siona Eng ish

: Intermediate.

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I II: ,I pllhllshed 1997 under the title Test Your Business English: Intermediate 1111:; edition published 2002

SI3cond impression, 2003

Text copyright © Steve Flinders 1997, 2002

Designed and typeset by Pantek Arts Ltd, Maldstof1(~, Kent Test Your format devised by Peter Watcyn-Jones Illustrations by Roger Fereday and Anthony Seldofl

Printed in China


All nghts reserved; no part of this publication nl.1Y /J(' wpro(iuce(i, stou»! ((I ./ I ('{lIeval system, or transmitted in any form or by any /I)()(IIIS, ('Inctrolllc, 11)('1'//,11111 "I/, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without fill' pili" Willian pI 'II III,',: ,lUll III II II' Publishers,


Many thanks to John Fagan and Bob Dlgn8n al YOI" /v. ,I )u,\II", 1(\1 liluH advice on the content of this edition, and to Mathieu, Jerome ;1I)( I I "" 'I 1,',\ kn 1111'1t help With the Answers and the Word list,

Published by F'r)arson Education Limited in as~;()('I, 1/11111 Willi I" '1lquln Books Ltd, both cornpamcs be1l1~1 subsidiaries of Pearson pic,

l or i1 C;Olllplull' 11',1 of Ihe titles available from PIHllJlIlI1 I IHjllSi1 plUilSD Visit our wdJslle nl WWW.I .. ·ll(] or wnte to YUill It)( dl I~Hnl son Education office or to: f'('llIJIIIII English Marketing Department, ~)U;H';(lIl I ctucanon,

I (illlllllr~lh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2,JL

Io the student v 27 Idioms 36
Section 1 Business and you 28 Business Initials 38
1 Your Interview 29
Figures 40
2 Your education 2 30
Sexist language 42
3 Your experience 4
4 Your Job 6 Section 5 Business management
5 Your responsibilities 7 31 Business problems 43
6 Your pay 8 32 Business principles 44
7 Your pension 9 33 Business cliches 46
8 Your computer 10 34 BUSiness ratios 48
35 BUSiness strategy 50
Section 2 Business language
9 36 Project management 52
BUSiness verbs 1 11
10 37 Management development 54
BUSiness verbs 2 12
11 38 The management conference 56
BUSiness verbs 3 13
12 BUSiness verbs and nouns 14
Section 6 Business communication
13 BUSiness adjectives and nouns 16 39
Presentations 1 58
14 BUSiness adverbs 18 40
Presentations 2 60
15 BUSiness prepositions 19
41 Meetings 62
16 BUSiness word buildmq 20
42 Telephoning 64
Section 3 Areas of business 43 Sociahzinq 66
17 BUSiness sectors 21 44 Letters 68
18 Production 22 45 E-mail 70
19 Marketing 24 46 BUSiness forms and documents 72
20 Human resources 26
21 Trade 28 Section 7 Background to business
22 47 Geography 73
Finance 30
23 Facmtres 31 48 Politics 74
49 The economy 76
Section 4 Business expressions 50 SOCial Issues 78
24 Problem pairs 32 51 Travel and transport 80
25 Word families 34 52 Entertainment and media 82
26 Opposites 35 53 Tax 84 Section 8 Busrness In the
twenty-first century
54 The Internet 86
55 Customer service 87
56 Business culture 88
57 Learning 90
58 Organization 91
59 Managing yourself 92
60 Business challenges 94
Answers 95
Word list 101 ..

To the student

I )() you work In business and use English In your Job? Or are you a business

tudent? Whatever your background, If you need to Improve your business I nqhsh the tests In this book will help Designed to accompany Test Your

I 'rofesslonal English Business General, they will check your knowledge of more business words and essential business expressions so that you can understand and communicate more effectively and confidently

Ihere are eight sections In the book The first section tests your ability to talk ibout yourself and your background to say who you are and talk about your business role and expenence The other seven sections each cover a different aspect of business - from business language and communication to business In the twenty first century You can work through the book from beginning to end or you can work first on the tests which are most Important to you

Many tests also have tips (advice) on language and language learning, and Information about business Do read these explanations and tips they are there to help you

To make the book more challenging and more fun, many different kinds of test are used, Including gap-filling, word families, multiple choice and crosswords There IS a key at the back of the book so that you can check your answers, and a word list to help you revise key vocabulary

Your vocabulary IS an essential resource for effective communication It IS Important to remember that the more words you know, the more you can say and the more you can understand These tests can help you check what you know and develop your knowledge of new concepts and terms In a structured and systematic way This book can help you significantly Increase your business vocabulary

Steve Flinders


rho 11111 sonos consists 01:

II ': ,I YI HII I )11 )11 ':;: ;11111, II I I Ii lid I: AccoLJnting

II d YI >l II I 'II )Ii ::;:;Il )1 d I IIIJII~;II: f3usiness General

I());I Y(HII I '11>i()););IIHlc)1 rllqlish: Business Intermediate I(d YOLJr I '1()1()ssiolial English: Finance

I()sl Your Protossional English: Hotel and Catering Test Your Professional English: Law

fest Your Professional English: Management Test Your Professional English: Marketing Test Your Professional English: Medical

Test Your Professional English: Secretarial


Alison Pohl Steve Flinders Steve Flinders Sirnon Sweeney Alison Pohl

Nick Brieger ~;imon Sweeney Simon Sweeney Alison Pohl Alison Pohl

1 Your interview

Complete the Interview questions with words from the box




good know learn

offer plan sort


look for strengths




1 Tell me about yourself.

2 Why should we you the job?

3 What is your major ?

4 What are you at?

5 What ot person are you?


What are your _

and ?

7 What do you

___ about our organization?

8 How would you

9 How do you things done?

10 What do you III a manager?

11 What

____ this job?

____ you?

12 Do you like to in a team or on your own?

13 What do you best about your current job?

14 What did you in your last job?

15 How long would you to stay with this company?


Here are some other questions you can prepare to ask or answer In a Job Interview

How Important IS work to you?

What sort of salary are you expecting? What Will you do If you don't get tiue job?

What deCISions do you find It easy to make? difficult to make?

Section 1 BUSiness ;11)(1 V<lIl

your education

MII('I,I (1,1111.1 1\,11" ll~, .tboul her educational background. Complete each

: ,( ~I lit ~I 1(;( ~ willi 01 \(' ()f Ule words or phrases from the box below. You will need 10 put tile verbs mto the right tense. (You can then make similar sentences about your own education and qualifications - academic and professional.)

apply degree graduate (verb) qrilill I 1I!j1 18r degree

job option PhD piau) f Hili" II Y ~;( :heel-

thesis secondary school stav ()I I : .ludv subject

1 I started at primarY_~c:boof ill I olldoll when I was five.


At the age of 11, I went Oil I()

, also in London.


At 17,1 _



1 got a Engineering.

,II tvLIIIIIIl'\II'1 10

5 But at the end of the tir\l Yl'ar I IlldIlt:('(1 10 .mother

6 from univervitv III 1'1'1/.


1 have a first-class _

III I I IlIIOlllic).


I decided to _

,II 11111\'1'1\11\


So I did a _

University of California.

ill IlIl\iIH'\\ :\dlllllll\lldliolJ at the

10 During the course, I did an .


I HI \111,111 illl<;ines<;

11 I louuc] I Ill' lopit \0 illterl'\tillg that I applied lor a _________ ~_ to do a doctorate on the same subject.

12 Once I had got the money, I had to write a SO,OOO-word

13 So now I have a BA, an MBA and a

14 All I need now is a _


People who do well in their examinations ('exams') at school or at

university usually have good academic qualifications. In Britain and the USA, the most common university qualifications are a BA (Bachelor of Arts) or BSc (Bachelor of Science) after three years and an MA (Master of Arts) or MSc (Master of Science) after another one or two years. Many people in business also have some kind of professional qualification and for some jobs you must have such a qualification.

When students get grants from the government, they keep the money. When they get loans, they have to pay the money back later.

A PhD is a Doctor of Philosophy. Doctors of Medicine are MOs.

Section 1: BUSiness and Y()IJ :1


Your experience

Charlie KlIll tells us about his professional history up to now. Complete the sentences with verbs from the box. Make sure the verbs are in the right tense.


drop out sell

join set up

look after move

spend take off

promote write


I went to college in the States but got bored xo I dropped out after two years without a degree.


___ . a company making computer games.


After six months J was __ .....

to (he post of chief games



_______ two yl'ar~ there Iv,IIllillg (he business.


Then I (0 a higgl'1 g.lIIH·\ c ompany for more

money but I hated it.


So I decided to __ ....

mv OWIl . ompany,


With my partner, Ma rio ( :""( ('1', I (0 for a game called Sudden I rcat!«.

___ the software


It a million (opi('\ ill 11\ Iirvl year.


We _

money we made.

auorhcr g,III1('\ I ()IIIJ>.IIlY in Japan with the

10 Now I

(Ill' (,Olllp,IIIY ill (II(' States.

11 And Mario

(IH' IOlllJ>,IIIY III lapan.

12 Now I'd like (0

.I Y(·.I1

to learn

about web ... ill' dl· ... igll.

4 Section 1: Bu smo s s clllrJ you

'He says he wants his own company but he wants to get some work experience with us first.'


Fewer people today think they will have lifetime employment with the same company. Companies are quicker to let people go and so people change jobs more often.

Section 1 Business and you 5

your Job

M lid I lilt ~ 11.lII]( ':; ,Hid utlos (1-11) with the job descriptions (a-k).
1 Charley Simpson a We have two teams calling
Civil Engineer possible clients to fix meetings
with the reps.
2 Sarah Whitaker
General Practitioner b We try to ada pi our courses
to the lH'l'(h 01 (';Ich
3 Sidney Mole individual 1e.1I1ll'r.
Bank Manager C We dl';i1 wi Iii 1I1()~t users'
probkm-, hv phone.
4 Mary Somerville
Management Consultant d l hav« I Ill' biology chair.
e W(' do m.rinly children's
5 Professor Alan Stevens Ii 111'\ .11 Hid icl ionaries.
f WI' cx.uuiu« and (usually)
6 Rosemary Mell
Publisher .111111(1\'(' ((lIl1pany accounts.
9 I 11.1\(' .11)( 1I11 1,,500 patients
7 Jack Castle Oil 111\ 11\1.
Sales Representative h I \1)('( l.tll/(, i II advising
8 Sally Blunkett Oil 11I.1I1.1~~(·IIIl'nt reporting
Telesales Manager \\'\1('111\,
W(' .IIl' ,tlW.IV\ ready to
9 Alan Murphy dh( 11\\ 1('lItiillg possibilities
Technical Support wit h (1I11 (1Il'IIh.
10 I vivn III\' ( 11l'1I1\ two or three
Susan Reed
Trainer lillll'\.1 \'1'.11 101('11 them about
OUI 1.111'\1 P" lIlllCh.
11 Caroline Bevan k I hu i Id 11IId)~.·\
Auditor p

Civil servants are people who work for the OOV(HIH,nOIlI, ill ll u: civil service. A rep is a sales representative. A general pracfiti()lIo/ I:; ;1 III(~' k; II doctor. What is your job titI~ in English? What do you reply when poopk: ;18k you: 'What do you do?'. It is very important to be able to say what YOII do in English. Practise!

6 Section 1: Busine s s and you

Your responsibilities

:;lcJnuy Carton is talking about his job responsibilities but is having problems with his prepositions. Complete the following sentences with a preposition trom the box, where necessary. You need some of the prepositions more than once. Some of the sentences do not need an extra word. You can then make similar sentences about your own job responsibilities.







I head --- the marketing department at Power Enterprises.

2 I report directly Mr Power himself.

3 I look a department of about 30 people.

4 I deal all the major aspects of the company's marketing strategy.


I liaise the other members of the management


6 I listen carefully what our customers say.

7 I handle one or two of the major accounts myself.

8 I'm working a very important account at the moment.

9 I also monitor the general situation in the market place.

10 We carry market surveys regularly.

11 We test new products on groups of consumers.

12 I am also involved one or two of Mr Power's takeover



To talk about the person above you in the organization, you can also say:

I answer to Mr Power.

To talk about your colleagues, you can also say:

I work with Marcelle Joubert and Jesus Degas.

Section 1: BUSiness and you 7

'-' your pay
MII(llf H II I ()II II (Ii fl IYlllent (1- 11) with the right person (a-k)
gldlll h a author
2 \alary b senior manager
3 wage c 1,11<1 off ( III ployee
4 commission d g()\ ( r uuic nt
5 fees e hili( (ollar worker
6 dividend f II III( d employee
7 royalty 9 -, il( \ I cpresentative
8 stock option h vt uck nt
9 pension I onvultant
10 tax \llllcholder
11 redundancy pay k wlute-collar worker , Don a loyal un» toy alnc-;'

8 Sect.on 1 Business cHid vou

( Your pension

Juanita Hernandez has just joined Nice Cream Inc. She is reading about her pension in the documentation the Human Resources Manager gave her. Fill in the missing words from the box.

average earnings board bridging

contributory early retirement fund

f1laA- portable retire

brokers holiday trustees

contribution lump sum

Welcome to Nice Cream. This sheet gives you information about your

Nice Cream pension (1) plan

Your Nice Cream pension is fully (2) , so if you

decide to leave the company, you can take your pension with you.

The Nice Cream scheme is a (3) one. This means

that every month you pay a (4) into the company

pension (5) and the company pays an equal

amount. You can choose how much you pay and you can also pay into the scheme a (6) of any size at any time. If the scheme has more money than it needs, you can take a contributions

(7) and stop paying a monthly sum for a while.

The fund is managed by a (8) of

(9) who are appointed jointly by the senior

management board of the company and your trade union representatives. This committee works completely independently of the company. The company cannot touch the money in the pension fund.

If you are a member of this scheme for 35 years, you can expect to

(10) at the age of 65 with a pension equal to 80<liJ

of your final (11) . If you take (12) _

you can receive a (13) pension until you are 6S

and can receive your full pension.

We think that this scheme is one of the best available and one reason why so many people decide to stay with Nice Cream. However, if you prefer not to take part, we can give you the names of insurance and

pensions (14) who can give you independent

advice on other products on the market.

Section 1: Business and you 9

your computer

: ,Idl \( 'v I )d:-, neon dway for a few years, Help Greta explain to him about hrs I \('w computer by selecting the right words or phrases from the box,

So where's the new PC? PC?

(1) Personal computer,

Oh, it's here, But what's this thmg you'u- moving around with your


It's a (2) ~ _

A what?

Let's switch it on and go into WIIHlow\ Now, look at all these

(3) on till' \l Il'l'lI

Sidney: OK, Greta: If 1 (4)

double (5) _

a look imide, Sidney: And what is inside?

Greta: Well, let's do a bit ot (h)

of saying you're gOll1g 10 lll"llt' \0111(' Il'\1 Sidney: You mean I'm gOing 10 Iypl' \OIIH'lllIlIg Greta: That's right. You Ldll Opt'll lip .I IH'W (7)








click copy delete file Icons menus mouse personal computer pomt printer save select spreadsheet word processing

I Ill' llll\OI ,II OIlC of them and then

r I l ,III Opl'll .my of them up and tak;

first - that's just a way


then you can aLLC\\ .Illy 01 11ll'\t' 1'1111 down (~) _~~~~~~~~~ like this,

Sidney: But what if I type \Ollll'(llIllg .uu l III.1kl'.1 nuvt.ikc?

Greta: You can (9) I( Ilkl' (111\ flut It's also very

important to ( J 0)

l -vr 'I yt h lllg you produce,

Sidney: And it [ want 10 move \Ollll' Il'\( 110111 oru- pl,lll' to another?

Greta: You (1l) .ill (Ill' Inl vou want to move and

Sidney Greta:

then 1Il0Vl' I( IIkl' 1111\ And vou v.rn .Iho (I ') text lil«: (1m

And IlOW do I gl'l II 110111 till' \lIt'l'll (1111" J),qll'11 You: (Olllllllll'l 1\ • onucc tcd (0,1 (I I)

and so

YOII c.rn Wild .I IlIl'\\dgl' (0 I( 110111 lIell' Sidney: And wh.u .ihout IlgUll'\! ('.111 II .ukl Ilpl


YC\, YOli l.lll go mto (14)

\()ItW,lIl' like 1111\ and

Ul'dIL' .I (dllk Willi columns and IOW\ to l'llll'l IlgUIl" III Sidney: Well, It\ not h.u l, but can't It play any gdllll,,1

10 Section 1 BUSIf1l'Se, ,111(j you

Business verbs 1

/ or udell of the verbs be/ow, three of the four words or expressions fit. In each

lilse, circle the one that does not fit.
1 DO a) business @a profit
c) a job d) a deal
2 MAKE a) money b) business
c) a loss d) a decision
3 TAKE a) a long time b) a decision
c) appropriate measures d) a deadline
4 HAVE a) progress b) something to eat
c) shares in a company d) a meeting
5 MEET a) a deadline b) customers' expectations
c) an appointment d) a target
6 LAUNCH a) a product b) a ship
c) a campaign d) a team
7 CUT a) costs b) jobs
c) a decision d) a price
8 CARRY OUT a) a meeting b) duties
c) research d) a market survey
9 ACHIEVE a) progress b) a breakthrough
c) a job d) little
10 REACH a) a decision b) a strategy
c) an agreement d) a target p

When you've finished:

You have chosen the word or phrase that doesn't fit with each of the verbs 1-10. Can you think of a verb that does fit with each of the words or phrases that you circled?

SectIOn 2: Business language 11

I \J

t)usiness verbs 2

I ook • II t 11(' verbs below and decide which one goes with which word or
phi .iso from lists A and B, as In the example.
DRAW - / DRAW UP- a conclusion an agenda
You draw a conclusion.
You draw up an agenda.
1 open - / open up - a market a letter
2 put forward - / put - a meeting a question
3 - fall / - fall down share pi Ill'''' trees in storms
4 fill - / fill in - d 101m with pride
5 cut - / cut down on - lIg,lIl'lt l· ... costs
6 lay - / layoff - WOI kel \ foundations
7 break - / break up- hold ncwv to inefficient
\0 IIIl'O Ill' companies
8 sell - / sell off - p.II'" 01 01 goods at a
c omp.ury discount
9 kick - / kick off - youl\l'lI a meeting
10 take - / take on - ('Xlld \[.111 too long
11 pick - / - pick up till' hv\t pl'l ... on a market can
12 bring - / bring LIp - 01 plohlem <It dynamism
01 Illl'dlllg to the job
13 l<llly - / (,II ry out - duue-, passengers 12 Section 2 Business I.mguage

Business verbs 3

,I()se Spragg has just won the World Manager of the Year competition, Take a power verb (1-15) and add a sentence-ending from the column on the right (a-o) to make the sentences that the judges used to describe him,

He thinks
2 He focuses
3 He motivates
4 He overcomes
5 He identifies
6 He adds
7 He reduces
8 He leads
9 He builds
10 He resolves
11 He transforms
12 He manages and facilitates
13 He measures
14 He maximizes
15 He gets p

What are the power verbs that describe you? Would you put them in your CV?

a costs.

b organizations.

c market opportunities.

d change.

e performance.

f results.

9 profits.


strategically. people.

winning teams.

k conflict.


m value.

n on the customer.

o by example.

Section 2: Business language 13

. ...._

DU!:5lneSS verbs and nouns

I It one verb from the box into each of the headlines (1-13) about Kazoulis Communications in the business press. There are three possible answers for 9.




















14 Section 2. BUSiness longuilge

























Section 2 Business language 15

. ~

uU~lness adjectives and nouns

Some adjectives typically go with certain nouns. Complete the letter using the adjectives in the box .

. accurate competitive critical easy future guaranteed high large -ieyal- mixed positive right valued verbal

r------------------~----- --- -~--------_____,

I.N.Sanebury pic

1 Nottingham Road Derby DEl 3AB

Tel: 01322 55887

Fax: 01 322 55888 e-mail:

Fatima Jones

Frescos Business Services Bethlehem House

Zelda Road



Dear Fatima

I am writing to you to thank you for allot her year of fruitful cooperation between our two companies. You are one of our most

( I) loyal and (2) __ customers and we

always try to give you as (3) a level of service as

possible at an extremely (4) __ ~____ price. We are sure

that this is the (5) __ approach.

This is why we want you to be one of till' lir:-.I to know about our

plans to improve our (6) prospects through

16 Section 2: BUSiness language

\'XPdll'>IOII. We h.ivc .ihc.rdy mvcstcd d (7) vum of

1llOIll'y in up-to-date distribution facilities and negotiations tor

further tinancing are now entering a (8) stage.

lhe result of all this will be (9) ordering, more

(10) figures on the status of your orders, and

(11) satisfaction for all.

Of course, there has been a (12) reaction from

some of our newer customers, but I am sure that you will be patient with us during the period of transition.

These changes will make a (13) contribution to

our continuing partnership and I can assure you that we shall

continue to operate by (14) agreement on

telephoned orders in the future as we have in the past.

Please contact me if you need more information.

With best regards

Alfredo McKay

Customer Relations Manager l.N. Sanebury


Other useful adjectives for business are:

customized, committed, entrepreneurial, curious, effective, balanced, flexible

Which words do they go With?

How could you use them In your work?

Section 2 Business language 17

LJU~1r less adverbs

111:;(;1 t .idvorbs from the box into the extracts from business documents or conversations (1-11). There is more than one possible answer for sentences 2 and 8.

absolutely actively conveniently deeply extensively financially highly satisfactorily tactfully totally unfairly

1 The new offices are conveniently situated close to the motorway and to the local railway station.

2 I think what he said was unnecessary, inaccurate and _______ unjustified.


3 The new model has been ... ~.~~ tested and you will be

impressed by its quiet operation, ease of use and elegant appearance.

4 She said she had been _

dismissed but the court

said her employer had been right to sack her.

5 Now that the special project has been

we can all get on with our old johs again.



Dear Sir / Madam, I am _

seeking employment and

wonder whether you have any vacancies in your accounts department at the moment.

7 I think we should drop this project right now because I just don't

believe that it's ~ viable.

8 Your performance in this office over the last two or three months

has been unsatisfactory.

9 I think the best thing you can do in the circumstances is to _~ __ ~ __ ~._~ decline the offer.

10 This book is recommended for anyone interested

in the workings of international financial markets.

11 -Are you sure'! -I'rn certain.

18 Section 2: BUSiness language


Business prepositions

, ;111 lply the missing preposition(s) in each sentence. You can use some of II i( )1 n more than once.










Could you call back later? She's __ on __ the other phone.

2 It's not surprising that he's working less hard. He's very close ____ retirement.

3 They thought everything was control until they had a


big dispute pay.

4 There's clearly a strong link

___ pay and productivity.

5 The people on the shop floor want more participation _ the decision-making process.


We need a much stronger focus the needs of our


7 These meetings always start late. Could everyone make an effort

to arrive time next time?

8 9

I've divided this talk three main parts.

It's impossible to say this stage the

negotiation whether or not we will reach an agreement.

10 We have to have all the figures _

____ the very latest.

the end of the month

11 We plan to achieve a 2()CJ.·h reduction the workforce in

the next two years.

12 I'm afraid she's not here - she's holiday until next


Section 2: Business languagn 19

. .......,

ousmess word building

Fill in the missing words in the table.


Verb Person noun General noun Adjective
administer administration
inspection ---

co-ordinate -- -
- -
xu pcrvision
---- 2











The person who pays is the payer. We use this most to talk about slow payers. But what do you call the person who receives the payment? Learning a new word often means learning not just one word but several. For example, a person who can solve problems (verb), is a good problemsolver (person noun). Problem-solvers are good at finding solutions (general noun). They believe that every problem is soluble (adjective). Building word families like this is a useful and important technique for developing your business vocabulary.

20 Section 2: Business language

I { Business sectors
Mllch the companies (1-23) with their sectors (a-w).
1 /\ c(~llpany which makes aspirin. a automotive

2 A company which mines diamonds. b construction
3 A company which makes men's suits. C consumer
4 A company which sells package holidays. d financial
5 A company which makes trucks. e confectionery
6 A company which distributes electricity. f software
7 A supermarket chain. 9 telecomJtunica-
8 A company which builds houses. h media
9 A company which makes washing pharmaceuticals
10 A company which sells hamburgers. beverages
11 A company which makes camcorders. k textiles
12 An airline. toiletries
13 A company which makes fighter planes. m real estate
14 A company which makes shampoo. n transport
15 A restaurant chain. 0 utilities
16 A newspaper publisher. P household goods
17 A company which sells things over the q retail
18 A company which makes mobile phones. r fast food
19 A company which sells investment S catering
20 A company which makes chocolate. t defence
21 A company which makes beer. u e-commerce
22 A property company. v tourism
23 A company which writes computer programs. w extractive
Section 3: Areas of ousiness 21 · '-"

If ouuction

I 'Imllpdll:, 111C has been having production problems. Unscramble the words III Cdpltals to make sense of the Production Manager's report.

At the beginning of the month we were 0 P E 'R A T 1/\1 G

quite normally. (PRJTENOAG)

2 There was plenty of S E

C y.


3 We had just I D some sophisticated new equipment.


4 These were R S for the main





5 Unfortunately, a problem developed with

one of our main S S.


6 They were our only source for a

C T.


7 Normally they worked very well within our

] - __ - Esystem.


8 They could usually send an 0 __ I{ within 24 hours of our telephoning lor "

new C 'I'.


9 On this particular day, the D __ was late.



22 Section 3 Areas of business

10 ;\1 lilt' \.II1lt' t unc, llwlc Wd\" pi oblcm Oil

Olll' 01 I he ( R B ~.


11 lhe ~ ~ Y M ~ R was out to lunch.


12 The Q Y M R

was away for the day.



No one reprogrammed the robots, and we

ended up with a lot of F __ ~ _ Y G S.


'We're having a few production problems ... '

Section 3 Areas of business 23

.._, i vr ctt KeTlng

M. iI( II II J(' m.ukeunq terms (1-15) with their definitions (a-o).

marketing --9--
2 niche
3 brochure
4 hype
5 brand
6 upmarket
7 downmarket
8 sponsorship
9 crowded market
10 campaign
11 reposition
12 pitch
13 mailshot
14 merchandising
15 endorsement A crowded market.

24 Section 3 Areas of business


a (1l,1I1gl' I Ill' lllldgl' of d prod uc t 01 \l'l Vill'.

b i\1Il11l1g <It the Il1d~~ end ot the market.

c i\ range ot minor products which all carry the name of a major


d Aiming at the luxury end of the market.

e A promotional activity over a specific period of time. f When a famous person recommends a product in an


9 Matching what the business organization produces with what customers want.

h Promoting a product or service with exaggerated or intensive publicity.

A small, specialized part of a market.

A product which can be recognized by its name.

k When the same letter is sent to a large number of possible buyers.

Supporting a cultural or sporting enterprise in return for advertising.

m One with too many competing products.

n A booklet giving information about the company's products or services.

o What the sales rep says to the potential customer.


Letters which you get about products and services which you haven't asked for and probably don't want are called junk mail

Use the terms In this test to define the marketing strategy of your company

Do you occupy a niche?

Are you In a crowded market?

Have you repositioned any of your products recently?

Section 3 Areas of business 25

riuman resources

( ,ml:ll): ;lly Ii u.; has decided to improve the working conditions of its omplovoos Choose the correct term for each aspect of its new policy. You can thon compare the HR policies of your company with the policies of Generosity.

1 We will increase the amount of maternity leave for women who are expecting babies.

a) maternal leave c) maternity time

b) mothering leave @maternity leave

2 We will increase the size of the by 10%.

a) manpower b) workforce

c) human resources d) employees

3 We will give everyone training at least twice a year.

a) in-house b) tailoriru;

c) designed d) out house

4 Night- workers will gel paid double time for working unsocial hours.

a) owl

h) ~hill

c) time

d) group

5 There will be no more annual interviews.

a) superior b) appraisal

c) objective d) holiday

6 We will pay everyone an extra at Christmas.

a) salary b) l':\Ill'nse

c) commission

d) bonus

7 We will give employees I Ill' ~all1l' status as full-timers.

a) small time c) short time

b) part-time d) extra time

8 Employees will only have to give one week's __ before leaving.

a) notice b) delay

c) note d) resignation

26 Section 3: Areas of bus.nes s


No ot u: will Iw d) Idid lip

C) laid by

wit hout till' lull agrl'l'lIll'llt 01 till' union.

IJ) laid off d) laid aside

10 Any-suture reductions in staff will be achieved only by .

a) natural tendencies c) natural wasting

b) wasting away d) natural wastage


11 We will reduce the number of working of all employees.

a) years b) months

c) weeks

d) hours

12 Generous allowances will be paid when the company

moves to a site in the provinces.

a) restoration b) restitution

c) relocation d) refurbishment

Section 3: Areas of business 27


I rdue

Y()III (,( lIllp,lI1Y I nakes spare parts for industrial machines, which you sell ;llllOild. Use the words in the box to complete the description of how you get tile qoods to your foreign customers.

acknowledges bills of lading cargo cleared consignment

container customs authorities delivery delivery date

destination distributor export forwarding agent import

letter of credit


port of arrival

sea freight

shipping documents


A foreign company (I) _ p]~c~~ order for some oj your prod~_j •

r--------- _f .. ------------,

It wants to (2) ~~_

vorne of your parts.

[ They want (3) _

- f

()I the goods as soon as POSSi~


So they want to know till' (.J) l

,-- .. f _

They also want 10 know discount ~-I

can give on the (S) ~


[They want you to send the go()(h hy (G) - . ;J

,--- ~ __ .. t


"---I-'h-e·-y-c-o-n-t-ac-t-y-o-u-r-( R)_ ..- - -~ J

to do the necessary pap~'r~_~I·~ .

-----_ . ......., .- ... ~-- department. J

You pass the order to your (7)

28 Section 3: Areas of bustne s s

You do nol IJ.lVl' a (9) in

the country where your customer is based.

l-~o y~u write to your bank to open a (10) -------. I

I You send copies of all the (11) to the bank. I

I These include copies of the (12) -------. I

Your (13) manager puts the

goods into a (14) _

This forms part of the ship's (15) _

The ship takes the goods to the (16)
closest to their final (17)

Here the consignment is checked by the (18) I

Once they have been (19) ,
they can go on to the customer.
Finally, your customer (20)
receipt of the goods. p

Some of the shipping terms used in foreign trade are:

CF: cost of freight

CIF: cost, insurance and freight FAS: free alongside ship

FOB: free on board

Section 3: Areas of business 29



( :()III! III 'II ~ tl u: noadlines from the financial press using the words in the box.



3 4



---~.-,--~"-- TO
~~--.----- CREATES

30 Section 3: Areas of business


- AT
MASSIVE -- - --._--_._._


M; II ch each headinq (1-12) with the correct description (a-').


I)() the fa(),ities management training course! It tells you everything you wanted to know about facilities management and never dared to ask!

Learn about: How to:
Relocation e a get the most from machine hire
2 Risk b reduce garbage ''-
3 Health and safety C make your works paces brighter
and better places to work
4 Equipment leasing d provide better canteen services
5 Security e move operations to new sites
6 Recycling f manage real estate
7 Waste management 9 keep buildings and property safe
8 Catering h reduce accident rates to zero
9 Power management cut utility costs
10 Refurbishment draw up legally binding
agreements with suppliers
11 Property portfolio k re-use garbage
12 Contracts assess degrees of uncertainty p

The facilities manager is responsible for the maintenance of the physical. environmental and technological facilities of the organization. It is becoming an increasingly strategic role as companies look for ways both to create productive environments and to cut costs.

Facilities managers can also be responsible for:

heating, lighting, flooring and roofing, contract cleaning, furniture, hygiene.

Sectioll 3: Areas of business 31

___ ...... ," 't

Problem pairs

II H ~:;( ~ p.ur s uf words often cause problems. Choose the correct alternative lot oach.


a) Kazoulis Communications is losing money and wants the

government to give it a subsidy

b) Our head office is in Boston and we own 7m'b of a

manufacturing _-=s,-=u_:::b.:::csl:.;:·dc:..:iQ::_:r_,y,--_ in Colorado.


a) Rimbaud has been sacked! People are saying he's a victim of

internal _

b) If we want to convince the public that we care for the

environment, we need to change our on

dumping waste into the local river.


a) She studied at university and is now ant

economist with a big international bank.

b) She analyses the general __ ~ ~_ problems faced by

companies operating within traditional industries like shipbuilding.


a) Their government is trying to liberalize the _

while keeping tight political control.

b) Overheads are out of control and we need to make major _______ across the business.


a) He left a on my desk saying he would be late

for the meeting.

b) He put a on the board in the main corridor

saying that the meeting had been postponed to 3 o'clock.

32 Section 4: Business expressions

6 M( )I{j\1 / M( )I{j\! I'

.I) has been at rock bottom ever since they

announced the job cuts.

b) \>vhen a company sacks such a huge number of people, it's not

just an economic question; it becomes a _

question as well.


a) The officer has just been round the site with
his dog, checking all the locks and cameras.
b) The officer insists on all employees wearing
the right kinds of protective clothing at all times. 8 TAKE OVER / OVERTAKE

a) They want to our company but I don't think

their offer is high enough for our shareholders to sell. 11

b) They expect to all their main competitors, in

terms of sales, within a year of the launch of their new product.

'The safety officer said that we had to wear protective clothing. I

Section 4 BUSiness expr e s stons 33

vvord families

Wilicil I:, III( ~ (Jdd one out in each of these groups of business words ;lIl(i fJ1\I;\sus'?

a) sack b) dismiss @demote d) fire
2 a) check b) survey c) control d) monitor
3 a) predict b) forecast c) anticipate d) analyse
4 a) layoff b) employ c) take on d) recruit
5 a) rewrite b) redraft c) reword d) restore
6 a) timetable b) diary c) schedule d) strategy
7 a) banned b) prohibited c) postponed d) forbidden
8 a) cancel b) put off c) put back d) postpone
9 a) busy b) engaged c) tied up d) unavailable
10 a) You're welcome r» Not at all
c) It was a pleasure d) Fxcmc me
11 a) Yours sincerely Il) Your-, faithfully
c) Yours truly d) Ikgards 'I'm sorry, Mr Smith is comptetcly tied up at the moment. /

34 Section 4: BUSiness expressions


I .ioh ul tho words In the box is the opposite of an underlined word. Complete I ',tell sentence with the correct word.


teAS- contract decline fall fire layoff

loss peripheral reduce sell off weaknesses withdraw

We have to debate the .PlQ2 and _ cons of this project

before we go ahead with it.

2 Let's look at the strengths and of each application in turn and then we'll draw up a shortlist.

3 We expect a rise in sales next year followed by a steady

~ for two years after that.

4 It's simple: we have to !Dcrease our prices and _ our costs.

5 You can see the general position if you look at the profit and

~ account in front of you.

6 At first we saw the company expand rapidly and successfully.

Unfortunately, there was a fall in demand and we were forced to _______ our operations to something approaching our

current size.

7 We had managed to deposit quite a large sum of money in our account at the beginning of the month but then we had to

it almost immediately.

8 We need to concentrate on our core business and sell off our


9 It's easier to hir~ people when times are good than to _______ them when times are hard.

10 I would love to accept your invitation but unfortunately there's been a change of plan and so, with great regret, I'm afraid I shall

have to it.

11 Our strategy is to acquire large, inefficient companies and then

~ the more profitable parts.

12 Although we have been able to recruit a handful of skilled

workers for our main factory, we have also had to _

several hundred office staff.

SectIOn 4. BUSiness expre ssions 35

L- I


Il( 'low (\ H 11 underlined Idiom (1-10) write the letter of the correct meaning (a-J).

a dangerous situation f hide something
b all the time 9 adopt good tactics
c do something that has h bureaucracy
already been done
d no conditions bemg discouraging
e refused to experimental subject 1 They should never have tried to sweep that pollution scandal under the carpet.


3 At the end of our presentation, he spent ten minutes pouring cold water on our proposal.

36 Section 4 BUSiness expressions

2 l company will go b.inkrupt if they don't cut \() me red ta pe.

4 I he head of research herself dgleed to be the guinea pig lor the n ials on the new drug.

5 We .lgleed to do t'\t'lll\l'\ t'vel y mouung but we dlew the hIll' <1.1 wearing the company unrforrn.


7 Chivers is going to damage his health - he's been working round the clock.

9 They could get the contract if they play their cards right.

6 We must be very careful about promoting ourselves as an ethical company - we're in a mmefleld!


8 It's yours for a million and no strings attached.

10 We don't want to reinvent the wheel.

Section 4 Business expressions 37


Business initials

Will\' I Ill' 11111 101 Ill'> ot these sets of initials. The clues will help you.

1 ()J II) (101 visual aids) 0\lerhead projector

2 VCR (for home entertainment)

3 HQ (the centre of operations)

4 ROI (what you get back from the money you put into a business)

5 PC (on your desk)

6 CEO (top job in the company)

7 IOU (for debts)

8 JFK (an airport or a president)

9 GNP (a measure of national wealth)

10 DTP (software to produce your own newsletter)

11 MBA (a managerial qualification)

12 AGM (a meeting for shareholder-,

13 ISO (a quality benchmark)

~~~~~ ------------~--------

14 VAT (a tax)

38 Section 4 Busmess expressions

16 AOB (the last item on the agenda)


17 JIT (a stock management system)

18 USP (what companies and products should have)

19 M & A (when companies join together)

20 SMEs (companies of a certain size)

21 MBO (one way to take over a company)

22 MBWA (your style of leadership?)

23 SWOT (an analytical tool)

24 P & L (tells you how rich the company is)

25 PIN (for your bank and credit cards)

26 NLP (for more effective learning)

27 DVD (for sharper images)



All correct: Why are you learning English? You should be teaching it! 21-26: You know the jargon. Try not to use it too much!

15-20: A good effort. But don't get your PIN mixed up with your VAT. 9-14: You'll get them all correct next time.

1-8: You'll get them all correct the time after next". won't you?

Section 4: Business expressions 39


I low d() VI HI '" IV IIJ(~ following numbers? Choose the correct options

1 Illl' yeti' 2005:

.I) twenty hundred and five @two thousand and five

c) twenty five

d) twenty hundred five

2 $1 = OM 1.46. The exchange rate is:

a) one point four six Deutschmarks to the dollar

b) one forty-six Deutschmarks for a dollar

c) one dollar equalling Deutschmarks one point four six

d) one dollar making one four six Deutschmarks

3 The period from about 1994 to about 1996:

a) the midnineties

b) the medium nineties

c) the middling nineties

d) the midway nineties

4 Seven correct answers in a test of tell items. The result is:

a) seven over ten right

b) seven out of ten right

c) seven on ten right

d) seven right over ten

5 The dimensions of a rectangle 3 metre') in length and 2 metres in width:

a) three for two

b) three by two

c) three across two down

d) three to two

6 The result of an opinion survey:

a) One of ten people think that .

b) One in ten people think that .

c) One to ten people think that .

d) One over ten people think that ...

40 Section 4 Business expressions

7 /\ppIO\'lI11dtl'ly \I\.:
,I) nearly six
b) six-ish
c) sifY
d) sixer
8 At football, Germany 0, Brazil 0:
a) Germany oh, Brazil oh
b) Germany zero, Brazil zero too
c) Germany nil, Brazil nil
d) Germany and Brazil love
9 3 cm ':
a) three centimetre cubes
b) three cubic centimetres
c) three cubed centimetres
d) three centimetric cubes
10 3:2 as a ratio:
a) three over two
b) three under two
c) three to two
d) three at two
11 A $10m loan:
a) a ten-mill ion-dollars loan
b) a ten-mill ion-dollar loan
c) a ten millions of dollars loan
d) a loan of ten million dollar p

A 24n ('twenty-four seven') business IS one that operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.


10m IS 10 million 10bn IS 10 billion

A billion IS a thousand million

1'/, hours IS one and a half hours or an hour and a half (or ninety minutes) The penod from January to June IS SIX months (not half a year)

Section 4 BUSiness expr es srons 41


Sexist language

Id()llllly .u u l IIlHbllllU the problems of sexist language in the sentences below ;11 H I II:;() (}I H) oj 111C terms from the box to make each sentence less offensive. YOl! c; til II:;~) two of the terms more than once.

appropriatc clothcs



face- to- face



person staff (verb)


staffing their

sales spokeswoman


1 We expect all our managers to wear suits and ties when on

company business. appropriate clothes

2 Every executive knows that people wilt form judgements about his company on the basis of his personal behaviour.

3 It is the responsibility of the chairman to ensure that meetings are conducted efficiently.

4 A spokesman for the company said that she was convinced that the new equal opportunities programme would be a success.


5 The company's manpower needs will continue to grow next year.

6 Nearly all our salesmen are against the proposed changes to the bonus system.

7 Men found guilty of sexually harassing employees of the opposite sex are liable to dismissal.

8 We have to man the assembly lin« Oil a 24-hour basis.

9 We congratulate both Mr Smith and Miss Duffy on their success in the recent sales competition.

10 If a customer complains, his com plai 11 t should be reported to the customer complaints department immediately,

11 You have to be careful what you say round here nowadays. The girls in the office downstairs might object.

12 I always thought that Sylvie was the odd man out in that department.

13 I think you and I should have a serious man-to-man talk, Janet. 14 We estimate that we need 300 more man hours to complete the project.

42 Section 4: BUSiness expressions

Business problems

fJronto Production IS in trouble. Identify the problems by unscrambling the words In capitals.


The number of customer C Q t'1 P t; A L fIJ T S has increased by

300()1) over the last six months. (SALPNITOMC)

2 Many of these relate to F Y goods. (TULYFA)

3 And also to goods D D in transit.


4 The unions say this is because of the 30% R N

in the workforce. (TROUNCIDE)

5 People on the shop floor are 0 D

and can't cope. (OVDECHRETRETS)

6 The press has criticized the recent 75% P _ Y R S for the

directors. (YAP SIRES)

7 The head of an overseas subsidiary has been caught trying to

B E a government minister. (BERIB)

8 The Finance Director has been accused of I R

D G.



One of the company's main partners has recently gone



The Finance Director is also having cash flow problcm-, because of


And then, last month, the CEO S [) till' Human

Resources Director. (KECDAS)

She has decided to sue the company for W L





Since then, several senior managers have R D.





E is low.

15 Yesterday the computer system F D.

16 The share price has D D by 70%.


17 The CEO is R D to he working on a new strategic

plan on an island somewhere in the Pacific. (RODURUME)

Se c tro o 5' BUSiness management 43

Business principles

Choose the best word to complete the following extracts from a company's mission statement.


We believe that business can be a powerful __ a~9J-e_n_t __ for social change.

@agent c) agenda

b) agency

d) agreement

2 We affirm the need for moral in business decision-making.

a) valuation c) values

3 We have a to shared prosperity.

b) commitment

d) competition

b) validity

d) valediction

a) commission c) competence

4 Businesses have a role to in improving the lives of all their customers, employees and shareholders.

a) play c) do

b) have d) make

5 Businesses established in foreign countries should contribute to

the social of those countries.

a) advances c) advancement

b) advantage

d) adventurism


Businesses should international and domestic


a) retail c) repeat

b) restrict d) respect


Businesses should with each other to promote

the progressive liberalization of trade.

a) corporate c) co-ordinate

b) co-operate d) cope

44 Section 5: Business management


Businesses s~ould and, where possible, improve

the environment.

a) deflect b) insect

c) detect d) protect

Businesses should all their customers fairly in all


aspects of their business transactions.

a) treat c) seat

b) meet d) repeat

10 Businesses should working conditions that

respect each employee's health and dignity.

a) divide b) confide

c) provide

d) avoid

11 Businesses have a responsibility to relevant

information to owners and investors subject only to legal requirements and competitive constraints.

a) open c) disclose

12 Businesses should competitive behaviour that

b) close

d) enclose

demonstrates mutual respect among competitors.

a) promote b) demote

c) motivate

d) provoke


In some countries, corruption can create problems for companies trying to do business there. They either have to pay bribes (also called kickbacks and baksheesh) or risk not winning business.

Section 5: Business management 45

Business cliches

II j() ( ;1111 d I '<1'1 111l1li' lilli' ,)1 II, I); I kid all attack of cliches. Help him translate his ~;PI)I)I :11 II II, ) I ,I. 11II I 11'I1i' ,II I)V ~ ;lIll~;li1 uting each of the words or phrases in bold IVp() (1 :' I) wl!11 ')fll',)1 II}() phrases (a-u).

I.ddil'\ .n HI )~I'fllll·III\'II ...

1 I w.n u VOII lo take on board a number of important points. _J__

2 I';,I/Olill,) (:()l1llllunications is now a major player in the I ouuuuuicat ions industry.

()III \lrdll'gic aim is to grow the company. WI' ,ilW;IYS focus on the big picture.



5 6 7 8

II WI' ~el' a window of opportunity, we go for it.

Wv work for lasting relationships with our business partners. __ We employ cutting-edge technology.

We want to produce the most user-friendly products on the market.


In our business relationships, we aim to be proactive

every time.

We propose only tailor-made solutions. We never lose sight of the bottom line.

We work hard to get synergy between subsidiaries. We will not hesitate to downsize the organization

for maximum efficiency.

We will use our war chest to buy up rivals in the marketplace.

We will find solutions to business problems even when we do not have a level playing field.

If anyone tries to move the goalposts on our commercial agreements ...

17 ... we will hlow the whistle.

18 We aim to become a truly global operator.


11 12





19 But we will also stick to our knitting.

20 Unfortunately I am not a number cruncher.

21 So I can only give you ballpark figures today.

46 Section 5: BUSiness management


a cui Illv worktonc of

b I business conditions are unfair

c have a general view of the situation

d customized

e a leading company

f change the rules (without consultation)

9 worldwide

h the people we do business with increase the size of

understand and accept

k concentrate on core activities

dynamic and productive relationships m approximate

n anticipate needs

o our basic objective (usually to make a profit)

P good at figures

q up-to-date


S protest at unfair treatment

t a chance to do business

u a large amount of readily available cash

All business people use some cliches and jargon but expressions like these lose their impact if you use them too much. Other popular phrases are: market-driven, results-driven, client-focused and best practice.

When the CEO talks about growing the company, he is using the verb with an object in the same way that gardeners grow flowers. In a business context, 'grow' does not normally take an object. For example, we say:

The company has grown a lot over the last five years. The market grew (by) 3% last year.

Section 5: Business management 47

Business ratios

W(' 11',(' I >11'.11 II",', Idl10S to measure the financial health of business ()IIj.lIIi/, ilil 1I1 Matdl the ratios (1-12) with their definitions (a-I).

Return on capital h
2 Return on assets
3 Profit margin
4 Asset utilization
5 Sales to fixed assets
6 Current ratio
7 Borrowing ratio
8 Equity gearing
9 Income gearing
10 Profit to wages
11 Return on investment
12 Debt to equity 48 Section 5 BUSiness management

a pit' Illll'll· ... 1 PlOtll «xpr« ...... cd <1 ... d IWlll'lll<1gl' ot ldPII,d l'lllpl()yt'd plu-, ... horyterm loans

b profit expressed as a ratio in relation to employee remuneration

c sales expressed as a ratio in relation to fixed assets

d long-term loans expressed as a ratio in relation to shareholders' funds

e profit before tax expressed as a percentage of sales

f gross interest paid as a percentage of pre-interest, pre-tax profit

9 current assets mcluding quoted investments expressed as a ratio III relation to current liabilities

h profit before tax expressed as a percentage of caprtal employed

shareholders' funds expressed as a percentage of total Iiabrlmes

sales expressed as a ratio III relation to total d""l't~

k total debt expressed as a ratio in relation to net WOl th

profit before tax expressed as a ratio in relation 10 total assets

'ROA and ROJ are looking better this quarter but the borrowing ratio is still weak.'

Section 5 Bus: ness management 49


Business strategy

Match the cornerstones of the company's strategy (1-10) with the descriptions of what it has decided to do (a-j) ,

Cornerstones of our strategy are:
1 Acquisition --9--
2 Merger integration teams
3 Strategic alliances
4 Strategic planning
5 Mission and value statements
6 Customer satisfaction measurement
7 Benchmarking
8 Total quality management
9 Re-engineering
10 A balanced scorecard 'She's following an aggressive acquisition strategy,'

50 Section 5' Business management

We h.ivc decided to:

a produce docy-ments that tell everyone where we want to go and what we stand for.

b work to a wide range of performance measures.

c adopt ISO 9000 standards.

d do detailed comparisons of the performance of different parts of the organization with that of similar organizations elsewhere.

e prepare systematically for the future.

f form a group of people whose mission is to create a common culture for the new bigger company.

9 buy other companies.

h establish joint ventures.

work for 100(!1) client satisfaction.

redesign business processes in order to improve productivity.


A cornerstone of your strategy is a very important part - a key feature - of your strategy.

ISO is the abbreviation for the International Organization for Standardization. Management theories come and go. Re-engineering is much less popular today than it was because many companies only got limited benefits from it. Others, like strategic planning (used by almost 90% of big US companies) and benchmarking (the most popular tool in Europe) continue to do well. One secret of success is not to try to use too many!

Section 5: Business management 51

Project management

Put one word from the box Into each of the mind maps The - shows where the missing word goes

actual bid budget cost proJeet quality risk run schedule


- leader


- team


- manager


- mto problems

- over budget

- d feasrbrhty study


behmd -

on -


- as~urance

- control

- CIrcle


on -

~ over-

under -

52 Section 5 Bus: ness managem ent

6 ((m\101

- assessment

- management plan


- documents

invrtauon to -

- selection

8 - estimates

- monrtonng

- control


- finish date

- start date

- cