buddha himself. nothing he does not hear.

M . which was duly registered by his consecrate lives Buddha. 2 Filled with religious enthusiasm and with intense pity for his suffering fellowmen. and the successive re- quoted in a Chinese commentary on the Ti-tsang sutra. Buddha tells the story of Titsang s Vow and its incalculable results. he swore a solemn oath. awaiting the day when he shall be born again on is 2 This That is earth and become Buddha. dwelling in the Tushita heaven. Ages ago. that he whole life and all his ages the would future for incalculable --to the work of of sinful and miserable man Never would he desist from his task such was his vow until.VIIL] REDEMPTION OF MANKIND admits that the the infinite 177 see 1 cannot be brought these process./Eons 1 passed away. the future pusa was born as a member of a certain noble family. to say. who is still a bodhisat. and became a devoted disciple of the Buddha. to salvation by the power of Ti-tsang and. in response to a request from Wen-shu. having brought all men safely across the river of life and death. in a remote kalpa or aeon. the Buddha of that kalpa since succeeded by many other Buddha s. of whom Gotama was the last. countless within scope of any intellectual He goes on to explain that myriads of spirits are the beings who through immeasurable ages of past and future time have been or will be brought . The next Buddha is to be Maitreya. . he had landed them on the shores of Nirvana. and seen them pass into eternal beatitude. the redemption kind.

assuredly is 1 The Chinese name of this. One day she was kneeling in a sanctuary praying to Buddha and weeping bitter tears because she knew not what sufferings her mother was girl. incarnations incessant acts marked by of untiring altruism and unswerv the pusa were all ing devotion to the welfare of (still in a later kalpa At last. he was reborn as a Brahman This maiden was virtuous. Suddenly she heard a poor weeping saint.&quot. in the hope that she might thereby ease her mother s pain. and a scoffer. tears. relieve them.178 TI-TSANG PUSA of [OH. of exceptionally good repute among both gods her mother. The undergoing or how she could &quot. the last of the eight hot hells/ Wu-chien. I will reveal to you the place whither your mother has been The unseen Buddha for it was he taken. man. devoted herself more heartily than ever to good works and religion. . 1 of which she was died unrepentant. which the of her mother s abode would &amp.&quot. immeasurably remote from the present age). to whom holy impious After an evil life things were of no account. religious. as a result condemned to the torments of the Avichi whose knowledge of the laws of yin-kuo (cause and effect) assured her that her mother must have been reborn in hell.lt. it Dry your said &quot. on the contrary. then bade the girl return home and ponder after his name secret silently and faithfully. voice. was an and men . . and girl. heretic the elder woman hell. which signifies a place of uninterrupted torment.

and multiped. many . their way to their place of punish &quot. devil-king. After a little while she was approached until. prayer having she acquired new fortitude through her faith in him. and shores. he observed. Above them skimmed and flapped uncanny beasts with wings. Yakshas (hell . This one. is not nearly . there were. who asked her what she was doing at the entrance to hell. ment. Into ocean in edge of a wildly raging wallowed vast numbers of - the turbulent of waters bodies shrieking were flung the living men and women. and after spending a day night in an ecstasy of meditation she suddenly found herself She did as she and a transported to the which hideous marine animals. too. When the miserable human sufferers struggled desperately to wrench themselves free and to reach the neighbouring back they were driven by the yakshas to the crimsoned waters and the insatiable teeth and claws.VIIL] STORY OF THE BRAHMAN GIRL her. of uncouth shapes yakshas many-armed.&quot.eyed. double .&quot.demons). offered silent by a &quot. and with teeth that protruded from the mouth with edges like sharp swords. 179 be revealed to was bidden. The sight was insupportable. whose writhing limbs were greedily wrenched asunder by the pitiless jaws and talons of the wrangling monsters.headed. he remarked. the Brahman girl felt terrified and sick to at heart Buddha. was one of the three great waters which have to be crossed by the souls of dead sinners on &quot. for this ocean.

is and filial piety of her saintly daughter. and death. and now she is at peace in Paradise. You and the Brahman girl fell into a trance.&quot. and consecrate in a former age made that she her activities to the rescue of suffering sinners from the pains and sorrows incident to both life all would she strive to assuage the miseries of those who were being tormented in the underworld.&quot. from which she awoke amid the familiar surroundings of her own home. she says. Full of gratitude to Buddha. and there she renewed the oath would become a saviour of mankind. . The &quot.Your mother. In answer to the devil-king s questions she then gives him full details as to her mother s name and earthly residence whereupon he clasps his hands respectfully and assures her that all is well. &quot. [CH.180 TI-TSANG PUSA . girl explains that her object in coming to the confines of hell is that she may find her mother. she has been saved by the &quot. especially More . Sinner as she was. &quot.&quot. With these cheering words the devil departed. and that she may go home in comfort. nor would she con sider her vow fulfilled until every soul in hell had become a partaker in the ineffable bliss of heaven.&quot. he says.&quot. so dreadful as the second one is and the second not nearly as bad as the third.and I am in doubt as to where her soul has gone. My mother died a short time ago. have rescued your mother from the worst of the hells. virtue already in heaven. she hurried off to the sanctuary in which she had received his promise.

(Sheng Mu). In accordance which are similar to those in numerous sutras and sermon-books. the &quot.&quot. who In the presence of all the divine beings have assembled in the Taoli paradise he now receives the blessing of Buddha. contempt for holy things. to whom he has made a report of the work already performed. 1 eternal Mother of with her all the request. After a short dialogue between Buddha and Ti-tsang on the subject of the working of the 1 JIMS ^ A .VIIL] THE MOTHER OF BUDDHA part 181 The next of the sutra describes how throughout unimaginable ages and in countless worlds Ti-tsang in his successive reincarnations has been steadily carrying out his benevolent purpose.Holy Mother&quot.the theory she Buddhas.# JR ^f* ft all a hint of the mystical truth that Here again we have j| the Buddhas are one. the Maya is traditional name of the earthly parent of Gotama Buddha. to enumerate and describe the Ti-tsang proceeds different kinds of sins which can only be expiated in the Avlchi hell. It is interesting to note that the list of sins is headed by the gravest moral offence known to Chinese ethics lack of filial piety. we need not enter. Into these detailed descriptions. The first speaker in the next scene is the Lady Maya. and irreverence towards the books of the Buddhist scriptures. and according to a Mahayanist is &quot. who begs Ti-tsang to expound the nature of the punishments meted out to the wicked. Among those which follow are sacrilege. .

Once. . and are therefore bound to respect life in others. in answer to a question put by a pusa named Tingtzu-tsai (the &quot. for example.182 TI-TSANG PUSA [CH. as a girl. from two points of view.Thou The shalt Buddhist commandment life&quot. inexorable law of and its results). In the first place. &quot. In the second place and this is a far graver con sideration 1 all living beings. 1 meshes of vice In another age he was born and was known by the name of Brights eyes. and enumerates the punishments that follow the different classes Buddha now of misdeeds. says our Chinese is commentator on this passage. Ss& ta ien-wang. karma (moral character in action Buddha gives a further account. he was born as king of a country which was noted for the wickedness of its inhabitants. some of the acts of self-sacrifice performed by Ti-tsang in certain of his former incarnations. 2 even t the lowest Kuang-mu. of Self-Existent &quot. is one of the gravest of sins. deprive any being of life. This damsel characteristic virtue is was filial piety. important not take To given special prominence in this chapter. and through love and pity for his misguided subjects he swore that he would refuse to accept the rewards due to his own virtue so long as a single in the man in his kingdom remained entangled or worldly delusion. all men and animals instinctively cling to life. Four Heavenly Kings 2 explains the doctrine of retribution. and the story told of her benefit of the similar in essentials to that of the For the Brahman girl.).

.AT THE SOUTHERN BASE OF CHIU-HUA. CHIU-HUA. 182. [Facing /. (Peaks covered with mist.) A MOUNTAIN STREAM.

.

The noble. out with a bow and arrows to shoot with him and gave him encouragement. speaks. insects. P u-hsien When exhorts this all is concluded Buddha arises and pusas and spiritual beings to protect and keep holy this sutra concerning the Vow of Ti-tsang.nature to slaughter. said Buddha. and your wife and your son s bride were the three sport. there was a boy &quot. who went birds. 147. That boy was no other than your own son in a former incarnation and you yourself Three men were . The son married a wife. but he fell from a branch and was killed.VIIL] FU-HSIEN PUSA are sharers in 183 . at whose request Ti-tsang gives an account of the various hells which he has visited for the purpose of saving souls.&quot.&quot. overcome with grief. the Buddha . &quot. he tells us that once upon a time there was a wealthy noble illustrate the text. is to incur the The guilt of killing a Buddha. 1 who encouraged him The next speaker in his cruel is pusa. . only son. visited Buddha and besought him to explain what he had done to who had an deserve so severe a calamity as the loss of his only son. Long ago. See p. so that through the sanctity and spiritual efficacy of its words all men may reach the heaven of Nirvana. all the myriad worlds comprising the whole universe 1 As he The patron divinity of Omei-shan. Seven days after the wedding he climbed a tree to pluck blossoms to make a garland for his bride. therefore. commentator gives several little anecdotes to commit needless and wanton For example.

sick bring peace ness. and &quot. and It sometimes happens. arrival of Yenlo-wang (Yama). the king of kings&quot. as we shall see. which emanates from his transfigured person. nuns. to all spirits.. is hermit uses his own blood in making copies of the scriptures or in drawing portraits of his favourite pusa. and will be a sure protection in Ti-tsang.small before Buddha and explains that he and his diabolical this visit to the Taoli to pay heaven through the spiritual might of Buddha himself and that of the pusa Ti-tsang.) concerning death and judgment and rebirth. in making copies of this sutra.&quot.editions of the sacred books a list of the names of all who subscribed towards the cost of printing. with a vast crowd of devil -kings. This Reverence to Ti-tsang consists. named Ta Pien (&quot.Great Argument&quot. One of them The copying or are told.elder&quot. that a monk or lay-believers. who 1 are in danger or are disturbed by evil After a religious dialogue between Ti-tsang and an &quot. great devilYenlo kneels &quot. He goes on to describe the results of a true and devout faith are illuminated Devotion to this pusa will infallibly and happiness to those in pain. reprinting of any portion of the Buddhist scriptures is always re garded by Chinese Buddhists as an act of great religious merit. .184 TI-TSANG PUSA by a radiant light [CH. we why we constantly find at the end of monastery . we come to the most dramatic event described in the sutra the hell. especially with reference to those backsliding souls to 1 whom may be shown in many ways. or sorrow. Such names usually include those of monks. and that they have come to implore company have been enabled the World-honoured One to remove their doubts and perplexities concerning the nature of Ti-tsang s great work of redemption and rescue.

however. in accordance with the fate that they have brought upon themselves. We ask for leave to wander through the world of men. are limitless. The from those who are in need of his help even though they have wandered again and again from the safe path to which he has led them. in to fall into sin as often as they are helped out patience and compassion of Ti-tsang. whose unpromis Evil Poison is the next pro ing name is O-tu (&quot. where there is so much evil. &quot. Each of us has own duty assigned him. or the laying of a it . and he does not turn away of it. One of the principal devils.Lord.EVIL POISON&quot. throws light on the ideas of Chinese Buddhists in the concerning the devil-nature. When we come to a house whether it be a city mansion or a farmer s cottage in which we find to or a single woman engaged in doing good. so little good. be it on ever so small a scale. His speech tagonist heavenly drama. he says. but who have again fallen into evil ways and have incurred fresh punishment.). &quot. we are engaged either in helping men or in harming them. &quot.&quot. though a single man be only by the offer of an altar-ornament. Buddha proceeds to preach a sermon on this which he says that men are often of a froward and untamable nature. 185 the helping hand of the saviour Ti-tsang has already been extended. or the burning of a little incense.we demons his are countless in number. which causes them subject.VIIL] &quot. or showing reverence for the Buddhas and holy things.

single flower before Buddha s throne. like Indra god place divine position by good karma. and misfortune from approaching their doors. the mighty guardian of devas. always figure kept in their &quot. With Indra. and your companions. it regard to this reference to the god may are be observed allowed to that the in Brahman Buddhist proper when of mythology. or the devout one verse of a hymn of praise when we come to the house of such a one as this.&quot. A &quot. perhaps are inferior to that of men. and watch over good men and good women and 1 will command the lord Indra. revert to a condition &quot. &quot. to become your divine patron. deities. slight respect by Buddhism.demons his fellow for their laudable desire to range themselves on the side of virtue. . vouchsafe to grant the permission we crave.&quot. commending Evil Poison and . we recital of such man or woman in highest but the holy Buddhas. and it will then be our privilege to act demons will hold as guardian-spirits of the homes of all righteous to prevent disaster. says Buddha. present. a gracious reply.186 TI-TSANG PUSA [CH.gods&quot. past.&quot.You &quot. sickness. Buddha makes &quot. and he will subordination. has earned his but the accumulated merit which sent him to heaven will in time be exhausted. honour. are still subject to the law . because men. Let and to come. like The treated with com paratively they. men and^women and To this remarkable speech &quot. and Yenlo are empowered to guard himself.

187 of They are inferior not only to a Buddha. They assail the woman in childbirth.is My lot. which bears &quot. all is that : happiness failure be the other lot to attain happiness mankind not due influence men s to him. explains. name of Chu-ming of all (&quot.&quot. but attributable entirely own The with lack of righteousness and their own errors. but to any one who has advanced so far along the road to Buddhahood that he is henceforth in no danger of retrogression. According the direct state to the Buddhist of theory. 1 The next speaker is a demon who the imposing &quot.&quot. . he says. His own earnest shall desire. 68. greater part of his speech is concerned the religious and ceremonial observances which. he says. p. are rightly associated with the two extremes of human life. Lord of Fate &quot.god&quot. to control the destiny lives men is in respect of both their and he of their deaths. of Buddhahood any the never &quot. or to any power is or outside to them their selves. He tells us that the spirits and are apt to show special activity at the time of birth and in the hour of death.VIIL] THE LORD OF FATE change. addressing Buddha. moreover. reached of the at in from heavens Brahman system. demons hostile to man because it 1 is their malignant desire Cf.). order that he is may arrive at bodhisatship. The who aims Buddhahood must be born again as man &quot. is &quot. the final stage short of Buddhahood.

must on no account be fed on a flesh diet or given any food which has involved the slaughter of a This injunction living animal. importance that should men A woman in childbirth. him unharmed. so woman will spares own the and other prosper. other beings. if she causes offspring live destruction of so will the fruit of her own womb near his evil pine and to die. judgment spirits and sickness or old age clouds and numbs his faculties. because they desire to gain posses sion of the discarnate soul and make it their to or . the baffled devils will assuredly Chu-ming himself under takes to further the good cause which Ti-tsang has at heart by doing his best to rescue sinners . the are waiting for his soul will appear before his dying eyes in deceitful and seductive shapes. the reading mind from thoughts of him defeat the devils by the scriptures and calling upon his Let names of the holy ones. is not merely commandment on sympathetic the lives of but is based her If the magic. we are told. lives. It is therefore of great be provided with when they enter and when proper safeguards they make their exits from the stage of life. a reiteration of the Buddhist against killing. plaything in hell. Again. Unless his life has been so bad that nothing can save him from the pains of leave hell. when a man draws death. destroy her offspring they assail the dying. who diverting the Buddhas.188 TI-TSANG PUSA injure [OH.

will. passage on the merit of making and paying reverence to images and pictures of the pusa is of interest. of greater interest. benevolent than ming s Sakyamuni and speech. in time to come.VIIL] USE OF IMAGES less 189 from the grasp of devils himself. lose his demonhood. . the monk Ch ing-lien. and that their A sole use *s to stimulate the religious imagination and to engender feelings of veneration for the spiritual reality of which they are an imperfect . turning to he prophecy that this demon. the The next an section of the sutra consists of enumeration by Ti-tsang of the names of various Buddhas of past ages and a description of the blessed lot of those in them. and at a certain period in the remote future (one hundred and seventy kalpas hence) will become a Buddha. listens graciously to Chuof utters some words Ti-tsang. Thereafter a we have a section which - contains speech from a powerful earth spirit who joins the throng of spiritual beings who have assembled to do honour to the name of Titsang. the crippled. owing to his tender and merciful dealings with men. as it gives our com mentator. an opportunity of emphasizing the truth that no sanctity attaches to images and pictures as such. eulogizes and women who are charitable and sympathetic. and the aged. who put their trust The the men next. encouragement delivers then. and who devote themselves to the relief of the sick.

that the outward shows are intended to has no local habitation. 103. says truth which these shadow it forth be said to that is belong to say. like Ti-tsang.190 TI-TSANG PUS A Buddhas or iron. In this sutra Kuan-yin is only brought in to give Buddha an 1 -See p. Kuan-yin 1 being who. [CH. of course prone to become in mere worshippers of stone and clay. expression. or west to has no spatial relations. The image its purpose into to if it helps human but it spirit is communion be bring the with the divine. is one of the who preside over the so-called Western Paradise. is a guide and saviour of mankind. and who. south. serves north. This view of images is undoubtedly that of educated Buddhists in China though the un educated and superstitious multitude. to whose minds senses. Canton The sutra next introduces us to one of the the glorious greatest of the pusas. Images of the of gold or silver or copper may be and they may be exposed to public reverence in a shrine made of clay or stone or bamboo or timber so says the text. three as divinities we have seen. But let the commentator. . as rightly regarded a means and not as an end. nor can to it us remember. east. or Peking as in Moscow or Rome. nothing is it conceivable is as having real existence unless and who are do cognizable by the bodily not understand the uses of symbolism.

the hungry.] FAITH IN TI-TSANG of is 191 praises opportunity showering further on here described as the supporter Ti-tsang. . &quot. and he will be surrounded and protected 1 by the ghostly reverence that guardians of the soil. Ti-tsang. could hundred he that result blessings from a good man s faith in Ti-tsang.viii. sleeping. who the oppressed. deep he need only repeat robber . the sick. and the dreamer of The believer in Ti-tsang may dreams. your knowledge.&quot. waking or believer will always be attended bodyguard will if . the by an invisible Travelling or resting. he spoke says Sakyamuni. travel on forests. Ti-tsang.haunted roads with faith the name of Ti-tsang. So too are your loving pity. then encourages Ti-tsang to continue his benevolent task of saving those who are still in 1 He Tu-ti kuei shen. they would not be able to say all that is your due.your spiritual might is beyond the reach of thought. who all pusa s name. even for wild beasts and poisonous reptiles be powerless to do a him harm.&quot. and your wisdom. and comforter of the poor. If all the Buddhas were to spend innumerable ages in declaring the glory of your works.Oh s head. evil ascend dangerous cross mountains. the dying. thousand exhaust the Not kalpas. he says. Sakyamuni stretches forth his arm and touches manifold the pusa &quot. Finally. rivers traverse trackless and seas.

before the throne of Ti-tsang Buddha and. of the modern editions of this sutra 1 one reference is The to the edition published at Ku-shan in 1886. solemnly repeats his promise to devote himself to the salvation of now kneels mankind. only a minute number whose personal merit is a small as a sand. . In the or very jaws of hell Ti-tsang will help and set come to their them free. grain speck of dust. or a or a drop of water. who enumerates twenty-eight different kinds will be conferred upon those for their of blessings which who choose Ti-tsang patron and saviour. The last of the twenty-eight is the attainment of Buddhahood. and showers of sweet-scented blossoms fall at the feet of the Lord To 1 Buddha and the great pusa. The closing scene shows Sakyamuni and Ti-tsang receiving the homage of the whole vast assembly of pusas and other spiritual beings by whom the Taoli heaven is thronged. [CH. Finally he declares that the &quot. Celestial hands bring offerings of heavenly raiment and jewels. A speech in praise of Ti-tsang by a fellow-pusa named Hsii-k ung-tsang is followed by a final address by 6akyamuni. of sin and delusion and burning house watching over them so that they may fall into misery no more. clasping his hands.192 TI-TSANG PUS A &quot. owing to Ti - tsang s transcendent virtue as redeemer. good of those hair. salvation will be extended not merely to those who have lived good lives. but also to those of as who have sown seeds.

monk been reverently carved by Ching hsi and his two they have carried out this work of piety in the prayerful hope that their mother. and prosperous life. as a typical example of a large and influential literature. or Classic of Filial Piety. Buddhism would never have struck a deep root into Chinese soil. regarded. ing-lien.VIIL] is FILIAL PIETY a 195 effect appended note &quot. however.have to the that the printing-blocks the ordained brothers. Indeed the commentator Ch as &quot. inasmuch as this work is regarded as occupying a place in Buddhist literature similar to that occupied in Confucian literature by the Hsiao Ching. stress on filial piety as does Confucianism Were it otherwise. l high distinction owing to the many passages which the cardinal Chinese virtue is emphasized and illustrated. describes it The Gospel of Filial Piety as expounded The sutra has earned by our Lord Buddha. though in other respects it is this in It may be hardly deserving of special praise. Shih. Inscriptions of this kind and that Wu are very frequently to be found in the reprints It is hardly of Buddhist tracts and books. 1 subdivision of Chinese of its Buddhistic and our summary N Wo Fo so shuo chih Hsiao Ching.&quot. . might enjoy a long. necessary to say that Buddhism lays almost as much itself. indeed. happy. In the case of the Ti-tsang sutra an inscription of the kind referred to is specially appropriate.&quot.

P u-hsien. or one of the rulers. is himself one of title true that a popular of Ti-tsang is Yu-ming-chiao-chu or Pope. contents justify us in dispensing with an examination of many similar sutras dealing with those great pusas Wen-shu. on errands of love and mercy . been supposed. that Ti-tsang is a blessed We pusa. It has . that he is &quot.&quot. and that another See p. That identified with Yama these conjectures are is erroneous the reader It is of the foregoing difficult to see pages now aware. for instance. king and judge among the damned. Ti-tsang and Yenlo are one and the same. of hell is a being named Yenlo : therefore (so it was assumed) now know. of hell.194 TI-TSANG PUSA will [CH. and who. a glorious saviour-deity. of the Underworld 1 Lord and Teacher. with Ti-tsang. not It how the mistake has arisen. are religiously Kuan-yin associated with our Four Famous Mountains. and it was known that the ruler. who visits hell only whereas Yenlo. however. It is devils. . was vaguely understood that prayers are addressed to Ti-tsang on behalf of those who are supposed to be suffering the pains of hell. 147. 1 Next (whose to nothing about the very name will be of Ti-tsang strange to many cult Western readers) is to be found in European books on Chinese Buddhism and the little that exists is by no means free from error. the ruler and a student of Buddhism has even hazarded the suggestion that he is rightly to be the Chinese Yenlo.

194. (Tl-TSANG PUS A.JIZO.) [Facing /. .

.

the over the similarly became &quot. rather than the ruler. souls &quot.&quot. Yenlo is the Chinese name for the Vedic and Brahmanical and Iranian hero or deity Yama.&quot. ruler souls of dead this women.first became ruler over the twin-sister man.VIIL] YAMA is 195 of his titles City. capacity that he has been recognized by popular Buddhism The story of how he came to be in China. woman. predominating belief was that he was the son of the god Vivasat and appeared A on earth as the &quot. ruler In the epic of the Mahabhdrata. Yama was one of the numerous forms of the god Agni. After his death he of dead men. as a king of hell.first His 1 Yami. . Once when at war with the king of a neighbouring state he was in danger of suffering defeat in a if oath that great battle. and Yami was the Earth.&quot. in Northern India. of hell. master and guide of those for position of hell s mean that he is the the who look to him salvation from its torments the conqueror. and it is in Yama figures of the damned an is told thus: Ages ago Yenlo was ordinary human monarch and ruled over the kingdom of Vaisali. Yu-tu-wang King of the Dark but these names do not signify that actually Ti-tsang holds They king or judge. In India and Persia he was identified with several different divinities and forces of nature. he 1 According to a Brahmanic belief. and swore a mighty the powers of the underworld would come to his help and give him the victory.

territory of his defeated eighteen generals became the eighteen minor kings. of molten After court copper this he is the is poured at down his set liberty and the allowed to amuse himself with the female devils of his until time comes as a for punishment to be repeated.) . the word shuang (&quot. and the king marched victoriously through the their appearance at the But the neighbour. has reference to the king s alternating experiences in hell. his majesty is seized by a band of devils and His mouth laid flat on a scorching frying-pan.twin. Yenlo is sometimes described or &quot. the torture of the boiling copper being always succeeded by the exhilarating double &quot. shuang-wang. and their million warriors were also reborn in hell as demon-lictors.four hours happy. for the king in his next incarnation was born as principal king of hell. oath was not forgotten. always at life not unmixedly Three times every twenty . which means According to one interpretation. The battle was soon won. his side with terrific all of whom fought on rage and ferocity. This is really a Chinese transla &quot. The Yenlo as king of hell possesses a grand palace. is then forced open with an iron hook.&quot. tion of the Sanskrit Yama. and multitudes of servile but his his beck and call devils is are stream throat. would agree to be reborn in Thereupon eighteen generals suddenly made head of a million warriors. and hell.196 TI-TSANG PUS A his followers [CH. double-king. and a .&quot.

. living_being of Buddhahood. Yenlo has been According one of hell s chief kings for countless past ages. be utterly repugnant to the Buddhist theory of spiritual evolution. but among these a single soul that is not itself not at last purge its from all sin and foulness and win way to the light. Every will sooner or later attain the bliss. the word implies that Yenlo two as personalities as male and seen. who as brother and not hold joint rule over the denizens of hell. and from this rule the souls^in This being so.. by is usually ignored. and a king of hell he must remain for a long whom the existence of Yami time to come. we have the two known sister Yama and Yami. This literal interpretation of the term shuang has commended itself to Chinese Buddhists. indeed. In are Indian legend. not be surprised to find that in Buddhism there is no recognition of the existence of a spirit hell are not / unmitigated evil.VIIL] EVIL NOT ETERNAL 197 companionship of the demon-ladies. But It neither he nor any other inhabitant of that dismal region eternally damned. accord ing to another view. that is regarded as important that we should is remember eternal the doctrine of everlasting or punishment is not inculcated by Buddhism. female. to the Buddhists. we excepted. and would. possesses But. There is no Satan: innumerable hells of darkness and pain of the/ are/ thronged by the in spirits of men and women languishing tortured hosts there will utter misery.

but also that only the wicked are in any danger of falling even temporarily into the hands of demons. But the Buddhist fancy. assumes that the devil will not go back on his See pp. the Like the Lady in truly virtuous and purewill minded the 1 man or woman pass through the serried ranks of religious Every one : evil unharmed That spirits. 2 satirist.198 TI-TSANG PUSA [CH. It is curious to note that a very similar observation has been made of Yenlo.&quot. who in the midst of his torments in hell is said to have sworn an oath that when he is released from punishment and born again as a man he will enter the monkhood. 187-9. Milton s Comus. 185-6. of it good is. but hastening an the all inevitable con the summation seen in triumph evil. etc. that So far are Yenlo praise and honour to Ti-tsang. not or physical only that the very fiends are engaged in working their upward way towards the light. imagination of the West should is repentance &quot. then. .when familiar with the saying about Satan s sick-bed the devil was ill the devil a monk would be. unlike that of the Christian word. the task undertaken by the compassionate Ti-tsang is not a vain or hopeless one. To the believing Buddhist. and in dispelling hell s darkness with the radiance of his wondrous jewel. and his fellow-devils from regarding Ti-tsang as their enemy that they themselves volunteer to hasten the final defeat of evil by shielding all virtuous 2 men and women from moral This implies injury. and annihilation of Thus as we have the very king of hell and his devils join the saints of heaven in offering 1 our sutra. In bursting the gates of hell by the touch of he is his staff.

We the are not concerned these pages with various changes to and in adaptations which it is Buddhism has undergone interesting Japan has . a wx&amp. is a natural &quot.rd which merely represents the Japanese two Chinese characters which sounds of the pronounced Ti-tsang. His Japanese name is Jizo.gt.l BUDDHIST DEMONOLOGY of &quot. as characterized by utter malevolence towards mankind and that defiant hatred towards of the God the pessimistic the rest of accompaniment Lucifer and conception fallen and other angels &quot.the 199 conceive Devil&quot. but the note that among cult many Buddhist root in divinities whose taken firm that country Ti-tsang holds one of the highest places in popular affection and reverence. denizens of hell are irremediably eternity of hopeless woe but this . but in Japan he has been endowed with one most pleasing characteristic which is in in China are In essentials there is no that country the chief source of his popu larity. He is pre-eminently the protector. difference between the Chinese and the Japanese conceptions of the functions and attributes of the pusa. who realize that the existence of an eternal hell would be the eternal proof of an irreversible victory if only a partial one in of evil over good. . damned have to an gloomy theory inherited (which Christianity seems to from Judaism) has no counterpart in the more merciful demonology of the Buddhists.vm.

Mr Tachibana.lt.&quot. i. and loving friend of dead children. 34 ff. 1 Perhaps religious reverie has seldom evolved a more pleasing fancy than of hell. 2 the tender playmate little children. A is Chinese monk the guide and ages that must elapse between the passing away of the last Buddha (Sakyamuni) and the coming describes Ti-tsang thus He counsellor of men during the : of the next (Maitreya). who had Pain. leads direct to heaven : the gate that opens upon the Way of the Buddha. C. Another commentator observes that ordinary well-meaning men : think 1 A charming account of the Jiz5 cult may be found in Lafcadio Hearn s Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan. (London 1905). 205-6. He a dream in white stone describes a certain sculptured image of Jiz5 as of the playfellow of dead children. the steadfast hero whose duty it is to strive with hosts of demons and to face the the bearer of ghastliest terrors of the underworld. TI-TSANG PUSA [CH. like a beautiful young boy.( beautiful and gracious sight of all that I saw in my pilgrimage.. . Benson s semi-allegorical picture of the world beyond the The Lord of the Tower of grave in his Child of the Dawn. to endure all the pain of countless worlds. is at the of same time the gentlest and spiritual most lovable of beings. this that the stern the world s vanquisher burdens. I in Mr should like to draw my reader s attention to a striking passage A.&quot. ( the most tried and trusted of all the servants of God.&quot. For the portraits of Jizo in this I am indebted to a Japanese Buddhist scholar. and face made heavenly by such a smile as only Buddhist art could have imagined the smile of infinite loving- book 2 ness and supremest gentleness.200 comforter. pp. He is the ship of mercy that conveys mankind across the perilous seas of the torch that illumines the pain and sorrow dark ways of our earthly life the path that . with gracious eyelids half-closed. . proved to be the most &amp.&quot.

The descendit ad inferos does not appear in the Creed till after the middle of the fourth century. the Western reader is 3 whether there to Christianity. and his victorious hell tormented souls. though the doctrine itself seems to have been traditional in the Church at a much earlier period. Patiently he and toil. and consider the advisability of saving others then . for he is greatly com endures anguish passionate and greatly 2 pitiful.VIIL] first TI-TSANG S LOVE FOR MANKIND 201 of securing their own salvation. Ti-tsang s chief claims to religious reverence are his love for mankind. in Ti-tsang Pen-yuan-ching Christ s descent into hell was not an article of the Christian faith 5A Quoted 9 $ *S * K * ( at the time of the composition of the earliest form of the so-called Apostles Creed.&quot. great teacher Ti-tsang countless ages ago uttered a most solemn vow that he would take upon himself the sins and burdens of all &quot. the purpose of releasing In view of the fact that these for functions or qualities have parallels in the myths and doctrines of several religious systems outside China. 1 naturally ask here any evidence of indebtedness The general problem of a possible will ft 2 3 o-chu. . It is quite possible that the tradition was of independent growth and owed nothing to any non-Christian source. but Ti-tsang puts the welfare of every creature in the Another writes thus universe before his own. exhort men to of 1 hold fast to the true religion so as to promote development of all virtue. The creatures in all the six states and that he would teach and the existence. In the Faith &quot. The theories as to the motive of the descent into hell have been numerous. his willingness to bear the burdens of descents into all sufferers.

&quot. He points out that the earliest form of the (llth ed. the South Sea and the Japanese. we find that the Mandeeans made their Hibil Ziwa the hero of a descensus ad Islanders of St Jerome&quot. the American Indians. ( we may compare a 1 partly parallel passage where the agent is Michael. pp. &quot. (discovered in 1903) we have the words &quot. and adds that &quot. the West Africans.&quot. Dr T. legend is a Christian interpolation in a Jewish text. i. K. moreover. Coming nearer to the regions from which both Christianity and the Mahayana seem to have drawn some of their doctrinal material. but that to a certain limited extent both availed themselves of common stores of religious material common - Buddhist creed not only to Christian and makers. that of the deliverance of Adam s spirit from the nether world by the Christ. Cheyne in Encycl. Such legends are to be found in the religious and literary traditions of peoples as widely separated as the Greeks. trod down the sting of death. descended into hell.crucified. and we found reason for suspecting that neither Christianity nor Buddhism directly borrowed from the other. 170. 37-39.&quot. See above. The more usual theory (taken from the First Epistle of Peter and a few other texts) is that Christ s descent was for the words which may purpose of preaching to the spirits in prison have formed the basis of what has been called one of the most beautiful of legends. that some of the numerous legends about the descent of saviours and heroes into the nether world sprang up quite independently of one another. buried. the Finns. rose again the third day.). but also to the builders of other religious systems. contact between the two great religious systems of East and West has already been considered.202 TI-TSANG PUSA [OH. Brit. 1 It is very possible. .

was associated regarded as with Mithraism. was stories are told about Havana in the in epic of the Rdmayana. may We remember. a saviour from death and hell. 1 The 1 result of the assimilating Cf. Buddhism in India was slowly and surely losing its characteristic features and becoming absorbed into the general system of Indian religious thought. was a divine friend of man. 24. however. . that the very deep influence which Hinduism has had on the development of Chinese Buddhism is due to the fact that during the whole period of the missionary activity of Indian Buddhists in China. which assimi lated all that it found congenial in both Buddhism and Brahmanism.VIIL] BUDDHISM AND HINDUISM and that a similar Mithras belief 203 inferos. and also about the divine Vishnu. Greek Hermes But look for associate and Hinduism that we must the undoubted origin of the beliefs which to India Of Krishna we feats Ti-tsang with the world of the dead. about Yudhishthira the Mahabhdrata. Such stories as these were probably embedded in Indian made long before they their appearance in literary form. learn that one of his greatest his where he over threw Yama and rescued some of the souls of the condemned sufferers and somewhat similar descent into hell. p. and it is religious tradition scarcely possible to say precisely at what period they came to be accepted by Buddhism. and it is like both the Chinese Ti-tsang and the a ^XOTTO^TTO^ or Guide of Souls. .

While studying the beliefs relating to the . and most of the Mahayana sutras describing the deeds and virtues of the pusas for 1 1 mercy to tortured souls claim to no originality. for might be transferred without material all alteration to Kuan - yin . that has been said of Ti-tsang. we cannot fail to be struck by the personages who in the Mahayana frequent repetitions of the same ideas in slightly different forms. Practically example.204 process TI-TSANG PUSA [CH. various divine or semi - divine occupy prominent positions mythology. in hell Ti-tsang can lay to visit hell Vajrapani (see the Bodhlcharyavatara of Santi-Deva) on errands of mercy. was the religion we now know as Hinduism but before that process was complete it would have puzzled many a Chinese Buddhist and many a native of India too to say where Buddhism ended and Hinduism began and there is no doubt that a great deal of Hinduism entered China under the auspices of a Buddhism which had already lost much of its own self-consciousness. even in his errands of Kuan-yin is credited The with exploits of precisely the same kind. . and the Western mind be very apt to grow impatient at the apparently needless multiplication of divine personalities all possessing the same or very similar characteristics. is also supposed . vows taken by the saviour-bodhisats are all very much the same. shall often find that all or We nearly to this ascribed all the that qualities and functions ascribed identical or to pusa are with those will others.

at Wut ai . if we were to conclude that these facts prove a lack of originality in the religious imagination of the Buddhist writers. These conceptions are beyond the reach of the majority of the throng of worshippers who year by year ascend the steep pilgrim .path of the beautiful mountain of Chiu - hua. to the celebration of should be each of the great pusas in turn. No serious attempt is made by them to disguise the resemblances between one pusa and another: on the contrary. Similarly. such resemblances often seem to be given almost unnecessary emphasis.VIIL] MAHAYANA MYSTICISM easily 205 be applied. with the alteration of very little besides names. The object of . He who holds this belief sacred hill may worship Ti-tsang at the of Chiu-hua or elsewhere. he will praise the holy name of Wen-shu. at Omei that of that of Kuan-yin but he will P u-hsien. It is the belief of the Mahay ana mystics that all the Buddhas and bodhisats are ultimately an undifferentiated One. might We wrong. however. know at Puto that the real object of his worship has been in all cases the same. as though the writers wished to compel the least thoughtful reader or worshipper to comprehend something of the unity that underlies all external manifestations of religious energy. but in doing that through Ti-tsang he is so he will know paying reverence to Kuan-yin and Wen-shu and P u-hsien and all the myriad Buddhas and pusas in all the myriad worlds that comprise the universe. which constitutes the only Reality.

no mere abstraction. especially in the dark ways of death. and they. while performing all the outward rites that are expected of them. the only hell that man need fear is the hell that he creates for himself out of his own evil thoughts and deeds. or in is led astray by the false of worldly wealth and honours. but rather in the secret places of their own hearts. vm. but a powerful deity who can and will be a guide and is protector to suffering humanity. . strength of and these are the weapons hell shall against which the gates of not prevail. prove to be everlastingly precious and incorruptible. the dust and rubbish under which will assuredly it lies concealed. Ti-tsang and Ti-tsang only. for to them he no phantom. So long sin. if he will only clear away is . will look for Ti-tsang not in garnished temple or in curtained shrine. he will be glare encompassed by all the dangers that beset a blind or in selfishness. Purity of thought character is is his staff. Similarly. open the gates of and the possessor of the jewel that will illumine the darkness through which his own soul is groping. Ti-tsang s jewel.206 their quest is TI-TSANG PUSA [CH. Each human being staff that will break is himself the bearer of the hell. as he is sunk in sensuous delusion. Yet some of the pilgrims know that it is not in images of clay or bronze that they can hope to find the real Ti-tsang. or man who wandering guideless in a strange land but deep in his inmost nature (ti) there is stored (tsaiig) a treasure which.

character at the top stands for {Facing p.ruled by the judges of the hell that is within your be no hell within your heart.&quot. . 206. for you hereafter. [From the Yii-li-chih-paoJ\ The large Heart or Mind. the judges of the dead will have no hell &quot.The hell that is dead is no other than the If there own heart.

.

CHAPTER IX THE PRINCE-HERMIT OF CHIU-HUA AND HIS SUCCESSORS AT it the commencement of the foregoing chapter was mentioned that Ti-tsang was the patron divinity of Chiu-hua-shan.Lofty Enlightenment/ was what we should call his surname. but nothing has yet been said to indicate any connection between the pusa and the mountain. He in was a man of wealth for and he was country. and who longed - nothing better than to become a life It was in the guise disciple of Buddha. which may be translated his fa-ming. 1 long of a was Ch iao-chio. house and a near rela prince royal tive of the king. associates the two is soon told. came to China by sea and landed on the coast of Kiangsu. Chin &quot. or name in religion . Ch iaoHsin-lo a native of a country named (according to the modern Pekingese sounds). but riches and high position had no attraction for Ch iao-chio. The story which About the middle 1 of the eighth century of our era a certain foreigner named Chin chio. 207 . whose tempera consequence a his own of the ment for was deeply religious.

the princely hermit dwelt contentedly. and dependent for subsistence on the wild herbs of the hillside. and thither he made a path for espied the cloud - himself through the brambles and brushwood secluded region tangled creepers. degrees the fame of the recluse spread far and wide among the people of the neighbour By ing plains. ix. he was not neglected by beings his of another order. his only object being to wander among the holy mountains of central China until he should have the good fortune in to find among them to some home of peace which tranquil life of a contemplative choice was soon made. isolated and In this from human companionship. But though separated from mankind. Looking^into . humble Buddhist monk that year 741 he set out from or about the native land. and we are told that once when he was bitten by a venomous animal his wound was were tended by a fairylike creature who waters caused a to issue miraculous stream of healing from a rock. spiritual beings companions and pro tectors.208 THE PRINCE-HERMIT OF CHIU-HUA in his [CH. No sooner spend the His recluse. had - he piercing heights of Chiu hua than he felt impelled to explore its deepest and loneliest recesses. found him which he in the stone hut sitting meditatively had built for himself. In the year 756 a man named Chu- ko Chieh and a party of friends from the district and city visited him in his mountain retreat.

for joined his disciples in mourning we was are told that at the hour of his death there heard a crashing of rocks and a sound of moan But it was not till after his ing in the hills. of whom one was a beautiful man named Sheng his Yli. and complexion was that a living man. A o . friends threw themselves imploring him with tears to treat himself more generously and promising to provide him with better place to live in and an endowment of land. built for him a monastic dwelling. at the great age of ninetynine. them : and lo ! the dead his monk s body showed no of trace of decay. death that the discovered monks and hermits real of Chiu-hua the secret of their revered Three years after his decease the coffin was opened in order that the remains might be deposited in the tomb that had been specially prepared to receive master s identity. in which he spent the rest of life surrounded by a few devoted disciples.ix. having lived at Chiu-hua for more than half a century. They were as good as their word. among whom were a few of his own country men who followed him into voluntary exile. Chu-ko and at his feet. evidence of his Ch iao-chio Touched at this frugality. Later a on. some of his admirers. died in 794. He The spirits of the streams and peaks his loss.] THE HERMITS DEATH 209 cooking -pot they found nothing but a handful of what appeared to be white clay and his boiled millet his only s fare.

that regard to the bodies of Christian saints. strange happened. of his nature they felt assured that he could have been no other than an incarnation of the This belief loving and pitiful pusa Ti-tsang. there is no reason to doubt that Chin Ch iao-chio was a real person. 1912. But where was the kingdom of Hsin-lo ? It has always travellers few European been assumed by the and missionaries who 1 There seems to have been a somewhat similar superstition with are told. p. and a clatter could be heard from within the relic shrine every time We &quot. was confirmed by the miracle which took place after the body of the saint had been laid in its new tomb for out of the ground came forth a tongue of fire which curled itself upwards and remained for a long time suspended over the . altar. Miracles apart. as if the against the walls of the (Yrjo Hirn s bones had knocked The Sacred Shrine. Re membering a passage in their sacred books which tells how the relics of a pusa may be however.210 THE PRINCE-HERMIT OF CHIU-HUA thing [CH. and that he spent many years of his life as a hermit on Chiu-hua-shan. : body was lifted up sound like the rattling of golden chains. the monks realized for the first time that their master reflected was indeed divine and when they on the boundless love and tenderness i . noise after the sacred bones of Pascal Baylon had been enshrined. when the for the bones gave forth a known by the fact that when touched or lifted they give forth the sound of rattling chains. that he called was a native of a country Hsin-lo. .a the Host was raised above the chest&quot. grave like a flaming aureole. for example. 121).

Zff. having never long extinct kingdom in south Korea. though the mistake on the part of Europeans find may it be that has readily excused also been made when we by native historical scholars. This assumption erroneous. assumed that the word Hsin-lo was merely an erroneous or old-fashioned variant of Hsien-lo. The confusion obviously arose from the careless ness or ignorance of some Chinese monks of the Ming and Ch heard eastern ing of the dynasties who. in the Chiu-hua-shan-chih. An examination of the records of stone Chiu-hua and a scrutiny of various mountain in the tablets preserved reveal monasteries the fact that the prince (Sf s home is sometimes described as Hsin-lo as Hsien-lo (i $1) is is and sometimes f|). perusal of the inscriptions and records makes it clear that the recluse of Chiu . the ordinary Chinese the almost forgotten the name name for Siam Hsin-lo of a certain of south-eastern Korea.ix.hua was not a tenth native A Siam but a native of the Korean kingdom of Hsin-lo or (to adopt the native of pronunciation of the Chinese characters) Sil-la. x.] KINGDOM OF HSIN-LO the of saint 211 have mentioned of Hsin-lo that he is was a prince Siam. Hsien-lo . 1 to 1 That no prince from Siam could have travelled China in the eighth century is sufficiently The matter is sensibly discussed. and a correct conclusion come to. which kingdom became extinct in century of the Christian era. .

and kingdom of hardly correct to speak of a until Siam about a hundred years Tai prince of the eighth century would later. which did not take place till the thirteenth it is century. probably have entered China through Yunnan.C. It was one others of the three ancient Korean states. given in all the records turn to the Sil-la. which was at that time under the control of various sections of the Tai race.THE PRINCE-HERMIT OF CHIU-HUA obvious from the fact that it [CH. The beginnings of the kingdom of Sil-la are ascribed to the first century B. A wanderer his s clue to our princely real place of origin is to be found in is A own surname. as Now if we scanty annals of the old Korean we find that this was indeed the kingdom of name (pronounced Keum in Korean) of the line of kings who occupied the throne at the very time when Chin Ch iao-chio is said to have come to Chiu-hua-shan. it may be observed that the monastic records of other parts of Central China contain ample evidence that there was frequent intercourse between the Buddhists of Korea and those of China. the . Further. which Chin or Kin (ife). The great of the race was mainly the important political events in China. was not till a much later period that the southern section of the Tai race succeeded in establishing a kingdom on what we now know result as the southward movement of certain Gulf of Siam. and the recluse of Chiu-hua was by no means the first or the last native of Sil-la to take up his residence in a Chinese monastery.

From recluse is the time of Chin Ti-tsang (as our royal often named) to the present time the . for Paik-chyoi had Sil-la been extinguished after its submission to China. and Kao-chli-li. The Taoist adepts of two thousand and more years ago seem 1 to have Pai-chi and Kao-chu-li represent the modern Pekingese sounds. continued to exist.ix. If our hermit were really a king s son. ancient lineage. The Chin family was still (or again) in possession of the throne in the seventh and eighth Chin Li-hung or Hyo-syo-oang reigned centuries. but only reigned four years. for we hear of a king of that time as early as the year 262 Coming down to the year 668 this Keum-mi-chhu. or Paik-chyoi. we find that by time state in had become the most powerful the Korean peninsula. . when the fifty-sixth king gave in his submission to the monarch of a united Korea. records of Chiu-hua-shan are continuous but of the previous history of the mountain we have only scanty information. was the very year in chio is said to have started The kingdom of Sil-la till with varying fortune. year of his reign (741) - which Chin Ch iao on his life-long exile.] KOREAN KINGDOMS 213 being Pai-chi. and Ko-ku-ryo had recognized Sil-la as its suzerain. and his brother Syong-tok-oang from 702 to 736. In 737 a son of Syongtok-wang named Hyo-syong-wang ascended the The last throne. it is possible that one of these monarchs was his father. or Keum from 692 to 701. the year 935. or 1 The royal house of Chin was of Ko-ku-ryo.

has always had a great reputation as the home of Taoist &quot. he met with very creditable success.C. with its thirtyas immortals. His two daughters also attained a immortality by transforming after their father. who lived the fourth century of our era.ti (2698 B.C. if the Chinese dates of those remote ages are to be trusted. This was a pursuit in which. who lived about 100 B. and at the end of his long life the white dragon came and carried him off to Paradise. one occasion he went a-fishing and caught a white dragon. and then (according to some authorities) went to heaven without dying. which he promptly released. a spur of the Huang mountain.) is said to have travelled thither in the company of a wizard named Fou-ch iu. pair of wild ducks and flying in themselves into more famous was Ko Hung. which lies six haunted peaks and its hot springs. He was in Still the habit of wandering from mountain to mountain . The dragon s gratitude was such that Tou became endowed with magic powers. to the south.&quot. and set himself to govern the people in On accordance with the precepts of Lao-tzu. his purpose being the same as that which moved him to visit Omei-shan and other mountains the mastery of the secret of longevity. and which.THE PRINCE-HERMIT OF CHIU-HUA regarded it [CH. He became magistrate of the neighbouring district city. Among Chiu-hua is other distinguished Taoists who visited Tou Po-yti. for he reigned for a hundred years. The shadowy Emperor Huang.

or mountain rishi. who are very familiar figures in Chinese art 1 and legend. He reached the from. the weight of authority supports the There is a hill in the Weihaiwei territory (at present under British rule) which. under the name of Pao P o-tzti.] WIZARDS AND BUDDHIST MONKS and to 215 collect in order to pry into nature s secrets . or Eight Rishi. pan-pi-shan. The hua is first Buddhist monk who lived at Chiu- said to have been one Pei Tu. was cut in half by Chang Kuo-lao.&quot. He was himself a noted hsien-jen. and fascinating book about Taoist and he also composed biographies of the marvels. mountain in the year 401 of our era and erected Our authorities differ as to a small hermitage. according to the local folklore. India. Others say he chose the name because it it was already that of the mountain. the ingredients of the elixir of life but he found time to write. Some say the founder styled it the Chiu-hua-ssu. the &quot. of the seventh and eighth centuries. and he is classed among the select company of the Pa listen. a curious Yet another Taoist expert who visited Chiuhua in his rambles was Chang Kuo-lao. On the other hand. a pilgrim and native of. hsien-jen. the name and situation of this building. and that subsequently gave its name to the mountain. and cut-in-half hill. is still known as .ix. the other half remains in situ. It is also said that in the year 780 the Throne officially recognized the existence of this monastery and changed its name to Hua-ch eng-ssii. One half was carried off to Manchuria for some 1 mysterious reason.

the mountain owes sanctity mainly to the fact that an incarnate pusa chose it as his dwelling-place about the its middle of the eighth century. however. which to this day (after the demolitions and restorations) remains principal religious house on the mountain many and the centre of the cult of Ti-tsang. that Sheng Yu s monastery was built on the site of an older hermitage which. is ascribed to the great dynasty poet Li Po (eighth century) who seems to have paid his first visit to the mountain not long before the arrival T ang . and we shall perhaps be not far wrong if we conclude that though the Buddhistic history of Chiu-hua goes back to the year 401. As to the name of the mountain.216 THE PRINCE-HERMIT OF CHIU-HUA eng-ssii [CH. three and a half centuries earlier. and per may haps contained a reference to the row of peaks which crown the summit of the range and give it a fantastic appearance when viewed against the The alteration of sky-line from the plain below. which &quot. the name to Chiu-hua &quot.Nine Flowers&quot. It is by no means impossible. had been the home of the monk Pei Tu. Mountain possibly be taken to mean the of the Nine Philosophers. Thus both stories may contain truth. the case that the saint s name has always been associated with this monastery. the best authorities agree that the old name was Chiu-tzu- shan. view that the Hua-ch was no other than the monastery which was built for Chin Ti-tsang by Sheng Yii and his friends and it is certainly .&quot.

The poem in which the name Chiu-hua appears for the first time is said to have been written by Li Po when he caught sight of the peaks from his boat on the Yangtse River and likened them to the upturned petals of the lotus. and a mountain ramble in his company must have been an exhilarating experience even for a saintly recluse.] THE POET AND THE HERMIT 217 of the stranger from Hsin-lo. works. Englishman. and it is excluded from some editions of the poet s It will be found in the Chiu-hua-shan-chih. of the third and fourth centuries B.C. Li Po himself had no pretentions to sainthood. We know too to justify any positive little of Chin Ti-tsang &quot. Chinese essayist has dwelt on this story with A and quotes a proverb to the effect that a meeting between Chuang and Meng would be a sight worth looking Chuang and Meng were the philosophers Chuang-tzu and delight. . Mencius. much at. statements as to his intellectual or conversational capacity . &quot. might picture to himself a meeting between Shakespeare and An Rare Ben at the Mermaid. 2.&quot.ix.&quot. he is best known though one of the names by which to his idolizing countrymen is 1 It should be mentioned that the authenticity of the poem is not beyond dispute. There is a tradition 1 to the effect that the great poet and the Korean recluse met on Chiu-hua and had many a long talk and ramble together. in a similar mood. viii. but Li Po is universally admitted to brilliant have been one of the wittiest and most men of letters that China has ever produced.

may be expressed thus still is : Lonely and the life of the recluse. story is told of the fifth-century poet Chiang Yen.&quot. he had a dream that from the tip of his brush -pen there burst forth sweet2 No one who is qualified to judge scented flowers. that given 1 him by a brother-bard the Banished Another of the titles genially bestowed Angel. my boy. it is said. In English prose the gracefulness of the original is lost. &quot. 3 . and your heart longs for home.beaded bubbles winking at the brim. loved to see the &quot. Chin Ti-tsang himself is said to have wielded the pen of both poet and essayist with very 3 creditable results. upon him by his admirers was the Inspired for Li Po. like many a poet before Drunkard &quot.218 THE PRINCE-HERMIT OF CHIU-HUA &quot. When he was a little boy. Giles s translation of the Chinese words tse hsien. to this cloudland 1 Bid farewell. This fact is in itself sufficient to dispose of the theory that he was a Siamese. A. and would probably speak the language with perfect fluency. and is addressed to a boy who had long been his faithful servant and companion. of Li Po s poetry will deny that the dream came true and that the flowers are immortal. hermitage. It is highly improbable that a Siamese who came to China as an adult could have learned the difficult literary language of that country so thoroughly as to be able to compose essays and verses that were worthy of commendation by native scholars whereas a Korean of high birth would have been taught classical Chinese in his childhood. of an eight-line stanza. : and since his time. [CH. 2 The same . but its general sense &quot. and then leave the This is Professor H.&quot. on the eve of the boy s return to the busy world of the plains. A little poem by the recluse is It consists preserved in the annals of Chiu-hua.

] PILGRIM-ROUTES 219 heights of Chiu-hua for ever. and dry those The old monk will have for Go the companions when you There are several pilgrim-routes to Chiu-hua. now. broad and shallow. mists and clouds are gone.chia . and when you wash the bowl in the pond you care no more to play with the fast- 1 floating bubbles.Happiness and Virtue the Buddhist building on our route. The monastery &quot.) country. After leaving our boat at a point near the hamlet of Ch ien . Opposite the main gate way and on the left side of the pilgrim s path will be seen an image of Ti-tsang. Ch A Ta-t ung. ancestral belonging to the 1 Chang The meaning is that the boy is growing out of childhood and is no longer content with childish amusements.ix.ming . Beyond the village of Kuo . but the nearest port on the Yangtse from which it can be reached ih-chou.kai and also there a are several Buddhist temple temples. is is comes down to Ta-t ung from the mountain and navigable for small craft for several miles.lung we find ourselves on a path that winds through undulating is cultivated and populous. flowing tears. notable family. well of Lofirst shan (&quot. in the prefecture of small stream. He is thinking of his far-off home and the moonlight on the waters and the hubhles in the pond have ceased to interest him.&quot. But now. . Your delight has been in the games and toys of childhood. when you fill the water-jar in the stream you no longer try to catch the moon s reflection. and you have loved to build golden castles in the yellow sands. .

slopes. and flowers. should . Azaleas and rhododendrons are among the chief glories of the spring. forested. or with the view of forming a correct idea of how the popular in forms of Buddhistic belief find expression. ). which is a pleasant time for travelling The the Those who visit the Yangtse valley. and the beautiful tints of the candle-tree and maple are the pride of the autumn. Chiu . about eleven miles from Ch ien-chia-lung. but a better lodging might be found in one of the monasteries on the mountain itself. Among on both. pilgrim-season lasts from September to November. coniferse of many varieties. Mountain-base &quot. or on mountain or . the camphor. the chestnut. though they may sometimes find the The inns and temples inconveniently crowded. as well still once densely the trees as its southern are well wooded. who it leaves Ta - t ung in the morning may find night at the village of convenient to stop for the Miao-ch ien-chen.season for their certainly choose the pilgrim journey. and The graceful bamboo. near the base of the mountain. are the evergreen oak. which has been so constant a source of inspiration to be found plain.hua itself was and its valleys. for southern Anhui is rich in trees.220 THE PRINCE-HERMIT OF CHIU-HUA The traveller [CH. plants. mountain as students of Buddhism. Miao-ch ien-chen is a market village with It practically a good three -arch stone bridge. country itself is attractive at all seasons. forms one village with the place called Shan-ken (&quot.

220. .CHARM USED AT CHIU-HUA WHEN OFFERING||PRAYERS FOR OFFSPRING.gt. _&amp. [Facing p.

.

1 and guidance of mountain.ix. monasteries to have branch establishments at the - base of the mountain or in the neighbouring plains. many parts of central China The is first called the original First temple beyond the village of Shan-ken In Gate of Heaven. with a view partly to the supervision of business matters connected with the monastic revenues and partly to the entertainment for the is pilgrims bound Lower Temple. 221 . ien is a large ancestral on we pass the Wu-hsiang-ssii Hsia-yiian.] THE TEA OF CHIU-HUA is . or Branch of the Farther Wu Wu It is usual for large hsiang Monastery. who take it home as a highly-prized trophy of their visit to the holy mountain. accord ing to tradition. or the term applied to such Tien-men. to artists and poets in China. was brought from Hsin lo by Chin Ti-tsang. canisters bearing the They put it up in rectangular tin name of the mountain. Hsia-yuan. 1 the small village of temple of the Lao T clan. The monks them - selves cultivate a special kind of tea which. rice is grown in terraced fields flourishes in very common and the tea plant many a valley. Ku T ou . It large quantities of should be mentioned that the cultivation of tea (which used to be regarded as a magic herb and as one of the necessary ingredients of the Taoist s elixir of life) is a favourite employment of the Buddhist monks in besides Chiu-hua. and it are disposed of annually to the pilgrims. subordinate houses.

which winds all the mountain-side. 1 A temple which is well situated close by a .222 THE PRINCE-HERMIT OF CHIU-HUA The well-made pilgrim s [CH.&quot. to those which It present some feature of special interest. Nearly all the monastic buildings now since to be seen on 1865. Let us confine our attention. must be really regretfully admitted that there are no ancient buildings on Chiu-hua.stricken countrymen was the peace of a desert. Heavenly Kingdom of Perfect Peace. sadly dimmed. &quot. alas the only peace which he succeeded in establishing among his sorely . but these offer but slender compensation for the many buildings and articles of value and beauty which were totally destroyed by the ruffianly armies of The name which that furious iconoclast selected for the new era which he hoped The to inaugurate was T ai-p ing T ien Kuo Hung Hsiu-ch uan. remain intact. the way up path. passes by so many list monasteries and hermitages that a of their strange-sounding names would be wearisome to the Western reader. and mountain have been built though the old names of the this monasteries were preserved. then. and the ruins made use of as far as possible in the process of restora tion. there artistic is no doubt that the architectural and glories of the mountain have been of the old stone tablets. But. Some with their inscriptions. as all the monasteries were destroyed by the T-ai-p ing rebels during their devastating march through central China in the terrible years 1850 to 1864.

3 Lung-cVih-ch an-lin. the monastery of Sweet Dew. by a monk it named Tung. at the suggestion of a nature . sky.ix. In the secured the right of con eighteenth century a privilege which can properly ferring ordination be exercised only by those houses which have received an official diploma. who in 1898 went to Peking to enlist the imperial &quot. SKY&quot. bridged stream and bears the name of the Temple First Gateway of of the Great Bridge. Above the Sweet Dew Monastery is a rock known as the Rock of the Tranquil-Mind. Ting-Hsin-shih. with a temple pavilion named Pan-hsiao-t ing Half way to the Here temple which after a we now s reach. sympathy in his work &quot. .] &quot.loving pilgrim. f Ta-ch iao-an or Ti-i-ch f an-meii. which &quot.HALF WAY TO THE &quot. Dragon is the Shen-hsiu-an. may be said to mark the beginning The first which we arrive of the real ascent of the mountain. 3 is said to have been a favourite resting-place of the poet-monks of Chiu-hua. One of these poets Shen-Ying of the T ang dynasty lived in a named The next vicinity. 2 It was founded in 1667. monastery was not rebuilt till T Fa-yuan but the 1895. and which 4 is Pool in the &quot. 223 &quot. It owed its restoration to the unremitting exertions of a monk named Ta-Hang. there 1 is a shrine to the spirit 2 4 of the mountain Kan-lu-ssu. After its destruction by the ai-p ings in 1861 a monk named built a little hermitage on the old site. or the 1 Contemplation.&quot.&quot. religious is house of importance at &quot.An.&quot.&quot.&quot. not without some success.

according to legend. But they &quot.). and Chi are actually identified with the gods of soil and grain. The passage in the text is an example of god of the f soil. hills reared their crests before the first appear ance of men in the world : there were always spiritual and streams. a Confucian scholar. no names. to be associated in sacrifice and worship with whom he is commonly.224 TEE PRINCE-HERMIT OF CHIU-HUA modern [CH.). who was liberal-minded enough to take a deep interest in the Buddhistic lore of Chiu-hua. Chavannes in of the Soil appended to his Le T ai Chan (Paris : See especially pp. Kou-lung. and came the Kou-lung. Chu &quot. these were nameless 1 therefore. though this name should apparently belong by right only to the deity with whom Ch i is In ordinary language.god of the crops&quot.the tion. is ably discussed by M.C.&quot. the essay 1910).). Kung-Kung. In days of he tells us in this inscrip &quot. since the rise of the Shang dynasty. 501-506. gods of the land and grain had while those of the hills and streams had names. and was co-editor of the latest edition of the annals of the mountain. and under the Hsia (2205-1766 B.C. generally known as Hou Chi. so did (1766-1122 B. hence it was from men that they But streams flowed and derived their names. Hou T is u. was the son of a mythical ruler. but not supposed to have been the son of the Emperor Lieh-Shaii or Shen-rmng (2838 B.&quot. identified.C. 520-525. Chu. Ch i was the son worship with the of the Emperor Kao-hsin (2436 B. people generally. The emperors of the Chou dynasty. (shan-shen) with an interesting inscription by one Chou Pin.C. Chi take the place of Chu. As the Shang dynasty superseded the Hsia. this identification. traced their descent to Chi. 1 performed their work through the medium of men s labour. old. and has been similiarly associated with the &quot.&quot. as in the minds of the sacrificially associated. which succeeded the Shang.&quot. who consequently He is maintained his religious position under the Chou rulers. or Ku-shen. Ruler of Crops. Thus Kou-lung tilled the soil and Chu and Ch i sowed the crops. with correctly. The matter oil the God .) and earlier dynasties was associated in sacrifice and god of the crops. though beings in the hills spirits.

is a speaking. and tells a story of an eccentric monk who disgusted the Confucian scholars of the district scrolls in his He by hanging up a pair of temple bearing an inscription to the effect that the tutelary deity of the locality 1 was no other than the famous T ang dynasty states As Han Yii man. 371-377. pp. and poet.Buddhistic Han Yii had become identified with the tutelary god was t ( u-ti or local only giving belief. with the result that the the scrolls were destroyed and flogged. essayist. Han Yii lived 768-824.. t u-ti. every graveyard. see Lion and Dragon in Northern China. had been a determined opponent of Buddhism and a strenuous supporter of Confucianism.] CONFUCIAN HOSTILITY 225 then goes on to discuss the rivalry and hostility that have characterized the relations between Buddhists and Confucians. expression to a widely - current popular Every is village. is tendency to regard each strictly or patron divinity. Han Yii. nameless 2 but there . It does not seem to monk have been known to the author of our inscription that the unfortunate monk who declared that the anti. 2 For an account of village t u-ti in Shantung. t u-ti as a local in manifestation of a single divine personage it is whom 1 all t u-ti are unified. Complaints were made to the authorities.ix. the monk s action was regarded as highly improper. is This name China. P . supposed to have its own particular who. and a curious one of the most famous in the literary annals of and was canonized as Han Wen-kung. every temple.

He argues that Confucianism. but Buddhists themselves are dependent on Confucian ethic even while they try to supplant Confucianism. obviously if be disruptive in its effects on society Confucian discipline were not maintained in the State. against the claims of Buddhism. says which. in some unexplained way. makes for social stability. as a guide of life. if they were made good. if not checked. with Han Yii. Not only so. would . that in many personage has parts of China this divine come to be identified. The remainder to a of the inscription is devoted reasoned and temperate defence of Con fucianism. which is . the result would be a moral and social anarchy in which Buddhism itself would be overwhelmed. on the part of a Buddhist monk to make an open boast of the fact that the famous Han Yii. destroy our scribe. The hostility shown fucianism recoils by Buddhism to Con on Buddhism itself. It was certainly rash. husband and wife. however. who hated Buddhism in his lifetime. had been obliged to become the tutelary guardian of the site of a Buddhist monastery and we need not be surprised after his death that the Confucians made an example of him.THE PRINCE-HERMIT OF CHIU-HUA fact [CH. might the bases of its society. with on the sanctity of the human relation ships (ruler and subject. celibate extolling the merits of a the Buddhists exercise an influence by which. . By abandoning the world and insistence its ambitions. and life. parent and child).

in ? crude outline.ix. The case really national religion against Buddhism is plausible. but by no means conclusive. accept Buddhism are merely cutting themselves off from a religious system which they can take or leave as they choose. . and that man does . Moreover. the speaks only whole world might become Confucian. whereas Buddhists who are hostile to Confucianism are acting suicidally. the Buddhist monks if there were no Confucians And if all became monks and celibates. fact It does not take account of the that as well as for the Buddhism has a message for laymen monkhood. Buddhism That is to say.] CHOU its PIN ON BUDDHISM of life 227 rejecting Confucians own sources who refuse to and strength. It is not original. is the argument of the scholarly Chou Pin. and which is in no wise essential to their well-being. by un consciously trying to deprive themselves of things which are really is necessaries of life. and the world would be all the better for having done so whereas Buddhism aims at isolating its own adherents and leaving the rest of the world Who would feed and clothe outside its fold. Buddhists of the future Such. for similar views have been urged again and again by Confucians of the past. but is interesting as a summary of some of the reasons which have always prevented Buddhism from becoming a in China. left? who would be the fathers and mothers of the Confucianism universal in to the few. its appeal.

therefore. does not admit that his incompatible with Confucianism. life be said to have adopted a religious The motives whereby from personal choice. It should be added. as well as a Buddhist. parents are sometimes impelled to devote their boys to the service of Sometimes they do it in fulfilment of a religious vow. The institu tion of a celebate monkhood seems inconsistent to his family. The Chinese Buddhist. religion it is moreover. siderable that proportion of the ordained Buddhists of the China of to-day entered the monasteries as children. and cannot. indeed. Buddha . he is already a con the father of a healthy family. and very few men will seek admittance to a monastery unless the continuation has of the ancestral rites for. It seems probable are various. of his It is family been rare in already provided extremely enter the China for an only son to monkhood unless. but the with the duties which a man owes inconsistency is more apparent than real. especially in connection with the rearing of off spring to carry on the ancestral cult.228 THE PRINCE-HERMIT OF CHIU-HUA live [CH. and all the Confucian virtues are inculcated in his books. sometimes on account of extreme poverty. not by ethical systems alone. though provide a solution for some of those tries to mysteries which Confucianism confessedly leaves He takes pride in being a Confucian unsolved. however. No one is allowed to accept ordination unless he has obtained his parents consent.

There is reason to believe that the outlook for is Buddhism not hopeless. provided the developments in secular education are met by a revival of learn ing in the monasteries. as well as the spiritual and artistic. and provided Buddhism makes a serious and continuous effort to identify with the moral and intellectual. . interests of a progressive itself China. and it Buddhism to possesses a sufficient reserve of vitality enable it to meet the difficulty.ix.] PROSPECTS OF BUDDHISM 229 in that the dawn of a progressive era China and the spread of popular education or later will sooner have the effect of supply of children for the will be interesting to observe whether Chinese extinguishing the monasteries.

This abbot died at the age of eighty-four. was utterly destroyed by the T ai- p ing injury. Ch i-yuan Monastery. we are told. which famous park and vihara we come to named after which were given to Buddha by prince Jeta and the disciple Sudatta. but the gilded mummy escaped and was set up again in its old shrine as 230 . In the reign of Chia-ch ing (1796-1820) the monastery prospered greatly under the rule of a monk named Lung-shan. ascent from the &quot. There the wizened temple. and in view of his spot less life and it high reputation gilded a shrine in for his sanctity his disciples embalmed and up in dead body. The monastery.way-tothe the pavilion.CHAPTER X MONKS AND MONASTERIES OF CHIU-HUA RESUMING our heaven &quot. and passing by several monastic is buildings of no special interest. rebels. Half. monastery he might continue to preside over the religious services which he had so long conducted in life. so that in death features of the dead and set the monk are still to be seen by all comers. and are pilgrims regarded with awe by countless every year.

In Tibet the hoped. and it was Tibet that the practice was possibly from borrowed. bodies of the Grand Lamas are it is preserved in the manner described. and revered monks in In most cases the preserved corpse might pass for an ordinary gilded or lacquered image. though not universal. method of disposing of the dead bodies of ordinary monks is by cremation. Embalmed and robed and in the attitude of a seated cross-legged Buddha. x.] BUDDHIST MUMMIES 231 The buildings had been restored. The usual.CH. proved himself to be a most devoted son of Buddha. and it is with some thing of a shock that the Western visitor learns (or sometimes discovers for himself) that the object before him was once the body of a living man.). who. for there seems to be no evidence that the custom is of great antiquity in China. says the chronicler. the Lamas of Lhasa and Tashilhunpo are exposed to public . and will soon. very exceptional in the enshrining of the preserved body of the old abbot Lung-shan. restoration was effected through the exertions of soon as the a zealous monk named Ta-ken (&quot. and no less worthy of praise and honour than Buddha s own disciple Sudatta.Great Root&quot. become extinct. The practice of mummifying and exposing the bodies of distinguished abbots and other saintly persons is a highly disagreeable one. for this procedure has been adopted in There was nothing the case of ancient many parts of Buddhist China.

. and is known as the Lung-nu-cfcuan. veneration death.A. or chorten. Perceval Notes on the Disposal of Buddhist Dead in China in Yetts entitled J. 611. which is thenceforward regarded with the same reverence that was previously itself. 709-725). 208.S.&quot. p. part of its the fact that Here the Sutra of the Vow Ti-tsang-pen-yuan-ching the of Ti-tsang is never allowed is to go out of print. The reader who is interested in this curious &quot. paid 762.. The stream of water which his fairy-nurse caused to issue from a rock is still flowing. 2 See above. for there for it among the pilgrims. July 1911 (see especially pp. the cottage was neglected and gradually became a total ruin. subject may also be referred to a valuable paper by Dr W. the was that the poet Li Po his memorable visits to year of the poet s death. Here when he After Chiu-hua.232 MONKS AND MONASTERIES for [CH. attractions of the it now dwelt remains of mountain. .E.E. Close by the stream there once stood a building which was formerly one of the chief nymph. iv. or Spring of the Waterlittle A higher &quot.R. a considerable time after their in and each body is finally enclosed a gilded tomb. 1 accorded to the embalmed derives body The Ch i-yuan Monastery prosperity and reputation from it is a publishing house for Buddhist books and tracts. In course of time grass 1 See E. though nothing but the fragment of an in it scribed stone. always a demand up we come to the place 2 where Chin Ti-tsang was cured of his wound.

numbers of students. Ts ai proceeded or meeting and other place for students and poets It was persons of artistic tastes. or School of Li Po. - of the great poet. and nothing remained of it when they had worked their will but a heap of ruins. founded by Ts ai flourished several centuries. 1 club. Establishments of this kind are. . and men of letters of their time. Having discovered the cottage. The artists.x. foundations of the poet s to erect on the same ground a kind of scholars club. The T ai-p ing rebels did not treat Li Po s college with any greater respect than they showed to the Buddhist temples. to be dedicated to the memory found on many of China s some large attained great famous mountains and attracted celebrity . 233 grew over the and it came to be used as the burial-ground of a family named but in 1237 the district-magistrate.lung. a culture Chang. which chiefly exist The most famous was the College of the White-deer Grotto. and named T ai-po Shu-t ang. for these little mountain . restorations. caused the ground to be excavated. Lu-shan. The of buildings periodical which underwent the most the years 1476 place and 1479.] MOUNTAIN CLUBS AND COLLEGES site. elaborate took between We 1 now arrive at a consisting of shops mountain -village and booths. or were.universities were often the resort of some of the most distinguished philosophers. for or college. man of named Ts ai Yuan .

and their methods are as various them as souvenirs of their The only as those practised in the West. In the monastic chronicle special mention is The made of the work done by the monk Fu1 See p. the incarnate tsang. like to carry away with pilgrimage. 215. open and within view and large body of interested spectators and auditors. The in telling of takes place. This have seen. and such miscel laneous articles as visitors The of pilgrims. Fortune-tellers are numerous. as we foundation on the mountain. eighth century of our Yii and his companions Whether Sheng were its original founders. sweatmeats. palmists show a degree of skill which is as surpassed by the their remarkable fortunes air self - con fidence. cannot But there is no doubt that is now be its determined. children s toys. . between three and four centuries earlier. a rule. sanctity of the - special due to its association with the name Ti prince from Hsin-lo.234 solely for MONKS AND MONASTERIES the [OH. Of several monastic buildings and temples hearing of a situated in the immediate vicinity of the village the most important is monastery. and has a continu ous history the Hua-ch eng-ssti. or whether it dates from the 1 from the days of Pei Tu. is the oldest era. convenience goods sold include Buddhist books and images. buildings have undergone many restorations in the centuries that have elapsed since his time.

(From the north-west.} {Facing p.} CENTRAL CLUSTER OF MONASTIC BUILDINGS. . CHIU-HUA. (From the Eastern Ridge. 234.CHIU-HUA-SHAN.

.

but the &quot. In the eighteenth century the monastery was twice honoured by imperial notice. K anghsi in 1705 presented to it an autograph scroll bearing the words Chiu-hua sheng ching &quot.&quot. who goes on to observe with evident satisfaction that subsequently the rebels who had taken part in the temple burning were defeated with 1 Tsang-chincj-lou.Four Famous Hills. and another distinguished monk was Liang-yuan.x. who in the reign of Wan-li (1573-1619) went to Court and was received ch ing in 1435 with favour by - the scrolls emperor. intact. 1 Wan .the and in 1766 a similar holy region of Chiu-hua scroll was presented by the Emperor Ch ienIn 1857 the monastic buildings were lung.&quot. destroyed by the remained rebels.li Library There cannot of be any doubt that it was preserved by a miracle. and it was in his reign and under his patronage that a new edition of the whole of the Buddhist scriptures was Sets of this edition were presented published. to all the great monastic centres of the empire. &quot.] IMPERIAL PATRONAGE . . special including the &quot. A pavilion was erected behind the main buildings of the Hua-ch eng Monastery for the reception of the set which had been presented to Chiu- hua. . title some of the temple but Liang - yuan bestowed purple robes on This emperor was a himself. also zealous patron of Buddhism. for who not only presented buildings. remarks a recent writer named Liu Han-fang.

The majority of large Buddhist monasteries possess a pond of this kind. but the only one to which special reference need be made is a temple which. The prayers and vows uttered by the pilgrims when they reach this shrine. is is shrine only an adjunct of the crowning glory and the most of Chiu-hua the Ju-shen Paoit is This &quot. Opposite the monastery is a fish-pond. which is intended to afford a practical illustration of the Buddhist commandment. though Hua-ch eng.ch Hua eng Monastery was not put in hand till 1889. immense slaughter and thrown into the Yangtse River. Thou shalt not take the life of &quot.tsang. The restoration of the . of merit to supply the fish with scraps of food.&quot. any It is regarded as an act living creature. said to have been originally constructed by Sheng Yii. for here rest the remains of the incarnate pusa Ti .236 MONKS AND MONASTERIES &quot. sacred tien. before whose gilded image incense is burned by thousands of pilgrims every year. There are several monastic buildings in close proximity to Hua ch eng. a temple and tomb combined.Holy Palace of the Mortal Body&quot. Thus was divine justice vindicated before men s eyes.&quot. and the ceremonies performed by them or by the monks on their behalf. [CH. He who wishes to pray for the soul of a lost parent or other relative obtains from the monks (in . relate are to of various kinds. but they chiefly death and the next world.

Ti-tsang . the form has been duly filled in the suppliants kneel before the image of Ti-tsang and set sticks of lighted incense on the altar. implore that he may be admitted to joy and peace until such time as he may be born again into the world of men. and whose soul has now earth -life and has rejoined the Alas weep when our thoughts turn to the loved one we have lost. is The paper then from the point of view of the superstitious multitude.j PRAYERS TO TI-TSANG 237 return for a small donation) a sheet of yellow paper.we have carried out This day. We implore you to take him from the place of pain and to lead him to happiness. the day of the proper ceremonies on behalf of the dead.tsang and Amitabha. its ! year. we We time passes all too quickly. know little less about the spiritual meaning under lying the formal doctrines of their faith. spaces are dates. effect: left for the insertion of names and of words is The form to the following We the soul of pray that you will have compassion on who was born on the aged . . When ceremonially committed to fire. on which is printed a prayer to Ti-tsang Blank or to both Ti . day of the taken leave of immortals. We implore you to save his soul.x. . whereupon the written prayer passes to the region of spirit. In the name of the Buddhas. like the un find that Thus we lettered and care adherents of every religion. who.

in general a far more appropriate description of an ordained Buddhist in China than the term surprised to find that the Buddhist clergy have not omitted to establish themselves as intermediaries between the lay &quot. will procure the release of souls from hell.238 is MONKS AND MONASTERIES [CH. partly because Buddhism has never in China proper succeeded in establishing itself as the sole religion of the State. to offer prayers to Ti-tsang that he will manifest his love and pity towards their beloved dead. It will be observed that the circumstances are of the give priestcraft and though the term &quot. if ever. and partly because it has kept itself free to a remarkable degree from the taint of political or worldly ambition. if suitably petitioned. and will set Amitabha s numbers of pilgrims them on the path that leads to heaven. and if it derived profit the ignorance and credulity of the masses.monk&quot. simply a god of the dead. who. Buddhist monks have never obtained (except in regions where Lamaism prevails) the exclusive privileges and dangerous prerogatives of priest hoods elsewhere. we may at least say for Buddhism that the forms of superstition which its priests have countenanced . precisely kind that its is opportunity.priest. tried to coerce men s has bodies or enslave often men s minds from .&quot. therefore. This religion has seldom. we need not be masses and the divine beings whose sympathy is to be invoked on behalf of the living or the dead. The main object of great to Chiu - hua is.

and credentials it is who examines pilgrim monks and stamps their papers with the monastic seal in attestation of the fact that the object of their pilgrimage of has been attained. According to the local belief. implies (if we may judge from the use of the term elsewhere) that the dead man s remains are not only in a state of preservation. but are also exposed to public view in the manner already described in connection with the abbot Lung-shan. The shrine was burned and pillaged by the T ai-p ing rebels.x.tien. the entombed body of Ti-tsang is incorruptible. and was one of the first buildings on the mountain to be restored.] THE SHRINE OF TI-TSANG fostered are It 239 or absolutely unessential to the it is religion itself. The guardianship tsang the is vested of the holy shrine of Tiin the abbot of the Hua-ch eng that dignitary - Monastery. to emphasize the crudities of a submitted to a Buddhism which has not yet been The similar modernizing process. may be suggested that hardly fair for Christianity. The work was completed in 1867. which is given to the building. which in our own time is undergoing a somewhat drastic process of readjustment and reinterpretation. The name of Ju . But if Chin Ti-tsang s body was .shen . superstitions which are associated with Buddhist beliefs in China to-day are no more essential to Buddhism than were and are the ecclesiastically- patronized superstitions of Europe to the teachings ascribed to the Prophet of Nazareth.

may resist decay for a 1 The long time. After the death that his hero was unmis Ti-tsang a mysterious flame was seen hovering over his tomb. best be seen. say the monks. we come to a monastery known as the Pai-sui-an. no to very large class doubt. he pitous Eastern Ridge made himself a thatched hut. &quot. gradually ascending path leads us past four or five temples before it brings us to the end of the ridge at a distance of rather less than A Here three miles from the shrine of Ti-tsang.Eastern Cliff&quot. bodies of hermits who lived rigidly ascetic lives. Wu-t ai for in the reign of Wan-li preci Selecting the edge his of the dwelling-place.proof from incorruptibility takably a saint. and the name commemorates a monk named Wu-hsia who wandered to Chiu-hua from Spotless (&quot. if of local report occasionally visible as the shen kuang. and reduced themselves to a state of extreme emaciation. preserved and enshrined like that of Lung-shan. the Mountain of (1573-1619).spiritual glory. on each offer biographer pious 1 a &quot. after nightfall. and gave himself This does not mean that no such legend has any basis in fact. s based. of a of similar legends. a hundred years old. That flame.240 MONKS AND MONASTERIES [CH. Pai-sui means &quot. even without preservative treatment.&quot. from the Tung Yen a long temple-crowned ridge (&quot. and is may is still known It can &quot.&quot. or be trusted.) towards which we must now make our way.). there is no evidence to prove it: for the story that his body was found undecayed three years after death is only one desire &quot. .

lt. [Facing p. THE PAI-SUI MONASTERY. 24 &amp.EASTERN RIDGE AND T lEN-T AI. CHIU-HUA. . CHIU-HUA.

.

He . cage. or monks who have taken a vow of have voluntarily condemned themselves to solitary confinement in a cave or cell. in others the motive force seems to be nothing nobler than a desire for notoriety. chap. which literally The motives that impel English universities. But there is no reason to doubt that sometimes the purpose 1 Pao-shen. Such : technically known as tso means to sit the gating process gated being of a severer type than is customary at penances are often kuan. At present it is one of the most flourishing establishments on the mountain. Chinese monks to these acts of austerity are no doubt 2 as various as those which Christian hermits to similar acts in the prompted Middle is Ages. crooning hymns to and his disciples gave himself as he was dying up to tranquil meditation.] AUSTERITIES OF BUDDHIST MONKS 241 died peacefully at the age of over one hundred. the of Pai-sui to the monastery which they In 1879 erected on the site of the old man s hut. 2 for hideous details of Q . extract In some cases the main object to alms from the pious laity or to obtain donations towards the restoration of a temple . European Morals.. See Lecky. Precious &quot. a name monk named &quot.x. the practices of Christian hermits. Visitors to Chinese monasteries will some times hear of silence. Body 1 travelled to Peking in order to obtain for his monastery some token of imperial recognition. iv. or have adopted some form of self-torture such as sitting in a spiked &quot.

The height of T1eii-t ai is about 3. this period entered upon three few months of A had already elapsed when I paid my to this monastery in the autumn of first visit The door of his cell was sealed with that year. but when I spoke to him he only was touched his lips.&quot. On the eastern side of the ridge we have a deep. slope wooded which and beyond it steep my own measurement (by b. Bright Moonlight. According to . thermometer).350 feet above sea-level . The views from the neighbourhood of the monastery are very striking. On named 22nd &quot. 2 Lang-yueh. The Pai-sui-an may be regarded as almost on the summit of Chiu-hua-shan proper. the that of the genuine religious ascetic annihilation of carnal desires and the of self - attainment purification and spiritual enlightenment. 1 of Ti - tsang s the shrine. the height of the Pai-sui-an is 2. Judging from his (for it appearance glimpse of was possible to catch a him through the hole) he was well and happy. for Bright Moonlight vowed to silence. the monastic seal. though &quot.MONKS AND MONASTERIES in view is [OH. May 1908 a monk l of the Pai-sui-an. 2 the peaks of T ien-t ai stand a good deal higher.p. On the western be seen the winding path by which we ascended the mountain. years voluntary incarceration.000 feet. and he received his food through a hole in the wall. and at our feet lies the large group of temples in the side of the ridge may neighbourhood ravine. &quot. but I cannot f guarantee the accuracy of this.

but no Western visitor will disagree with the Chinese literary pilgrim who declared that to shirk the ascent to the &quot.x. it is necessary first to descend the Eastern Ridge on the side remote from the Hua-ch eng Monastery to a distance of This brings us to a narrow several hundred feet. Tinted Clouds l leading us past the Temple of crossing the &quot. Ti-tsang s shrine is. the their seal. which selves ficent is situated on the Kuan-yin Peak 3 of the summit of on a T ien-t ai-shan. the holiest spot on the mountain. and are highly by the humbler classes of pilgrims. Wan-Fo-ssu. 2 &quot. lofty Here we find our ridge commanding a magni Hua-ch eng Monastery. Starting of Chiu-hua. stream the ascent begins abruptly. &quot. as at pilgrims may have against also devils stamped with an authenticating Protective charms things and other noxious may prized be obtained here. 3 Kuan-yin-feng. and several other buildings.] THE TOWER OF HEAVEN 243 culminates in the line of fantastic peaks of which T ien-t ai is one the peaks which kindled the in imagination of the poet Li Po as he lay his boat on the Yangtse nearly twelve hundred years ago. and finally bringing us to the hermitage of Ten Thousand Buddhas. . through On which flows a bright mountain stream. Heaven the from Pai-sui-an. At T ien-t ai.&quot.Tower (T ien-t ai) is to remain half ignorant The climb is a steep one. of &quot. indeed. glen. certificates view in almost every direction. shaded with trees and bamboos. 1 2 Hua-yiin-an.

whom - &quot. in 1368. the machinations of than one occasion.) (&quot. of (&quot. statesman. rebels most important of and after its destruc in was restored 1890. The poet Li Po. his limited Shock-headed . &quot.). and On more achieved high rank and distinction. as we have seen. his enemies put him under an official cloud. however.244 MONKS AND MONASTERIES The [CH. One of society of these was an the un kempt person who was known circle of friends by the name of to &quot. but Wang Shou-jen seems to have and at such periods found pleasure chiefly in the mountain-hermits. The restoration of the by was named P u-ch ing one Universal and another Sung ch iian Pines Purity and Fountains The famous names associated with Chiuhua are not only those of monks and hermits. of sought haunted glades. he would seek a congenial At that time the resting-place on Chiu-hua. T ien-t ai buildings are small and of no tion great them was founded by the chiefly The antiquity. and man of letters of the politicians - armies - and busy have care free seclusion in its Ming against dynasty. resort of many noted mountain was a favourite scholars. spirit The most distinguished of these lovers of Chiuhua was Wang Shou-jen (1472-1528) a great soldier. rebels He saw much active service and barbarian tribesmen. and even leaders out smaller temples was carried certain enthusiastic monks. loved to ramble over its romantic slopes.

. 244.PROTECTIVE CHARMS FROM T lEN T - AI. - [Facing p. CHIU HUA SHAN.

.

they proceeded to talk philosophy. says our chronicler gravely.in . a sincere Confucian. is of course taught by systems of mysticism besides Taoism and Tantric Buddhism. 1 . Wang s interest in him was aroused by the report that he was in the habit of lying on a bed of pine .. Wang sat down beside him and.who . tickled his toes till he : woke &quot. For depths.lived . When &quot. Ts ai of the Tangled Hair &quot. ai or &quot. &quot. was usually referred to as the Queer fellow .x. he espied Wang. 245 Ts &quot. And below them rolled the mountain mists. the brilliant Taoist mystic of the third and fourth centuries B. and devoted regulating atten 2 the f f art of the breath. &quot.tsang s.C. but He himself studied the occult wisdom of the special Taoists tion to 1 f for a time. Chuang-tzii. so .Ti .&quot. said that the purified man draws his hreath from 2 the uttermost The value of deep and regular breathing many only from their throats. and there was a mystical side to his nature which caused him to take a rather unorthodox interest in the doings of Taoist adepts and mountain wizards. ordinary people .needles and used no fire for cooking purposes wherefore He had to in 1501 Wang paid him a visit. Wang also was a practical man of the world. another. scale a precipice to find him. who was ate - nameless. and when he reached the Queer-fellow s den he found him fast asleep.and- raw - vegetables. all he said was How on earth did you get here ? The path is But the two were soon on the very dangerous ! best of terms with one another. at the edge of a cliff.] STRANGE HERMITS OF CHIU-HUA &quot. and there.cave . So Ts ai P eng-t ou. up.

e. but will not speak. In 1519 a Wang in with rebellious Shou-jen was sent to cope prince named Ch en Hao.B. It challenges comparison. Poussin.246 successful MONKS AND MONASTERIES was he in [OH. 29-34. Wang s Buddhist literature on breath -regulation (prdnd-ydma). p. and concluded his studies in that direction with the exclamation. with the more famous memorial addressed by Han Yii to the Emperor 2 Among the works of essay &quot. 306 Spence Hardy. 139. See also Oldenberg. that he had reached Tao the central truth of . 395. by the remarkable Taoist mysticism 1 but Wang himself gradually awakened to a sense of the futility of a great deal of Taoist magic. xii. Eastern Monachism.N. of course. vol. Wang ing anti-Buddhist written Hsien Tsung of the T f ang dynasty in the year 819. but apparently never actually presented (see ninth chiian of his collected works. and denned is not the real Tao so we learn from the Tao-tc-ching . xxxv. Buddha.. p. 267^. 224-9J. Its arguments are to a great extent similar to those of Chou Pin (see above.. which warns to keep men to venerate the spirits 2 but them at a respectful distance. This &quot. Bouddhisme. pp. so accuracy It was commonly supposed of his prophecies. What Tao referred to on p. frittering for me.. or. we are told. who probably had the essays of both Han Yii and Wang Shou-jen in his mind when he penned his own little essay. the cultivation of his psychic powers that he developed the faculty of and he startled people. really is only the successful mystic can say The Tao that can be discussed rather. B.&quot. see. . pp.g. crushing the thirty - and succeeded rising after a campaign of only five days. S. foretelling the future . 543 (17).). . pp. Shou-jen is to be found an interest (about 1515) in the form of a Remonstrance addressed to the Emperor Cheng Te of the Ming dynasty. away of one s So he reverted energies is not the Tao to Confucian orthodoxy. . pp. 13 ff. Har.E. i. he knows. 130-1 1 .

1 moreover. So his and was reinstated loyalty and splendid Wang abilities cluding to brought him many new honours. resulted in his temporary disgrace. the glory of to say.x. . to spy satisfied from their himself that the accusations were totally ground less. and he again retired to his favourite haunts on Chiu-hua. his offices. It is not of stuff like this that rebels are in made.] WANG successes in SHOU-JEN 247 brilliant him an war and at Court made object of jealousy. also a gallant soldier and wise as a scholar. In 1584 his was elevated to the Confucian temple. tive rites tablet are officially performed. cottage. where he lived care -free emperor upon him.ch eng Monastery on Chiu-hua. and the magistrate of the 1 Under the name of Wen-ch tng. essayist. in the rank of a noble. and some of his enemies reported to the throne that he was This plotting to bring about a revolution.&quot. and &quot. He is known as fame not only but statesman. which means that he had come to be regarded as one of the holy men or saints of the Confucian erected in system. and He &quot. in a rustic The sent secret emissaries reports &quot. his canonization that is name was among those of China s honoured dead to whose memory shrines are erected and before whose spirit tablets religious or commemora enrolled &quot. his A shrine or honour near the Hua chapel was . &quot. poet. The man is a philosopher exclaimed ! the &quot. emperor. achieved. &quot.

It is through lack of such men as this that China has been in war. accordance with the usual practice) for seeing that the commemora tive ceremonies were duly carried out in spring and autumn. 1 . not because they are revolutionary Wang in tone for indeed they are far from that but because they reveal the character and embody the ideals of a strong man of action. it was arranged that the ceremonies should be per formed at temporary shrines erected for the purpose twice yearly within the walls of the city. are only too apt. for historical not only or academic reasons that the career and personality of Shou-jen are worthy of our attention. in their eagerness to equip themselves and their country with all the learning and science of the West..248 district MONKS AND MONASTERIES was made responsible (in [CH. and deserves far more attention than It is it has received. a courageous and skilful leader an incorruptible statesman. a singleminded patriot. In view of the distance of the mountain from the district city f (Ch ing-yang). 1 Hero-worship of this kind is an aspect of Chinese religious life which has been very little studied by Western writers on China. He is studied and admired even by those young Chinese republicans who. to turn backs on the wisdom of their own sages. as a rule. Wang He is one of the few Chinese writers of his age whose works are read with avidity in both China and Japan to-day. yet the subject is one of exceptional interest and importance. writings of their The young Shou-jen are approved of by China.

we Jo-shui. Of a Cantonese scholar named Chan who lived in the fifteenth century. But they will do wrong if they imitate and applaud only the side of his teachings and practical and utilitarian fail to understand and appreciate what we may call their spiritual side. are told .] MOUNTAIN LOVERS . Let them not ignore the significance of the fact that Wang Shou-jen. world if they allow the spiritual heritage of their race to be cast aside as a thing of no account. but also the dreamer of dreams on the silent hills. is a sign of good omen that Wang Shou-jen s writings make young or patriots in their strongest appeal to the eager whose hands will lie the making marring of the new China. about to step into a splendid material heritage which will enable her to occupy one of country is the loftiest places among the nations of the earth it will be a bitter misfortune for China and the . Chinese patriots hope and believe that their whose words sound like fife . drew much of his moral energy from his solitary reveries under the starlit skies that he was not only a leader of men on the field of battle. 249 brought in recent years to parlous straits it is such men as this who must be forthcoming in It the near future if the country is to be saved. must content ourselves with the briefest We glances at a few of the other well-known mountain lovers whose names are associated with the history of Chiu-hua.x. and clarion in the ears of the active reformers and patriots of to-day.

He had many devoted pupils. for he lived in &quot. filial of all sound morals. Fei Kuan-ch ing belonged to a much earlier date than Professor Sweet-waters. who himself became an tion admired teacher of loyalty. finally decided to self make under the shadow a solitary home for him of the peaks of Chiu-hua. alas. that himself the Professor Kan - ch iian because sobriquet of he loved the beautiful scenery of Chiu-hua and carved on a rock the two characters kan-ch ua?i. the first half of the ninth century of our affection. and My . He built was noted for his several filial and (in accordance with himself a classic precedents) he hut beside his mother s grave.A him he said Government appointment is one to when it enables support one s parents. One of his disciples was Lii Chung-mu. to Wang Tsung-su (ninth century) also belonged He always showed a keen the T ang dynasty. more of what use would a Government appoint ment be to me ? So he declined the offer. Of said. which mean &quot. and one of the students mountain was founded reading-rooms on the in his memory and endowed with a little estate of land.&quot.250 MONKS AND MONASTERIES he earned for [CH. all &quot.&quot. the nan than provinces. sincerity. he none of the Chiangmore beautiful Chiu-hua. and emphasized piety as the founda He too was a lover hills is of our mountain.&quot. &quot. are no parents in comfort. and &quot. When with useful an a official : post was offered sigh &quot. ethics. sweet waters. era. .&quot.

who was a great scholar and successful statesman as well as a He. Popular credited him with a controlling power dragons that power which he seems regulate the rainfall to have exercised beneficently. In an song he observes that only the great distance of Chiu-hua from the capital has prevented it from being properly appreciated. for the pursuits that bring to enter the official arena for a time. wherefore he has written a about it so that it may receive its due introduction to his poem meed of praise at last. one of the fore most is that of Chou Pi-ta. the greatest of the T ang celebrated Chiu-hua in their verse Liu Yii-hsi little was perhaps (772 - 842). poet and prose-writer. we are told. An essay of his is preserved in which he gives a gossiping account of his visit to the mountain in 1167 and describes ancient a meeting with an &quot. fame and wealth.] POETS OF CHIU-HUA 251 distaste.x. Twin- peak Monastery (Shuang-feng-ssu) who was . Li Po. Of the Sung dynasty names. perform various Taoist fancy over the a such as levitating the body. and though circumstances com pelled his him happiest days were spent on Chiu hua as a roaming student. There one day he met a strange man who handed him to certain charms which enabled him miracles. known as the His hermitage was afterwards Next poets to who Wu-hsiang Monastery. was ennobled and canonized. like Wang Shou-jen. monk of the &quot.

A Ch typical story is eng. of literary seclusion more seductive than the sweets of office even though in Sun s case the office in question was the prefecture of Su-chou (Soochow). brilliant city which for Hangchow of being a heaven upon earth. who one day should be observed that in China the peach as is Numerous strange regarded fairy tales. and in the even on the wonderful properties inherent peach blossom.252 MONKS AND MONASTERIES his eyrie for [CH. eighty. such as mortal man never saw before. It that of a peasant named Ning sixteenth century. drawal to Chiu . best induce him to return to official but unsuccessfully. of the on the slopes of Chiu-hua encountered a queer old man who handed him half a peach. There he lived an enchanted life . &quot. a gay and centuries shared with &quot. (Sung period) was one of the numberless men of official rank in China who call of the wild have found the and the joys from Sun Mien &quot. The rock opened. and had not descended twenty years.&quot.six years of age.hua the Court to the reputation After his with tried its life. Ning Ch eng ate the half-peach. including legends of the Rip Van Winkle a fruit. and then the old man led him to a cliff and tapped his it. type. Tales of enchantment and wizardry are told of Chiu-hua as of all other famous hills in China. but after some time he . turn on the eating of a magic peach. and Ning followed guide into a strange dwelling-place.

] A WIZARD OF CHIU-HUA 255 remembered his old mother. His The lands. spiritual insight. and from that day Ning was seen on earth no After his disappearance took place in the twenty fourth year of Wan-li (1596) in the month and on the day foretold by the wizard. that his connection with fairyland was now . peasant.x. is. their Chinese. There the a Chinese to which satirizes tendency the past at the expense of the present: The mountains of our own times are not so lofty as 1 The meaning severed. religious from the &quot. but before he was allowed thumped his back. self- control.good stocked treasure is - achievement. - more. life of a simple mother s death some one saw him wander off in the direction of the cliff which had formerly opened at the wizard s touch. to enter it the wizard ! 1 meet again on then a date which he named. and asked the wizard to let him visit her. of course. so he could see nothing of the devious path through which the wizard was leading him. old aptly days. was soon reached.&quot. and lo out of Ning s mouth came forth the halfThe wizard told Ning that they would peach. house of the saying glorify &quot. though he heard the Ning s house rushing of tumultuous waters. like the people of are laudatores temporis acti many other best examples well - of nobility. to rejoin and his leaving Ning and resume the humdrum family disappeared. During the journey he was told to shut his eyes. they draw heroism.

He had no sooner 1 Chin shan pu chi ku shun kao. for example. of in we may sometimes the com paratively prosaic annals of the dynasty that has just expired. invited him to exert his magic powers on behalf of the suffering people. Teng Yii. The prefect. to cause cure human by do ailments. the mountains of the days of old. AVe are told of him that he began life as a woodcutter. stories of mystery and magic which would not disgrace even the golden age of wizardry and enchantment. of the mightiest find. He obeyed the summons. evils caused All these without payment of great things any kind. and that one day while pursuing his occupation on Chiu-hua he met a mysterious stranger who handed him a treatise on magical arts which enabled him to rainfalls. MONKS AND MONASTERIES 1 [OH.&quot. and to extirpate the witchcraft. knowing of Teng Yii s skill in dealing with calamities of this kind.254. . lived as recently as the middle of the nineteenth century. he In - would the sixth month was a of the year corresponding to 1844 there drought in Ch ih chou fu (the prefecture in which Chiu-hua is situated). at which he offered up prayers for rain. of whom some remarkable feats are recorded. which resulted in the drying of the wells and the withering of the crops. and erected an altar. to create storms. must look to the chronicles of the Yet if we Han the dynasty Taoist or the legends of a yet earlier date for accounts of the doings wizards.

Ch ing-yang that dark clouds had approached from the west. but when and offered him a carriage-and-four the carriage arrived it was found that he had . ating expert in the manipulation of Besides acquiring the art of discrimin between the various kinds and tints of clouds. who became an clouds. whereupon dark masses of cloud began in that direction. to prefect asked his reason for sending rain-clouds to the east. and no one knows what became of him at last.x.] THE RAIN MAKER OF CHIU-HUA than there 255 stretched forth his hand and uttered the thunder- was a sound of rumbling in This was quickly followed by the the heavens. After the happy conclusion of the rain .making ceremony the of rain just at the prefect wished to send Teng Yii home in luxury. already floated away by himself. Perhaps of all the wise men of Chiu-hua few can have had a more interesting personality than the nameless hermit of the Eastern Cliff. and that he was sending some rain thither in order to solace the anxious hearts of the people of the thirsting district of Ch ing- Subsequently word was brought from yang. he was also in the habit of collecting . rain. and Teng Yii explained that there was a drought move The in the east also. and resulted in a much-needed fall time when Teng Yii was uttering his incantations. gathering of clouds and the downfall of Then he turned towards the east and blew spell softly. This benevolent wizard passed a peaceful existence on Chiu-hua.

&quot.there is the art of cloud. whereupon the captive cloud would come time curling out. slope of Chiu-hua that is. which he specimens. it down over the came to see him. though whether the dainty fare satisfied their hunger or not is an unanswered question. was to catch them in a crockery jar. held upside-down over the cloud he was pursuing. When his jar was full he would take a piece of dry parchment and fasten neck of the jar and if friends . Starting from the Pai-sui Monastery.256 MONKS AND MONASTERIES [OH. The great poet sportive subject the genial poet. mountain no less attractive than the northern. he would take a needle and prick a hole in the parchment.catching Su Tung-p o (1036-1101) in a composed some lines on the of the cloud gatherer. He used to be seen running up and down the misty slopes of Chiu-hua chasing His practice clouds as if they were butterflies. and he is going to give side me The southern a bag of clouds as a parting present. the remote from the Yangtse is often neglected by pilgrims from the north but the beauty of its woods and waters makes this side of the . one who has learned . Of sang hour &quot. late. it so that in a brief space of would fill the would even go so far clouds. and retracing the path that leads from Ti tsang s shrine for a .&quot. but they are all situated amidst charming scenery. Apparently he as to feed his guests on room. and it should not be left unvisited. The temples are small and of no special interest.&quot.

The last of the temples.] SOUTHERN SLOPE OF CHIU-HUA 257 we come to a parting of the ways. an-lin. R .&quot. 2 Hermitage.x. close to which stands a white five-storied pagoda the Pao-chia-t We we Pagoda of the Pao Family. Ku I T f ien-men. situated the side of a stream spanned by a picturesque by 7 Gate of Heaven bridge. have now come to the end of our c a. &quot. &quot. exploration of Chiu-hua-shan for us either to return to the . the Gate Heaven&quot.Second Lower 4 the &quot. we soon reach the Fa-yiin distance of about a mile.First Gate of Heaven. or &quot. Third Temple.&quot. e Chuan-shen-tung. A brings us to the village of Pao-chia. This town stands at the head of a navigable tributary of the 1 3 Ch 6 ien-t ang River f San T ien-men. Ku Erh T ien-men. and it remains Yangtse (which can do by following a somewhat circuitous route that skirts the base of the mountain) or to proceed through Southern Anhui to the city of Hui-chou. is a supernumerary &quot. 2 4 7 Chin-kang ch Pao-Fo-ssu.&quot. Ku T f ou T ien-men. and the &quot. 3 behind still which is - is a small cave- temple. &quot. the Yung of 6 sheng 5 Monastery. whence the road descends to the l and to the Diamond Gate of Heaven &quot. .Holy Buddha&quot. and thence the road winds through a beautiful gorge to a small cultivated plain and to the short walk thence village of Nan-a-wan. Following the new path in a southerly direction. &quot. Here we reach the foot of the mountain. Monastery.

the stream that flows into . The finest of these is the sixteen - arch bridge at to Hui-chou. Hui . . and the four days journey from the Pai-sui Monastery to Hui-chou will take the traveller through one of the most beautiful tracts in found anywhere the country to be neighbourhood of the of lower Yangtse. x. of the manufacture of is and Hui-chou the mart for their sale. The total distance from Chiu-hua Hui-chou is about eighty-three miles. The water and subsequently the Ch ien-t ang wind through a wooded fairyland throughout the whole length of a journey which on an average occupies about The time varies according to the seven days. for the recovered from the ruin rebels. Huichou is a prefectural city. is the the best Chinese principal seat inks. A neighbouring city.courses.an native boats. state of the water. Hsiu-ning.258 MONKS AND MONASTERIES Hangchow Bay [CH. but few travellers are likely to grudge the days spent in restful contemplation of the entrancing river scenery of Western Chehkiang.chou to journey from Hangchow can be accomplished comfortably in The rivers first the Hsin . . country has not caused The yet villages are poor. by the T ai-p ing Almost the only indication of the former prosperity of the province consists in the admirable stone bridges which cross the numerous water . and its wall is dilapidated. and before the T ai-p ing rebellion it was one of the wealthiest in this part of China but it is now of small dimensions.

HUI-CHOU CITY AND BRIDGE. . 258. CHEHKIANG. [Facing /. ON THE CH IEN-T ANG RIVER.

.

) to nearly one thousand feet. 67. and sandy beaches. It is very is Puto hilly. is 1 The Chinese word shan ee ( mountain is &quot. Peak&quot.. it was an irregularly -shaped island of nearly four miles in length. the one which has the shortest religious history. for during the wars of the nineteenth century twice occupied by British troops. better known to Europeans as Pootoo. The name of Chusan is not strange to the annals of English history. Puto is. and it is therefore within easy reach of both Shanghai and Ningpo. and diversified with rocks.CHAPTER XI PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA OF the four sacred hills of Buddhist China. one of the group known to Europeans as the Chusans. but an island. not a mountain.) often used to denote a is With regard to the word Puto. On the western and coves. hilly island. which small. is Puto-shan. Buddha s The coast line deeply indented. yet enjoys the greatest prosperity to-day. varying in breadth from a few hundred yards to about three miles. Puto lies about two miles to the east of the large island which gives its name to the archipelago. strictly speaking. perhaps 259 . and rises at its highest point (&quot. which lie off the north-eastern coast 1 It is of Chehkiang. footnote. see p.

shallow. and the . sweet world of wave-encompassed wonder. is in very truth small. 1911). &quot. little pier A has been built at the southern extremity of the island. lavished upon it by enthusiastic Chinese Buddhists.YIN PUSA south-western sides the water is [CH. Unfortunately. Die Baukunst Kultur der Chinenen Band i.&quot. 1 By far the best account of Puto in any European language : is a recently published und Religiose German work by Ernst Boerschmann. an island of singular charm and beauty an island which. receding tide uncovers a border of dark mud but on the eastern side. which is by far the more the rocky headlands slope into deep and the bays which lie between their pro water. that there is no lack Puto is of literature relating to the island in English and 1 Some of the earlier other European languages. it appears that Mr Boerschmann had no opportunity of consulting the principal Chinese authority for the history of the island The only Chinese authority which he quotes the P u-t o-shan-chih . attractive. and has been so often visited by Europeans. P u-t o-shan (Berlin.a so easily accessible.PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN. if we may transfer to Puto the words of an English poet. and this is the landing-place of the crowds of spring kneel in adoration before the shrines of the holy who in and summer come visitors the pilgrim-seasons of in their thousands to pusa Kuan-yin. tecting arms are fringed with firm yellow sand. Puto near the estuaries of two great rivers the Yangtse and the Ch ien-t ang is responsible for the dun colour of the seas that lap position of The the coasts of the sacred Puto It is fully deserves all In other respects the praises that have been isle.

practised there. 306. &quot.XL] GUTZLAFF AT PUTO-SHAN 261 missionary writers made appreciative references to the natural beauty of the island. so romantic everything which meets the eye but the images of Kuan-yin and other deformed . reveal a similar readiness to praise the beauty of the island. is nevertheless of high value owing to its careful and thorough study of the epigraphic and architectural features of Puto. &quot. Medhurst). 1847 ed.&quot. to a limited and diminishing extent so ugly a feature of Christian missionary enterprise. 1834. of are employed in no other work than the recitation unmeaning prayers and the direction of useless contemplations towards stocks and stones so that human science and human happiness &quot. coupled with a detestation of the &quot.. 1 is the great encyclopaedia.&quot. &quot. He is observes that visits this island it to every person who appears at first like a fairyland. and China Opened (i. 116). p. for all its beauty..a landed at Puto in February 1833. &quot.&quot.All its inhabitants. . The descriptions contained in Hall and Bernard. One such visitor was Charles Gutzlaff. beneath which the foaming sea dashed. curred in the rather churlish remarks of a well-known missionary (W. idols give him much distress. The Nemesis in China. and which &quot. the T u-shu-chi-ch eng. which gives extracts His book Cfiih. He describes temple built on a projecting rock. whose words they quote. &quot.gave us the idea of the genius of its inhabitants. but their observa tions concerning its religious associations were apt to be much marred by that almost fanatical in tolerance of alien faiths which in past years has been and still is. pp. in thus selecting the most attractive spot to celebrate the orgies of idolatry.&quot. 438 /. says Medhurst. and Puto. . H. who &quot. from the 1 See Gutzlaff s Journal of Three Voyages. turns out to be nothing better than an &quot.gross The authors apparently con idolatry&quot. but takes them from a now superseded edition.infamous seat of abomination..

but also displayed itself in countless acts and words of gross discourtesy (to say the least) towards a people with whom courtesy their Western and tolerance of others foibles are among the first of virtues. by a French Jesuit priest named Le Comte. . also for the pitiful misunderstandings so long prevented East he thus describes the charming scenery of the Chusan archipelago &quot.) the middle of the nineteenth century. though it was not actually visited. there is very little reason to complain. old-fashioned denunciations of heathenism may and perhaps as a trifle ludicrous. Writing of his voyage from Amoy to Ningpo. also Williams. Middle Kingdom.. his books may still . . Long before the days of Gutzlaff. unfortunately. for similar Robert Fortune. We also steered would not be in the least diminished if the whole of Puto.&quot. (Cf.I : never saw anything so frightful as that infinite number of rocks and desert islands through which we were obliged to pass. but which have and West from getting to know and appreciate one another s good qualities. however. were blotted out from the face of creation. but we should not forget that the intolerant zeal of the Christian pioneers was.262 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN. 124-6. . for Fortune s temperament was tolerant and sympathetic. Those acts and words were to a great extent responsible. not only for many of the antiforeign outbreaks that used to be so frequent. i. not confined to the writing of books and papers for the edification of supporters. and be read with pleasure and profit. merely whimsical. a well-known botanist of ill-tempered remarks.YIN PUSA The strike us in these days as [CH. has also left a description of Puto . with its gaudy temples and lazy priests. of this. Puto was probably seen.

&quot. of disturbing a neighbouring dragon we were con strained to follow their example. for fear. in the Island of Chusan. gave small pleasure to our seventeenthcentury Jesuit. having spent some time those horrid rocks. in which the Chinese observe a profound silence.&quot. the good father s indifference to the picturesque was partly due to the uneasiness caused by a violent storm from which his little vessel had but lately emerged. . Man s 1 Bay. he arrived at last at &quot. however. The dreadful omens. &quot. He among goes on to say that. Le Comte s Memoirs (English trans. Here we have a good example of that curious insensibility to the beauty of wild nature which until comparatively recent times was so curious a characteristic of civilized Europe. the port of Ting-hai. 11). 1 and made he says. We prayed tempest. p. and he resolved to appeal to that holy man to manifest his protecting power on behalf of the storm. they tell us. I know not how call it as for us. The journey described was late in the seventeenth century. Perhaps. &quot. increased as his ship approached the Chusan Islands. he tells us.XL] EARLY EUROPEAN VISITORS through a pretty wide bay. 1738.. membered Fortunately. . we named it the Dumb they . him. however.&quot. to divert the enforced our prayers by a vow. It is evident that this isle-studded sea. which is now becoming the resort of enthusiastic tourists from the West. he re in good time that the great missionary saint Francis Xavier had already wrought many miracles in those waters.driven ship.

Tribute A in the Shu islanders&quot.C. the Catholic father if he had been told that St Francis Xavier had a miracle-work It might Indeed ing rival in the channels of Chusan. but. find that &quot. and pre-Buddhistic history next to passage in the &quot. it is not unlikely that at the very time when the Western missionaries were addressing their supplications to St Francis the heathen members of their crew it were the simultaneously theirs to Kuan-yin. in 1552.) may refer to the Chusan islanders. and possibly dis gusted.wild their tribute of &quot. and some Chinese commentators have suggested that this passage (which deals with events of the third millennium B. And who Christian stilled is to addressing decide or whether Buddhist waters ? was saint the who really However this may pusa those raging be. there blew a favourable gale of wind. St Francisco de Xavier was bom 2 Tao I.&quot. have surprised. Scarce were we off our knees.grass-woven garments. .&quot. Cliing refers to the &quot.PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA [CH. Coming down about 1506 and died to times of which 1 we have more reliable historical record. whether by a miracle or the ordinary course of nature.Apostle of the Indies was born. known. which carried us through some islands into our desired port. we shall shortly Puto and the neighbouring seas were the scenes of Kuan-yin s miraculous activities six hundred years or more before the &quot. 1 Of of the island is s nothing Yu&quot.

SKETCH-MAP ( .

vlonastery : & !*? I i$$8ds) ^ S Hsiang-hui .Temple _ Fan -y in C IA __ .-&quot. [Facing p. 4 i ftr &quot. &quot.&quot.V -r-- Mon . 264. \ T/iePrinces Chao-yin ^^^XCave and Temple V Pagodajr hsiu nple* Lighth A PUTO-SHAN. TAN a OCEAN) ^X Ch ao -yan^ *^Cave andtemple Fa-(nua Grottoes &amp. Northern IWl V &quot.&quot..V IITO-SHAN&quot. Shan-tun^ Temple J OlcJ Lighthouse^ Is* 939 . Southern iern \Vk nastery .gt. . .

who among his other attainments possessed the power of making himself invisible. There is.fish&quot.C. artistic methods were to peculiar to himself. pardonably enough. but merely upset his ink-slab.C. of the sign for During the and that short-lived B. being a combination for &quot. which for a time in the fifth century B. for the fairyland of his dreams.&quot. as he legend lived in the undiscoverable fairy islands which somewhere in the region of the rising sun. from which we learn that An-ch i Sheng in his lay easterly the island wanderings never got any farther than we now know as Puto.XL] CHUSAN ISLANDS find IN CHINESE HISTORY 265 two and three thousand years ago the inhabitants of all the Chusan Islands were people of aboriginal (possibly Annamite or Shan) race. for when he wished draw he used no brush or other implements.) rule of the Ch in dynasty (third century wizard named An-ch i there was a certain Sheng. the character for &quot. and without further perceptible activity on his part the blots of ink so created would take the . Even as late as the Han dynasty the islanders were race. and formed part of the that between we population of the semi-barbarous principality of Yiieh. was the most formidable military power in Eastern China. however.barbarian. Indeed. which possibly he mistook. according to a popular he was never really seen by any one. another version of the legend. He was a skilful artist but his . t At undoubtedly of non-Chinese that time they were known as Chient i i-jen.

) name applied to a small hill in the southern part of the island. and calligraphy. 252. have been Mei-ts en is (the Hill of Mei a &quot. and of unrivalled renown. p.YIN PUSA [CH. for example. are often met with kind. that Kobo Daishi. the Japanese founder of the Shingon sect of Buddhism (774-834). is regarded in China arid Japan as a fine 7- art. know. in the annals of Oriental art. is one of the favourite pro its ducts of fairyland.flowers. used to take a brush and spatter ink on the wall.C. Kobo was the most famous calligraphist of his day. a painter who used to make a blot of ink and from the blot drew beautiful pictures Wang with either this his fingers or his toes. We is well 2 3 known. or whether he had merely retired 1 are told. and it became one of the unsolved problems of biography whether he had become an immortal hsien-jen or rishi. See above.266 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN. Mei Fu. 1 But the itself a fact that An-ch i Sheng s artistic instincts were associated significant solely with the peach was of : proof that he was a wizard as all Chinese for the peach-tree. About the year 6 of our era he mysteriously vanished. form of exquisitely drawn peach . 2 magical properties are of Puto seems to The which earliest Chinese 3 name &quot. Stories of which are simply a fanciful way of the inexplicable and inimitable powers describing and achievements of genius. 64 p. T u-shu-pien ch. seemingly at random whereupon the blots would transform themselves into beautifully traced characters. or Mei Tzu-chen. His skill was thus at least as remarkable as that of Hsia. as . . was a prominent statesman and Con still fucian scholar of the first century B.

Europeans of in Mercy. Bodhisat who 1 hears the cries of the his 011 126. &quot. of Chehkiang. who. 2 over Sukhavati. . in Middle Kingdom. but this statement also is entirely unsupported by Williams. A Chinese writer (P u-t o-slian-chih xvii.&quot. his According to the traditions hiding-place was no other than and his name is attached not only to a but also to a modern Buddhist temple (the hill. Mei Fu Ch an-yiian) in front of which is a pool Puto : of water It still known till as Mei Fu s Well. the Royal world. as we saw in a previous chapter. 1 Its patron pusa has always been was not Kuan-yin (known to the Japanese as Kwannon). 2) tries to carry the Buddhist traditions of Puto back to a still earlier date (280-289 of the Western Chin dynasty) .XL] BUDDHIST HISTORY OF PUTO 267 into voluntary exile. is the representative in Chinese Buddhism of the celestial bodhisat Avalokitesvara. 2 See pp. which was prohahly due to a confusion on his part between the earlier and later Liang dynasties.&quot. 100-101. says that temples but he gives no 550 authority for this statement. Kuanyin is now always represented as a female divinity.existent) Saviour. which may All. China know her as the Goddess but she may be described more &quot. Her correctly as the full title in Chinese is Ta-tzii ta-pei chiu-k u Kuan-sliih-yin be translated. the ninth century that Puto began to acquire special sanctity in the eyes of Buddhists.compassionate Uncreated Self. evidence. (or tzii-tsai &quot. island as were erected the early as . Pusa of Love and Pity. the paradise In the popular religious lore of China. one of the divine beings who rule of Amitabha.the wang p u-sa. i.&quot.

a Sometimes the term used is P ( iao-hai ( sea-borne &amp. as a spiritual Hu-fa. possesses other female deities whose functions can scarcely be distinguished from those of T ien-hou . Both are worshipped as beneficent and compassionate goddesses who save men from misery and peril. This epithet.). it may be added. he would no doubt emphasize the fact that in the temples of Puto the pusa as the Kuo-hai Kuan-yin is (&quot. The latter is near the landing-place.lt. If an enquirer into Buddhist origins wished to claim Kuan-yin as an importation from Europe. &quot.The Holy Mother Queen of Heaven&quot. The Shrines T ien-hou are in the pavilion at the entrance to the Northern Monastery and in the front hall of the Fu-ch tian-shen Temple. and.). frequently described the Kuan-yin who came 1 across the to 2 sea&quot. indeed they may be regarded as local manifestations of that goddess. especially from the dangers of the ocean and both are regarded as the patrons and protectors of mothers and as the bringers of children. the centre of whose worship is T f ai-shan. the so-called god of war/ who is regarded by Chinese Buddhists. That these divinities eye one another with no unfriendly feelings may be gathered from the fact that shrines to the Taoist .YIN PUS A Various suggestions [CH.).268 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN. and close by it stands a temple (the Kuang-fu) dedicated to another Taoist deity Kuan-ti. or Protector of the Faith. Popular Taoism. Kuan-yin respects as female She is some the to Buddhist counterpart of the deity known popular Taoism as T ien-hou sheng-mu (&quot. are to be found on the shores 1 of Kuan-yin own sacred soil of Puto. or Niany-niang.: &quot. rather unwarrantably. have in been made as to how a the Chinese came to regard pusa. Such is the deity known as Pi-hsia-yuan-chun. Queen of Heaven s &quot. whose origin is also clouded in mystery. . &quot. however. the sacred mountain of Shantung.

329.) T lEN-HOU. . (Seep. PUTO-SHAN. I I- achig p. THE TAOIST QUEEN OF HEAVEN.THE FA-T AXG. SOUTHERN MONASTERY. 268.

.

of course. 290. tzu Niang-niang of Taoism. Robertson. J. Stella. 213- 215. in the devotional literature of the Church of Rome the Mater Dei is often referred to as a kind of The song Stella Moris? ascribed to sea-goddess. by no to Amitabha s paradise. the eighth century. There are similar as possibilities in respect of Kuan-yin s functions the bestower of children. M.&quot. on which the souls of the saved are borne across the sea of life and death It is. 331.by times. pp. means impossible that the conception of a seacrossing Kuan-yin has some remote connection with similar myths which we find embedded in 1 It is well known that other religious systems. 470. 1910. 4 5 Sacred Shrine. . Hastings. is often 4 Sung- founded on a passage in the Lotus of the Good Law* But it does not require much daring to 1 Cf. etc. E. has been breathed up in &quot.E. ii. who in storms sought help from the mild goddess who was the Star of the Sea. as a recent writer observes. numerable &quot.&quot. 2 3 Ave Maris Dei Mater Alma.R.&quot. Bark of Salvation. that she is able to grant prayers for children is The Sung-tzu Kuan-yin. the broad &quot. 465-6..B. 409. Russian peasants believe the same of the Virgin. and who for those in peril opened a window in the sailors dark and threatening 3 skies. pp. func or raft. Christianity and Mythology. like the (Mylitta).. Him. in which capacity she may be compared with the Babylonian Ishtar represented as The belief carrying a male infant in her arms. 116. xxi.E. S.XL] BUDDHISM AND CATHOLICISM s 269 probably contains a reference to the pusa tions as captain of the hung-Ja.

the cult of Avalokitesvara spread not only to China. 88). &quot. pp.. a height place which is always associated with the worship of this bodhisat.. Poussin believes that &quot. Where the original Potalaka was is a disputed question. ii. It is usually assumed to &quot.&quot. 259 Watters. suggest that there was a child. have been a rocky hill to the east of the Malaya Mountain.N. 8 this However On may be. it means the Lord (Isvara) who looks down from a height. . ch. 3 See Poussin in E. pp. . 258 /. 166-172. The Shan-ts ai who mentioned there. cit.270 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA [CH. Cape Komorin. 228-232. 1905. 1 &quot. is commemorated by a cave named after him in the eastern peninsula of Puto-shan.ii.E. it seems highly probable that the deity worshipped there was of non-Buddhistic origin and. vol. but also to Tibet. near the harbour of 2 If this identification is correct. op.E. in Southern India. sutra (B. there is the worship paid to evidence to associate her (or him) with Hindu deities such as Siva. p. According to one of the interpreta tions of the name of Avalokitesvara.E. 364 and 388 . is 68 (see Har. Of course neither the original author of the sutra nor the translator into Chinese makes any specific reference to the Chinese Potalaka. The is the sacred mountain of Potalaka. indeed. 2 See Waddell. Lhasa and its Mysteries. . &quot..R. 1 A the subject of the very wide extension of the cult of the see J. of which neither had any knowledge. Yuan Chwang. iv.carrying goddess worshipped in China long before the Sung-tzu Kuan-yin was ever heard of. and figures prominently in the sutra. E. 33). Chinese Buddhists acknowledge that the original seat of Kuan-yin s worship was at a great distance from China. i. A description of the hill may be found in the Hua-yen mother-and-child. Robertson. pp.the Chinese transformation of Avalokita into a woman had probably been already effected in India. Hastings. M.

&quot. probably the Japanese. The name of Hsiao-pai-hua certainly is an appropriate one. Puto was known as Hsiaothe Island of the pai-hua-shan. of which the unabbreviated Chinese or (in the is name is P u-t o-lo-ka. when Chehkiang and the neighbouring and Yiieh.Eastern Barbarians&quot. regions were under the rule of the princes of Wu 2 See Eitel. vol. 18. the original word is 2 &quot. of. This delightful name was period (618-906) J T ang probably given to it by the Buddhists. A writer of the Yuan dynasty &quot.&quot. xx. Handbook. &quot. and the place selected by them was no other than our island of Puto. take root in China ? This is a difficult question See Ming-shan-shcng-kai-chi. The Buddhists of China decided that they too must have a Potalaka for their Kuan-yin. which means Little White Flower.) used to come for trad The Tung I were ing purposes to Ting-hai. Hua-yen sutra) Pu-ta-lo-ka. and that palace.XL] THE LITTLE WHITE FLOWER 271 second Potalaka was created at Lhasa. s. or is a rendering .Potalaka. the capital of Chusan. This flower is the gardenia When 1 did the cult of Avalokitesvara. or Kuan- yin. Potala. Potaloka. Puto &quot.crowned rock remains to this day the head quarters of the Dalai Lama. for it is still in common use by them indeed they assert that the name is equivalent to. florida. ch. thus merely a shortened says that in the form of &quot. The same writer says that the Tang I (&quot. . whose intercourse with this part of China goes back to the Chou dynasty.&quot.v. inasmuch as Puto famous for a certain beautiful all and fragrant white flower which grows wild over the island. who is himself re garded as an incarnation of the divine bodhisat.

136 and 137 are xi. Har. English (from the Sanskrit) by Kern. pp. of which several translations (apparently from at least two different Sanskrit texts) were made into The earliest was made Chinese between the years 265 and 601. 1 This does not imply. a sutra which was first translated 2 into Chinese about the end of the third century. vol. In Puto Kuan-yin takes precedence of every other divinity. p. 134. 6-54). 1-57). to have scriptural foundation in the Pure- Land there &quot. Har.N. irrespective of his association with the Buddha Amitabha. One of the scriptural bases of is this cult the Good a concluding chapter of the Lotus of Law. 2 This is the Saddharmapundarika. sutras. ii. may be said &quot. that See above.N. vol. reason that the principal pavilion or chapel of ( the monasteries of Puto is described as Yuan-t ung Pao-tien 3 not as It is for this . 95. name of Kuan-shih-yiri is given as Kuang-shih-yin (see Index). on Kuan-yin. translated by In this transla ii. and this pusa s image occupies the place of honour in the principal hall of nearly 3 every temple. we is observe that there or less distinct. 57-106). vol. 139 The sutra has been translated into (Har.PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA to answer. 408 ff. the Cheng Fa-hua-ching. The most popular translation is that of Kumarajiva.N. more is with which Avalokitesvara associated. In the act Amidist divinities cult Avalokitesvara one of a triad of who its rule the Western Paradise and This cult as the saviours of mankind. xi.. especially when are two Buddhistic cults.B. 1 But for also the Avalokitesvara of the scriptures. S.E. For the section and 417 (B. [CH. however. 138. between 265 and 316.N. pp. xxi. 3 see pp. tion the This is Dharmaraksha (B. Hua-yen and Fa-hua his who may be worshipped own sake. pp. only fragments. made between 384 B. i. A third complete translation of the sutra is B. which were translated into Chinese fifth between the second and is centuries. vol. xi.

usually translated akyamuni Buddha.&quot. S . and regarded her see We (or him) as the pusa to whom prayers should be offered for deliverance from shipwreck. and 1 as spiritual Son. his position seems to have been no more conspicuous than that of many other pusas.) above. P u-hsien.iung That the change of sex should have Kuan-yin s popularity will not be a epithet of ee Great Hero. pp. who flourished about 410. Kuanhim on one side and Ta-shih-chih on the other (see yin supporting Pao-tien. Kuan-yin s position as one of the rulers of Amitabha s paradise. or is Word. 2 should note. however. and at one time he was probably regarded as distinctly inferior to Mi-lei (Maitreya). Kuan-yin was still the male Avalokitesvara. whose unique position as the bodhisat who is destined to be the next Buddha (hence sometimes referred to by Europeans as the Buddhist Messiah is vouched for in the Pali &quot. p. 2 intensified Ta-hf&amp.) canon. occupies the central position. even at Puto. Catena. prehensive understanding 1 When Kuan-yin s image is associated with that of Amitabha. Many of the images of Kuan-yin are represented with a miniature image of Amitabha Buddha in the front of the crown or head-dress. On the contrary. at least theoretically recognized. of the glorious Amitabha himself.One of com is an epithet of Kuan-yin. was a worshipper of Kuan-yin. &quot.XL] THE GREAT BODHISATS 273 the Amidist theology is ignored or repudiated. Ti-tsang.gt. whereas Yuan-t ung (&quot. it is Amitabha who. 100). that the pilgrim-monk Fa-hsien. and Ta-shih-chih. &quot. 387-8. For some interesting observations on Kuan-yin as Voice or Word of the divine Buddha Amitabha. The yin of Kuan-yin signifies Sound or Voice. is an Ta-hsiung. It is not difficult to find an explanation of the undoubted fact that Kuan-yin has attained in China and Japan a popularity far exceeding that So long as of any of the other great bodhisats. such as Wen-shu. Beal.

registered over forty. Ideal From Religion of to a Free Church.&quot. M. although she is admittedly a creature of the imagination. as we saw on p. of being which people feel it good to worship. &quot. l and she has gained popularity because the ideal is one which touches people s emotions and lessens the gap between the merely human and the un approachably divine.v. and martyrs (see also Miss Cornford. Chinese Buddhism. p. A. s. pp.274 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN. Writing of the cult of the Virgin in Christendom. and Prof. is worshipped in China and Japan as an idealization of womanhood. pp. 113. 3 1 2 It F. the reader referred to Beal. Giles. Henry Start. the position of Kuan-yin is therefore not unique. it may yin. frankly an idealization of womanhood worshipped simply because that is the sort is . Catena. 3 See Edkins. . really living objects of Christian cult are the figures of actual men and women the Virgin. It has been said by certain European writers that Kuan-yin was not recognized as a female until the early part of the twelfth century. Kuan-yin is sometimes said to have uttered twelve such vows. 133 ff. H. 1912. Kwan-yin. commenced their careers as bodhisats by uttering great C( vows to save mankind. matter of surprise to those followed the course of dogmatic developments in other faiths. Kuan-yin. her Son. and to his Buddhism in China. the saints. Amitabha. be noted that Nestorianism has been suspected (though with doubtful justification) in the form of the liturgical services of Kuau- may be For a description and translation of the liturgy. 382.The Philosophy.. i.YIN PUSA who have [CH. With regard to the question of possible Western influences.). 1909. 1884. as he supposed it to be. Glossary of Reference. &quot. an English critic of our own day remarks that Mary she is &quot. 396 ff. . Kuan-yin like Amitabha and Ti-tsang and others innumerable. Eckenstein. p. Beal did not quite realize that the qualities and functions ascribed to Kuan-yin (especially as Saviour or Redeemer) are regarded by Buddhism as common to all the great pusas . ch. too. Cf. 1893 ed. p. &quot. &quot. 2 Women wider Monasticism. 243.&quot. 96.

almost luxurious. p.XL] SEX OF KUAN-YIN 275 be true that the recognition did not become general until that time. i. . 132. 50. The best proof of this is perhaps to be found in various extant examples of pictorial art. of the seventh century. 1 Among the miscellaneous notes and disserta tions which have been given is a place in the Chronicle of Puto. 3 According to the scholarly editors of the of the Chronicle. the inferior literary style of the essay proves that it cannot have been written by Wang Po but even if we assume that last edition . at any rate. like Shelley. is distinctly See Fenollosa. and. reproduced on p. it affords corroborative Wang Po s evidence 1 that Kuan-yin s change of sex was Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art. was accidentally drowned in his twenty-ninth year. 105 and 124. pp. ch. high A authority on Oriental art assures us that there are Chinese paintings of Kuan-yin of the seventh and eighth centuries which are markedly feminine though he admits that there are other paintings &quot. whereas the Kuan-yin of Tao-tzii (eighth century). poet of the T ang dynasty. He was a well. Wu 2 3 male. description of 2 and this essay. &quot. xx. there tains an essay that con an elaborate. which assumes that Kuan-yin is a female. may be seen a reproduc tion of a painting by the Chinese artist Yen Li-pen. Chih. who died in 676. 49. This figure seems to be a female. of the same era which represent the pusa as a male.known . 19-20. has been attributed to the poet Wang Po. 122. Kuan-yin s personal appearance . regarded as a female pusa. it was only the work of an unknown member of literary circle. ii. In vol. but there is ample evi may dence that at a much earlier date Kuan-yin was sometimes. 1912. i.

The technical term to express the &quot. of Kuan-yin is sui-clii-ying-hsien.B. I find by examination that the earliest extant Chinese translation of the sutra (B. It is a matter of accident which one It just &quot. is by nature both sexless and formless.. as in pictorial art. or of 3 appearing to assume. Kern s Sanskrit original seems to have been the text which was also followed by the first translator into ( trans Chinese (Dharmaraksha). than that contained in the text. 124).E. c a great bodhisattva is in its own Fenollosa correctly says that nature indeterminate as to sex. The womanhood of Kuan-yin does not contra dict. i. 410-411) is from a text which does not mention Kuan-yin s female transformations. the Mahayanist All the bodhisats may. cit.N.. There is also a in the Lotus of the G-ood Law which passage 1 expressly says that Kuan-yin will appear in female form when that form is appropriate to circum educated Buddhist. We had occasion to notice that Ti-tsang did so in more than one of his &quot. 182. brushes all stances. from which B. or texts. while Sung preferred to lay stress upon the element of motherhood (op. having risen above the distinction. but capable of assuming. recognized in literature.incarnations. formations 3 it may assume upon incarnation. and especially a genuine mystic of the Ch ari school. is 1 2 See pp. or rather embodying in itself the united spiritual graces of both sexes. in the course of their age-long careers as saviours of the world.N. It be noted that there evidently is a Sanskrit text which list of Kuan-yin s &quot. 138) omits them also. or preferred to think. xxi. true Kuan-yin.276 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA [OH. he says. and is scriptures. all forms. happens that T ang thought. Kern s translation (S.&quot. 134 and 139 were may contains a shorter translated.transformations&quot. long before the twelfth century. of Kwannon (Kuan-yin) as a great demiurge or creator. 2 An The these notions aside as of no real importance. 178. . not inconsistent with. have already appear on earth in female form.

SOUTHERN MONASTERY.PAVILION IN FRONT OF SOUTHERN MONASTERY. 276.&g. (Seep.) COURTYARD IN FRONT OF GREAT HALL OF KUAN-YIN.) [Facing p. 329. . (Seep.

.

Gotama. though the subject one which view of recent tendencies in Christian apologetic will probably be found by Western theologians to be worthy of close attention.XL] THE MOTHER OF BUDDHA 277 it Western students of Buddhism may ask how was that Chinese Buddhists. especially of the Gandhara school (nee PI. But the belief in Maya s exceptional purity and holiness is the Buddhists of all schools. wishing to do to a reverence female divinity. 1 It that would be erroneous. Vincent . or from the general stock of current religious theory. when they mother of the real explanation &quot. Smith. 114 /. selected an imaginary being such as might have chosen the historical lies Kuan-yin. reverie) it and matters is of historical On to this topic perhaps unnecessary to already add in the observations made is in an earlier chapter. refers to her as a being who. the mother of Gotama. was 1 See pp. to as we should expect. 174. History of Fine Art in India and Ceylon). makers to bring about an entangling alliance between matters of faith (or perhaps we should say religious fact. to suppose Maya. Buddhists. 58. indeed. though honoured above all others of her sex. 2 The common Hmayana. xxix A. has not been all regarded with deep reverence by The doctrine of Buddha s virgin canonical.. is birth not and was probably borrowed from one of the numerous religions in which we find traces of a similar doctrine. 2 The Nativity of Buddha was a favourite subject with in Indian sculptors. The in the unwillingness of the probably Buddhist creed&quot.

153 and 082. There is one rather mysterious deity in i whom we may possibly discern a deified form of Gotama s mother. according to a Mahayanist theory.278 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA human mother of a [CH nevertheless the for human son : Gotama. Her image. her divine Son. is often seen &quot. in 1 Chinese Buddhist temples. though this significance when we 2 find theory loses some of its that she is not the this exalted title has only divine being to whom been accorded. The title has also been given to the pusa Wett-shtij the personified Wisdom of Buddhahood. In many of the Mahayana sutras Maya occupies an exalted place among the celestial beings who assemble to do honour to the deified Buddha. She is usually Among Maya receives prominence. This being plays a far more important part in Tantric Buddhism (that is. have seen that. cf. be it remembered. &quot. was not born a Buddha he became one during his life on earth. 181. &quot.&quot. . the Buddhism of word . 2 See p. Maya is &quot. 175). and there must have been a possibility at one time that a glorified Maya the Mayadevi would eventually be elevated to a heavenly throne near 1 that of the glorified akyamuni.the eternal Mother of all the We Buddhas. . however.N. (Fo mu}. in addition to the Ti-tsang sutra dealt with ahove (see p.mysticism and magic) than in the ordinary Buddhism of monastic China. B. who is also sometimes described in Chinese as Holy Mother (shSng-mu) and as the Mother of Buddha&quot. and rules there as king. This is Chun-t (Chundi-devI). Maya has been reborn in one the sutras in which of the heavens as a male deity. According to some Buddhists.

quoted by Eitel. - artistic &quot. from a tablet monstrosities as these are of Indian. 345. 19. ait. of course. 186.&quot. 346. as given in the books. pp.E. (&quot. artists. representation. 1 By some authorities Chun-t i is identified with the Marichi of Brahmanic mythology. Catena. 98 and see Beal. cit. have their meaning for the Hindu or Mahayanist Buddhist instructed in the mysteries of his faith. p. and sometimes with a third eye in the middle of the forehead. the Bhagavadyltd and the Laws of 19. viii. beings. the holy Virgin because Marichi Mary. Sometimes among Chinese Buddhists is Chun-t 1 i identified with Kuan-yin. under take to reproduce literally in stone or bronze the descriptions of the deities little regard to aesthetic con regarded as too monstrous for plastic The result too often is merely grotesque and absurd. .The as a leading authority on Indian art rightly observes. the name of mentioned as a divine being in pre-Christian Brahmanical literature. with siderations.XL] MARICHI 279 represented with eighteen arms. 14. &quot. not Chinese. p. the Taoist deity already in mentioned. Handbook. symbolism. but from the artistic point of view they are fensible&quot.. B. . Marichi. and no form is .&quot. 412. of which the Chinese form It has been daringly suggested that is Mo-li-chih. Smith. sutras all appear to have been translated seventh and eighth centuries. 344. 112.N. . the name Marichi was is derived from &quot. appears under her own name. 182). op. and xxv. 4 For the Chinese sutras on Chun-t f i. 88. These into Chinese during the .. when looked at by anybody who is not steeped in the notions of Hindu Such forms. See aho Vincent A. This cannot be correct.B.&quot. Chinese Tantric literature however. (Vincent A. but the identifi 4 cation does not appear to be authorized The illustration is by the books. and also with the Chinese T*ien-hou Queen of Heaven&quot. 2 Georgi. 188. Such rubbing. see op. 3 Of. Smith. but occasionally is horrible. lords of created &quot. 387. origin. . . Manu. 3 Marichi was one of the ten great sages. p.). . and may be used by him as aids to inde devotion.. 182. S.

narrates the is too long for insertion in simply a religious fairy-tale. vol.). ii. 134. in the tale of The germ of the may possibly be found the heretical king and his two Buddhist sons. B. pp.N. to the hearts of the Buddhist laity. 419/. 104-5 8. . 138. pp.E. This narra which is these pages. xi.280 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA [CH. but there is what we may call a The romantic story of Kuan-yin as well as a scriptural one and it is the romantic story which is nearest .N. xxi. ii. xi. the pusa Kuan-yin. vol. it was 1102 of our era. 51-2 . and noble and virtuous deeds of the much pusa and the terrible persecutions to which she was subjected during the life which she spent the days of the Buddha Kasyapa) as the youngest of three princesses. B. xi. 54-6 . we may founder of their faith in a manner that to their does credit . Har. Har. daughters of a on earth (in certain great king. recognized sutras contain innumerable references to the earthly and heavenly activities of the great pusa. . say that the Buddhists in their religious meditations have generally treated the figure of the human mother of the historical On the whole. 139. vol. Har. which forms the subject of a section of the Lotus sutra (see B. tive. According to the writers faces 1 who contribute pre to modern editions originally 1 composed story in the year of the story.N.B. pp. good taste and in found solace for this self-imposed and China and Japan they have imaginative delicacy restraint in the rapturous contemplation of the infinite graces of their ever -loving and compassionate Lady. i.

[ Facing p. 280.- - I A HERMIT OF PUTO AT THE DOOR OF HIS HERMITAGE.gt. .&amp.

.

by monk named P was not recognized as a female pusa till the twelfth It is. . P u-ming also and to fellow-monks prostrated she was visible in them themselves adoration. and was then visited of an strange apparition in the guise After commending his ancient hermit. so that all who read or heard it might be brought to a full knowledge of the saintly career of that divine pusa and thereby become partakers of the bliss heavenly her for promised to their guide and all who should take saviour. industrious days in writing down Kuan-yin s life on earth. by a religious zeal. When laid he had reached the of down his page and had pen he was rewarded by a glorious last vision the radiant pusa for herself. of the u-ming.XL] STORY OF KUAN-YIN a 281 in the reign of the emperor Hui Tsung. but it is certainly incorrect to regard the story as the sole origin of the theory. once spent three months in solitary meditation. P u-ming im and reverently and obediently accepted the task posed upon him the story his by of thereafter spent many his ghostly visitor. unlikely that the great popularity of the story hastened the general acceptance of the theory that Kuan-yin was a female. indeed. by no means century. The monk P u-ming. the hermit bade him employ his time by writing down a full account of the wonderful life and acts of the blessed Kuan-yin. we are told. It is perhaps the knowledge of the date of this story which gave rise to the belief that Kuan-yin Sung dynasty.

while their a floating cloud she clad eyes. to be orderly. and having hearkened diligently to the truths that are promulgated. they must strive to give effect to them in their own . altar. and by fraternity) donning clean robes. is enjoined to sit down and to maintain decorous silence to avoid idle chattering. quiet. reminding his He opens his discourse by audience that this day is the blessed anniversary of the birth of the loving and com He draws near to the passionate pusa Kuan-yin. indeed. and All must follow carefully the mean ing of what they hear. which indicate that the work was intended to be read aloud in the Buddhist temples to lay audiences on the occasion of the pusa s birthday. The congregation and to put away reverential. which is celebrated on the nineteenth day of the second (Chinese) month. in order that all he may utter. There are some preliminary directions. he in says. the precious life of the pusa is recorded. in the hearing of words which the the assembled faithful. The reader or reciter (who would naturally be one of the monastic should prepare himself for his sacred task by ceremonial fasting and purification. Her figure was passed before in rainbow- tinted vesture. .282 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA like [OH. frivolity . P u-ming s romantic story of Kuan-yin s life as an earthly princess is written in direct and simple language which renders it suitable for public recitation. and in her hands she bore her well-known emblems the drooping willow and the vase of heavenly dew.

fections of the flesh are powerless to curb the enable a man freedom of the mind. RELIGIOUS FAITH 283 In the scriptures it is written that the pusa One who bears the name of Kuan-shih-yin (the &quot.E. he may be thrown into a raging furnace.B. but you cannot put fetters on his soul you may throw a martyr to the lions. and in true faith calls upon her name. him in a place of shallow waters. pp.). It is / not lies that catch a glimpse of the truth behind such crudities of language. . sharp swords. The student of religion will pause before he ridicules or condemns these extravagant utterances. but the blessed pusa will come to his rescue and set 2 . 1 If any living creature clings for of Kuan-yin.. . xxi. You may chain a heretic to . and Beal. 400 /. addresses a prayer to this pusa. and they may 1 tear flesh from bone. .XL] lives. Catena. The difficult to I discovered that Buddhists.). but the flames will leave him unscathed he may be in peril from support to the potent name . but the steel will break in pieces he may be in danger of death from drowning. have intensity of religious faith will r to rise superior to all pain and to The limitations and imper despise all danger. because looks upon the world and hears its cries if any living creature who is in trouble or in pain &quot. the stake. like the adherents of other creeds. but they cannot violate passage referred to is llie scriptural in the Lotus of the Good Law (see S.389/. then will the pusa immediately hearken to his cries and bring him deliverance from his woes. 2 Pictorial illustrations of these and other miracles performed hy Kuan-yin are often to he seen in Chinese temple frescoes.

137. is understood to be the equivalent of a Sanskrit word which means the vase of as and the term &quot. but the wheel pieces . . The vase is known in Chinese reference to the willow. Beal. Of the undeniable truths which are but thinly disguised in such stories as these.&quot. ii. which means &quot. ii. stories of the miraculous efficacy of faith in Kuan-yin stories which are based on the records of actual experience are paralleled in Christian hagiology. 50. 172 . 1 immortality. Maximinus orders St Catherine of Alexandria to be broken on the wheel.&quot. and with this object it was usually placed in the 1 Cf. yet Cologne faith in St Elizabeth restores him to life. may be necessary to elucidate the and the vase of heavenly dew. which were mentioned as Kuan-yin s favourite emblems. but the wild beasts refuse to touch her Herman of is .284 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA spirit. - The ching p ing was known - in China in pre Buddhist days.). which was intended to catch the dew. Buddhist Records (1906 ed. and Walters. Blandina death as a felon. Perhaps neither is A few words wholly right and neither wholly wrong. but the saint stands unhurt amid the flames. the texture of his then. It was then a shallow dish. religious experience another.branch the ching-p ing. itself is shattered in sent to the amphitheatre. Let it to find that the Buddhist not surprise us. psychological analysis may have one explana tion to offer. Yuan Chwang. [CH.pure vessel. the is condemned to judge Paschasius puts St Lucy in a furnace that blazes with oil and pitch.

Avalokitesvara. carry lotuses are not all Avalokitas..XL] THE EMBLEMS OF KUAN. Poussin observes ( Hastings.E. ii. apparently. E. is represented as holding.). as its it But presence in the hand of a holy seems difficult to understand why in China Kuan-yin has come to be associated 1 Cf. from which the pusa sprinkles heavenly dew on her worshippers. 3 we know.already of a great many Those who Sanchi the lotus is represented in the hand personages as an offering intended for Buddha. * See pp.R. or from which she pours upon them the celestial incense which accompanies in the the consecration (abhisheka) of every bodhisat. The a sacred plant. Indian bearer&quot. is to Buddhists and perhaps we need look for no lotus. we may notice the pusa s in the first place that prototype. It may be mentioned that the phial is often seen in the hands of other pusas besides Kuan-yin. 260) that &quot. and it is sometimes carried by the Buddha Amitabha. which Hows from the toe of Vishnu. Some times. not a willow-branch. collected 1 The dew of Kuan-yin the vessel is usually represented as a narrow-necked phial (kalasa]. In the hands mountain. it was simply a cup-like hollow scooped out of a rock on the summit of a by this means was believed to confer immortality on those who used it to moisten their lips and eyelids. other reason for bodhisat. 2 According to another theory. the European folk-lore concerning the washing of the face with dew on May morning. of the sacred Ganga River. 2 With regard to the other sacred emblem carried by Kuan-yin.YIN 285 outstretched hand of an image or statue.. 103-9. and so endows them with the promise of endless bliss Western Paradise. but a lotus-flower hence the epithet padmapdni lotus(&quot. for Maitreya at . healing waters issue from the pusa s This is a more pleasing conception than the Hindu notion finger-tips.

3 Kan-lu-chiu. Possibly Avalokitesvara as padmapdni may be connected with the post-Vedic Indian goddess Laksnri or ri. 4 It is perhaps not impossible that Kuan-yin s spray was originally not that of a willow (Chinese yang) but that of an Indian tooth-stick tree (Chinese ch ik-mu). should carry in her hand a magic willow.286 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA [OH. with the willow instead of the lotus. 1 Perhaps we the fact that the willow Water which is has been merely touched by a willow-branch miraculous to as supposed to be endowed with 2 In Buddhistic healing properties. op. the wife of Vishnu.. is literature religious truth a reviving rain often poetically referred that descends upon the &quot. Of. 35 . Thus to the worshipper of Kuan-yin it is that the divine pusa. cit.&quot. . as and it is constantly used by has been chosen... 808 1 &quot. of &quot. 253. (of religious shall writers. pp. footnote 2). 187 and 346.&quot. OH this subject see Takakusu s I-Tsing\s Records. and is regarded with special favour as a raincharm. p. the wine of the dew sweet dew &quot. in Hastings. This goddess was associated with the sea. To follow the symbolism and iconography of is among them. distressed and sheds a very natural and appropriate thing who brings succour to the upon them the immortal bliss (or &quot. and as goddess of beauty she like Aphrodite. as we the name of one of the great monasteries of Puto. 2 Such water is known as willow-water (yang-chih-shui). . may find an explanation in has been put by the Chinese to various magical uses. which seems to have been a kind of acacia. rain of Law see. the The phrase fa yu Buddha)&quot. S. Watters. xxi. is said to have arisen is also associated with the lotus (see H. . 3 ).E. Jacobi. also Kern.the parched earth.B. ii. from which she. with which she charms down from heaven the Rain of the Good 4 Law. Lion and Dragon in Northern China.

ii. Puto) across is ever ferrying the souls of men safely the ocean of misery. that she is sometimes described as ch ien-shou ch ien-yen (the &quot. purposes of Christian symbolism (see Duchesiie.) has also been associated with Kuan-yin indeed. six-armed Avalokitesvara (perhaps to be identified with the six . gflS fiH.). but also (more especially) of that Grcuco-Indian type which has left an indelible impress on Asiatic religious art from Gandhfira to Japan. Vincent Smith. pp. . i.XL] ICONOGRAPHY 287 the cult of Kuan-yin into all its branches would take us far beyond our prescribed limits. It is interesting to note that a vase and a plant sometimes appear in the paintings of Western artists in association with the Virgin and the angel Gabriel (see Him. &quot. i. prayed to in a &quot. pp. Early History of the Christian Church [Eng. 281-2). op. 108-9). This passage about the willow . L. and Chinese type. 2 Sometimes we find in the chapels dedicated to and Beal. 185. : 2 See ^if*^]t!i. or Willow of Kuan-yin. 256-7. be mentioned that the tamarisk (tamarlv chinensis..wand which decays or remains green in accordance with the moral state of its owner may remind us of the belief of the Amidist that each man while living on earth is represented in paradise by a lotus. has a ing to the call. It may be unnecessary to remind the reader that the frescoes and statues of Avalokitesvara which have been found in Turkestan by Stein. 189-90. We pusa of a thousand who (to quote the hands and a thousand eyes words of a hymn often recited in the temples of &quot. 173.. which flourishes or languishes according to his spiritual condition 1 (see above.. again. ii.&quot. it is sometimes known as the Kuan-yin liu..armed Marichi) whose sculptured image seems to have been worshipped in North western India in the eighth century of our era. 1910]. Records. 308. A. however. . and others are not only of characteristically Indian.&quot. In these paintings the flower has Sacred Shrine [1912]. 68. . see pp. 167-8). Le Coq. Tibetan. thousand places and in a thousand places respond 1 Tantric Buddhism.A* For other references to or cit. images of Kuan-yin in that work. p. but the willow has also been applied to the usually been a lily op. may note. It should 171 tit. trans.

Kuan all manifestations of the one pusa exercising in different capacities her various functions of helper and saviour. xv.lt.N. or at least a clan of Idumsea. 13-i and 139). transformations These are the thirty-two hsiang or (sui-chiying-hsieri) of Kuan-yin referred to on p.lt. Beal. 3 1 An who appear to have been known as a The theory that the Essenes &quot. as already stated) are wanting in B. not as the female Kuan-yin. as we know. &quot. The Great Teacher robed in white English writer has ventured to emphasize this epithet as one of several indica tions of a connection between the Buddhists and the Essenes. 3 2 /V* * *H *3B& 4fc 2A It A. too. . 1 Sometimes. white-clothed sect.N. equivalent to Essauites. Strictly speaking.r&amp. the Western Paradise. when acting in this capacity. worship the figures of what appear to be thirty-two different deities but they are yin s .). she appears as co-ruler with Amitabha and Mahasthamaprapta (Ta-shih-chih). over SukhavatI. 276. Some of the hsiang (including the female ones. xvi. 2 and sometimes. we find her image associated with eight different kinds of danger or suffering the (pa nan) from which she is engaged in extricating mankind. Suffriii suggests that E&amp. and they include her appearances as a female. E. although it is correct to regard her. (&quot. An met epithet of Kuan-yin which is frequently with by the student of Chinese Buddhist is literature Pai-i Ta-shih &quot. that the sect was non-Jewish. is an ethnic term. 138 and in the text used by Kern. though on the Jewish borderland. Buddhist Literature in China. The thirty-two hsiang are all mentioned in thesutras (see B. these are eight states or situations in which it is impossible to hear the Law of Buddha (and therefore difficult to attain salvation).288 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA - [CH. 159-166. 1882.rcuoi He is strongly of opinion or Idumaeans. but as the male Avalokitesvara of the scriptures of the Pure Land.

be unjustifiable to trace any connection between Kuan-yin and the Essenes. could never have had the slightest chance of winning support in a land which had already submitted to the moral sway of Confucianism. it is perhaps permissible to suspect Syrian influences of another if it But Syria was carried. supposing that some knowledge of this We with its orgiastic revelries and barbarities. and there in is no difficulty goddess reached China through Persian or other channels.XL] THE DEA SYRIA sect of Buddhists has not 289 itself were a commended to later scholars. It deities that originally (&quot. would not be the only instance of the adaptation to China of belonged to the West. they Persian) sources. were worn not only by Essenes. The famous Hsi-wang-mu the Western Queen-mother&quot. though many have admitted that the religion and philosophy of the Essenes may have been partly derived from Oriental (perhaps As for the white robes. Yet it will perhaps be conceded that in some respects Kuannot unfairly be regarded as a refined and moralized Atargatis. as we know. who occupies a prominent place in 2 T . to the extreme west of Europe but the traders of Hierapolis had relations with the kind. 1 and by initiates in the Orphic Mysteries.). may readily understand that the cult itself. 2 know that this yin may We 1 See the closing lines of the Cretans of Euripides. cult of the . but also by the Therapeutas in Egypt (assuming that they existed outside the mind of the author of the De Vita Contemplativa). The Dea East as well as the West.

all &quot. 1530-1. &quot. K. There are three supposed characteristics of fishes which appear to have led to their being regarded in many parts of the world as sacred. H. such as Orpheus and Vishnu true that and it is also makes a symbolic use of fish quite irrespectively of the cult of Kuan2 It must be admitted. has recently been identified (by Prof. Another is their wakefulness they are believed to need 110 sleep. - yin with her vial of is vivifying rain or But more are significant the fact fish. that no yin.&quot. nection exists^ between the Mahayanist Amitabha who is not only the but also the Infinite Light or Space Wu-liang-kuang (the deity of &quot. is usually supposed (whether rightly or that the fish in the monastery ponds wrongly) were never regarded as sacred. or &quot. in Encycl. &quot. A.290 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA &quot.Endless Time&quot. : : virginity. Buddhism itself special significance necessarily attaches to the fact that tanks of feature of teries. The third is their fancied perpetual 1 See 2 &quot. but are merely for it &quot. that a con Giles) with the goddess Hera.&quot. of Mithraism? &quot. [OH. recalls Kuan dew. . moreover. Syrian goddess was believed to have the control l a fact which of sacred life-giving waters. Biblica coll. One is their quietness to silent ones/ even as the gods they are the mortal ears are silent. Is it not possible.). supposed to serve as a permanent reminder of the strict Buddhist commandment to refrain from the the fairy-lore of China.) and the Zrvdn Dr T. sacred fish are a characteristic properly-equipped Buddhist monas as they were of the temples of Atargatis. Infinite Age or Time Wu-liany-sliou (the deity of dkarana. Cheyne. else may be said of deities who in common with one another . too. have little indeed. that both divinities associated with The same. Reference need only be made to the mu-yil. or wooden fish/ which occupies a prominent place in every Buddhist temple.

expeUed still If there carries on a fragmentary and ghostly existence &quot.). The Kuan - &quot.a symbol of it is spiritual sustenance. &quot.fisherman s daughter&quot. the garb of a fisherman Occasionally. as fang-sheng-cli ih (&quot. . . 2 See Fenollosa. the fish notion the artistic point of view. 2 is too large.). long ago from her splendid shrine at Hierapolis.XL] KUAN. Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art. too any justification for the suggestion that the Syrian fish-goddess Atargatis. over was. indeed. &quot. 1 291 deliberate slaughter of But unless we adopt is the hypothesis of some actual contact between the cults of Atargatis and Kuan-yin.&quot. 133. from A Kuan-yin s fish is merely &quot. ponds pigs as well. i. in 1 the person of the of Hence such ponds are known &quot. it difficult when we remember that the former was partly a goddess of fishes to explain why Kuan-yin in one of her manifestations should also In this capacity she is known in Nepal as Matsyendranath. of the Sung dynasty gave still bolder expression to the idea of Kuan-yin s association with in fishes s by clothing her daughter. or Ruler of Fishes and in China she is described as Ao-yti be regarded as a fish-goddess. much complains that in evidence. who assumes that emphasized.YIN AS A FISH-GODDESS any animal.life-sparing Fish are not the only animals whose lives are thus ostenta Some large monasteries take charge of cattle and tiously preserved. Western critic. Certain artists carrying a fish in her right hand. yin of the Big Fish Painters of the T ang dynasty if not those of an earlier time sometimes represented her as Kuan-yin (&quot.

Chinese Buddhism. the Tsung. and that disaster is supposed to Puto be in store for all impious fishermen who defy the commands receives of the their nets in Ao-yu Kuan-yin by letting down That the rule those holy waters. however. we need not be surprised to find that the waters surrounding the island of are theoretically regarded as an inviolable sanctuary for fishes. and disclosed to the astonished gaze of unavailing . anticipated an unusual treat. The awe-stricken emperor gave orders that the . no payment was made from One day the emperor s the imperial exchequer. for which. was so hard that all efforts to break it proved and the emperor was about to put it aside when suddenly it opened of its own accord. was inordinately who reigned fond of oysters. however. the court a miniature image of the pusa Kuan-yin. There is a quaint Chinese legend which associates a sudden advance in the popularity of the cult of Kuan-yin with a miraculous incident which occurred in the second quarter of the ninth century. and his Majesty The shell. does not affect the significance of the religious taboo.292 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA [CH. eye was gladdened by the sight of an oyster-shell of exceptionally large size. of the T ang dynasty. According to this legend. and the fisher-folk were obliged emperor Wen by imperial decree to furnish the palace with enormous and regular supplies of this delicacy. support. from 827 to 840. and is no official to-day practi cally a dead letter.

XL] EXTENSION OF CULT OF KUAN-YIN was to be 293 treasure inlaid sandal. that an image of Kuan-yiri was to be admitted into 1 every Buddhist temple throughout the Empire. Nacre is deposited over the lead. for your oppressed people. and after a few months the shells are retaken. but issued an edict to the effect good part. in on order to obtain an worth knowing authoritative explanation of the prodigy.&quot. 350-1). The emperor. and then sent abroad to sell as proofs of the power and presence of Buddha &quot. &quot.&quot. In view of these facts more scrupulous than their European contemporaries. took the and not only abolished the forced tribute of oysters. This matter. cleaned. and he then sent for a noted Buddhist monk named Wei Cheng. story or not. concludes hint in the chronicler.wood carefully preserved in a goldbox. after which it is thrown back into the water. Kuan-yin is the pusa who extends love and compassion to all living and the pusa has chosen this means of beings inclining your majesty s mind towards benevolence and clemency and filling your heart with pity &quot. be admitted that where the interests of religion were at stake the Chinese monks of the ninth century seem to have shown themselves no i. but in the interests of truth the reader s attention must be drawn to a prosaic statement which occurs in Dr Wells Williams s description of the shell-fish and insects of China. explained the man of wisdom. is not devoid of significance. . it must regretfully (Middle Kingdom. . In 1 It story as Chehkiang the natives take a large kind of clam (Alasmodonta) and gently attach leaden images of Buddha under the fish. who that knew everything the subject was of miracles. it points to the fact that a great extension of the cult of Kuan-yin took place a very few years this r Whether we believe seems a pity to throw any doubt on the credibility of this it stands..

Puto and worshipped Kuan-yin at the Ch ao-yin Cave. - teachings of the German Suso. in her voice. its with the spirit of the Buddhist and are contrary to the express founder. according to the annals of the island. and when without ecstatic he had borne he this horrible torture flinching. before when Puto-shan began to be recognized as that pusa s principal seat of worship in China. The oyster-loving emperor died in 840 In the Buddhist history of Puto opens in 847. Gotama century career himself. If the pusa were true to her functions as a Teacher of the Good Law. that her object in appearing before her Indian worshipper was not to signify her approbation of his conduct.&quot. even at that early date. but also heard rapture. the Indian pilgrim attested the sincerity of his devotion by burning all his ten fingers. that year. we must assume &quot. According to the story. as a favourite haunt of Kuan-yin. like fourteenth his mystic Henry began religious by subjecting . Such deeds of religious fanaticism (records of which are painfully frequent in the annals of other religions besides Buddhism) are totally irreconcilable faith. This seems to show that Puto must have been known.294 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA the time [OH. though there is no direct evidence that such was the case. a certain Buddhist ascetic from India came to . passed into a state of which he not only saw the form of the glorious Kuan-yin. but rather to express her extreme displeasure.

the ascetic principle early made way for itself in the development of the Christian Church. and the formation of good habits. does not appear. existence. Buddhism was The bodily culture of the Order amounted thoroughly ascetic.&quot. Desire for the pleasures. . which contribute to Rel. among which that the T Mahayanist school was conspicuous. scriptural warrant. and of self-mortification on the other. long after him. . .XL] BUDDHIST AUSTERITIES 295 himself to the most rigid rules of a cruel asceticism. Gotama clearly teaches that the body is to be cared for. asceticism as an element of the religious and moral life exclusively to the essence of Christianity. in which some channels of activity are barred and others developed by special training. or way of life. in the canonical books. 70-1. Mrs Rhys Davids points out that Buddhism &quot. . . or prescribed in regard belonging original its body of doctrine as necessary to salvation.claimed at its very inception. a significant circumstance that the 1 0. Like Suso. opposed equally to the extremes of sensuous and worldly indulgence on the one But in the sense hand. Unfortunately. in the Buddha s first sermon. any glorification of the intellectual or spiritual at the expense of the corporeal. There very much to what would now be called the simple life. (Hastings. . it came to be believed by certain ien-t ai schools. owing to a false inter pretation of a section in the Lotus of the Good Law. but even for self- there was immolation by It is fire. which minister to the real self. Zockler has pointed out that though we cannot &quot. to be a Middle Path.the constant endeavour and ultimate hope of the Buddhist is to escape from corporeal J. 759). Similarly. however.. 74. he made the discovery bodily austerities were not the painful necessary conditions of healthy spiritual progress. 3 . . this end are to be cultivated&quot.&quot. . and he thereafter followed a via media which he that never ceased to recommend to his 1 disciples. of the Greek askesis. Mutatis mutandis. not only for a rigid asceticism. ii. Encycl.. the same observation may be made concerning the asceticism which we find associated with both Islam and Buddhism. . H. Bateson truly observes that though &quot. are inculcated and pursuit and conduct . Ethics.

. to true Buddhism. is There the pain being dissolved in the flames of a rapturous joy. as the plain man is apt to assume. we should beware of assuming. such proceedings are also directly antagonistic to the cardinal Chinese virtue of Hsiao (&quot. pp. Underbill. Yet in condemning the harsh self-discipline of the ascetics of India and China &quot. Thus we may console ourselves all with the reflection that our finger-burning ascetic may have been as free from physical pain as was Catherine of Siena or Bernadette of Lourdes. Mysticism. accompanied by a 429 and 435). in very similar circumstances.filial piety&quot. for yin it was largely the example of the flesh-torturing worshipper s who burned his ten fingers at sadhus of India that led many cruel of the Buddhist monks of China to inflict punishment on the body for its proneness to rebel against the Besides being opposed sovereignty of the spirit. religious enthusiast inflicts upon himself under the influence of ecstasy or intense emotion are necessarily the cause of acute physical agony. whether 1 as a result of a slackening to be frequently The mystic trance appears state of anaesthesia (see E. KuanCave is described as a native of India.296 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA [CH.). which bids men maintain their bodies and fitness in in a state of physical health order that they may fulfil all their duties and obligations both to their parents and to their descendants. that the mortifications of the flesh which a &quot. abundance of evidence to show that in very many cases there is no suffering whatever. 1 Nowadays.

Drawn in blood by a Hermit of Puto-shan. ) (M^lch reduced in [Facing /. 296. .KUAN YIN - PUSA. size.

.

The technical expression for writing sutras with one s blood is tz u hsueh shu eking. held the flaming end of a candle in her hand for fifteen minutes during one of her ecstasies. The &quot. Others withdraw from the fellowship of the fraternity to which they belong. p.}. 7 ff. again. The only act of bodily morti by involving acute pain which is practised ordinary monks is associated with the rites of Credible witnesses report that Bernadette. see Hirn s Origins of Art. In such cases the blood is usually drawn from the A tongue. She felt no pain. 3 . the visionary of Lourdes. appears in this book. who maintain a practice which has been very wide -spread. to any severer discipline than that monk inflicts Few submit known of to Christian monks 1 as inclusio cell voluntary for self-confinement in a monastic a term months or years. ii. 2 Cf. 2 Several such hermitages exist in Puto to this day. sometimes under a vow are of silence. see above. it is more meritorious comparatively rarely that a Buddhist physical pain or injury upon himself. abound &quot. similar practices of Tibetan anchorites are of a much severer type than anything of the kind in Buddhist China (tsee Sven Hedin. drawn in blood by an anchorite of Puto whose name is Shou-ch ing.&quot. TransHimalaya. There some anchorites. and seems to be of great antiquity in China that of writing their fication sutras or 3 drawing sacred pictures with own blood.XL] SUTRAS WRITTEN IN BLOOD 297 of religious zeal or from some cause. and take up their abode. reproduction (on a reduced scale) of a portrait of Kuan-yin. v. and the Laura of Western monasticism. 242. With regard to the wilful (c creation of pain-sensations as a desperate device for enhancing the intensity of the emotional state. 1 For a case of this kind at Chiu-hua-shan. Similar instances of ecstatic anaesthesia in the lives of the saints. chap. neither did the flesh show any marks of burning. the /ceXAtwrcu of the Byzantine East. in solitary hermitages.&quot.

The jan-hsiang is described on pp. 2 The other two are the Fan-yin and Shan-ts f ai caves. if need be. tions have taken place. have Since that time the pusa is said manifested herself to the eyes of her &quot. cavern s 1 For full description of the ordination ceremonies. beyond the Flying Sands. It was mentioned that the place where the Indian pilgrim performed his act of devotion and gazed upon the divine form of Kuan-yin was the Ch to ao-yin Cave. 217 ff. see De Greet. made from the is Strictly speaking. when they gaze into the dark recesses they will be favoured with a view of the pusa clothed in white samite. chiu-hsiang. and is therefore regarded as the most sacred. whereby the candidate for ordination signifies his willing . but of the three caves in which these divine manifesta &quot. it is not done with the object of chastening the body in the interests of the spirit a symbolic act. for the good of his suffering fellow. worshippers on many different occasions. submission to this painful ordeal not an ascetic act that is to say. and all go in the strong hope that &quot. ordination. which are in the eastern peninsula.&quot.creatures. The words of : &amp. Le Code du Mahdydna en Chine (Amsterdam 1893). the process known consists as janin hsiang. cauterization of the scalp pastilles or which the 1 with burning moxaartemisia chinensis. even to the extent of sacrificing his body. it is ness to walk in the way of the bodhisats. the Ch ao-yin is that which has been most frequently hallowed by the pusa s presence.298 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA This is [CH.( the annalist with regard to the three holy places are as follow : . 2 It is visited by all pilgrims.lt.

but which to the devout worshipper is a luminous veil through which the &quot. in faith wonderful. A empty 1 shrines little stone image. Close by the cave stand two little temples. says a monkish chronicler. Hall of Arahants. or &quot. The author may visits to oil as well confess at once that in spite of many the cave he heard or saw nothing hut the wild water lapping the crag. becomes visible to the eyes of her faithful suppliants. a shaft of sunlight streams into the cave through a gap &quot. or athwart the flying The cave then seems to be filled with a in the roof called the s window. lash the cliff walls like the tossed mane If the critical of a wild animal.Pusa of Love and Pity&quot. a perpendicular rent in the rocks merely As for Ch it is by the sea-shore. and would attract no particular its attention but for sacred associations. .xi. a cave the disappointing. and the the Lohan-tien. when upon extorting a atmospheric and tidal conditions are favourable. heaven foam. Perhaps those who are strong ao-yin-tung is do not often go away disappointed. Hall of the Cave of the Tide-waves. he may perhaps ghostly appearances find one in the fact that at certain times.&quot. t ien-ch uang. and the waves.] THE SACRED CAVE l 299 mystic. or &quot.&quot. and strikes tremulous haze.&quot. Ch ao-yin-tung-tien.&quot. in which the unbeliever sees nothing but sunlit spray. insists Western enquirer prosaic explanation of the of Kuan-yin. an iron railing. one or two and incense -jars. it At times the tidal waters rush into with resounding roar and dashing spray.

iii. I refer to the wells which exist in the vicinity of the holy cave of St Medan^ in Luce Bay^ Scotland. a second journey to Puto to In front of the holy cave the to pray. 1 It is curious to find healing wells associated with a sacred cave in the extreme west of the Euro-Asiatic continent as well as in the extreme east. 268). to for (D. MacRitchie_. &quot. and a scarf of jade- green gauze streamed from her shoulders.300 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA [en. and from the well he brought home a bottle of holy water with which he washed the blind man s eyes. Her form. As a result Fan recovered his eyesight. and he then ordered out his father s his son to make return thanks.&quot. The son carried behest. for example. .&quot. and sent his son to offer up prayers on his behalf at the Cave of Kuan-yin.heaven s window. the purpose of curing themselves of various diseases in E. was dimly outlined within a cloud of shimmering vapour. said to well. 1 Spring of Wisdom.the immemorial custom of the peasantry a custom not wholly obsolete day to bathe in these wells at sunrise on the first Sunday in May.R. indicate the spot from which the visitor is invited to gaze into the so-called cave. Here seen a sacred well or pool known as (&quot. a high official named Fan was afflicted with blind ness.. This spot is known as the Ch iu-hsien-t ai the terrace whereon the pilgrim kneels and prays.). It has been &quot.Lustrous may also be Kuang-ming Hui-ch uan and Bright&quot. we are told. and also as or &quot. and a rock bearing the inscription Hsien-shen-ch u. and young man knelt down had he finished no sooner his prayers than the pusa made her appearance below &quot. Miracles of healing are have been wrought by the waters of this In the spring of the year 1266.E.

recognition of the miraculous cures wrought by the waters of this well that the name it &quot. while the elder woman spent the day on the island visiting the shrines and per rites Her of worship. and was unable to go relative. was conferred upon by imperial patent. On ashore.XL] A STORY OF KUAN-YIN As 301 late as the first quarter of the sixteenth century the curative properties of Kuan-yin s well were still recognized by the highest personages in are told that an empress of the Ming dynasty sent a special emissary to Puto to offer up prayers at the holy cave and to draw the land.caves that the divine Kuan-yin has made her It is self visible to men s those eyes. and was . it was in healing waters from the well. alone and melancholy. nor has she revealed herself only to who have bent the knee before her sacred image. There is a graceful little tale which describes the wonderful experience of two devout women who were in the habit of going on pilgrimage to Puto year after year. the other her married one occasion as their boat approached the island the girl was seized with a slight sickness. The girl became very hungry in the course of the day. One of these was an unmarried girl. religious duties. She therefore remained in the boat. Lustrous and Bright&quot. not only amid the salt spray of Puto s sea. for we Indeed. who had no means forming the customary of providing herself with food. unfortunately. caused her to forget the needs of her companion.

Looking up reverently at the stately image of Kuan-yin seated on the lotus throne. by eyed critic that the conclusion of this affords some keenlittle story conclusive proof that the Buddhists of assert that China. the elder woman. having finished her devotions. details of the story made up her mind that the girl s silent hostess must have been a divine being. but the strange lady made a little the causeway by throwing stepping-stones water. the by the people of China has . and then. glistening with water.&quot. &quot.Not at I was fed by a strange lady. carry ing a basket of food. returned to the shore.idolaters. she noticed that the hem of the pusa s robe was thanks. are in He practice mere &quot. all. whatever they may be in theory. perhaps. and by this means she reached the boat into without worse misadventure than slightly wetting She fed the girl with the edge of her robe. returned to the boat and expressed a fear that was the So saying she pointed to a remnant of the food which still Her companion on hearing the lay on the deck. delicious food. . without having spoken After some time a word.&quot. in spite of the moral elevation profundity of as actually practised may and philosophical religion many Buddhist doctrines. suddenly appeared on the The boat was moored some distance sea-shore.&quot. a stately lady. therefore relieved much when off the shore. It may be pointed out. and she returned to the principal temple to give the girl must be hungry. reply &quot.302 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA [CH.

incapable of dispensing with all sensuous aids to the religious imagination. however. only the is only the most regard the images It is the enlightened Buddhist. to usurp the the other if who would feel spiritually impoverished &quot. us beware of supposing. or believe themselves to be. regard to this question of is told by a Buddhist touching story Japanese Tada Kanai.&quot. apt . unfortunately. 1 a idols. as to the enlightened Catholic. pp. as it ignorant of Christians. . is scarcely true. In the East. 1 With See above. as in the West. who before which they kneel in prayer or adoration as the real and ultimate objects of their pious devotion. when we watch the people burning incense before the great gilded images of the Buddhas and bodhisats. worship. who has published a little priest. that all come Chinese Buddhists are mere worshippers of stocks and stones. most ignorant of Buddhists. the symbol were withdrawn. 189-90. the image or sacred Christian picture is merely a symbol of divinity.XL] IDOLATRY AND SYMBOLISM to be little more than a systematized imageLet This. and who find in outward signs and emblems a means of preserving undimmed within their hearts and minds the light of a lofty spiritual ideal. To and Buddhist are both well aware that among the untaught and unimaginative masses the symbol place of the thing symbolized and yet there are count less earnest adherents of the one faith and of is. there are many people who are.

All the prisoners. &quot. child. and even went them so far as to assault the official their daily food. were filled with fierce anger and resentment against their jailors.304 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA discredit 1 [CH. supposed at a high . as a chopsticks. Arthur Lloyd under the title The Praises of Amida (Tokyo 1907). morning he would greet them as if Good morning. dutiful 1 and respectful son is (in $j Old Japan or xll in The book named Shodo Kowa : wt U and has been translated into English by the late Rev. . father.prisoners alike.prisoner pos sessed two - lay figures. in fact. ! &quot. dolls. whose patience under suffering and quiet dignity of bearing won him the sympathy and goodwill of his jailors and fellow . tray in front of them and go through a form of reverent salutation before he began to ply his He treated the dolls. volume of sermons which would not Western pulpit. to be only which at first were and they wondered for spirited boy caring such childish but careful observation revealed the fact things that he treated them not as toys. The authorities noticed little that their boy. mother dinner-time time came he would always place the . but as objects of Every respect and reverence. any During a period of political unrest in Japan a number of young men of knightly rank samurai were imprisoned on a charge of participation in a revolutionary disturbance. set them up before him and they were living beings. he would say and when good morning. with one exception. who brought The exception was a mere a boy of twelve or thirteen years of age.

by the way. ? Matthew etc. 81-4. also O wretched &quot. iron bars no cage for he was free to hold spiritual communion.gt. (rb tfv the well-known words in Romans vii.^d Of. seems likely to lose its hold in both Japan and China in indirect consequence of the substitution of Western for He Eastern ideals in social and political life. &amp. Our Japanese preacher little is not content with emphasizing the lesson to be drawn from this story in respect of the virtue of filial piety a virtue which. and Gorgias. hardships of the jail failed to embitter his temper. been cast as fettered Passion and ambition.rQ&amp. in very truth. man Cf. and his jailors gradually came to realize that the toy figures were largely responsible for the child s Old China) would grace of manner and sweetness of disposition. ignorance and all we have vanity.&quot. 493. goes on to remind us that prison into which 1 human life itself is a captives.XL] FILIAL PIETY 305 treat his living parents . Plato. but rather a beautiful temple or The a home. 24 am who shall deliver me from the body of ff For most men in a brazen prison Arnold. indolence and selfishness. U . Phado. for to him it was no jail.lt. that I this death live. and he wanted no greater freedom than that. stone walls . To him. : ! tvriv ^HMV o-^ua. all the limitations and weaknesses of our physical and moral natures these are the chains with which we are fast 1 Our Japanese Buddhist would accept the Orphic and Pythagorean is notion that the hody a prison arid the soul a prisoner. something yet more sacred were no prison. with those whom he loved and honoured above all others. Cf.) &quot. through the medium of his little images.

so that the music of the spheres grows faint.PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA [CH. chiefly consisting in the recitation of transliterated Sanskrit texts and formulas which are totally devoid of meaning even to the officiating priests.Christian peoples but they no person who can read Chinese . idols that hypnotize our faculties and teach us to hug our chains. practised is a Buddhist China are quite incompatible with anything like prayer in the Christian sense. Such notions as these are a survival from the bad old days when it was considered a proof of Christian zeal to heap contempt and abuse on the faiths of all are notions which non. There among in curiously prevalent impression Europeans that the &quot. manacled throughout the whole term of our im prisonment. prisoner of Japan used his idols as a means of communion with his loved ones who were far beautiful outside away : and they gave his spirit wings. and that the whole of the liturgical worship of the Buddhist temples is a meaningless mummery. idols of our idolatries. provided only that these idols of ours stand as symbols of something true and The boyour prison walls. too.idolatries&quot. Some of us have idols of a baser kind. We. . Let us not be ashamed that we worship. beat against her mortal bars in vain if our idols are such as these. have dolls that we play with. and the range of our spiritual vision is restricted to The spirit will the boundaries of our dungeon. a term which lasts from birth to death.

prayers deliverance from and famine. on the days specially consecrated to the worship of the great pusas. Prayers of the Ch an (Jhana) School for daily recitation. prayers expressing repentance for sin. such as wealth and worldly prosperity. such as sacred words charms which are supposed to have a con trolling power over the forces of nature. There are prayers for use before and after child-birth.). . services for the ordination of monks. prayers for use on saints days that is.spiritual ancestors.XL] is USE OF PRAYER IN BUDDHISM likely to entertain for a 307 moment after he has glanced at some of the pages of the prayer-books which are in daily use in the great monasteries. There are burial services for monks and laymen. used before taking food. many and superstitious survivals. 2 &quot. and rituals which correspond more or less closely with Christian masses for the dead. for the divine guidance of plague There are prayers to be rulers and magistrates.&quot. prayers for those in for fair weather. prayers for those at sea. for rain. Such compilations as the favourite Ch an-men-jihsung include prayers for use by both monks and laymen in connection with all such circumstances l of daily life as can be brought into relationship with religious observance.&quot. and there are prayers for purely material benefits. for danger or difficulty. Another popular compilation is the Ch ( an-lin-shu-yil or ( ft Prayers of the Jhana Grove 1 &quot. services in commemoration of pious founders and benefactors and &quot. prayers for Such books also contain the sick and dying. 2 There are. of course.

all course. if morals or discipline. so free These as a rule consist of moral exhorta tions which. and he is 1 perfectly at liberty to use his own judgment in interpreting the sacred books and traditional doctrines of his school. not for free thought but merely for offences against &quot. rightly so. are still driven unwillingly from the fold of the Christian Church would be unthinkable in Buddhism. Expulsion from the monkhood the punishment or is is. if perhaps the only great religious it does not actually welcome and encourage the free thinker.crises Church partly because no one is in a position to make infallible pronouncements as to what constitutes orthodoxy. conform with the disciplinary &quot. not unknown . they might almost be regarded as the utterances of free-thinking moralists for Buddhism is system which. or homilies by distinguished leaders of religious thought. though based on Buddhist ethics.308 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA [CH. Modernist movements in Buddhism give rise to no acute &quot. in the Buddhist : . &quot. perhaps a more interesting feature of these religious miscellanies is the large sermonettes section which is devoted to selected &quot. indeed. To the non-Buddhist. chooses to of 1 remain in though so long as he the monkhood he must.&quot. but inflicted.infidelity. The fate of those who. indeed. We can hardly describe the Three Refuges as a Creed in the Western sense. no longer subjected to physical torture. The Buddhist monk at ordination binds himself to no Articles and to no formulated Creed. are from credal or dogmatic assumptions that and. sees no reason to make provision for his excommunication.

cleansed 4 body and mind. seeing that mystery (as the word implies) can only be expressed through symbols (Boutroux. of these we may cite a prayer which was composed by a monk who bore the monastic name of of Great Wisdom. to prostrate himself before the pusa and to implore his help and protection.XL] PRAYERS OF THE JHANA SCHOOL 1 309 regulations in force in the monastery to which he belongs. Faith must be regarded as the Wheresoever faith exists. He in continues as follows &quot. 2 Ta-hui-lcuo.&quot.&quot. there is par excellence. the Protestantism of Auguste Sabatier and his followers has much in common with Buddhism. he popular notion of Kuan-yin s addresses the pusa as &quot. 1909. numerous prayers addressed As an example to or associated with Kuan-yin. and for his ceaseless efforts to bring the world to salvation. always inadequate and always modifiable of the ineffable data of it is religious element All religious knowledge is necessarily and purely symbolical. might be expected. It is quite time to let even dogma decay. Eng. &quot. 226). Fruit Ignoring passionate the womanhood. . p. : indeed filled with thankfulness that it has been granted to me to know the Buddha s way I So far as its attitude towards dogma is concerned. the religious consciousness. The which as is edition of the Prayers of the Jhdna School in use in the monasteries of Puto contains.. to whom he offers praise for the boundless love and pity vouchsafed to all living beings. trans. 2 &quot. in so far as 1 am an object of obligatory belief. Science and Religion. The suppliant announces that he has come. What is called dogma is merely a symbolical interpretation religion.com of the whole 3 Father universe.

The Buddhist prays for a long life so that he may have time for the fullest spiritual development of which his nature is capable. in place of the sentence beginning I but although I am a monk. making : am &quot.I have obtained a 5 man s body in vain &quot. I am bitterly conscious 2 that my heart is not yet penetrated with the truth. [OH. O Pusa. of Thy divine love save me from misery grant day and night countenance. 2 : and 3 distracted. but although I am a monk and have abandoned the world. and my mind is confused (&amp. and that I have devoted myself 4 all in vain to the religious life. or should long. my I . that 3 to be cut short. to hearken unto me Thy heavenly ear. The common Western view that the consistent Buddhist longs. he may use the following words am still immersed in the ocean of worldly life. and 6 Incline prostrate myself before Thy sacred image. 4 c I fear that I Instead of this sentence the layman says an unprofitable use of my privileges as a man&quot. and shall have accumulated no store of good karma with which to face the That is. and have many vain thoughts and wrong opinions. . and dare hope for nothing but a spendthrift s death. If the suppliant is a layman. I am shedding tears of anguish. (literally. I have wasted my my days. and yet I am incapable of fully understanding and I fear that few assimilating their holy wisdom. 5 Behold. I am sorely lacking in true knowledge. I my life that is to come.&quot. I study the scriptures with diligence. for a speedy death or annihilation is quite a mistaken one. of salvation life is destined blessings are in store for me. shall have squandered all powers and talents. reverence and humiliation I kneel before Thee : thoughts dwell on Thy holy hold fast to Thy holy name. in my longing to purify this heart In of mine.lt.310 PUTO-SHAN AND KUAN-YIN PUSA 1 . as .&quot.). I am deficient in the moral force necessary for spiritual advancement.

&quot. {facing p.THE COMPASSIONATE FATHER. 3 ic .KUAN-YIN.

.

XL] A BUDDHIST PRAYER Thy . sweet dew. read the scriptures the words may remain stored in my memory. may I walk in the gratitude for all the Buddha. may I show my trust in Law. . 311 me Thy Baptize pity and shine upon light my Thy protection let Thy spiritual body and illumine my heart. Grant that awaken under the rays of my understanding may Thy glory. the saints all . me with wash away all me from all sin and foulness. Be ever with me.&quot. and that when the sacred truths are expounded I may have wisdom to understand them. and the company of the and wherever the Law holds sway. May I be endowed with good judgment and insight may my days be long may I attain may I ever be absorbed in happiness and peace . and make me pure Guard me both day and in thought and deed. night when I wake and when I sleep. . 1 so that it may stains of hatred and ill-will. way of the pusas mercies may I put . Grant that I may increase in spiritual Grant that when I intelligence and discernment. Thy may truth I . from all evil. . may living beings attain union in the perfect wisdom that leads to the peace of Buddhahood. . cleanse the contemplation of keep far from me . O Pusa. may evil spirits awaken to a clear perception of the futility of living through genera tion after generation without spiritual progress .

exclusive of a still larger number of solitary hermitages. commonly known as the Hou-ssu or Northern Monastery. as its name denotes. however. These are the u-chi. As this book. and the Fa-yu. or P Southern Monastery. not be out of place to give some brief description of its topography.&quot. For purposes of study and exploration the island may be regarded as divided into five imaginary sections. In this section there are about seventeen temples. In these pages we must content ourselves with little more than a general survey of the two principal monasteries.CHAPTER XII THE MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN contains nearly a hundred monasteries and temples. commonly known as the Ch ien-ssu. The first section will include all the south-western part. including the interesting Kuanyin-tung (with a cave. beginning with the landing-place. &quot.&quot. it is obvious that As Kuan-yin s holy island a full description and historical account of Putoshan could not be compressed into the space of a few short chapters. may find its way into the hands of European visitors to the island. it may &quot. 312 .

described in the Next last to the Ch ao- the holiest spot on the island. so the P an-t o Rock is the Holy counterpart of the Chin-kang-pao-shih (the Diamond Rock&quot. &quot.&quot.&quot.&quot.^ on which.&quot. in may fact. enthroned when she (or he) was visited by the angelic Shan-ts ai. &quot. Law. contemplative monks seen sitting in reverie.).the I take my Western Heaven.Huge - and the still more in Meditation ch an . There is another rock close by 1 known as the &quot. as it styles itself in deeply carved characters.the world s most famous 4 rock. according to that &quot.the Eternal &quot. 3 The boulder is covered with various inscriptions.&quot. P Rock&quot. Pulpit of 5 Kuan-yin. which is reached by means of a wooden be ladder. 2 3c T 5 II - K if .] THE DIAMOND ROCK - 313 dedicated to the pusa).OH. Amitabha Buddha. among which sutra.&quot.). On the flat holy rock which guards the State. top of the boulder. often is a favourite spot for the practice of ch an-na (jhana) deep religious meditation.). refuge in the Great Teacher preached the Buddha.&quot. 270. &quot. This. See p. of Puto is the Chinese duplicate of the sacred 1 chapter. this is Just as the whole Potalaka mentioned in the Hua-yen sutra as the home of Kuan-yin. Kuan-yin sat we find &quot. &quot.the place where the &quot. xil.lin (the This is the famous Rock &quot. teresting Ling skih Grove of the Spiritual an-t o (the &quot. yin Cave.

To this section also belong the secluded little hermitage occupied the remarkable bank ai-ming by the monk Northern K . and above all. Buddha s Peak with nine temples. 266. The second of the five sections. the T ai-tzu Pagoda. house on the island the or Fa-yii Monastery. the Fa-hua grottoes. &quot. beautiful &quot. Another temple in this section. but also. supported by the monks of Puto out of their endowments. represent Sakyamuni.Southern Monastery&quot. includes the finest and most (&quot. &quot. see p. but in spite of its superior position (for it com mands a fine view of the west) it cannot compete with the Diamond Rock in fame or sanctity.).814 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN [CH. the Ch ao-yang Cave. At one time the printingblocks of the island Chronicle and other literary valuables were stored in the Yin-hsiu for safety. the -the P u-chi-ssu. . the Mei Fu Ch an-yiian. includes the Hui-chi Monastery on the summit of the island The fourth section. The third section. 1 For a reference to Mei Fu . great &quot. WenThe u-chi-an also deserves P a tree. magnificent camphorand the Yin-hsiu temple on account of its secluded situation. is worth a visit on account of the curious black-bearded and emaciated figures which 1 are understood to shu. Its sequestered position visit for the sake of its saved it more than once from the attentions of piratical visitors. Near the Pagoda is a new boys school. with about twenty-three temples. with about twenty-five temples. &quot. and P u-hsien. religious &quot. contains not only the Ch aoyin Cave.

According to the island-records. glacier . 2 3 currents. and that the eastern peninsula was therefore an island. an image of the 2 and the Fanpatriarch Bodhidharma (Tamo) among . have deposited here which he asserted were relics of is said to Sakyamurii Buddha. which contains. it was discovered that they did not always present the same appearance to different people. Persons of inferior character saw nothing but a black object those of higher moral standing saw a white object to those of character the relics assumed a moderately good red appearance and saintly people saw the figure of Buddha. They were placed in a and when in casket and reverently enshrined . certain relics. which The See pp. . other objects of interest. It is said that in former days (and as late as the Ming dynasty) there was deep water in the place now occupied by the Fei-sha. future years they were brought out for the in spection of the faithful. though at a much later date. was visited by a dis tinguished pilgrim from India. though only a fissure in the sea -cliff. who came from Benares. 3 . yin Cave.XIL] RELICS OF BUDDHA 315 of sand (Fei-sha) which slopes to the sea like a l the Hsiang-liui Temple. Probably the great sand 1 embankment was created by the action of the ocean are known to be swift and dangerous in this locality. and therefore similar in appearance to the Ch ao - yin Cave. In 1626 of our era this pilgrim. the Fan-yin Cave. 83-6. is a place of wide celebrity. like the Ch ao-yin. . idea that the relics of of the moral character of the person Buddhas and pusas can be used as a test who inspects them is a fairly . which.

this is ceremony and the rites are conducted by the performed. &quot. &quot. . in 1914 it will be the turn of the Northern. time that the annual ordination &quot. indeed. of which the most picturesque the Hsiao-shan-tung (&quot. It contains only two or three is temples.&quot. whom reside Southern is and &quot.Little Hill Cave&quot. on little a rocky promontory which at high tide becomes an island. for the nineteenth day of that month is regarded as the birthday of Kuan-yin. the majority of &quot. The in the total number &quot.). they are still in existence .316 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN The fifth [CH. still similar relics are wang (Asoka) near Ningpo. but to he seen in the well-kno\vn monastery of AyiiEach visitor who wishes to behold the . of resident monks &quot. in Puto is well over a thousand. and last section of the island consists chiefly of lonely hills. Northern monasteries.Northern&quot. monasteries in alternate &quot. Southern&quot. The candidates who come common one lost their in China. but also by crowds of pilgrims (monks and laymen) from all parts of China. The author regrets to say that what he saw was report what he sees. and by It is at numerous candidates for ordination. sacred object kneels in a little courtyard in front of the shrine and takes He is then asked to look inside and to the relic-casket into his hands. Southern Monastery &quot. and the occasion is celebrated by stately services. nor was it the figure of Buddha. This number during the greatly swelled for a few days second month of the old Chinese calendar. Fan-yin Cave seem to have fame in this respect. to question the reliability of the test. which are attended not only by the monks in permanent residence. He ventures neither red nor white. The relics of the if. and In 1913 the ceremony took place at the years.

not virgins. matrons. 1909. my daughter ? God knoweth. and the most eminent sisters were. . a virgin. As Mrs Rhys Davids has observed (Psalms of the Sisters. and let thine heart be shattered to pieces.). The Founder himself was a husband and 1 &quot.. The letter written by the saintly but pitiless Anselm of Canterbury to a lady of noble birth who had fled back to the world from her hated nunnery has no counterpart 2 in the literature of Buddhism. . 2 A spouse of God. or which has been selected for him.&quot. &quot. three . unless thou shalt return to thy father. xxxiii. What can I say thou art now. For this reason the annals of Buddhism contain no such pitiful stories as those which we sometimes meet with to the world in the annals of monastic Christendom glimpses stories from which we obtain fitful of the sufferings endured by those to whom the convent walls had become the walls of a loathed dungeon. . of ordination are of an elaborate The nature.fourths of them. p. rejected habit and thy vow. After ordina tion each young monk sets out for the monastery which he has selected. . The monasteries and nunneries of Buddhism have never been prisons. . sorrow vehemently over thy fall. Cast aside . Think. . . in Buddhist hagiology there is no premium placed on the state of virginity as such. thou wert chosen and set apart to wear the dress and live the life devoted to God. rites but it should Buddhist monks forgotten that are not compelled or expected not be to take perpetual vows. as his permanent abode. For it is impossible for thee by any means to be saved.XIL] BUDDHIST ORDINATION 317 from various parts of central China vary in number from one hundred to three. The Buddhist monk is 1 in China as in all Buddhist lands free to return when he chooses.

it one. laws &quot. Flesh food it is a vegetarian diet. &quot. in the time of Charlemagne.&quot. and I and the Church .&quot. and. he and &quot. so he remains a monk. . he must be and he must confine himself to chaste. to act in strict long conformity with the vows taken at ordination. The saint wishes his victim of clearly to understand that if reproachful pity and loving persuasion cannot effect the desired result. May Almighty God visit thine heart and pour into it His love. just as was interdicted by the Regula Benedicti of Christian monasticism. interdicted to Buddhist monks. will act know how to act. moral code). The most significant and characteristic feature of the letter is the manner in which the ultimate argument the ugly threat of punish ment is reserved for the last paragraph.318 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN [CH A He Buddhist as monk is of course obliged. indeed. hardly necessary to say that the great religious houses of China do not all stand at a It is and tread under foot the secular dress thou hast assumed. In the great monasteries the abbot s word is law.the Church of God&quot. and resume the habit of a spouse of Christ which thou didst throw off. must obey the practically identical tained in every sound strictly commandments (which are with the commandments con &quot. had to be passed making it illegal for abbots to put out their monks eyes. God shall act as in such a case we know how to act. as in such a case they 1 In Europe. No Chinese emperor ever had occasion to issue edicts prohibiting Buddhist abbots from 1 mutilating the bodies of disobedient monks. . all will be against thee. dearest daughter. We never nearly always a benevolent hear of Buddhist ecclesiastics is exercising their disciplinary powers in a tyrannical manner. in many cases he is legally invested with the power of inflicting corporal and other punishment. But if the rule of a Buddhist abbot is a despotism. But if thou scornest to do this. .

with the best motives. are the unconscious victims of a desire to exaggerate heathen Chinee. become unpleasantly conspicuous in connection with any conceivable form of ccenobitic life. those of Chiu-hua and Puto.] MORALS OF CHINESE MONASTERIES 319 uniform level in respect of morals and religious zeal but the reputation of such monasteries as . there are some evils which from time to time are bound very unspiritual to motives.XIT. This is an opinion which is based on personal observation and enquiry during frequent residence in many of the principal monasteries in China.&quot. Buddhist monks of bad character. supposed that the only whereas this fit life of a monk or hermit is : for weak minded or incompetent - idlers it is just such persons as these to whom mode of existence is pre-eminently and dangerously unsuited. is one of those the story about the prevalence of the custom of slaughtering female is not likely to be infants repeated in these days noxious libels which like except by those who. which are far from the demoralizing influences of the great towns. especi ally in an age of religious apathy or degeneration. 1 is in most cases deservedly high. quite irrespective of the religious creed with which It is sometimes it happens to be associated. and that many have been attracted to the monkhood through Unfortunately. 1 . That the Chinese monasteries are the habitual resort of the vicious and depraved. the moral obliquities of the It would be absurd to deny that there are &quot. and that they offer sanctuary to criminals fleeing from justice.

The Japanese imperial court resided at Nara from about 709 to In 794 Kyoto became the capital. Kashmir and s In the history of Japanese Buddhism Egaku name is a distinguished one.Wisdom Japanese court. bears the dignified &quot. last chapter that the Buddhistic of Puto begins with the year 847. showed as much en thusiasm in He was in high favour at the making pilgrimages to the sacred mountains of Buddhist China as Chinese monks of the same and earlier periods showed in travelling to the holy shrines of their faith in India. the imperial throne. indeed. . of greater celebrity than the nameless Indian ascetic. It was during the Kyoto (or Heian) era that the great Fujiwara family established itself as the power behind. and was twice sent by the empress-dowager Tachibana on religious missions to China.320 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN [CH. or rather in front of. The next event of religious importance took place about a decade later. and Japanese Buddhists were constantly moving to and fro between the great court -patronized monasteries of Nara and Kyoto and the chief centres of Buddhist learning and piety in China. for to him is much of the credit of having introduced 1 assigned into his 2 Egaku would be Hui-o in modern Pekingese. 2 Japanese monks. This foreigner was a Japanese monk named Egaku meaning of l a name which Peak. This epoch was one of great prosperity for Buddhism in Japan. 784. when Puto was visited by another foreigner. when history Kuan-yin appeared in a vision in response to the We saw in the prayers of a Buddhist pilgrim from India.&quot.

[Facing p.INSCRIBED ROCK. NEAR SUMMIT OF PUTO-SHAN. THE CHUSAN ISLANDS. . FROM PUTO-SHAN. 320.

.

for that the trouble might Kuan-yin s unwillingness to The pusa had him with the true clearly solution of the diffi no sooner had he reverently landed his precious image on the sacred shores of Puto 1 In Japan the Rinzai. X . or Jhana. 1 While in his second visit he obtained possession of a beautiful image of Kuan-yin. Starting from Hangchow home. This is a fact which for it should not be overlooked by Western students and admirers of Japanese artistic culture. until at last it occurred to Egaku possibly be due to be transported to Japan.XIL] THE ARRIVAL OF EGAKU 321 native country from China the doctrines of the Ch an or Contemplative school. which the Lin-chi subdivision of the associated with the name of Egaku. inspired culty. Everything possible was done to lighten Bay he set sail for the vessel. which he intended to take back to Japan. is the Soto. in which has its known Zeri school consists of three main divisions and Obaku. It an. is this school of Buddhism (known in Japan as the Zen) which is more closely associated than any other with the finest developments of Japanese China Egaku paid two visits to the holy mountain of Wu-t ai (known to the Japanese as Godaisan). and on the occasion of art. but all measures proved useless. but while his junk was passing through the Chusan archipelago it grounded on a sunken rock near the island of Puto. and which in that country is is Ch headquarters at Puto. school. even the cargo being ruthlessly sacri ficed . The first of these is the sect China as Lin-chi.

close to that rocky promontory which contains the famous Ch ao-yin Cave. According to a more romantic version of the story. Egaku s junk. which thereupon by some mysterious agency was guided Mindful of his vow. who when they discovered that Egaku was a holy man. its than the junk slid off the rock and resumed journey without further misadventure. forthwith converted the building provided for his use into a temple for the worship of Kuan-yin. which seemed to cover the whole surface of the to Egaku offered up Kuan-yin.322 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN [CH. and vowed that if he and sea. The immediate result of this prayer was that in the midst of the water-lilies a clear way was opened for the junk. to say that Egaku was received by a family of islanders of hospitably the name of Chang. the junk and landed with his image on the south eastern shores of the sacred island. a prayer his com panions were brought safely out of their present plight he would establish a shrine for the worship of the pusa at the first place to which she in her wisdom and mercy might choose unhappy to conduct them. with the image on board. In this temple he enshrined his sacred image . Egaku here left to Puto. willingly provided their guest with In pursuance of his vow he food and lodging. and his image a The legend goes on miraculous one. was sailing among the islands when suddenly its progress was arrested by a miraculous growth of water-lilies.

it said her abundantly she had no wish to go to Japan or anywhere else.Dwarfs&quot. &quot. The miracleloving chroniclers have. 328 which soon acquired a wide celebrity under the name of the Pu-k en-ch u Kuan-yin (the Kuanyin refused to go away worshippers. Egaku is a historical character. the pusa had made : &quot. but was determined to make her home in the island of the Little White Flower. clear that &quot. there is no reason to doubt that he landed. or was driven ashore. or rather that day the Chusan Sea portion of it which lies between the principal island and Puto is known as the Lien-hua-yang this &quot. that reappears. Puto and there returned thanks to the gracious pusa who had saved him from the perils of the at deep. We about the year 1080 certain predatory &quot. To (the lilies Sea of Water-lilies is &quot.&quot. emperor.xii. but though we must assume that the waterlilies which obstructed the progress of his junk were nothing more miraculous than the whitecrested waves of a stormy sea. for the monastic chronicles of Puto contain several stories in which the same motif are told. of course. came to China to the Sung bearing tribute &quot.). and in the course of their return .] THE SEA OF WATER-LILIES &quot.) who for. The idea of the water- one which has captivated the Buddhist imagination. embellished the story of his narrow escape from shipwreck. for example. and his pilgrim ages to some of the holy places of Buddhist China are well-authenticated facts.

junk released. emerged from the depths of the sea and pro ceeded to get rid of the water-lilies by eating The sea was soon cleared and the them up.&quot. 46. which still remains a conspicuous feature of the Lien-hua Sea. &quot. &quot. 1910. is a name which the Chinese used to apply to the ft Foreign Devils. to resume their eastward course than they found their ship enmeshed in the tendrils of countless water-lilies. silently but unanswerably refuting the arguments of 1 &quot.lacking in reverence.Dwarfs&quot. &quot. tribute . On his homeward journey his ship was held fast in an impenetrable jungle of water-lilies. &quot. though they were The frightened Dwarfs hastily as &quot. .bearers was commonly applied to the The term 70. on the deck with his face towards island. Kneeling the holy he humbly implored the outraged pusa s whereupon a white ox suddenly forgiveness . and iron water-lilies is A named the similar story told of a immediately disappeared.to Puto by worship Buddha. members of any mission from a British foreign state.324 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN [CH.&quot. but Sung emperor showed himself &quot. 48. just as they spoke of Europeans as See Lion and Dragon in Northern China. pp. Japanese. who was &quot. of iron. journey from Hangchow (then the capital) they landed at Puto and carried away some of the 1 But no sooner did they attempt precious relics. which seemed made the &quot. The writers of the Puto Chronicle are careful to abstain from describing Egaku either as a Dwarf or as a tribute-bearer. whereupon the ox transformed itself into a white rock. restored the sacred articles to their shrines.&quot. not excepting the mission under Lord Macartney in 1792. Chinese official sent to Wang Kuei.

] A MONK OF PUTO doubters. &quot.xii. is. the . slow to cease. It is like a woman. that same declares. when the water .swept ocean. his notion why may we some miraculous agency is frequently at work in the Puto Strait will not be judged too that harshly by those who from the island s western shores have observed how quickly and unex pectedly those normally peaceful waters are apt to curl themselves into white. he normally gentle and peaceful. So. infrequently be found sitting and gaz Pulpit of Kuan-yin shores of the world which he has abandoned. but easily roused to wrath and difficult to pacify.lilies appear. monk may not pensively on the a little wistfully. perhaps in a westerly ing direction over the restless waters at the misty &quot. This saying has been adapted by a certain monk of to-day to the fretfulness of the Puto Strait. 325 all and putting fear into the hearts of all scoffers. we not allow the dreaming Buddhist to see white lilies there ? In any case.that his from may say perhaps thoughts were con centrated wholly on the Paradise of the divine The unromantic cause of the phenomenon shallowness of the water. If roused he may 1 his reverie.crested breakers. 1 islanders rains The effect Chusan that have of this a saying to the like the locality are the tears of a petulant woman quick to fall. If to of the prosaic West permit ourselves see white horses in the wind . he believe . doubtless..

4. It is very unlikely.) . and that by time all vestiges of the earlier shrine of Egaku had vanished. indeed. whom he a 1 In this matter I accept the arguments and suggestions ably put forward by N. Their edition was of the eighteenth century. but this seems of the island to be certainly a mistake. indeed. however. see the (Jhih.&quot. Peri and H. one passage which implies that he came Puto. however. that 916 the island was again &quot..326 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN [CH. It is a great improvement on the earlier editions. opened ch ang. 15. which. will some day conduct him. he will remind you. from time to time visions of the busy world of men and of women mingle with his visions of the spiritual kingdom of the saints ? Egaku s in or arrival at Puto probably took place about the year 858. whereas that in my possession was published about 1843. Their con clusions are based on incontrovertible facts of Japanese history. but it repeats the mistake about the year of Egaku s arrival at There is. tome ix. 797 ff. pp. whereas if he did not arrive till 916 the T f ang dynasty was already extinct. The Chinese Chronicle assigns the event to the second year of Cheng Ming of the Liang dynasty. and to which the compassionate Kuan-yin. It may be mentioned. which corresponds with 916 of our era. or this &quot. The Chronicle says that the Chang family. p. (For the passage referred to. if Who is to chide him. Amitabha. 1 in It seems probable. that Egaku made long stay in the island. that the writers were evidently unaware of the fact that there is a later edition of the P u-t o-shan-chih (the Chinese Chronicle of Puto) than that to which they refer. lies also in the west. to use the Chinese phrase as the taoSanctuary of Kuan-yin. This was true if the year 858 be accepted as the correct one . however. &quot. whom he has served so faithfully. Maspero in the Bulletin de FEcole Francaise d Extreme-Orient. to the island in the T f ang dynasty. ix. ch. No.

XIL] THE TEMPLES OF PUTO 327 found living there. &quot. practically all the present buildings are arid it is modern.tide . and now occupied by the temple and 1 As small monastery known as the Tzii-chu-lin. u Kuan-yin Yuan (the Temple is a of the Kuan-yin who refused to go away as the Pu-k en-ch &quot. where Egaku that its site is is supposed to have landed.the .. the present building is not a beautiful one it was obviously designed by an architect cursed with an exaggerated sense of the importance of mere usefulness. 2 According to one account. the reference ao-an Listen . Even of that period 1 doubtful whether there is T ing-ch An alternative name of this temple is See the Chih. ch. for the famous image. K/ang-hsi in 1699.) matter of uncertainty. it was removed during one of the temporary migrations made by the monks to the mainland.waves Temple (&quot. ix. The generally accepted view is that it was close to the Ch ao-yin Cave. it has undergone several restora An autograph scroll was presented to it by the Emperor tions. &quot. a single structure which can be assigned to an earlier date than the fourteenth century.). being to the roar of the tidal waters rushing into the sacred cave. i : . we must regretfully record the fact that it belied its name by date. 2 disappearing from Puto at a very early Puto have passed They have been so through repeatedly burned and plundered by pirates that The monastic houses of strange vicissitudes. were prompted by religious zeal to give up their own dwelling-house to Egaku so that it might be converted into a temple for but the information that has Kuan-yin s image been handed down to us is so scanty that even the site of the temple which is known to history . 14. Like all the other temples of Puto. Unfortu lately . and was set up in a temple in the Ningpo prefecture.to . p.

is described in the Chih.Southern Monastery&quot.Pagoda of the Prince Imperial.]. 265). Among the figures its of Buddhas and bodhisats which adorn Four and Wen-shu. (Ch ien-ssu). or Monastery of P &quot. not to the Ming. pp. 4-5.328 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN [OH. of fine stone specially imported from the neigh bourhood of the to T ai-hu the island sea that lies the west of the city of Soochow and the carving was executed with minute care and skill. The records tell us that this pagoda was erected about the year 1334 by a monk named Fou Chung at the expense of his patron 2 1 and disciple. dynasty and it seems very doubtful whether the prince in question 1 T ai-tzu T a. 2 The career of Fou Chung. Ti-tsang. the only relic though it is a valuable one is the very picturesque but somewhat battered tower known as the &quot. ch. belonged to the Chinese imperial family. who was treated with great reverence several persons of high rank. P u-hsien. I his statement that this . p. The tiles first building is a hall 3 which is roofed with of imperial yellow and contains tablets bearing the engraved reproductions of decrees issued by emperors of the Ming and do not know what Edkins authority was for pagoda was named after the prince who subsequently became the Emperor Wan-li (Chinese Buddhism [1883 The pagoda belongs to the Yuan. of which by far the greatest is the &quot.&quot. The pagoda stands four sides are the pusas of the Sacred Hills Kuan-yin. in the immediate vicinity a cluster of of the monastic centre of the island temples and monasteries. a pious The pagoda was built prince named Hsiian-jang. by 3 Yu-pei-tfang. ed. .&quot. Its correct name is u-chi-ssu. Universal Salvation. vii.

THE HALL OF IMPERIAL TABLETS. . \_Facingp 328. SOUTHERN MONASTERY THE PRINCE S PAGODA. PUTO.

.

xii. yard remarkable for its trees. . guest-quarters. The upper the library. contains one of the alabaster Buddhas which are to be seen in several of the temples of Puto. The lower story contains images of Sakyamuni. and are said to have That there are 1 They are of Burmese come from Mandalay. 276. its - carved balustrades. 1 A very large image of the pusa occupies the central position. origin. building. which P u-hsien. 3 Chinese monks of the present day See above. a two-storied &quot. is and Wenshu. storey. 2 3 Yuan-t ung-pao-tien. Behind the imperial pavilion we bell and drum towers and to the come to the &quot.the eighteen lo-han&quot. 86. The centre is occupied by the Fa-t ang or Hall of the Law.] MONASTERY OF UNIVERSAL SALVATION 329 Ch ing pond In front of this hall is a lotusdynasties. 2 The large courtyard behind the great sanctuary contains the various monastic offices. Hall of the Four Heavenly Kings &quot.two figures sixteen on each side temple represent the pusa s transformations. p. and It is its great incense burners and candlesticks. The large building in front is the chief sanctuary of the the chapel of Kuan-yin.&quot. (arahants). and refectory. 288. with a picturesque archway and several graceful kiosks and bridges. abbot s apartments. From Peking to\Mandalay. and thirty. See pp. 272-3. pp. flanked by pavilions containing images of &quot. who are the protectors or champions of the faith in the four quarters of Behind this hall we reach a court the universe.

330 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN religious motives gladly [CH. always the temple their buildings and roofs. But a more both of intimate ideals acquaintance with the traditions and Oriental religious life will convince us that nearly all forms of Buddhism are vitalized by one indwelling spirit. The residential quarters of the P u-chi Monas Like nearly all tery it is unnecessary to describe. who from which is undertake the is long and expensive journey to Burma a fact of special interest when we that the Buddhism of Burma and the of China are as remember Buddhism usually regarded by Western students of hopelessly irreconcilable in respect doctrine and practice. they are of comparatively plain It exterior is and of small architectural interest. of which the most characteristic manifestation is a gracious and winning tolerance. Buddhism is perhaps the only great religion the world has known which not only teaches that the freedom of the human spirit is a desirable ideal. shrines. with magnificent kiosks timbered and the exquisite and pavilions which shelter the scrolls and tablets of and poets. but achieves a more than moderate success in making its practice in this respect conform with its theory. structures of similar character in China. The present name of the P u-chi Monastery till does not appear in the records of the island . that give free scope to the emperors skill and taste of the Buddhist architect and carver.

of course. despatched certain state officials to Puto to offer up public prayers and thanksgivings. Monastery of Universal Salvation The practice new name on of inviting an emperor to confer a monastery undergoing restora tion under imperial sanction and patronage used to be a very common one throughout China. thirty eighth In that year. On such occasions the emperor wrote (or was supposed to write) the characters comprising the new name we must assume that as a rule the name was suggested transferred and these characters. the &quot. were to him by the wood-engravers to an oblong as board Besides the large pien. 1 many Piens are. After having been carefully lacquered and gilded.XIL] IMPERIAL PATRONAGE year - ssl the 1699.). Pu a - chi - ch an ssu (the &quot. On this occasion he made a handsome donation to a restoration fund it was not the of first time he had subscribed to the monastic treasure-chest and presented the monks - Puto Jhana with various autograph scrolls. and in a practice frequently followed by Chinese rulers before and after his time in respect of the great monastic institutions of the empire. and to buildings besides temples.&quot. the pien bore facsimiles of the imperial characters. which was the of the reign of K ang-hsi. seal known a 1 and the date and year-name of the emperor. presented by others besides emperors. emperor went on a accordance with southern progress. which were written on a very large scale. one of which bore the words &quot. .

1 but in 1131 a See p. of the monks was that of the Lli or Vinaya school.) or over the principal shrine or ( main gateway of the favoured temple. &quot.&quot.). In 967 the first extended 1080 a his emperor of the Sung dynasty and in protection to the monks . the Holy At Hill of Kuan-yin this time the rule &quot.332 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN [OH. the pien was ready to be suspended in a t ing small pavilion&quot.the by the shipwrecked image that would There is evidence that numerous monks and hermits began to take up their residence in the island during the tenth and eleventh centuries. court - official named Wang Shun-feng presented a report to the throne concerning certain miraculous doings of Kuan-yin. previous history of the monastery known since 1699 as the P u-chi is somewhat obscure. and this impressed the emperor so deeply that he became a patron of the island and authorized the principal house (we cannot be sure which it was) to adopt the name Pao-t o-Kuan-yin-ssu 2 (the Monastery of &quot. and partly to the fact that some of the monkish partly chroniclers have confused the records of this monastery with those of the Tzu-chu-lin. 327. seems to have the best title to be regarded as the true representative of the original building converted into a shrine for away. The owing to various changes of name. Egaku not go &quot. &quot. which. . 1 as we have seen.

came to Puto and introduced the Ch an doctrines. m%Mark i.&quot. T ien-t ai was another. story can hardly fail to recall a somewhat similar one which occupies an honourable place in Christian literature 3 but the . honour by Chinese Buddhists. 3 Matthew iv. 16-20 and v. 11. This striking story about Chen-hsieh and his fishermen becomes characteristically Buddhistic when it goes on to 1 as 2 n$m m -fc %* ff* H 14 ^ Cf. which he made his home many he found the neighbouring islands occupied by more than seven hundred families of fishermen. When for he came years. a native of the province of Ssuch uan. to Puto. Chronicle says that on this account he is regarded as the founder of the Ch an school of The but though the throne was asked to authorize the substitution of the Ch an for the Lii 1 rule. We are told that as preach the Law 2 soon as they heard Chen-hsieh they one and all abandoned their little fishing-boats.xii. if & Luke fA * ch. was a learned and whose name is deservedly held travelled monk. vii. p. far - it had to be Chen-hsieh. labours. . He seems to have been one whom nowadays we should term a revivalist. and was in &quot. 22. never weary of rambling from place to place preach Wu-t ai was one scene of his ing and converting. the Ch an did not have everything its own Puto-shan . 2). for re-introduced at a we learn that much later date.] A FAMOUS MONK monk named 333 distinguished Chen-hsieh (also known as Ching-liao). however. way after this time. 18.

The meaning seems to be that while Chen-hsieh left their was preaching the and came to listen to boats Whether they is ever returned to their fishing The Buddhists of a doubtful question. The rulers of the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty. and when the work rebuilding and restoration was completed the emperor (one of the last of the expiring Sung dynasty) presented a pien for the principal chapel of Kuan-yin. it does not imply that the fisherman wholly abandoned fishermen him. from boats thousands of The anecdote is probably intended to emphasize the righteousness of refrain 1 But ing from fishing in the waters of Puto. 292. which held the throne between 1280 and 1367. ien-t ai. or not their occupation. together with gold-embroidered ceremonial robes. Ch eng Tsung (Timour Khan). find a record of an imperial gift for . and ornaments of pearl and jasper. One of Puto s lay-visitors during the closing 1 See p. A similar story is told of Chih-che. it Puto answer In 1214 we in the negative. silver chalices. In 1248 the island was released from taxation. sent officials his example was followed by three other emperors of the same dynasty. and Puto enjoyed a large share of imperial favour.334 tell MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN us that their [CH. by drawing the fishermen away Chen-hsieh saved the lives of fish. altar hangings. a famous monk ofT . grandson of the great with presents to the island four times in four successive years (1298-1301) and Kublai. were zealous supporters of Buddhism.

He led a wandering and unhappy times that marked the rise life fall during the troublous of the Mongols and the dynasty. It was not till 1515 that the efforts of a monk named Tan-chai resulted in the rebuilding of a small religious house. great ravages of Japanese pirates brought misery upon the monks during the last of The quarter the all 1387 nearly state of ruin. under the protection of the conquer ing Mongols. standing is said to have been an iron-tiled pavilion. who had been entrusted with the defence of the coasts of Chehkiang. dawn. deemed it necessary to remove the monks to the mainland. Mohammedan family which had belonged migrated from He Central Asia. and in that year the Chinese general T ang Ho. but 1 in 1553 the &quot. new era of prosperity for the island seemed likely A to &quot. and the governor Tung Wo. The history of Puto is a blank for nearly a hundred and thirty years. fourteenth century indeed by the buildings were reduced to a . but he found some con solation for his woes among the temples of Puto. .XIL] JAPANESE PIRATES 335 years of the dynasty was a well-known scholar named Ting Ho-nien to a (1335-1424). to the province of Hupei. Eastern Dwarfs l again harried the coast. and a single courageous building left The only monk named I-ch ieh was left in charge of the desolate sanctuaries of Kuan-yin. and he celebrated the charms of the island in poetry. of the Ming During the Ming period (1368-1643) fortune bestowed alternate smiles and frowns on the holy island.

the 1 tion to the State and long life to His Majesty&quot. sacred images. years later certain monks beheld a beautiful vision on the sea of water-lilies.). a court official named Chang Sui was sent to the island in charge of a pien bear sitated rebuilding.ch an . who proved himself a Both the good friend to the monks of Puto. of the province moved the monastic establishment.ssu yung . This u . In 1598 there was a disastrous fire.836 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN [CH. sign that days of happiness for Puto were about to return. in 1605. The omen was a true one. monk from Wu-t ai. True Two From the sea mists emerged a white-robed figure This was regarded as a seated on a golden lotus.shou P . altar embroideries.t o . In 1572 a monastery was again founded by a His name was Chen-sung Pine-tree&quot. In this ing a title new title for - was Hu kuo Jhana Monastery of Puto ensuring protec (&quot. emperor and the empress-dowager frequently sent emissaries to the island with gifts of money. medicines for sick monks. such as it was. In this inscription we have an indication of the and state point of view from which emperors ffl the restored monastery. and autograph scrolls. monks robes. and when it was finished. In 1586 the imperial munificence provided for the rebuilding of new quarters for fifty-three monks. for the vision almost coincided with the accession of the weak but pious emperor Wan-li. to the Island of Chusan. (&quot.). which neces work the imperial family took considerable interest.

. like pagodas. &quot.XIL] officials FENG-SHUI in 337 China have from time immemorial defended and justified the un-Confucian recognition and support which they have intermittently ex tended towards Buddhist and Taoist temples and monastic communities. that spiritual sway. 75-6. because the spiritual radiations emanating from any such build ing are intensified by the sanctity of the hill itself . are situated on some &quot. Letters (1870-2). see Baron Richthofen. so that even the throne itself is within the It is believed the sphere of their benign influence. see above. pp. Temples and religious houses. who called himself a Brother of Christ. regarded as beneficial to the feng-shui of their neighbourhood they are centres of good geomantic influ ences. empire s the With reference to Chiu-hua-shan. 222. y . The temples which &quot. or were. as we have seen. 1903. p. those of Chiu- hua-shan) and deliberately wrecked one of the greatest artistic exquisite Porcelain Pagoda at Nanking was because they thought that these buildings exercised an influence inimical to their cause. sacred hill are regarded as deserving of greater reverence than any others. and radiate those influences over the whole district which happens to be subject to their is. are. benefits they confer extend throughout the whole empire. 1 As for the partial glories 1 For a vivid account of the ruin and desolation wrought in (as the T ai-p ing Chehkiang and Anhui by the Society of God rebels styled themselves) under their bloodthirsty and fanatical leader f Hung Hsiu-ch iian. Shanghai. 2nd ed. that the main reason why the T ai-p ing rebels destroyed all the mountain-monasteries they came across (including.

p. 1 amounted still to han remained See above. but apparently it was not widely distributed.hermitage and also to the innumerable artists and poets who. The number of ha?i then printed (each han containing volumes) 41 several pen. reign of Wan-li is chiefly memorable in the annals of Buddhism for the publication of a The portion of the Buddhist scriptures and for the distribution of complete sets of the whole Chinese Tripitaka (so called) to most of the great monasteries of the empire. immunity from destruction or spoliation enjoyed by many of the great Buddhist monasteries during the various anti. have at least been thorough Buddhists in their worship of wild nature. or separate In Wan-li s time 637. however. 1 Under two previous emperors of the dynasty. Yung-lo (1403-24) and Cheng-t ung (1436-49). if in .338 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN [CH.Buddhistic outbreaks of Confucian officialdom. not always confessed worshippers of Buddha. there is no doubt that such immunity has been partly due to a general belief in the truth of the theory that such institutions were productive offeng-shui favourable to the welfare of the State as a whole. 235. a new edition of nearly the whole vast collection had already been printed. Perhaps. . the monasteries were even more deeply indebted to those numerous Confucian statesmen who spared the sanctuaries of Buddha because they themselves looked forward to spending their later years in scholarly retirement some sequestered mountain .

.

.

ch. The edict in which this occurs is dated 1599. We says one of the edicts. monastic authorities state that their sets are almost complete.From of old time.&quot. They are variously dated from 1586 to 1611. where they are to be treated with due reverence and carefully preserved. 3 passion. emperors and rulers of our land have modelled their methods of government upon &quot.&quot. Com &quot. 3 n m m /&amp.XIL] IMPERIAL EDICTS 339 1 The emperor. wishes of the empress-dowager. is imperial as follows : The will. in all sincerity of heart have 2 caused to be printed the Buddhist scriptures.gt. In spite of losses due to fires and robberies. says another of the edicts. 1 But Confucianism is not 3 Separate edicts (identical in nearly everything but the names of the monasteries con cerned) were issued to the monks of each favoured mountain. or chapters. xiv. the These 41 han comprised 410 chiian. and have ordered complete sets to be deposited in the capital and distributed among the monasteries of the Famous Mountains of the empire. Those received by Puto are recorded in the Chih. and to use them to such all the world may be brought into fellowship with the religion of Love. and as soon as the work was finished imperial edicts were issued in which the circumstances of publication and distribution were fully set forth. Each of the two great monasteries of Puto received a complete set of the Tripitaka as issued by Wan-li. * ISJ If t H * ft. in obedience to the imprinted.&quot. decided to make good the deficiency. .the Confucian principles. The monks books from morning and good purpose that are enjoined to guard the sacred all harm. &quot. to read them diligently evening. &quot. and Goodness.

to which an uncompromising Confucian would demur. no active part in defending his hero s death. its would be.&quot. however. and his dynasty from disaster. and there. he could die a . he thought. would meet with the approval of the majority of Chinese Buddhists. he lived the life of a recluse. a is the position After the of vice-president of the Board of Rites. and where he can forget even his own &quot. the only doctrine there is also Buddhism. rose to for a scholar and statesman who few years. where the world and sorrows can be banished from the memory.&quot. : These each two doctrines are like the wings of a bird other. fall of the dynasty he retired to Puto.old self. requires the co-operation of the This observation. That the support given to Buddhism by some of the Ming emperors did not alienate the sym pathies of illustrated all their Confucian subjects by the story of Wu touchingly Chung -luan. did not save In 1619 he died. In a graceful little poem he describes the consola tions of this tranquil island. delightful it ! How country against the armies of the conquering Manchus but though he could not fight a hero s battles. so he could take forgotten. Wan-li s religious tolerance. He waited long enough to convince . to spend his declining years amid these quiet Buddhist But his old loyal self refused to be groves He was no soldier.340 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN : [CH. in 1643 the last emperor of the Ming line hanged himself on a tree in his palace garden.

luan. Certain Japanese monks. in 1861. had been presented in his paper on Self-immolation by Fire (Chinese Recorder. The monks of Puto suffered Early in the new reign (1644-61) they nearly lost their library. and died as a loyal servant of the vanquished Ming dynasty. we are told. Macgowan. 1888). fled as a fugitive to Chusan &quot. Confucian p ai-wei (the wooden spirit-tablets of Confucius and his principal disciples) and seated himself in the chair. J. if based on on the methods adopted by Japanese Buddhists to promote the prosperity of their religion in their own country. No such deeds of devotion seem. throws a peculiar The light story.. . fact. were very anxious to possess themselves of the Buddhist Tripitaka which. Making his way to the Sheng Miao it &quot. passed to his patriot death. refers to the story of Chung . (the Confucian Temple &quot. &quot. he crossed the &quot. and is not quite right in his facts.Sea of Water-lilies&quot. Nov. whereas the incident really took place more than two centuries earlier.to escape from the T aisays that p ing rebels&quot. Wu Wu Wu Manchu dynasty. with faggots.XIL] DEATH OF all WU CHUNG-LUAN 341 reasonable hope of expelling the northern invaders was extinguished. 1 many hardships the troubles which convulsed the country during before the Manchu dynasty consolidated its posi tion. as they knew. and landed at the port of Ting-hai. so far as is known at present.) he caused a chair to be set in the courtyard. He was not the only official of rank who refused to survive his fallen emperor. and then. He then took in &quot. the magisterial city of the Island of Chusan. &quot. and surrounded his hands the &quot. The and Wu Chung - luan. in himself that 1651. faggots were set alight clasping the Confucian s tablets to his breast. but He assigns it to the wrong period. to have been called forth by the fall of the 1 D.

But Yuan treated him with contempt. to the They of Puto by the Emperor Wan-li. Having effected the robbery. cannot be made for certain would-be robbers of another monastic library that of &quot. he turned his vessel s prow towards Puto.342 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN monks [CH. Repenting at last of his sacrilegious act.&quot.dragon s palace and ask him to get them back for you. i. go down to the sea. 103).Golden Island. For several &quot. A monk at named Chao-chung went to Chusan the head of a large company of his brethren of Puto and implored the pirate to restore the books. the pirate removed his booty to the Island of Chusan. The fish ceased to trouble him. intending to sail thence to Japan. and joyously resumed possession of their holy books. by the English officers. at Chinkiang. as they intended to have carried off the whole collection. . had not peace prevented&quot.&quot. angrily.&quot. If days Yuan tried vainly to proceed. accordingly hired a certain pirate named to rob Yuan Chun Puto of its books and carry them off to Japan. but there found. and the return journey was made in less than half a day. and said you want your books. 1 1 The Japanese monks might have pleaded intensity of religious The same excuse zeal in extenuation of their felonious conspiracy. (The &quot. All the monks hastened down to the shore to meet him. During one of the Anglo Chinese wars of the nineteenth century this library &quot. was it the sea -dragon But a monstrous fish himself? got in the way of the vessel and pre vented it from reaching the open sea.was Dr Wells Williams. says was no haste in examining its contents. but the seamonster was too much for him. Thereupon he set sail for Japan. Middle Kingdom.

In the records of Puto Europeans are mentioned more than once. K read without shame and sorrow. named Miao-chan. Yuan-t f uug. on New Year s Day.&quot. the second emperor of the dynasty and the story of the disaster is one which no European can .Red -hairs&quot. Red - hairs &quot. Suddenly on the bridge of glow ing light appeared the radiant form of the whiterobed Kuan-yin. and Kuan-chiao. l Little Puto. could have only one meaning the Island of the Little White Flower&quot. but the monks felt sure it &quot. The vision faded. who were 1 This island^ of which the Chinese name is Hsiao-Loka^ is the island which lies to the east of Puto. which seemed to &quot.XIL] THE COMING OF THE RED-HAIRS The worst calamity that ever befel the monks their beautiful temples did not occur of Puto and till the early years of the reign of ang-hsi.). was about to suffer some terrible disaster. names applied to them are Huang-mao Yellow(&quot. The island Chronicle tells us that in the third year of the reign (1664). but no attempt is made to dis The tinguish between the different nationalities. . hairs &quot. Tzulighthouse. The visit which was attended with the calamitous results now to be narrated described by the chronicler with sufficient detail to enable us to say with out hesitation that the &quot. tsai. the monks beheld a wonderful rainbow. or Hung - mao is (&quot. and to extend across the sea to a neighbouring island. Their foreboding came true in the following year. rise from a gleaming temple roof. her face turned away from Puto. It now possesses an important It contains four small temples..).

the monks pointed to the hillside disobey where the cattle were grazing. on the thirteenth day of the fifth month. Thereupon they fired. and were armed with bows and sharp arrows besides their other weapons. says) having been driven out of their strongholds (literally nests and dens ). and told the sailors I they could help themselves. The Red-hairs (it year 1665.344 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN in this [CH. As soon as they came ashore they made signs to signify that ha-ha and they wanted food. They also had very cutlasses. and used fire-stones (huo-shih] to let them off! Their aim was unerring. The Puto Chronicle gives us an interesting glimpse of the manner in which some of the homeless Dutchmen disported them selves during the years that followed their expul sion from the beautiful island which had been their residence for nearly forty years. In the &quot. took to the sea as plunderers and robbers. Those familiar with the history of European enterprise in the Far East will remember that in 1661 the Dutch were attacked and driven out of their settlements in the Island of Formosa by the famous pirate-king Cheng Ch eng .kung. and killed several head. Next day they came . two of their ships suddenly appeared off the coast of Puto. They had short muskets strapped to their backs. better known as Koxinga. and the monks noticed that they had red-yellowish hair and beards. They came ashore. They jabbered Not daring to cattle uttered the one word them. the protagonists particular drama were Dutchmen.

screens. sceptres of agate and coral. tied the strips of cloth round their legs. cushions did they leave behind. not a thing of any value scrolls. 2 They did not sail away until they had desecrated the holy soil of Puto in a way that words cannot describe. hangings. ! ! 1 Presumably they brought an interpreter with them on this occasion. images and seized the treasures which had been accumu their way lating for generations. themselves. 2 Of the books See p. Then they all forced into the temples and destroyed the and dug the precious stones out of them. jade rings. but having deceitfully induced the monks to go on board the ships. embroideries. pulled the books to pieces. . 339. They broke open the cupboards containing the sutras which had been an emperor s gift. including the imperial gifts of gilded Buddhas and silver chalices.XIL] DUTCH MARAUDERS 345 1 again and spoke words of guile. saying that they wished to perform some act of religious merit . but even the quiet hermitages in the secluded parts of the islandthere was not one of them that escaped spoliation Three months later the or destruction by fire. stripped off the cloth in which the outside covers were wrapped. all cut . Not only the two great monasteries. they proceeded to demand money and valuables from them. Red-hairs When they appeared for a third time the monks down trees and furnished themselves with with the intention of fighting the pirates spears but on this occasion the Red-hairs did not come Alas for the sacred home of our Pusa ashore. and on returning to their ships tore them off and threw them into the sea. the vast majority appear to have been saved. returned and stole some more cattle.

Unfortunately there is no reason to doubt the accuracy of the narrative. To be trampled and This is robbed and desecrated island. We turn back to such pages from time to time. What seems to happened to the Dutchmen be a after their heroic encounter with defenceless monks at Puto matter of account says that they went their booty. 6-7^ xiii. 1 ( ( 2 iii. There was nothing to be gained by exaggerating the actual facts. vi.. vi. for One uncertainty. to read without shame. and was only in certainly not stirring written with the vain object of up popular indignation against foreigners. It occurs in an obscure monastic Chronicle. at any rate. seems to have reached P u-t o-shan-chih. 7. or Christians and Buddhists. and that on their homeward journey their ship caught fire and was lost with every man on board. 1-2. 4. if only for the purpose of reminding ourselves that the Chinese in the days of their haughty exclusiveness were not wholly unjustified in their belief that their Western visitors were barbarians or devils. This story may be regarded as ben trovato . There are many pages in the history of Western relations with China which we Europeans cannot do well. .346 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN defiled. such was the fate of our holy not a very pleasant picture of the manner which Europeans and Chinese. one of the ships.&quot. l [CH. however. became acquainted with one another. 2 Ibid. off to Japan to sell which they received large sums of money.

Little White the Flower tection. and they reveal a state of utter desolation. a fleet of war-junks anchored off the island and landed a large number of plunderers. Chinese. the monks clung bravely to their devastated island until 1671.). to which we shall have occasion to refer in the next chapter. as we learn from a curious story about a stolen bell.XIL] its DEPARTURE OF THE MONKS 347 destination in safety. were The other story tells us that burned to death. and European. After this. who made their way to a Ta-shih-tien (a &quot. when the Govern Harried as they were by pirates ment compelled them once more to migrate to the mainland. who for some obscure reason found themselves unable to escape. Hall of the Pusa &quot. Puto was abandoned to solitude years. and many of the sacrilegious robbers. and suddenly found themselves confronted by innumerable poisonous serpents. One Suddenly the pavilion itself caught fire. which opened . was still under some kind of divine pro of these stories tells us that during this period of decay some robbers landed on the island and made a fire inside one of the deserted pavilions with the object of melting down a metal image of Kuan yin which they found there. After working their wicked will there they came forth. &quot. Japanese. Two little stories indicate pathetic efforts on part of the monks to convince themselves or others that in spite of all appearances to the contrary the &quot. and decay for a period of about seventeen The Chronicle gives us but few glimpses of the island during that time.

The terrified plunderers turned and tried to run away. run away and hide his himself in to his palace. prides itself on the fact that possesses no poisonous snakes Kuan-yin. It is not impossible that therefore. proposed to pay a visit to the temple of the god of Mount Mimoro. that they in this story there is Oriental folk-lore. and proposed visit the god was indefinitely postponed. who. The appearance of serpents on this occasion means. Escape was impossible wild dogs were in front. preserved an old fragment of Serpents (sometimes in the form of dragons) have been regarded. Puto.348 their MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN [CH. but they were at once met by a pack of savage dogs. and the consequence was that as he drew near the shrine he was suddenly met by a serpent of most ferocious The emperor was glad to be allowed to aspect. Japanese Chronicle there is a legend which tells us what happened to the emperor Yuriaku. Many of the men perished miserably. He omitted to submit himself to the usual irreverently preliminary rites of ceremonial purification. like Ireland. poisonous serpents were behind. like a Buddhist St Patrick. in the year 463 of our era. drove them all away. in both China and Japan. mouths and hissed. it : were miraculously introduced for the express purpose of punishing those who had been guilty of sacrilege. Puto resumed the normal course of its history . and others were grievously injured. as the specially-appointed guardians of In the Nihongi the well-known all holy shrines.

. PUTO. 348. {Facing p.SOUTHERN MONASTERY.A PILGRIMS PATHWAY. i - THE LOTUS-POND OF THE &quot.

.

monks The to re-establish the glory of their owing to his energy that the temples rose again from their ashes. 1 It was under his influence. submitted a memorial to the throne. 333. Ta-lai. 3 probability is that both the Lii and the schools were represented in the island during the intervening centuries. and K ang-hsi took so keen an interest in the work of restoration that in a few years time the temples and monasteries of Puto had recovered all their old prosperity. in which he reported the lamentable state of desolation to which the holy island had been reduced. and that the supremacy lay sometimes with the one and sometimes with the other. was an able and zealous monk named Ch ao-yin. his Majesty to assist was entirely satisfactory. we abandoned the Lii Vinaya) in favour of the Ch an Jhana) rule 2 but this are told. however. and it was largely result &quot. and begged the forlorn old home. statement requires qualification. The abbot of the Southern Monastery.&quot. for the Ch an The Ch an school had been introduced into the monasteries of Puto as early as the twelfth century. . There appears to be no doubt. during the early years of the rebuilding.XIL] RESTORATION OF MONASTERIES 1688. that since the days of Abbot Ch ao-yin the island 3 See above j p. 349 in when named Huang a military officer of high rank. and the smoke of incense once more curled upwards from the altars of Kuan-yin. that the island ( ( .

2 In subsequent years he gave generous donations in altar money and valuables. images. In 1696 K he presented each of the two great monasteries with a portion of the Diamond Sutra written by his own - hand.) defender of the faith . and a shrine was erected to him on the is General Lan island after his death. regarded as a hu-fa and the monks of Puto. 2 3 vi. elevated him to the position of of the Puto monkhood. He &quot. 1 imperial and further of the Most of Chih. beads which had been by the portions written with the imperial brush. ghostly champion The benefactions of the great Emperor ang-hsi commenced with a gift of money in 1689. hangings. is remembering that he had been noted during his life for his enormous physical strength and his reckless courage. regarded as one of the lay saints of Puto.350 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN [CH. embroideries. robes. A similar custom seems to have been known outside China. (&quot. 8. Aurangzeb. one of zeal many emperors to prove their religious . scrolls. autograph &quot. 3 scriptures fingers. Ch ao-yin s avail efforts might have been of small had he not enjoyed the powerful friendship and support of Puto s principal lay benefactor a noted general named JLan Li (1649-1719) whose religious zeal was probably stimulated by the fact that in the year 1690 the patron pusa of the island 1 appeared to him in a vision at the Fan-yin Cave.told&quot. It has been the practice of by copying out portions of the Buddhist scriptures. of Puto has been entirely under the sway of the Lin-chi sect of the Ch an school.

still This tablet is one of those which the front hall of stands in the Yii-pei-t the P u-chi Monastery. and despatched a special emissary to inaugurate the work of restoration and to make ceremonial bestowed gifts of gold from the offerings. these treasures are and &quot. 351 &quot. he presented the newly-restored Southern an autograph pien and a new Monastery&quot. chanced at this time to be in Western Chehkiang. and therefore reigned with 1 K contemporaneously ang-hsi. set to work to clear away the brambles. and how at last a few monks returned to it. See above. and cut down the jungle growths and old buildings. &quot. State treasury. that the temples might be restored to splendour. 2 ang interesting edict the emperor refers briefly to the history and traditions of Puto and to the cruel treatment it had received from the this In pirates of the Formosan seas. seen. with that which it 1 name has borne ever since. p. 331. 328-9. as we have monasteries. In 1705 an envoy arrived at Puto with an imperial edict. if we may render words in a slightly abbreviated form). &quot. and that their cloisters and colonnades We the Mughal emperors of India. Southern preserved in the Northern In 1699. 2 See above.XIL] EDICT OF K ANG-HSI still &quot. who ascended the throne at Delhi in 1659 and died in 1707. twice copied out the whole Qur an. pp. own (says the emperor. which was immediately transferred to a stone tablet.We&quot. f . and to trace out the foundations of the his &quot. He describes how the island had been abandoned for several years in consequence of these outrages. &quot.

but also from the caprices of fortune of aim. no divergence We. is How to which they are in no promote Our people s welfare That a problem which brings Us many wistful is. &quot. moreover. that Our people are not yet Their sufferings free from cares and sorrows. nevertheless. as a votive offering on behalf of the empress-dowager. that heaven delights systems. 2 Now arms have for over forty years. We. . from motives of filial piety. might be made lustrous and glorious with scarlet The stone and timber have all been and jade. empire the empire is at peace. 2 K ang-hsi died in 1722. Heaven s suppliant. have obtained have ruled the the boon of a long reign. since Our boyhood. come not only from the imperfections of their own natures. the gracious and to give life and nourishment We &quot. Our subjects have provided at State expense not been called upon to furnish either labour All this We have done in the first or material. We have had no leisure to become minutely acquainted with the sacred books of Buddhism therefore We are : 1 : not qualified to discuss the deeper mysteries of that are satisfied that But Virtue is the faith. We . been laid aside know. with the constant aim of learn ing the proper duties of a good ruler. have been earnest students of Confucian lore. compassionate Pusa loves to bring creatures to salvation. in the sixty-first year of his reign. one word which indicates what is essential in both find.352 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN [CH. and in the place second place that happiness and prosperity might be granted by the divine Powers to all Our people. We and other circumstances for way 1 to blame. We . all living The one creates. the other saves : but there is no antagonism.

that Our decree be transmitted to posterity. even the Catholic priests who frequented his Court themselves bigots of an almost fanatical type were obliged gratefully to acknowledge. Though he became a convert neither to Buddhism nor to Christianity. to assume that in this prayer the pusa is the male AvalokitesVara. he treated both Buddhist monks and Jesuit priests with a princely tolerance and magnanimity which. Z . the compassionate Kuan-yin. and the blessings of peace. season able winds. pose in his public utterances as the denouncer all and among was no such doctrines rigid Confucianists do not hesitate to class Buddhism. finally.hearted and largestminded of the Manchu emperors signify his gracious goodwill towards Puto and his respect for its patron saint. As Confucian of false orthodoxy he or heretical the imperial pillar of was often obliged to doctrines.XIL] RELIGIOUS POLICY OF K ANG-HSI 353 Let us pray to thoughts and anxious dreams. the and. probably. Our Such are the wishes of Let what Our hand has written be engraved upon a lofty tablet. that she may of her grace send down upon Our people the spiritual that she rain and sweet dew of the Good Law may grant Our people bounteous harvests. .&quot. them to heart. and long life . It would be more correct. that she may lead salvation which she offers to all 1 beings in the universe. 1 There is nothing in the Chinese to show what view the emperor took with regard to the question of Kuan-yin s sex. But as this great ruler tyrant and no bigot. may Thus did the largest . harmony.

and there. patronage the local officials. that his Majesty had provided for the repair not only of the Buddhist temples at Puto. p.. . 2 No or 1 severe calamities have befallen the island its monasteries since the reigns of K ang-hsi El in Shantung which possesses the The sage himself lies buried principal Confucian temple in the empire. account of the island.hsi.Northern&quot. to his other fine qualities of states manship. town (see above. of the great K ang Both the Southern and &quot. give him a strong claim to be regarded as the wisest and best ruler of his age. in Kiangsi. in Shantung.354 MONASTIC HISTORY OF PUTO-SHAN [CH. and as in addition one of the finest imperial embodiments of the operations at ideals of Chinese civilization. &quot. &quot. The next important building Puto were undertaken during the reign of Yungnot unworthy successor cheng (1723 35). in the beautiful cemetery of the K/ung family in the immediate vicinity is 2 Ch f ii-fou H& $& the little ^. a . a Cantonese named ordered to visit Huang Ying . and the work (which was completed in 1733) was done under the &quot. Shang-ch ing-kung. &quot.Dragon-Tiger Mountains&quot. 66 /. was the from time to time and report the progress He wrote an excellent topographical of the work.hsiung.&quot. The &quot. (Lung-hu-shan) are f in Kiangsi. 135).three religions. xvi. monasteries underwent partial reconstruction at this time. in the temple known as the resides the hereditary Pope of the Taoists. Chih. Dragon-Tiger Mountains &quot. and the great Taoist temple on the &quot. emperor s One island of and with his support. but also of the great Confucian temple at Ch ii-fou. and in it he makes an interesting reference to the emperor s benignant 1 He remarks toleration of the &quot.

284 and 316 of P. Sergeant s The Great Empress Dowager. signifying her august Her favourite - method of towards Puto &quot. may be seen photo c The Pusa graphs of the imperial lady in the unbecoming guise of of Puto-shan. . 288 and 300.. who went for a picnic on the palace lake while her minions were trying to massacre the stranger within her gates.yin emerging gracefully from It would be difficult. and who could find no &quot. sible.XIL] THE EMPRESS-DOWAGER 355 and Yung-cheng. better reason for ordering a temporary cessation of the bombardment of a foreign church than that 1 it 1 gave her a headache. Among these sovereigns also be included the ill - omened woman the pitiable misuse of her unrivalled opportunities must be held mainly responsible for the ignominious collapse of the most ancient who through good will was a peculiar one: it was to enthrone herself among water-lilies. to find a more thoroughly inappropriate representative of the tender and compassionate Goddess of Mercy than the terrible old woman who threw an emperor s favourite consort down a well. Mr See Ghina under the Empress-dowager. The picture is not redeemed by the fact Kuan-yin that one of her masquerading attendants is the notorious eunuch. Li Lien-ying. 454 of that work and pp. Restorations and renovations have been undertaken as occasion required from time to time. W.&quot. by Bland and Backhouse. of imperial thrones. pp. and several of the later emperors of the Manchu took a line lung including the great practical interest in the Ch ien- monks and must their fortunes. and pretend that she was the divine Kuan . Facing p. if not impos the sea.

is known as the Ch ien-ssu. of the two great religious houses of the island.CHAPTER THE &quot. AND attention has been directed mainly to the history of the u-chi-ssu the Monastery of Universal Salvation but though it is the older HITHERTO our P &quot. &quot.Northern Monastery. each of which possesses its special attractions and its own stock of legends. or as the Hou-ssti or &quot. grottoes. and it is excelled in beauty. its magic pools. XIII &quot. 356 . far both sides of the winding path that leads from the southern to the northern part of the temples.Monastery of the Rain of the Law. though no pilgrim to visit the Fa-hua-ling-tung (the Holy Grotto of the Flower of the Law&quot. These island On are many little centres of Buddhist worship &quot. it is equalled. and its and varied is foliage. Beyond the it f &quot.&quot. and small monasteries. NORTHERN MONASTERY BUDDHA S PEAK &quot. well. in size. . &quot.holy grotto&quot.&quot.). or indeed surpassed. as we have Southern Monastery/ the Fa-yii seen. celebrated for its inscribed and caverned rich rocks. by the Fa-yu-ssu. or 1 &quot.&quot.fairy and close by 1 On account of their relative positions the P u-chi. we will must omit regretfully pass by. a &quot.

CH. XIIL]
is

ROCK-INSCRIPTIONS

357

ao-yang) built over a cave which pilgrims are recommended by the monks It contains an to visit in the early morning.
a temple (the

Ch

eastward-facing window, through which they are In this invited to contemplate the rising sun.

neighbourhood are to be seen numerous inscrip tions which have been carved on the rocks and
boulders of the sloping hillside. inscriptions consists of the five

One

of these

boldly -carved China has characters Chung-kuo yu sheng-jen its sages"). This is a truth which is perhaps
("

rather apt to be lost sight of to-day. pathetic visitor as recently little record is that left by a
as

A

1910
").

Tieh-nien ch

ung

tao

("Revisited

in

old age Of greater religious significance are the words of the well-known Tibetan charm

Om

mane padme
("Cross

horn, written in

Chinese characters,
s

and the orthodox Chinese Buddhist
to the

Teng-pi an

other

shore"),

sheng ch eng Fo ("May all world become Buddha").

Ta-ti chung beings throughout the

and

the rising ground the Chiwhich forms the southern boundary pao-ling of the longest and finest beach in Puto, the
are
"Sands

We

now on

of a Thousand
"

1

Paces,"

described by a

Chinese poet as
as
moss."

The

yellow as powdered gold, soft mile of roadway which leads us

from
as

this point to the Fa-yii

Monastery

is

known

the Yli-t ang Road, in commemoration of a monk of the Wan-li period (1573-1619) who
1

Ch ( ien-pu-aha.

358

THE

"NORTHERN MONASTERY"

fcH.

bore that
its

name and was mainly
Passing by
temples,

construction.

responsible for clusters of small

monasteries

and

some quite recently
reach

Fa-yu-ssii, situated near the northern end of delightfully the long beach and under the shadow of the
tree
-

founded

or

restored,

we

the

clad

hill

which

culminates

in

"

Buddha s

Peak."

The immediate surroundings

of this fine

of great beauty, and the build ings themselves are, of their kind, unsurpassed in Buddhist China. The lotus - pond, with its

monastery are

picturesque bridge, is one which would not and the disgrace the noblest of English parks central with their curved eaves and halls,
;

timbered roofs, the marble balustrades and grace ful pavilions, and the fine old trees which cast
a religious shade over the spacious courtyards, combine to make the monastery of the Rain of the Law one of the most majestic and
"
"

attractive,

as

it

is

one

of

the

most peaceful
1

and sequestered, of Chinese monastic dwellings.

follow in detail the history of the Fa-yii Monastery is unnecessary, as the story would be
little

To

more than

a repetition of that already told

in connection with the sister-monastery.

Though

the

younger of the two, the Fa-yii since its foundation has shared all the fortunes, good and
bad, of the elder, and tokens of imperial favour

have
1

been
visits to

showered upon
this

it

with an

equally

It

was within

monastery that the author resided during

his

two

Puto.

THE

YU-T<ANG

ROAD, SHOWING ROCK-CARVED FIGURES.

THE LOTUS-POND OF THE NORTHERN MONASTERY.

[Facing p.

358.

xiii.]

"NORTHERN MONASTERY"

FOUNDED
chronicle,

359

liberal

hand.

According
first

to

the

a

monastic building was
in the year 1580.

erected on this site

The founder was
Great
("

a far-travelled
"),

monk named
set

Ta-chih

Wisdom

who

of

out on pilgrimage from the holy mountain Omei, where he founded two temples, and
after visiting

who,

Wu-t ai and many

other sacred

places in northern and central China, arrived at last at Puto. Here he decided to spend his remaining years. The story goes that he offered

up prayer
for divine

at

the

Ch

ao-yin and

Fan-yin caves

guidance

as to the selection of a site

for

the hermitage which he proposed to found, and that shortly afterwards, while he was walking

on the beach at the northern end of the

Ch

ien-

pu Sands, a long bamboo pole was washed by the tide at his feet. Regarding this
Kuan-yin
to
s

up
as

answer to

his prayers,

he set to work

put up a little building close to the spot where he had seen the bamboo pole and in
;

commemoration of the incident which
choice of
this
"

led to the

site

he gave

his

foundation the
Tide-waves."
1

name
little

of the

Hermitage of the

Ta-chih died in 1592.

Two

years later the

hermitage, which had grown in size and importance, was elevated to the rank of a ssu
a
"

monastery".
it

In 1598
rebuilt

it

was destroyed by

fire.

on a splendid scale by two monks named Ju-shou and Ju-kuang, under
the

In 1605

was

munificent

patronage
1

of

the

emperor

Hai-ch ao-an.

360

THE
who
the
it

"NORTHERN MONASTERY"
in

[OH.

Wan-li,

the

upon
it

new name

following year bestowed of Chen - hai - ch an - ssu
Monastery").

("Ocean-guardian

Jhana

In 1643

was again partially destroyed by fire; and in 1665 it shared in the ruin brought upon all the religious houses in the island by the Dutch
marauders.

In connection with that episode the annals of the monastery tell an interesting story about the loss of its great bell. This bell was cast

by the founder of the monastery, Ta-chih,
"

in

the last quarter of the sixteenth century. The Red-hairs carried^ it off as part of their loot, and succeeded in safely conveying it to the
"

gateway
Europe."

of

their

capital

in
it

"the

country of

There,
its

however,

fell

owing to
it fell. it

great weight, was left Gradually sinking into the soft ground,

down, and, lying where

at last disappeared altogether, and was forgotten. But in 1723 a sound like the rolling of thunder
;

was suddenly heard coming from the ground whereupon the amazed people of the neighbour hood dug up the ground and discovered the bell. Somehow or other these events came to the
knowledge
of

the

monastic

authorities.

The

abbot of the monastery at the time of the dis covery of the bell was one Fa-tse, who happened
to be a native of Fuhkien, and was acquainted with

many merchants who were engaged
trade.
"

in foreign
"

Through these merchants negotiations were opened with with the country of Europe

xiii.]

THE STORY OF A BELL
bell.

361

a view to the recovery of the long-lost

The

negotations ended successfully, and in the year 1728 it was brought back to China and landed at

Namoa Island, near the port of Swatow, in the Canton province. Difficulties as to its reshipnient were not overcome till 1733, which by a happy coincidence was the year which witnessed the com pletion of a restoration of the monastery under the
auspices of

K ang-hsi s

son, the

emperor Yungof the

cheng.

To

the great joy and wonder

monks, the bell was finally disembarked at Puto on the thirtieth day of the tenth month, at the very time when a solemn service was being held
in the great hall of the
s

monastery to celebrate

his

Majesty birthday. There is no reason to doubt that the story as thus told in the annals of the monastery is sub
stantially true;

but

it

seems improbable that the

monks were

correct in their belief that the bell

had actually been conveyed to Europe. The Chinese of those days had very vague ideas of geography, and the monks of Puto had evidently no very distinct knowledge of the political divisions
of the
"

country of

Europe."

Perhaps the

bell did

not make quite so long a journey as they supposed. The suggestion may be hazarded that its restingplace during the period from 1665 to 1723 was no European town, but a city of the Island of Java.

Batavia was then, as it is still, the capital of the Dutch East Indies, and though its old ramparts

no longer

exist, it

was a strong walled town

in the

362

THE

"NORTHERN MONASTERY"

[CH.

seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Possibly the Chinese story of the fall of the bell at the
gates of the city, and
until its

subsequent disappearance presence underground was revealed by a sound like rolling thunder, is based on the
historical fact that in

its

1699 Batavia was visited by

a destructive earthquake. Thus the real course of events may have been something like this: the

was carried from Puto to Java in 1665 it was suspended in a tower on the wall of the city of Batavia; it remained there till 1699, when the wall was destroyed by an earthquake it lay buried under the ruins of the wall until 1723 and in that
bell
;
;

;

year, after it

had disappeared from view for almost a quarter of a century, the removal of the debris
restored
it

to the light of day.

The

inscription

on the

bell,

residents in

we may suppose, was read by Chinese Java, who learned thereby the name of

the monastery to which it originally belonged. Through them the story may easily have come to the ears of the Chinese merchants of Fuhkien,

who

at

that time controlled a large proportion
s

of China

The joy
founder s

foreign trade. of the monks at the return of their

was tempered by their discovery of the melancholy fact that it was no longer in a fit condition to serve its proper purpose. It had been cracked and injured to such an extent that before
bell

the hearts of
thrilled

monks and

by

its

pilgrims could again be mellow tones it had to be put

through the process of recasting.

This work was

XIIL]

THE ABBOT PIEH-AN

363

not carried out for nearly a hundred years. It hung silently in its tower till 1825, when a wealthy
pilgrim
its
it

named Hsu, having
It
is

interested himself in

history,
recast.

undertook to defray the cost of having
the bell of Ta-chih, originally cast

before the year 1592, but re-cast in or shortly after the year 1825 by the pilgrim Hsu, that

hangs to-day in the bell-tower of the
Monastery."

"Northern

The most
monastery remarkable
is

revered of
neither

all

the abbots of this

Ta-chih nor Fa-tse, but a
Pieh-an.
1

man named
"of

He was
"

a native

of Ssuch uan, but

Monastery

became abbot of the Northern Puto in 1687, and remained there
last

until his death in the

year of the century.

The
"

buildings had been
"

in a ruinous

and neglected
fell

condition ever since the disastrous visit of the

Red-hairs

in 1665,

and to Pieh-an

the task of

superintending their reconstruction. In the annals of his monastery he occupies a place somewhat

analogous to that of Ch ao-yin in the annals of the sister - monastery. 2 Both were distinguished ornaments of the Ch an school, both were largely
instrumental in interesting the emperor and other influential personages in the fortunes of Puto, and

both are looked upon as re-founders of their re
spective monasteries.
It
is

Pieh-an, indeed, rather
"

than Ta-chih, who is regarded by the fraternity of the as their spiritual Northern Monastery
"

1

His alternative name was Hsing-t ung.
See above, p. 349.

2

364
"

THE
"

"NORTHERN MONASTERY"
;

[CH.

ancestor for Ta-chih belonged to (t ung tsu) the Lii school, whereas Pieh-an was a prominent member of the Lin-chi subdivision of the Ch an

the subdivision which to this day claims the One of Pieh-an s allegiance of the monks of Puto.
school

minor titles to the gratitude of posterity rests on the fact that he was responsible for the casting of the enormous caldron which is the pride of the monastic kitchen 1 but his fame is built upon
;

foundations of a more durable, or at least a more He was spiritual, kind than a mere cooking-pot.
a voluminous writer on religious subjects. Among his best - known works was a continuation of a

well-known collection of Lives of Buddhist Saints. 2 He had many friends among the cultured laity,

and one of them, a distinguished Confucian scholar and statesman named Yang Yung-chien (16313 His spiritual authority 1704), wrote his epitaph. shows no signs of eclipse in these degenerate days.

One

of the most

"

"

the calendar
"

important of the monks

saints

days

in

of

the

"Northern

the day on which reverence is paid Monastery to the memory, and incense burned before the
is
"

spirit-tablet,"

of the

"

"

patriarch

Pieh-an.
is

4

1 A full description of the casting of this vessel Chih,xvi. 38 /. 2 See Chili, xvi. 16/., 41 /., 54 /.

to be found in the

3 The epitaph is interesting on account of its tolerant Chihy xvi. 45. and sympathetic remarks on Buddhism hy one who avowed himself to

be a
4

strict

Confucian.
"

winter sacrifice" In the second year of Hsiian-t ung (1910) the to Pieh-an fell on the twenty - third day of the eleventh month Christmas Eve.

xm.]

"THE

RAIN OF THE GOOD

LAW"

365

In 1699, as we know, the Emperor K ang-hsi bestowed a new name on the Southern Mon
"

1

astery."

He

simultaneously conferred a similar
"

favour on the
it

Northern Monastery by giving the name which it has borne ever since Fa-yil
"

Jhana Monastery of the Rain of the Law." A brief reference has already been made to the meaning of this name. 2 The rain
an-ssu

Ch

the

"

"

"

is

the rain of the

"good

Law

of

Buddha,"

which
"

myriads of saviour-bodhisats, who are the clouds of the Law," graciously send down to earth
infinite

in order to lay the dust of ignorance

and passion
the
soil

and impart nourishment and in which men sow the seeds of

fertility to

their

good thoughts

and

actions.

3

which stands at the entrance of the monastery and forms a kind of gateway, was built at the time of the extensive
tower, or
/co,

The squat

restorations

which took place in the reign of Yung-cheng, and therefore only dates from about
This
is

the year 1733.
1

the building which, as has
"

as in the Prophets/ observes Yrjo

In the Psalms, the rain and the dew are continually used as images of blessing. God s wrath expressed itself in sending a drought on those who had not listened to His commands, but His favour sent rain upon the faithful, and His mildness sank down like a soft dew over the field." "The answering of prayer and grace are a heavenly dew which sinks down over the mind to purify and refresh it. In this respect the earliest fathers follow the terminology of the Jewish writers and the similes of the cloud, the dew, and the rain are continually used by mediaeval scholastics and mystics, no less than by modern pious writers, from Santa Theresa and Bunyan down to the modern preachers

3

2 See See above, p. 331. above, p, 286. similar idea is found in the Jewish scriptures.

A

Hirn

in his Sacred Shrine

"

.

.

.

;

"

(pp. 303-4).

366

THE
1
"

"NORTHERN MONASTERY"
is

[CH.

been noted,
the

dedicated to the Taoist
Heaven."

T ien-hou,

This deity, as we know, Queen may be regarded in some respects as the Taoist As a guardian-deity counterpart of Kuan-yin.
of
all

of

who go down

to the

sea in

ships

she

occupies an appropriate position as protectress of all pilgrims to the holy island. The story goes that on the day on which the building was

completed a fairy ship was seen on the eastern horizon. Emerging from the silvery sea mists,
it

rapidly approached the island, with parti coloured pennons streaming from its masts and

yards and gleaming lights flashing from its prow. It disappeared from the sight of mortal eyes while
it

was

still

Sands, but those
vision felt

some distance from the Ch ien-pu who had seen the beautiful joyfully confident that it was no other
at
"

than the ship of the
this

Queen

of

Heaven,"

who by

means had

signified her willingness to accept

the

homage of Puto and the guardianship of its ocean-borne pilgrims. Passing underneath the chapel if we may so call it of the Queen of Heaven," we reach a
"

large quadrangle with fine old maidenhair-trees and a p ai-lw, or carved archway, and reach the ien-

T

wang-tien

Hall of the Heavenly Kings." These are Hindu or Brahmanical deities, and
the
"

though they occupy a place in the mythology of Buddhism, they have no essential connection with All Western visitors to the Buddhist religion.
1

See above, p. 268.

XIIL]

THE LAUGHING BUDDHA
They occupy
is

367

Chinese temples are familiar with these colossal
figures.

a special building of their
1

always the first of the great halls In the of a properly-equipped Buddhist temple.
facing the incoming visitor, sits the bodhisat Maitreya (the Mi-lei Pusa of the

own, which

midst of this

hall,

Chinese), who,
belief,
is

according

to

a

vague Buddhist

now

kingdoms earth at some period in the more or less distant He it future and to be the Buddha of that age. is to whom Europeans have given the names of and the Buddhist Messiah the Laughing
"

a resident in one of the heavenly (Tushita), and is destined to come to

"

"

Buddha."

Facing the opposite back to Mi -lei, stands
regarded
as

direction,

and with
(Veda),

his
is

Wei-t o

who

pusa entrusted with the special duty of protecting all monastic buildings. To use the Sanskrit term, he is a viharapala a tutelary
a
deity of
also
it is

monasteries.

The Chinese regard him

a hu-fa ("defender of the faith"), and for this reason that his portrait often appears
as
last

on the
hall
1

page of Buddhist books.
"

But the most conspicuous occupants of the
are

the

four great
"

"

heavenly kings
"

(ssu-

In the case of the

Southern Monastery

of Puto, as

we have seen

328), the first hall is the pavilion of "Imperial Tablets/ and in the case of the cc Northern Monastery" the first building is the pavilion of the "Queen of Heaven." But these are extra and unessential
(p.

adjuncts to the temple buildings, and could therefore he placed where fancy or convenience dictated. The T ien-wang-tien (the Hall of the Four Heavenly Kings") is always in front of the essential
"

buildings.

368
ta
t

THE

"NORTHERN MONASTERY"

[CH.

ien-wang), who sit in couples, the one couple These enormous and grotesque facing the other.
figures represent the mythological kings who stand at guard in the four quarters of the universe, or

on the four

sides

of the fabulous

Mount Meru,

preventing the invasion of noxious influences or evil demons, and thus preserving inviolate the sanctity of the abodes of the Brahmanical gods.
Strictly speaking, they themselves are not demon - kings who they are rather
"

"

gods have

been
with

"converted."

Each

is

associated, after the

usual fashion of religious symbolism in the East,
certain

colours

and

"elements."

The
;

northern king, of the others,

who
is

takes theoretical precedence the black king of water the
;

the blue king of liu-li -lapis-lazuli the eastern is the white king of gold; the western is the red king of silver.

southern

is

European visitor to a Buddhist temple is apt to assume from the huge size and gorgeous ornamentation of these figures, and the prom
inence of the position assigned to temple precincts, that the beings

A

them

in

the

whom

they
in the

represent must occupy an important place
religious

system

to

which

admittance.
existence,

But such is Their was recognized by Buddhists at indeed,
*
;

they have not the case.

gained

an early period, and they are mentioned in several
passages of the Hinayana scriptures
1

they are

English readers
pt.
ii.

may

be referred to

Dr Rhys

Davids, Dialogues of

the

Buddha,

pp. 259, 282-3, 287-8, 373.

XIIL]

THE FOUR KINGS OF HEAVEN

369

mythologically associated, moreover, with time as well as space, for they are sometimes identified

with the seasons, and each
father of ninety sons
1

is

supposed to be the

who

the year. This artificial into twelve months of thirty days each was a

represent the days of division of the year

and though it was not astronomically accurate, it was probably of
Brahmanical
sacrificial

year,

myths and fancies have no essential connection with Buddhism. As far as China is concerned, the four kings seem to have been brought into association with Buddhism no earlier than the eighth century of our era. A monk from Ceylon named Amogha (or Pu-k ung, to use the name by which he is best known in China), who came to China about the year 733,
is

greater antiquity than either lunar year. 2 But all these

the

solar

or

the

said

them
It

to have been responsible for introducing into the country of his adoption.
is clear,

then, that in the front hall of a large Buddhist temple, such as that of the "Northern
"

Monastery
1

in Puto, there

is

much

to attract the

See Beal, Catena, pp. 71-3, 77, and his Buddhist Lit. in China, Beal observes that the four kings "are, under one aspect, the Horai of Homer ; under another the four elements."
pp. 157-8.
2

in his From Religion to Philosophy, 1912, the seasonal year being probably older than the solar or even the lunar calendar, the Horai would naturally be prominent before the moon and the sun were worshipped, as the measurers of F.

Mr

M. Cornford,

observes that

time and the givers of life" (p. 170). It is interesting to note that the it is ancient year of 3GO days is not yet extinct, and that probably still used to regulate Vedic sacrifices" (Dr J. F. Fleet, in J.R.A.S., October 1911, p. 1094).

2A

370

THE
all

"NORTHERN MONASTERY"

[CH.

notice of

who

are interested in the comparative

study

of

religion.

There

is

the

Mi -lei Fo
the

("Maitreya

Buddha"),

who

invariably faces

outer doorway, and invariably wears the happy expression which attracts the attention of all

European
bodhisat
bodhisat

visitors to
is

Buddhist temples.
nor Pusa
;

Strictly

speaking, he

at

present neither

Buddha nor

neither

Fo

but he will be a

appears on earth at some future time, and he will become Buddha during that He cannot be admitted to the holy earthly life.
of
holies

when he

because
present.

the real sanctuary of the temple he belongs to the future, not to the

His image is therefore placed in the outer hall, which is a mere porch or antechapel
stand behind
?

in its relation to the consecrated
it.

Why

buildings that does he face the outer

he is waiting to welcome doorway the coming of the next Buddha- age. Why does

Because

he

"

"

laugh

?

Because he

is

full

of the glad
}

tidings of the Buddha that is to come. Behind him, as we have seen, stands

the

viharapala

Wei-t o

whose face

is

turned in the

opposite direction, towards the inner halls and The reason of this position chapels of the temple.
is

the things that are to come, are no concern of his. The sole duty of
obvious.
future,

The

to stand guard over the monks and their monastery he therefore faces the ta-tien

AVei-t o

is

;

the principal sanctuary. As for the four heavenly kings, the figures of

of Puto faces due south. The 2 following is an extract from an article which appeared. or a combination of both. as his left main object of his devotions.XIIL] MEI-LI AND THE GUARDIAN KINGS 371 these mighty beings should... The &quot. to very erroneous and unfair impressions of Buddhism. . because lack of sympathy. will probably insert a stick of incense . in the journal of the China Inland Mission. but this will merely be an act of con ventional piety or courtesy. in theory. a stone incense-jar. . This matter has been dealt with at some length. This arrangement would be inconvenient. They are not the recipients of prayers or thanksgivings. by the guardian-kings on as and right he enters the precincts of the temple. very quietly photographs in spite of having to sustain a somewhat trying pose at . and are not entitled to In front of each. who to pass through the front hall in order bound reach to the challenged. 1 .Northern Monastery&quot. two of the kings sit on the east side and two on the west. It is important to note that the five principal occupants of this hall Mi -lei and the four kings are all excluded from the temple s inner sanctuaries. indeed. Two of these worthies f sat for their &quot. 1 is Thus the Buddhist worshipper. is it were. is religious adoration. stand at the four points of the compass. or defective knowledge. We proceeded to glance at the various deities in the outer court. . as he passes. . and they are therefore placed in couples so that if the temple faces the south (as temples in China theoretically should). The most striking of these were the Laughing Buddha and the Four Kings of Heaven. as recently as January 1913. frequently results in misrepresentations which are apt to give rise. and into each jar the pious pilgrim. among Western peoples. not one which can 2 fittingly be described as an act of religious worship.

their whole attitude being one of vengeance and fury. the yellow -roofed hall of the so1 Beyond this is the main great is the particular hall This Kuan-yin..&quot. &quot.&quot. ! fireworks. flourishing thunder-bolts and spitting offer. perplexed. no comfort to the sorrowful. which is used by the monks 66 &quot. Above them we come to the Yu-Fo-Tien sanctuary called Jade Buddha. the eighteen hall is arahants. generally known as the Chiuhall of lung-tien (&quot. great image There said to have been brought from Tibet.372 THE &quot. p.Nine-dragon Hall&quot. On the and right of one such terrace stand the drum is of which left and bell towers. The hall contains a In front of this very large image of Kuan-yin.NORTHERN MONASTERY&quot.) in consequence of the fact that when it was undergoing restoration in the reign of K ang-hsi it was roofed with tiles which came from a dismantled imperial palace at Nanking. no strength to the weak.&quot. &quot. the Yu-pei-t ing (the and behind this Pavilion of Imperial Tablets is the large Fa-t ang.) Behind the great . for only on solemn festivals that services are held in the great hall of Kuan-yin. we can form some idea of the worshipper s first and last impressions of what Buddhism has to These four door guardians. [OH. and a Wei-t o in a shrine faced with glass. are also two other images of the pusa. no guidance to the. These tiles were a gift to the monastery from the emperor himself. stands a smaller one of gilded wood. Among numerous images in the their daily services. It is the same time From their pictures . no hope to the penitent. in the Behind the Northern Monastery. . 1 See above.. is a series of terraces. 329. each reached by a flight of steps. Hall of the Four Kings. offer [no forgiveness to the sinner.

372. . {Facing p. AN ALABASTER IMAGE OF BUDDHA.WITHIN THE GROUNDS OF THE NORTHERN MONASTERY. PUTO-SHAN.

.

Kuan-yin. contain the abbot s quarters. 278-9. monks apart ments. rooms for dis tinguished guests and pilgrims.Buddha s Peak&quot. leads to the summit of the is The as the &quot.halls (ch an-Vang] and recep The innermost block of buildings tion-rooms. but he has been admitted into Buddhist temples for two main reasons. to the 1 little white flower &quot. a well-made island. of course. meditation . In the first place.XIIL] INTERIOR OF MONASTERY Fa-t ang are those of Sakyamuni. side of this hall. &quot. a chapel dedicated to Bodhidharma (in recognition of his position the Ch an school). and the as patriarch of monastic library. and Wen-shu. ence being. described are the various monastic guest-quarters. he was a tutelary deity of the as a &quot. (Fo-ting) &quot. the &quot. also known Pusa s &quot. refectory. is Kuan-yin s) Peak. A third name White Flower Peak (Pai-hua-ting). god of war he is regarded as a valuable champion to enlist on the side of true religion in the second place.&quot. .Northern Monastery&quot. See above. are two chapels. kitchens. pp. P uIn the courtyard. On just either side of the various halls and chapels offices. the refer (that is. Manchu dynasty. the other to Kuan-ti. on either hsien. &quot. From pathway &quot. Whether his image will tend to disappear from Buddhist temples now that the dynasty has collapsed is a question to which as yet no answer seems to have been given. one dedicated Kuan-ti deities is to Chun-t 1 i. . properly to be classed among the of Taoism.

the Hui-chi Monastery. is [CH. Of charmingly-situated temples to be visited. It dates from it the latter years of the Ming dynasty. chairs are seen on the winding pathway. such as it by so mountain walk is. The In the pilgrim-season many mountaingradual. the colours of which The interior are yellow.Buddha s Peak l which stands half. of dense dark foliage adds greatly to the lustre and beauty of these tiles. that which is The is Hall of the Four Kings crowned with the coloured tiles &quot. of the temple is scarcely less attractive than the exterior. little forest of small oak-trees. whose strength would be overtaxed &quot.NORTHERN MONASTERY&quot. as this.concealed amid a Monastery. would be well worth undertaking if only for the sake of the magni view of the Chusan archipelago which is but there are also to be had from the summit . . which the island little is height is more than nine hundred feet. when was founded by a monk named Yiian-hui. these the finest is the temple which at present ranks as third in size and importance of the This is religious houses of Puto. and the ascent famous. blue. A good view of its coloured roof-tiles is to be had from the wall of the little disused lighthouse The setting which crowns one of the summits. but these &quot. &quot. popularly known as the &quot. white.874 for THE &quot. worthy of attention 1 on account of its Fo-ting-sau.&quot. are almost monopolized by small-footed women and old folk. and black. even The ficent simple a climb.

375 remarkable the temple to a fine Chinese wood -artistry. necessary to remind the reader that Bodhidharma (who did not come to China till the sixth century of our era) was a native of India.). first It is distressing to find the ridiculous theory. Sakyamuni Kuan-yin at . that see above. central hall is is a two-storied building. put forward by Catholic is missionaries. in addition to three images. 83-86. Near the &quot. is : example of modern The main building of it not dedicated to Kuan-yin in this differs Sakyamuni other the roofed interior respect It is large temples of the island. the images of the eighteen lo-han arahants&quot. as is customary) are ranged (&quot. and like . with tiles of imperial yellow. the saviour- pusa of Chiu-hua-shan. pp. and partly on the fact that the name by which he is popularly known in Chinese is Tamo. 1 The upper room is a chapel 1 Concerning Bodhidharma. monks. Sakyamuni himself. which is quite sufficient to account for his foreign type of countenance. represented by a large gilded image. On a separate throne sits Ti-tsang. of which the central one is the image of Bodhidharma. - for ever rising phoenix from the flames of destructive criticism. and the is but from richly garnished. and on either side stand the In front of figures of Ananda and Kasyapa. comparatively small image of and along the back of the hall (not is a the two sides. The lower room hall the tsu-t ang (the &quot. The theory seems to have been based partly on the fact that Bodhidharma s portrait as engraved on several stone tablets and reproduced in many a work of pictorial art reveals a countenance that is thoroughly un. and benefactors.XIIL] MONASTERY OF BUDDHA S PEAK ceiling.Chinese in type. occupies the central position. which is supposed to bear a It is hardly suspicious resemblance to Thomas.ancestral ). that Bodhidharma was the apostle St Thomas. containing the spirit tablets of abbots.

of whom holds a circular plaque or disk. they could easily have used characters bearing the sound To-ma. The reason for his admission to this Buddhist temple is not far to seek. he finds his &quot. in a recent that the Tamo-Thomas theory has volume of travels : . 398.NORTHERN MONASTERY&quot.Jade Imperial regarded throughout China as the principal presiding deity of every In any other temple in Puto mountain-summit. each is The god the centre. 396. It should have been unnecessary to bring up this subject in these enlightened days. by R. of images. These also. Had the Chinese wished to write the name Thomas in Chinese script. There is no reason to doubt that the traditional pictures of Bodhidharma one of which is reproduced in this book are genuine portraits. [CH. 1 See Lion and Dragon in Northern China. It is only fair to the authors of the book to add that their authority for the theory was a missionary named F. for his shaggy abundance of hair. S. and this note would not have been written had it not been for the fact quite lately sprung to life again Through Shen-kan. side of the central shrine.Buddha s enthroned in appropriate dwelling-place. Sowerby (Fisher Unwin 1912). and on right and left are ranged his attendants and At the back of the chapel. the Taoists is The &quot. pp.376 THE &quot. 32. 391. an abbreviation of P u-t i-ta-mo (Bodhidharma). whom this there are three A it remarkable feature of Yu-huang-tien temple is that contains a a hall consecrated to the worship of the supreme god of Taoism. de C. it is merely of a countryman of their own. sit two deities. Chinese Buddhists seem to have made no attempt to give him the appearance As for the name Tamo. dedicated to Kuan-yin. on either disciples. it may be added. Clark and A. God &quot. in the temple his image would be out of place 1 . Madeley. with whom they apparently believed it to have originated. of which stands on the hill -top is even though that hill-top Peak&quot.

or Wen-kuang Fo. and Beal. Jan. According to the ancient Japanese mythology. play p. S.. respectively by water and fire. is well the Mead (The Quest. pp. p. In the soteriology they are connected with the purification. like the Jade Imperial God himself.) . It engrafted itself upon Buddhism Shinto.R. (See also J. The worship especially of solar in the Amidist deities. 1913.xiii. The name is rendered lamp in Chinese by Jih-Yueh-Ttng Fo. There are many curious survivals of primitive sun worship and moon worship to be found in the different Buddhist cult. moon. and lunar hardly necessary to say. 68-70. which seems to have had a zealous devotee in the Chinese emperor Ch in Shih-huang in the 1 See De Groot. Catena. it is 1 systems. &quot... the sun was ruled by a goddess (Ama-terasu) the great divinity who is still worshipped at Ise and from whom the and Manichasism.) G. moon and the sun. 360) are of interest..It an important rule. R. on the other hand. and the trans portation of the souls of the righteous deceased across the ocean of the aether. under the figure of luminous vessels or light &quot.A. 22Qjf . known that in both the cosmology and soteriology of Mani. ships. but they are not unrecognized by Buddhism.] SOLAR AND LUNAR DEITIES are 377 two divine personages Jih-kuang and YilehIcuang the gods (or god and goddess) of sun and moon.sun Chandrasuryapradipa Buddha is mentioned in various sutras. belong to the Taoist pantheon.* emperors of Japan claim descent. The name religion (it was not identical with Taoism). 185 ff. 2 With regard to Mariichseism. the god Susa-no-o. January 1913. was ruled by s The Ama- terasu less brother. just as it did upon Hinduism.S. Taoism. the following remarks hy Mr (&quot. Le Code du Malidydna en Chine pp. Moon . 90. They. existed long before the rise of Buddhism.&quot.

that they are of two principal kinds. who 1 universal mingling are not granted the &quot. are The tombs of Puto numerous and interesting.. third century B. whose fa-wing. and if we were to &quot. or religious name. we should have to devote a chapter to this subject alone. the State religion of China gave official recognition to the worship of sun and moon up to the date of the fall of the Manchu dynasty in 1912. There are also the p u-t ung-t a large tombs which are used ( for the &quot. There are the separate graves of abbots and other distinguished persons. indeed. The typical p u-t ung-t a consists A shrine to the sun-god has existed from time immemorial on the north-eastern promontory of Shantung. and of these the grave of Hsin-chen is a good example. of the ashes of privilege monks mainly of separate burial. was Hsin-chen (&quot.378 THE &quot. Trusting in the Truth justice to them.C. It may be mentioned. the emperor Ch iri Shih-huang worshipped the rising sun at this spot 2 the easternmost limit of his empire. near Weihaiwei.NORTHERN MONASTERY&quot.).Tartar the eastern and western walls of the still City&quot. worship. as the altars outside &quot. do and to the religious ideas which they symbolize or represent. pp. Near the Hui-chi Monastery will be found some of the finest tombs on the island. moon worship which still exist among the Chinese peasantry (see Lion and Dragon in Northern China. 191) have no connection with Buddhism and no essential connection with Taoism. 1 [CH. relics of The quaint . however. The most charmingly situated is perhaps that which was erected as recently as 1887 to the abbot of Hui-chi. of Peking remain to 2 testify. Accord f ing to tradition. 182-4. included sun and.

has been translated) stones.long home&quot.&quot. term chun as it hsi (&quot. is robbed one of the favourite it is descriptions of a grave is shou-yu (&quot. or ordained monks. . and a fourth for those of upasikas (yu-p ( o-i) 9 or lay. or the &quot. to store away is for the long night.t a should have four separate cavities A one for the ashes of pi - ch iu.&quot. bodies of monks and of lay Buddhists too. Puto thought. who might perhaps care little for 1 history or religious associations. another for those of pi-ch iu-ni. The graves of monks. There are no nuns or other women resident in the religious houses The ashes of dead nuns as of lay Buddhists. usually bear inscriptions containing euphemistic expressions whereby of its sting. however. In death. of Puto. or laybrothers.sisters.XIIL] THE BUDDHIST DEAD 379 of a massive stone structure having on each of its four or more sides a small hole a few inches square.). these holes up by a loose block which can be withdrawn when the ashes is closed of a dead The are to be deposited in the interior. 1 a third for those of upasakas (yu-p o-sai). properly constructed p ut ung . be carried to Puto for burial there. Each of of stone. monk sometimes also its size possesses own Each monastery of any not only its own p u-Vung-Va. male and female. which is a small stone building somewhat similar in appearance to a miniature temple. are cremated.the region of The poetical longevity. visitors to its also found carved on monumental Western Puto. like those of laymen. but crematorium. or ordained nuns.-may.

2 . Many * The grove of evergreen oak which covers part of Buddha s Peak consists of comparatively small its trees &quot. thousand years. and sophora. Vegetables and grain of many kinds are. of trees . some consolation for the fading of the exquisite &quot. fail [CH. Beans and other leguminous plants are common. like all gardens by the and Buddhists in Orientals. besides cypress. but the island contains 2 fine specimens of camphor. Flowering plants and shrubs are indeed abundant in Puto. cultivated to the fullest extent possible. are lovers of flowers. The so-called Chinese potato is said to have been brought from Japan. ginkgo. peach. &quot.380 THE its flora. in central many other trees well known China. chestnut. Salisburia adiantifolia. who. . Many have been introduced into the monks. are of great beauty. monastery particular. for the monastic fraternities are strictly vegetarian.NORTHERN MONASTERY&quot. Pines and similar trees seem to decay The before they attain any great age or size. but it seems more probable that they There are plum. gardenia florida the fragrant little white flower for which the island has been celebrated for a &quot. Fruit-trees are cared for rather for their blossom 1 Quercus sclerophylla. could hardly to be enchanted with its scenery and &quot. and there are a few rice-fields. Chinese say that they are injured by the salt sea winds. and cherry trees which burst into glorious blossom in the spring and the maple tints in autumn bring exhaust the soil. of course.

3 ?o. . } [ Facing p.GRAVE OF THE ABBOT HSTN-CHEN. A P U-T-UNG-T A. (For the reception of the ashes of deceased monks.

.

According to the Chronicle. though whether they are to be seen on the as a island nowadays seems doubtful. tigers used to swim from Chusan across &quot. the but they always turned and went back before they reached the shores of Puto. and wild cat were common at one time. There are a few small hornless deer 2 which owing to the fact that they are never hunted or disturbed by the monks are so tame that they will enter the temple gardens. It is said that wild pigs.XIIL] FAUNA OF PUTO fruit. monkeys. Another Hydropotes inermis . was no match for that of the ocean-currents. The island is also which much produces a special kind of tea.&quot. prized by the Chinese and is said 1 to have medicinal qualities.pu Sands to which in these even in the presence of so preposterous a creature Western foreigner. and will lie basking in the sun on the Ch ien . this is another subject it would be quite impossible to do justice few pages. Those which refused to surrender their 1 It is said to of Puto s 2 many medicinal plants 1 be beneficial for lung-diseases and dysentery. than for their but the Chinese and of these Puto possesses at least three varieties. or (to mention the theory preferred by the Buddhists) because some instinct told them that the soil of the island was sacred and that the slaughter of animals was not permitted. As to the fauna of Puto. is the vitex ovata. This may have been because their strength Sea of Water-lilies. Snakes are common. 381 like oranges. but owing to Kuan-yin s intervention they are all perfectly harmless.

poet in a still more 1 ecstatic strain. The Chronicle belonged to us about of the monks what people say to it. but these are kept only for agricultural purposes. it will bend one leg and bow its head and take the food from your hand quite gently. a tame Fa-yii. If you call to it. 2. If you give it food. poisonous properties were banished to the mainland. p. In reading the literature associated with the great Buddhist hills we cannot fail to notice how frequently the love and enthusiasm of monks and hermits and poets for their wild and romantic homes impel each to extol his own chosen place of retreat as the pride and glory of all holy and beautiful mountains.na ssii-shan cJdh Mountains&quot.&quot. (&quot. The buffalo are used for the ploughing of the rice-fields. It is &quot. and as monkeys pets tells are said to have been often kept goat that in the monastery grounds. concludes the chronicler triumphantly. it will go down on both fore-legs. A and water-buffalo are to be seen. Crown you. If you tell it to kneel. *). it will follow you. It can understand not often &quot. therefore. . that there Chih. goats. We the need not be surprised. of China s Four is Who tells exclaims another &quot.NORTHERN MONASTERY [CH. kuan &quot. that you have the chance of seeing a goat like that ! &quot.382 THE few cattle &quot. xvii. to learn from one of the poetic recluses of Puto that his beloved island is Chih . Squirrels. &quot.

xiii. A third was Ch en Hsien1322). chang (1428-1500).] POETS OF PUTO 383 no road to heaven? This is heaven s own gate way.&quot. will be surprised to learn that a Buddhist and an ordained monk can give expression to such words as these. a Cantonese poet whose tablet has been elevated to the Confucian Temple. Almost equally that enthusiastic is much of the has been written by poets said to whose interest in Puto can hardly be have been of these based on religious emotion. The fact is that the river of 1 This occurs in a f who Buddhism. and through it you may pass direct to the very throne of verse 1 God. See above. . The poet . 247. To some Another of reference has already been made. was a typical poem by the monk T ung-hsii. p. ung-yiian. 2 &quot. who was an &quot. those who sang the praises of the island in graceful verse man Wang district was the famous scholar and states An-shih 1021-86). breaks to 2 its own banks and it like all the great streams of religious thought.monk T abbot of the &quot. tinquished artist and poet Chao Meng-fu (1254- who held official positions under the Sung and Yuan dynasties. who visited it ( during his tenure of in office as magistrate of a Another was the disChehkiang. though by religious temperament he seems to have had closer kinship with Buddhism than with Confucianism. usually take it for granted that no Buddhists recognize a supreme personal God. Western readers. frequently flows far beyond the limits of the channel which in theory should confine itself. Southern Monastery in the first half of the eighteenth century. But there is no real cause for surprise.&quot.

is they can give quiet and lonely places fit expression to their solitude. As a boy he was clever. he its was still little more than after child his thoughts for began to loneliness hanker a religious At the tranquillity attracted him. [CH. was one of those to whom such a life as this was thoroughly congenial. where he spent the rest of his life in the 1 the mainland. says the biographer. to their inward feelings before they can turn the and allow their promptings of poetic inspiration to good account. written by a friend who had known him from boyhood.384 THE &quot. T ung-ytian. They must lead lives of thoughts. preface to his poems. and A years later the temples were destroyed by pirates and all the monks were obliged to migrate to long time afterwards. example of a class from which the Buddhist monk hood has drawn many of its best recruits. that he might enjoy lonely quietness. and may tions hold themselves aloof from so that they worldly distrac minds to become clear and Outward conditions must be attuned unruffled.NORTHERN MONASTERY&quot. 1 A This refers to the events of 1665-71. nest themselves in hills and woods. when the temples were rebuilt. age of seventeen he went to Puto and became a few member of one of the monasteries there. When life. but he cared little for the noisy company of his He used to steal away from them so friends. . A little sketch of his career. often have to go into before preserved in a Poets. continues the sympathetic biographer. he returned to Puto.

constitute the goal of all ambition. name had an alterna Wu-neng. have been most often secured men who have successes Buddhist China as in Christian Europe by cared but little for those material which. from its whose names might borrow a reflected glory. But Puto has not confined scholarly It poets it and famous welcome to statesmen. and rewards We may guess.XIIL] INCORRUPTIBLE RICHES and poetic 385 religious meditation which his soul loved. The in riches of the spirit. to the worldlyminded.). He 2 B . the treasures that are incorruptible. which means &quot. Some who have taken or could take only an inglorious part in the struggle for riches and rank have proved their ability to secure a goodly share of the only form of wealth that does not diminish by being shared with others. whose only longing was to escape from the turmoil of a world in which he had tasted only sorrow and the bitterness of many a stricken soul such as these the great monasteries of China have always been havens of refuge. the significant Puto name of Chen-cho tive (&quot. and defeat. or was given. To Puto has not spurned them times. that one of those to turn material meditative souls who know how defeat into spiritual victory was a monk of who assumed. those for her shores. indeed.Can t-doTruly-stupid &quot. perhaps. has been the tarrying-place or the home of many a poor fugitive from the battle of life.

anything monkhood so long as &quot. who would be childless if he became a monk. So when he became a young man he went on pilgrimage to Chiu hua shan for the express purpose of imploring Ti-tsang to take pity on his father and mother. of Puto has had many strange visitors. he gave the name of the A &quot.&quot. we are told. He.&quot. [CH. anything. came to Puto. and Chinese custom made it impossible for him to devote himself to the for carrying no provision had been made on the rites of ancestral worship. not only for the austerity of his mode of life.386 THE &quot. but also for the unselfish zeal with which he interested himself in the welfare of pilgrims and strangers.NORTHERN MONASTERY&quot. how move had an infant brother. a divine being to compassion. Can t . for shortly after his visit to Chiuhua the good news was brought to him that he to proved that even he at least knew if he could do nothing else. was seized with religious longings at the early age of seven. was founded by him for the special purpose of accommodating and entertaining the pilgrim monks who came across the waters to worship at the shrine of Kuan-yin. where he earned the love and respect of the monks. building to which Temple of the Sea Mists &quot. &quot. and some them if we may believe the testimony of those best opportunity of judging belonged to a plane of existence that was more exalted than who had the . &quot.do . But he was an only son. He was then free to In 1616 he follow where his spirit beckoned.

in two thatched huts which they made with their own hands. they did not refuse such gifts. The monk Chen-I took They seemed for a long the couple. a kindly interest in night to pay them a quite indifferent to time ignored his well- and meant remarks. who were supposed to be beggars. them cold water and ate nothing but coarse herbs. But still the man only smiled when spoken to. and it was impossible either to stand or to lie down moreover. For several days at a time. his presence. Ming dynasty named Chen-I has a tale to tell us about a mysterious couple a A man and a woman their who came to Puto in 1605. and this seemed to wake them up a little. The huts little hill abode side by side on a were so small and so rudely put together that they afforded no proper protection against the weather.] TWO STRANGE VISITORS 387 monk of the the plane of ordinary humanity. They refused to tell him their names. drank nothing but inside . The wretched couple. and the woman only uttered interjections. indeed. yet seemed none the worse for their abstinence. they took no nourishment at all. and went one friendly visit. He raised a lamp so that he might have a better view of them. and offered them If people took pity on them food or money.xni. but always gave them away again to any hungry pilgrim who happened to pass by. and the only fact in connection with their past history which they were willing to . They took up overlooking the sacred cave of Kuan-yin. the roofs leaked and the ground was damp.

. and the wild birds calling. Sometimes. were standing at the entrance to the sacred cave. other times we sit we meditate on Kuanand do nothing.&quot. communicate was that they had lived for a long time on the sacred mountain of Chung-nan in distant Shensi. &quot. they said and &quot. pp. [CH. still Chen-I seems to have gone away in a state of He was unable to make up his great perplexity. a great altar set up 1 A See above. they vanished and were never seen The answer given by these strange beings to the question about their religious beliefs was not so irrelevant as an unwary reader may be tempted sacred mountain or a sacred island to suppose. their religious &quot.&quot. thereupon again. At they replied. mind as to whether the couple were very foolish : or very wise it seemed clear to him that they They remained in their huts throughout the ensuing autumn and winter. 91. the sea wind soughing.NORTHERN MONASTERY&quot. One day.&quot. while great numbers of pilgrims either must be one or the other. the nameless couple suddenly appeared before 2 Peace be with you them. all. In the second month of the following year pilgrims began to come to the island in crowds. Then the monk asked what their occupation was.388 THE &quot. yin.&quot. to the Buddhists of China. is. . the rain descend waves dashing. &quot. 1 Chen-I then asked them about beliefs. and the response was a curious one : Our eyes have seen the ocean . 148. our ears have heard the ing.

A MONASTERY GARDEN. PUTO-SHAN. [Facing p. . PUTO-SHAN. COURTYARD IN THE NORTHERN MONASTERY.

.

It is not only the chanting monks who utter the praises of . from millions of censers not made by the hand of man. the sweet fragrance of inexhaustible incense.XIIL] THE PRAISES OF BUDDHA Buddhas and 389 to the worship of the sky is its jewelled canopy. The separate shrines and sanctuaries of Puto are but chapels within one vast cathedral. come the sounds of a mighty anthem the rain that patters on the temple roofs is the rain of the Good Law that is poured from the unfailing vial of Kuan-yin the winds murmur sutras in the sacred caves and in . to Buddha. whose dome pusas. From view it is a mighty temple. calling are but joining in the universal chorus of adoration and the little white flower sends up . . . and the another point of is heaven. the wild birds in their &quot. From the sea waves also . it is not great pavilions only from jars of bronze and stone that perfumed clouds rise daily to the lotus-throne of the compassionate Buddha in their pusa. the spirit-haunted woods &quot.

.

73 Altar of Heaven.92. 262 Xnanda. 20-4. mythology of. 94. 174. 273.. 208-9. 91. 273. 265 Anne d Auray. 67. 289-91 Augustine. 175. 204. 37. 267. Archbishop. mythology 202 of.. the. 350-1 Avalokita. 70 Arahant. 90 Avichi hell. 265-6. 238. 286. 338 Asceticism. Avatamsaka-sutra. Acta Sanctorum. 52 Ancestor. 27. 65. 29. 221 Anesaki. 245. and see Avalokitesvara Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva. 150 deliverance of. 94. 36. Arahantship. 377 Amitabha. 93. 116 Asvaghosha.GENERAL INDEX ABHIDHARMA 34. 31-2. 126 Apollo at Dephi. 34. 94 Amoy. 95 Ammon at Thebes. 287. 118 JT. 59 98-121. Adamnan. 26 Africa. 62 Astronomy. 94 Afghanistan. 152-3. 33. 98-100. 62 edicts. 287. 219. 83 Atargatis. . 43. in Japan. 264 Apostles Creed. f. St. 125 Mahavibhasha 181. 238. 75. 11-12. 275. 21. 126 Apostle of the Indies..84-5. lona.worship. 200-1.108. 58. 285. 32930.. 305 Art. 103. 288. 286 Apis at Memphis. 237. 195 Akka. 60. 329. 89 Annihilation. see Arahant Aristotelian methods. Buddhist. Amidism. 102-21.. 201 Arabic story of an ostrich. 95/. 202 Agni. 291. 178. 287. 26 jr. 228 Ancestral temples. 372 Al Ghazzali. 375 Arhat. Annamites. Nirvana not equi valent to. 274... James. the. 135 Asokan Buddhism. 126 Asoka Temple near Ningpo. 100-101.&quot. 126 Akshobhya Buddha. 117. Matthew. Anselm. 47. 77 Ashtoreth at Hierapolis... St. 70 Adam. 13-19. 317-8 Antony. 5 Altruism. 290 Amitayurdhyana-sutra. 205 Abhisheka. 33. 97 Alabaster images of Buddha.82. abbot of Adam s spirit.49 AbhidhaiTna-mahavibhasha-siistra. West. 126 Amogha. 204-6 Aphrodite. 46. 155. v. 294-8 Ama-terasu. 377 American Indians. see of the Hinayana. 94. 181 391 . 375 Anatta. 20-1. 270 353 ff. 178-180. Prof. 153. 85 Aristotle. 267. vi. Japanese sun-goddess. 113-14 Arnold. 321 in China. 285 Absolute. v. 190. 369 Amoghasiddha. 202 Adibuddha. 270. St. 316 the Emperor. 37. 66-81. 233. 41. 272-3. 226-7. 119-20. 30. 92 ff. 240-2. 42. the.120 Aurangzeb. 272. 68-81. 62.

20 /. Bell of the Northern Monastery. 116 Birth. A. 203-4 . 288. 209-10. 21 /. pictures or sutras drawn or written in. 82-112 Buffalo on Puto-shan. Brahmanism. 365 Body Bodhisattva mahasattva. bodhisatship. China. 309 Brahma. 360-3 21. 164 Bhikkum (Pali) a Buddhist nun. D. 273. 361-2 Bateson. 15-19.. religious observances connection with. C.Bright Moonlight. 77 of the Law.43. 22. 269 Badarinath. 200 Bergson. 119-21. 111. 24. 204-5. 126 Bahaism. 187-8 in and Confucianism. 117. 77 of Bliss. 37-9. 54 Blandina. 187. 29. see beings destined to attain.. 67 . 187. 126 &quot. Birthday of Kuan-yin. 111 Boutroux cited. 186-7. story of the god. 15. Bhikkhu 164 Bhikshu (Sanskrit) a religious mendicant. alleged. into China. 37 schools Bodhidharma. 100. 18. 373. 102. 23-5. 340 and see Confucianism and Taoism. 145. Confucius. cited. 66-81. 41 /. 260-1 BABYLONIAN influences. 116.. 24 24. 192. 350 Beal. 285. 45 death of. 20. 135-41 in . 168. 274. the. . 147. 358. 37 P u-t o-slutn. 20. 376. 34. 106-8 Buddha and exclusion from. Buddhism. 117 &quot. 175. 180. 22 Byzantine monasticism.. a Buddhist monk. vi. 41 Council of Kashmir.392 GENERAL INDEX Boerschmann s Awakening of Faith. 316 Blake. 121 Bernadette of Lourdes. 287.. 245-6 Bridges of the dead. . 366-9 Breath. in India.Banished Angel. 23. 77. 297 Bodhicharyavatara. Buddhahood. 119 Batavia.. 83-6. 125. 137-9 and see Taoism . 195-7. 380 Benares.. 283. 26 /. introduction of. 279 (Pali). 379 (Sanskrit) a Buddhist Bible of the Buddhists..-viii. Puto-shan. dates of. 218 Barnett. 203. and separate headings and Christianity. 33-4. L. 279.&quot. 69 Basilides. regulation of the. 17. 94 ff. 30. Peak 374-8 Monastery. 56. 267. 152 . 58-60. and see Christianity . . 228-9 Buddhist Canon. The. 184. 103. Samuel. 31 teachings of the historical. 164 Brahman girl. 107-12. 17880. all 314. 297 Bhagavadglta. story of the.. Bold. 182 Brahmanical persecutions. 99.&quot. 284 Blood. 279. 101. J. 24.. a religious mendi cant. 382 Burma. 105. temple of Vishnu at. 314. 33-5. and Burning of the books. five ghats of. Buddhism 329-30 &quot. 375-6 Bodhisat. 32. 114. 296. 284. 24. and sects.25.^. 27.99 Buddha s Peak. 373-4. 369. 197 Iff. 58-60 Brahmajala-siitra. 56 /. 4/.. 16 Biblical inspiration. 79 Book of the Dead. prospects of.. 177. 9 99/. 297 see Dharmakaya C-ffiLESTIUS.&quot. 125 . 61. 204 . H. 164. decay of. Philip. 259. 242 377 Beatific vision. a Buddhist monk. 295 Beads used by Buddhists in prayer. 30. 165. 63. 126 Benson. 315. 32. in. 379 Bhikshum nun. 87.

56-60. 266. 342. 308. 187-9. 341 . 190 Case. 75 Comte. 153. 287. 364. 379 Cretans of Euripides. 321. 270. 314 Canon. 317 . 189 /. 353. 239. 110. 224. 111. 79 Clement of Alexandria. 352. 271. 245. 168 in. 284-6 Chusan islands. Buddhist. 184 Cord of Amitabha. 289-91 Death-bed repentance. 24. 274. St. 261-4. 4-5. 266 Camphor-trees. 2. 259-65. 137. 9. Rhys. 116. temple and tomb of. 262-4 Confucian hostility to Buddhism. 338. see Evil. quoted. 61. 357. 99-100. 247. Dr T. 126 385 Chundi-devi. 146. 255-6 Clovis of Buddhism. Ti-tsang as hestower of. Kuan-yin as hestower of. 78-9 Deity. 45. 45. 5. 114-16 Catherine. 61-4. 187-8. 49. 173. a Buddhist. 152. Pere Le. of Alexandria. 173 Christianity. 71-3. 14. Ceylon. 375-6. 353 Confucianism. 198 Death. 21. 290 Child-birth.. 49 Charity in Buddhism. 277. 246. 289. 151. 177 /. 210. 8-9. 337-8. 377 ee Chariot&quot.. quoted. 374 Clement VI. 33 . 114 Catechism. K. 295. 368 Dead. pilgrimages 125 Crusaders. 18. F. 9-12. 128-9 Cuzco in Peru. 119-21. 79. 129 Canton. 46. 10. 243 Chaucer. 341. 119 Clouds. 387. 61.GENERAL INDEX Caird s Evolution of Religion cited. 57. 58. 246. 188 166. 278-9 Delvolve cited. religious observances in respect of. 202. 164. 75 Demonology. see Buddhist Canon Canterbury Tales. 186-6. 201-2. 354 Chandrasuryapradipa. St. 46 Calligraphy. 199-200 . 121 Charlemagne. Comte. 236-8 Deification of Buddha. 303. 10. a collector of. 160-6. 17. 271 superfluous merit of. Coomaraswamy.. 197-99. 23940 Dea Syria. 353. Mrs Rhys. DALAI LAMA. 102. 135. 248. 182. 119-20 Delphi. 317-18. Buddhist. 167 Creative Evolution cited. nature of. 59. 284. 104-5 Cornford. Children. 126 to. 383 Confucius. Dr Shirley. 48. 306. 54 Copying Buddhist scriptures as act of merit. 231-2. M. 2. Buddhism 24. 284 of Siena. 269-70 the divine protector of . 289 Dew-vase of Kuan-yin. 298. 339-40. 231. 224-9. 232 Chou. (Pope). 359. 355 Cliorten. 295. 105. 17. 102. 282. 198 of Buddhism. 23. 274. 108. passage. 1-3. 230-2. by Bland and Backhouse.. 296 Caves of Puto-shan. 134. 337. 179-206 De Vita Contemplativa. Commandments. 225-9. 269. 101. 132-3 Chavannes. 224 Cheyne. 336. 289 Cruach Phadraig. the. 341.. 107. 72. 134-5. 4. 333. 365. 386 China Inland Mission. disposal of the. 87. 35. The. 369 Covetousness. dynasty. 103. 201-3 Devils acting as protectors of the good. Davids. 309. 87. 307. 271 Damnation. 318 Charms. Duke of. Prof. 371 Cliina under the Empress Dowager. 187-8 Cremation. 389 &quot. 5. 134 Christ. 112. 135. 179-206 Descent into hell. 197-9 and no eternity of . Dr. dead. 114. 356.

EARTHQUAKE Earth-spirits. 29. 57. 292. 272. Fishermen abandon 333-4 their nets. 276 Dhyana.. 85 Edkins. 304-6. 78.&quot.&quot. 355 England. 105 /. 289 Evil. Louis. 368 Diamond Rock. 51. 137 Duchesne. the.. 352 Finland. 77. 334 Fish-ponds. 279 Elements. 178. 250. 354 s Pool. Dhyanibodhisattvas. pilgrimages &quot. 284 Puto-shan. 78-9 Divinity of Buddha. 108 Diverted merit. 283 /. Egoism. . . 137-8.&quot. 95 JEROME cited. 147-8 Eitel s Handbook. 313. 184. 152 Dharmaraksha. or Ridge of Chiuhua. 30. 220-1 . 369 Flesh-food. 31. 90 Dharmakaya. the four (or five). decay of. the Great. ix.. 202 Fire. 61-3. 38. 332 Ego. &quot.1856. salvation by.&quot. 56-60 155-8 Euripides. 185-6 &quot. 295. 77. J. 59. 182. 201-2 Faith. the. 309 92/. 21 Essenes. 240-3. self-immolation by. 111.&quot. 327. 139-40. 71-2 Dharma. 374. Dwarfs. Etiquette. &amp. 197 /. of tains. 350 Dickinson. 181. 236 Fish - symbolism in Buddhism. 66 Eight Small Famous Moun &quot..lt. the. cited. 335 at Batavia. 68-81 Egypt. 290-2 Five Buddhas. 309 ~ &quot. 223 tion. Zeus at. Mgr. 21. Fanaticism. 35. 108. prohibition of. 274.. 185 //. Lowes. Miss. 125-6 Eightfold Path. Ernest. 321 in. Dhammapada. 116-7. 29. 71 ff. 223 Druids of Ireland. 198 /. Empress-Dowager of China. 48-55. 368. Elizabeth. 326. 189. 271. 196-7 Dragon Dragon-tiger Mountains. 98. 378 First Gate of Heaven. 171-3. St. love of. 328 Egaku. 94 Dhyanibuddhas. 97 Eckenstein. 87-90 Fleet. 107-8. 289 Egyptian pilgrimages. the.. 82-90. 188 Flora of Chiu-hua-shan. 94 Dialogues of the Buddha. 134. F. 58. the. 189. see Morals. v. 60-5. 193. 324. 380 . 98/. &quot. 287 Duns Scotus. 120 Dutch pirates at Puto-shan. Fishing discouraged in the waters surrounding Puto.king of Purgatory. 132-3 Epirus.... 288-9 Eternal punishment not aBuddhist doctrine. 380 Flowers. Docetism in Buddhism. 268 Sects of Dhyana school. 143. 171-3. Chinese monastic. 151-2 Dharmakara. 118 /. 152 . Evolution. 320-3. 121 Fenollosa. 197-9 Ethics. 191. 313-14 Sutra copied by Chinese emperor.lt. Dodona. 126 fE*jTB~wgjp. 361-2 296. 364 School of Buddhism. 128-30. T^TgioTr^flin . Double . 349. mythology of. 341 First Emperor. 29. 97 Five heinous sins. 191 Eastern Cliff. 271. 197-9 ( Evil Poison (name of a devil). 369 &quot. &amp. 54... 360-3 323-4. 56. 185-6. no eternity of. 30. the. 3437. 221 First Gateway of Contempla &quot. 276. 107-8. 291 Filial Piety. G. 274 Eckhart. 189-90. 94. 381-2 Faust quoted. Dr J. 3&U&_ Fauna of Puto-shan.394 Dhamma.&quot. 275. 255 Paradise. the. GENERAL INDEX and see Dharma. 61-3. 144-5. 106 Sacred Hills. Dogma. 164. 151.

religion in. 106-8. 84 Fuji. 25 /. 230 Hall and Bernard s Nemesis in China. E. 182. showing good . 172. Heavenly Kings. 382 Kings of Heaven. the Greek. Prof. 382 Gobharana. in religious art. 287 Games. 321. 144-5 Famous Hills of Chinese Buddhism. 107 Giles.&quot. cited. and see Brahmanism and Hinduism . 130 Groot. 200 &quot.. 279 Growse s Matliura cited. 136 Hedin. Sutra of. seals of the. 298. 235. 267 God of war. 5 Gods of Brahmanism. 126 Gregory of Nyssa. 382 Hero-worship in China. 140. 271. 320 &quot. L. 284 Hermes. cited. 126 Gandhara. 329. Lafcadio. 116 Georgi cited. 368 . and see Mahayana Greek mythology. 36672. 279 Gerard. 56 /. 285 . 39. 223. 287 Gardenia florida. see 94. Heaven s Window. 231-2 Graves of monks of Puto-shan. De. 78.. the. Causationalist school.. 180. 203 &quot. 194. a. 267. 207 ff. 176.&quot.. 84 the human. see Taoism. 344 Fortune.Golden Man. 258. 261 Hamilton. 32.&quot. Gondophares 36 or Gondophernes. 237-8 Hera. 32. Buddha to be found in the. 136. 61-3. 328. 170.GENERAL INDEX Formosa. 294-5 and 178-80. St. . 26. 374-5 &quot. ix. 9 Francis of Assisi. 111.&quot. 277. 262 Fortune-telling in China. and bad qualities. gods of the. 277. 177. 114. 377 Chinese. the angel. Sidney. 144-5 pilgrimages. 13. 58-60. 246 Headlam.&quot. 54 Herman of Cologne. C. Gotama. A.&quot. 181-206. 247-8. Great Vehicle. 110 Gutzlatf. 290 Heraclitus. 153. Charles. Mount. Alexander. 261 HAIMAVANTAS. Lord Ernest. 164 Hierapolis. the. 34. Prof. 131. 251 Hetuvada. Heart. 244-5. scriptures. St. Altar of. 274. 272-3. J. Rev. 380 Gardner. 141 /.. . John. 137. 129 Heaven.&quot.. 300 Taoism. 25. 58-60. 395 Grotesque. Golden Island. 24 Spence. 139 Godaisan . 324 Hardoon edition of Buddhist Hardy. 96 ff. Hangchow. 21. 49 Gnostics. 202 . 145. 152.lt. 259. 99 Han dynasty.. 290 . Rev. M.. 33-5. 25 Halensis. quoted. 19.Hermitage Buddha and Sakyamuni of the Tide-waves. 366-72. 338. 79 Half-way-to-the-sky. 378-9 359 Hermits. 250 /. a tame. H. Hall of the. 289 Hills and streams. 38 Geology. 103-21. 126. 62.. 374-5 France. Monastery of. 112-13 Heath. members of the School of the Snowy Mountains. 139 Four elements. 83-6. 61. 58 Hearn. 14. 127 Fujiwara family. Graeco-Indian Buddhist art. Ming Ti s vision of. 366 ff. 321 Goddess of Mercy. Percy. 203 philosophy. 234 Forty-two Sections. 119 Goat. the goddess. 224 Hinayclna. 206 . J. 297 Hell. A. 34 and see Sarvastavadins Hibil Ziwa.. Robert. 14. 101. 181. 287 Grand Lamas of Tibet. 341 &quot. Sven. 265 GABRIEL. 186-7. the. 202. &amp. 373 &quot.

Buddhist Council of. 366-9. 85.lt. mission to king of. 356 Mother. 23. pilgrimages in. Japanese shrines of. the five. 85 Hui-chou. 377 &quot. 108. 269. 63. 126-7. 376 Jagannatha in Orissa. 150 Him. 94. 125 377 Islam. 186 Roman Indulgences. cited. 33. 335. 95. . vial carried by bodhisats. 58. lona. 127 James of Compostella. 173 Ink. 58. Ishtar. William. 278 Sepulchre. 58-60. 186 62-4. 285 Kalpa. 100. 203-4. cherry and maple in. 106-7. 104-5. of Taoism. abbot of. 115 Kanakamuni. 94 Space Kalasa.. 326. Buddhism in. Biblical. 287. 126-7. 361-2 Jesus of Nazareth. 127. 157. 341-2 mythology. Kashmir. religious use of Ignatius Loyola. 20 ff. 365 History and religion. 30 3 Karma. . 86. 90. religious use of. 369 Hugo of St Victor. 302-6 Imperial patronage of Buddhist monasteries. the. 199-200 136 Catholic Jodo sect. 334 /.. 119 Indra. Prof. 202. 125. 279. 286 Jade Imperial God &quot. 127. 381 IDOLATRY. St.. the Buddha. 100. 30. 271. 63 Japan. 321. 39 56 114. 277 Hoffding. 287. theory of.. 297 India. 182. 137. 107 Infinite. 113. 215. 118. 177 . 129 Hooker cited. 294. 302 ff. 141. 292-3. 349. 258 Hydropotes inermis. 97 Jizo. 270. 258 Inspiration. 203-4. 189-90. 35. 280. 274. JACOBI. 313. 375 . 280 . 36 Kapimala. 315. 218 Invocations of name of Amitabha. 210. 181. 21. 341 . 94 and see Kasyapa Kasyapa.&quot. 9 23. 320. 37 Kassapa. 26. 32-4. . 197. 98. St. 119. 127. KAKUSANBHA. 155. 119. 119 Jonson. 99/. 320 . 270 Itineraria. 99. 320 . 94. 133 Java. 78. 114-16. 364. 195 Ireland. 303-5. 223. } 174. 95 Johannine Gospel.. Yrjo. 230 Jhana. the. 199-200. Pilgrims Handbooks in Christendom. 24./54. ff. 23. 29. 295 Isvara. the. and see and time Inge. 120 Holy Grotto of the Flower of the Law. the. island of. Hinayana and Mahayana. 84 Images. and see Jimmu Tenno. Inclusio. 125 in. 17. 178. 175. the. 26 ff. 24. 293. 133 folklore of. 270. Ben. 157 Indo-Scythians. 348 Irrefragable Doctor. 277-8 Hindu pilgrimages. 46 Horai of Homer. 29.. 235. 176 /. 101 John of Damascus. 217 Juggernaut. Prince. 268. 320-1. 15. 55. 195. 377 pilgrimages. 144. 269 Isis at Busiris. Dean W. 92. 79 Ise. 94 Kanishka. 241. 285. H. Dhyana 127 Jinas. 266.396 GENERAL INDEX ff.R. 26/. 126. 93. f&amp. 127 Justin Martyr. 348 Japanese intercourse with Chehkiang and Puto-shan. 150 Iranian mythology. 109 /. 74. 239 Jeta. 297. 320 /. 331 /. and see Images. 157 Hinduism.... 34. Buddhism . 261-2. 116-17 Inspired Drunkard. 79 Infant damnation. 114 ff. 101. manufacture of Chinese.

304 Loigaire.Laughing Buddha. Miss E. 191. A. the.273.. 36 /. 144 Mahakasyapa. 127. 32 /.&quot. D. 26 Daislii. Buddhist view of sanctity of. 36-7 Kobo founder of Shingon sect of Buddhism in Japan. 152-3. 295.. 252-6. 343 White Flower. and see Chinese Index. bodhisattva. gods of MACARTNEY. 267 Laksmi. 266 Kokka. 52 . 211-13 Koxinga. Holy House at.285. 340-1. 137 Lokesvararaja. 100. 324 Macedonia. 94 Krishna. 287. Our Lady of. 29 Mahasanghika school. 33.. 136 . and passim. 27.. 13 . Lourdes. 271 Liang dynasties. 26. 203 Mahabhuta. 7181. 63. Arthur. 283. 198-9 Monastic libraries Life. 238 Land and grain. Island of the. 96. 285-6. F. 344 Koya. 142 364 Lloyd. 152. 2. 94. 107 Little. 376 Magic. 323. 199 Lucy. Kublai Khan. 272 and see Kushan kings.. 103-7. 187-9 &quot.. and see Taoism 367.. 276. Kyoto. Buddhism a religion of. 39. 187-9. &quot. . The. 287 Levitation of the body. 185-6. St. 224 Lao-chihi. 139.. 77 the.371 ~ Malevolence of devils riot directed against virtuous persons. W. 213 Konagamana. 203 Kshitigarbha. 280. 267/. 288 s. 99 Lord of Fate. 397 the and see Lives of Buddhist Saints. 286 Khandas. 320 100. 49-51 the non . Mount. Mataiiga Katyayani-putra. 29. 98. vii. 276. 202 Mandalay. 269. 231. cited. 272. 127 Krakuchandra. a Korean kingdom. 9 Limbo. 94. Canon. 105 Ko-ko-ryo. 351 Korea. 251. Mandseism. 77 Mahasattva. 27 Kendall. 125 Love. 36-40. 110. and Christianity. - Lecky s European Morals cited. story of existent. 271. 102. 343. 170 ff. T. 182-3. 168. Mahasthama 103. and see Skandhas Khema the nun. 236 Lilley. 347 Libraries. 284 Kanishka Kwannon. 142 Puto. 334 Kumarajiva. 200. 39 Kern cited.&quot.GENERAL INDEX Kasyapa Mataiiga. see Lao-tzu Lao-tzu. 278 Mahabharata.v. Prof. 94 Koran. 241 Le Coq. 41.367^370. 329 Mangoes. 286 Lamaism. 265-6. 177. see Maluukyaputta. 188. 373. 52-3 Khotan. 267 itreya bodhisattva. 108-9. - Loretto. . 255 Lhasa. 1. king of Ireland. 25 /. 336 217. Ta-shih-chih 370 Laura of Western monasticism. 101. and see Saddharmapundarika symbolism in Buddhism. 111-12. 38. D.339 Lucifer. 341 MacRitchie.. 378 vi. 28 Kingsmill... 125 Lotus of the Good Law. 45 Manchu dynasty. 276.. 84. 194 /. 34 Mahayana.. 21 Macgowan. 246. 355. 300 Madeley. 37. 34. J. LORD. 297 Mahavibhasha. Kennedy. in Japan. 195. J.

136.. H. 351 Miiller. ff.. 138-9. 40 210 Name. 290 Modernism. Martin of Tours. 61. 109-12 holy. 120 Nepal. 18.. 274 &quot. 337-8. 127. 35. 90 Nagasena. 20-24. 175. Confucian condemna tion of.&quot. 86-7.97. Laws of. 49. 83 Nalanda. 265-6. Christian.Chinese monasteries. 178. 271. borrowed by Buddhism. 284 Maxim us the Confessor. 373 Monasticism.. 174 /. &quot. 39. 15169. 342. 126. 224 Nara. Meshhed Ali &quot. 308-9. 137. 133. G. 382 /. 61. 153.. 57 attitude invocations of 102-3. pagan. 39 . 388 of the. 27 Neoplatoiiism. 79.. 77. 64. H. 137. 215 /. 65. 53-5. 224 . Bishop. 19. 323. 146-8. 312-89 Monastic libraries. 37-8. towards the. Mendicancy. 65 Milton s Comus.**- 226-9. and see Maitreya Miliuda. in China. 114. &quot. 196 Metteya bodhisat. a Brahmanical 24.. s Buddha Miraculous. 135-6 Mithraism. 119 Miracles. Max.New Buddhism. 126 Meditation and Buddhas bodhisats. 89. the. 19. 57-8.. ManichaBism.398 GENERAL INDEX Mohammedans. deity 279. 337. Mount.1 114. 83-6. 134-48. the. 238-9. 240. NAGARJUNA. 137. 295 v. 269 Mysteries. and 167-9 Meru. 119-20.. Missionaries. 309 Buddhist. 101. ix. 300 /. 94 . 332 in Christianity. 134-5 Buddhist. 181.| ^Jte-Gj-^^gft . 182. 49. 277-280 Mead. 78. congress on. 39. 131. 368 Moule. 125 Maspero. 308 Nameless spirits. 149-68. Monasteries. 388-9 Mughal emperors. 71-2 Mummies. Moral education. 109-12. 99.rf &quot. x.&quot. W. 5 in Nejef. dead bodies. 55. 94. 181. 94 Maim. 149 338-9. 137. 37. 130-2. names for Buddhist.&quot.. 4. 139 ff. St. 63.. 82. viii. 360 Minucius Felix. 348 Ming dynasty. 318-19 Moscow. 291 Maximinus. dialogues of king. 203.. 139 Matsyendranath. the.. Sacred. 382 /. 279 Marichi. 252-6. 19. 375-7 of Buddhism. 334 Monks. R. &quot.. 144. 126 273. 253. 326 Matahga. 318-19 ~-&amp. 30. 291 Nestorianism. 322. S. 174. 353. 277-80 see Maya. 250. 324. 116-17 Mountains. 164 MOJHI. 176. 223-4. 320 Nativity of Buddha. 149 ff. 177 Mantra Buddhism. 367 and see Maitreya Metempsychosis. 4. the mother of Buddha. 295-7. tomb of Mohammed at. 190 Mother of Buddha. 209. 111. 287 93. 163-4. 198 48 Mountains. 357. 277 (f Neighing Horses. 338-9. 126 Medhurst. 377 Manju.Messiah&quot. 263-4. 6-12.&quot.. in China. 338-9.4rl. 235. spirits . 102. 340. 38 Mysticism. 140 ff.wor&hijv 376-8 88. worship of. 64. 99.. 292-3. 235. 261 Medina. sacred mountain in / Japan. 225-8 Mongol dynasty. 94 Mencius. 24. 123. 119 Maya. Buddhist. the goddess. 345. 371-2. 261-4. 377 Mecca. of Buddhism. 9 Morals and religion. Mylitta. 42. see Preservation of Mimoro.lt. 210. 58.

372 Ningpo. 48-55. 328 Paik-chyoi. 384 305 Plato. 316-17 certificates. 270. 117. N. 343-8.. 96. 382-5 history. 78. 13-15. 335. 325-6 and see Heaven. 45. 51-3. 314. 284 Patriarchs of Buddhism. The. Pines and Fountains. &quot. 175 Peru. 351. Platonic methods. 150 Pilgrims. 297-8. 44. 24.. 33. and &quot. &quot. pilgrimages in. 83. 327 Nirmanakaya. 314. 87. 4. 129 Northern and southern branches of Ch an Buddhism. 219-20. 77. 289 &quot. de la Vallee. Persia. 7-12 religion. Nirvana. Buddhism by Con and see Con . Peach. the. 335. 177. 15. Marco. 216-19. 39 Ordination. 290 Orphic mysteries. 66. 67 Peri. 111 Norfolk. 118-21. 44. 348 3. 119 Origin of Buddhism. vii. 14950 Origen. 313 Potthapada. 222. 183 Nomen est numen. Buddhist. 137. 285. vi. 232. 86 /. 34 Parsva. 25. 127-33.&quot.. 101. 69. 53-5. 44. 386. 94. 326 Nine-dragon Hall. 244 Pirates at &quot. Patrick. 126 Paradise. 342. Obaku subdivision of the Zen sect. 43. 97-8 . Paramartha. Persecutions of fucianism. 286 Pagoda of the Prince. 374. the. 81 . 10. 76 Nilwngi. Chinese. 223.GENERAL INDEX Nibbana. St. 190 Pelagius. Politics and morals. 113-14 Political Futurism of First Emperor of China. 125-48. 246 Pranidhana. 27. 350. 379 OAK-TREES on Puto-shan.. 62. 312. 316. mystery of. 85 Plotinus cited.. 210 Paschasius. 360 Oldenberg cited. 354 &quot. 26 Pascal Baylon. 88 Northern Monastery of Puto&quot. 27 ff. 84. 354. 126 Peter. 132-3 Pilgrimages. 251. 26 Parthia.. 132 Potala or Potalaka. &quot. 43. 337 Positivism. 285 Prana-yama. 149- shan. 360. L.. 316. 128 Pilgrim-seasons. 338. 39-40 see . 142. Buddhist. 35.&quot. 68. 321 Ocean-guardian Monastery. 149-69 &quot. 327. 273. see 599 of. Puto-shan. 68. 81. 298.Pope&quot. 94. 149-69 -. 73. 77 Nirvana. 103 /. sacred hill in Japan. 300. 270. in India. 195. 374. 243. 289 Personality.&quot. 127 Ophites. 246. PADMAPANI. 233236-9. cited. 244. 52-3. 148. a Korean kingdom. Porcelain Pagoda. 380. 316. 232-3. 388 in Christendom. treatment of problem of. St. 37. Palmistry. 46 Orphism/305 Osiris. 123 of Taoism. 22 4. 308. 213 Pali canon. 174. &quot.. 234 Panch-kosT. 108 . 256. 348 Paul. Buddhist Canon. 351. First Epistle of St. 125. Aristotle s views on. 246 Ontake. 53.266 Peking. 32. Buddhist. 285. 17-19. 7-12 Polo. by Eastern and Western thinkers. Buddhist. 137 fucianism. 122 ff. 262. 16. 356-73 Nuns. 181.&quot. 202 Pilgrim Fathers. 45 Poussin. v. magical properties 252- Nietzsche. 40 Pilgrim s Guide. 27 Orpheus. 259. 111 Poetry and art in China. 118 ff.

Saddharmapundarlka. 272. 309 Sacred fish. 254-5. S. 290-2 &quot. Buddhism. 22 Sects and schools.Queer Fellow. 100 . 62.&quot. 105-7 incarnated in human form. 41-2. 106-8. 203 &quot. 49. A. M. 125. 307. 288 and see Amidism . 90. 92 /. 126 309-11 Prayers of pilgrims. 389. and see Mahasthama bodhisattva Sekhet at Bubastis. 96. . 78. Salette. 6 ff. 125 Image-worship at. 56 ff. 263-4. 372. at. 38. 115 Relics. 69.tiles of temples of Puto-shan. 94 Sambhogakaya.. Buddhist. cult of. 102 Samantabhadra. 94 Sariputta. 286 Rain of the Good Law.&quot. 18 . 245. 37. 295 Sadhus (Indian ascetics) 157. etc. Ratnasambhava. boys at Puto-shan. 321 Rishi (mountain wizards). 55 School. 276. J. 61. the. 6 ff.. 131-2 Regula Benedicti. 39. 33-5. 346 Reformation in Europe. 199 343^. 236-8 Preservation of dead bodies. 104. 41 . insensibility of Europeans to wild. La.&quot.. 125-6. 318 Reischauer. 99. Army. 1978. in Europe.. A. Dauphine. 367 &quot. pilgrimages. J.400 GENERAL INDEX Roman .&quot. Rinzai subdivision of the Zen sect (Japanese). Saviours .&quot. Monastery of &quot. 7-12. 283. A. 351 RAIN-MAKING spells. Apostolic tombs SABATIEB. 272. the. 123-4.&quot. Dr F. Saved. 239-40 Pringle-Pattison. 279. 268. 356-73 Ramayana. 270 . 97 Sanday. 98. 85 Sands of a thousand paces.. 82112 Schopenhauer. 315-16. C. 61 Sarvastivadins. 306-11 Prayer of the Jhdna School. 365. 41 ff. 24 Sakyamuni. F. 116-7 Scotland. 375. use of. 305 155. 300 Scott. 204 Salvation &quot. 125 Selbie. nine classes of the. 126 Qur an. for Buddhist literature. and see QUEEN OF HEAVEN.. 182. 187 Revolution in China. pilgrimages in. 56. 237-8 Pythagorean teachings. 280. 94 Ravana. 177-206. 114-116 and morals.. the. 263 Schiller. 85 Dr Timothy. 203 Ratnapani. 274 Scenery. Rev. 267. 75 Schrader. 127-9 paivite deities. 366. Purgatory. 314 Schools and sects of Buddhism. 325 Pure-land sect. 374 Rome. 363 Redemption. 125 of Chiu- hua-shan. 61. Sir George. 2. 120 Pseudo-Dionysius. Otto. 119 Pulpit of Kuan-yin. in Buddha. Rain of the Law. 23-5. 230-2. quoted. 190 Roof. 116 Religious policy in China. 76-9. 94. 315. 58. 248-9 Richard of St Victor. 245 Quetzalcoatl. 173. 77.. 324 Religion and history. Dr. 14. 96-121. Prayer in Buddhism and Chris tianity. 296 Saints.Red-hairs. 63. Retribution. 56-7. 52 Science and religion. 82-112 Seishi. 269. 266-7 Robertson. 32.. K. 357 Sangha. 99 see Morals and religion science. 32-4 Satan unknown to Buddhism. 215. 61. 328. 152 Sanskrit. 329. 127-8. 129 Sacred well and cave in. &quot. the. 185. 40 Santi-Deva. 95. 313-14. S. AUGUSTS. 269.

Henry. 74. 43-8 a Sudatta. 25 Society of God. 217 Shan states and peoples. 294-5 Sutta Nipata. 273-6. 22. 37 Sri. symbolism f Shock-headed Ts ai. 337 Soil. Sir Leslie. School of the.&quot. 11 4 j 121. 101. Shanghai. 309. 52 Small Vehicle. 277. 44. 225 Shin-gon sect (Japan) 94 Shirishu (Japanese Buddhist sect). 259 Shantung. treatment of. 75 Spiritual Glory. Splendid Stoicism. spirits of the soil in. 240 Putoof the. the. Smith. 27.. A. 244-5 Shodo Kowa.. Siam. 313 Spiritual side of Chinese culture. 269 Ship. 13. 74-5 Stupas or pagodas erected by Asoka. 269 Stein.. 290-2. the. 174. 172-3. 378. god of the. 43. 66-81. of Puto&quot.. 174. Dr Grant. 367. 376-8 Sung dynasty. 43. poisonous. 288 . 12. 17. 265 Southern Sacred Mountain (Nan Yo) 88. 86. or 121. 124 ff. 202 Space and time. 4. 291 2 c .. 49. Puto. 75 7.&quot. 274 self. 286 Srinagar. 102. 348 Serpents at Puto-shan. 144.382 Snowy mountains. 231 Suffrin. 22 Sturt.&quot. mythology of. 48- 401 328-54. 68-81. 174 Self -culture and self . 133. 355 Serpent-lore. T. 38 Shun. 152-3 Semitic pilgrimages. 30& 1 LJ5. Happy &quot. 341 Self. Buddhist speculations as to the. reconciliation of.&quot. 223 (Symbolism.. Laud&quot. 34 &quot. 287 Stephen. 348. 96 267. in. 77 58 Soto subdivision of the Zen sect. 55. Monastery Swinburne quoted. 365. 70.. 189-90 / 279. 9-10. unknown at 243 Susa-no-o. 288 Suicide Cliff. reliance on. Mr V. 260 of. 103. 86.sacrifice. 200.Star of the Sea. 73 Self-sacrifice. f 237-9. 211- 13 Sukhavati siitras. 287. Henry. annihilation of. 13. 143. Rock. 289. 95. 19. 18-19 Southern Monastery&quot. 93. ff. 89 South Sea Islanders. 93. 176 ff. the emperor. 369 and see Spells and charms. 95 the . 103 /. 279. the. 8. vices. 321 Soul. 112 Name. 72 Suzuki. Herbert. 353 Sextus-Pythagoricus. 270 Skandhas. Sir Aurel. 365. 218 Silence of Sil-la. Western Heaven. . 28-9. 176 ff. 304 Showermaii. 118 /. 81 shan. in philosophy. 377 of. 251 Superstition. invocation of holy Spencer. 230. Japanese moon-god.. 46 Shakespeare. 224-6 Sorrow. 115 Shinto. Sweet Dew. 25 Hinayana Siva. &quot. 140 16-19 99 raddhotpada-sastra. 131 Korean kingdom. P. 37. 26770.. 389 Sympathetic magic. Buddhism 12. 109-12. 48-55 of China. 168. 316 f. 295.. 298. 67. 286. &quot.. A. shan. 16-17. 14. 126 / Sergeant. 312 /. in Buddhism. E. 211- Subliminal 85 Buddha on ultimate problems. 103.GENERAL INDEX Self. 188 Syria. 21. 347-8 Sex of Kuan-yin. 383 Self-immolation by fire. W. 287 Snakes. 113-16. 43. 377 Suso. 356. &quot..&quot. and see Sun-worship.

330 Toleration. 126 Tada Kanai.25. 370 Vedanta. 277 the. 136. 114 Three Holy Ones. 380-1 Via media of Buddha. Trikaya.. 134.. Transmigration. 34 Veda. 26. 308 China. 223 Transferred merit of bodhisats 78-9 Transitus Sanctae Mariae cited. 86. 177. 170-1. 297.&quot. 100. 27.. 79. 54. 341 100 . 34. 381 Ten Thousand Buddhas. 354. 58. 279. Rock of the.. 239. 94. 366. 34 Vasumitra. A. Temple 243 Tendai School (Japanese).402 GENERAL INDEX Tower of Heaven. 169. 233. Tranquil Mind.| 144-5. 148.&quot. Le. 27. viii. 370 Vikrama era. 29 Vinaya. 203.. Puto-shan. 375-6 Thompson. Buddhist. School of the Elders of. Virgin birth of Buddha. 99.. 367. 285.. 102 /. 83. 1-3. the. 213-j 15. 245. 4. 379 &quot.? \ I Translation of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese. 46. 337. 376. 112.. in China. 152.&quot.Three Refuges. 246. 274. 378-9 Vivasat/195 . by Buddhist monks. 74 Tea. 258. 369 Vegetarian diet of monks. 87. 287 Vishnu. 24. J. 27. 116 Theologia Germanica. George. 367 Tyrrell. 19. 367. ^ 27. 231 Tathagata. 49. 364 Tombs of monks. Rev. 352-3. 221. Religions of 1 /. 45. 338see 341-2. 42. 364. UNDERBILL. name of a heaven. 16. closing of temples. 354 Through Shen-kan. 91-2. died. 94 Time. 224 T ai-p f f ing Rebellion. lay-Buddhists. 222. 195 or Apostles. 12 Tashilhunpo. 243-4 Tracts. 287 ^ \ Taoism. 99&quot. 373. 221. 1 10 Vajrapani. E. 33. 173 Ti-tsang. the. andsee Hinayana and Haimavantas Thirty-nine Articles. 173 Tribute of Yu cited. 90 Tennyson. 290 Visvapani. 243 Tolerant principles of Buddhism. 337. 170. 30 and see Bodhidharma T ang dynasty. 334 &quot. 79. jf. 286. Chinese. 7 /. religious. 143. 166. 146 Tushita Heaven. 137-40. 9. 94. 54 Upasakas. 12-15. 303-5 T ai Cffian.Tinted Clouds. 36-7. 286 Tamo. 17. Upanishads. Takakusu. 376 Tibet. 126. 54 Therapeutse. 231-2. Temple of. 175 Treasure of the Church. 121 Taylor. 54 Vedic mythology. 296 244 Purity. 195 sacrifices. 268. 85. 372 Vaishnavas of Bengal. 53 Tavatimsa. 230. Chavannes. cultivation of. 146. 204 Vasubandhu. 99 Thomas. TABRIZ. ix. 250-1. Pali for Trayastrimsa. 245. 51 Vairochana Buddha. 94. 264 I 269.&quot. see Space and time Timour Khan.. 151-2 &quot. 141 102. 87.&quot. 51. by Ed. 77 Trinitarian doctrine of Buddhism / 377. 354. 162. 295 negativa. 119-20 Viharapala. 251. 271 Tantric Buddhism. E. St.. 28. Universal VACCHAGOTTA. and Buddhist Canon Turkestan. 289 Theravada. 52. 287. 235-6. 33. 94 Vaisali. 278. 270-1. M. 26.77 Tripitaka. 269. 117. the. 28. 223. J. 40. 33-5. 333. 153 Trayastrimsa.378 2aoist.

197 &quot. 290 . FRANCISCO DE. 232. 117 of Amitabha. Yetts. 203 Yami. the. Paradise. 203 Yuriaku. 284-6.GENERAL INDEX Vows made by 97-8. sect of Buddhism.&quot. 126 Zockler. 232 YAKSHAS (demons). ST. James.. 195. 295 Zrvana karana. 45. 322-6. 348 136 Way 115. 29. 373 Horse. 170. 63 WADDELL S Lhasa and its Mysteries. 52 Water-lilies. 325-6 24 Yoshio Noda. 293. 403 bodhisats. &quot.. 232 Yogacharya branch of Mahayana. a Japanese emperor. 287 Wizards of Chiu-hua. O. 26. 194-7. Professor. 233 White Flower Peak. 49. 75. Father. 49. 274 Willow-branch carried by Kuanyin.Wooden idealization of. 120 Warren s Buddhism in Transla tions cited. 33. 270 Womanhood. The. 171 ff. 68. 300 Water-nymph. 270. a sacred. 184-5. Williams Middle Kingdom. 263-4 341 Watters Yuan Cliwang cited. . Monastery of the. Ward. 34. 342 ZEN. of Buddhism. 262. 321 Zeus at Dodona. 252-6 Wolferstan. 343 Western Lake (Hangchow) 91 92 /. 290 XAVIER. and see Heaven White-deer Grotto. 175. 119 Yuddhishthira. 96. 336. Perceval. W. 177-206. Sea of. 282. 267. 284. 274 Fish&quot. 179 Yama-raja. Spring of the..Yellow-hairs. 286 Well. 190.

Young . Street.Printed at The Edinburgh 9 and 1 1 Press.

.

.

PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .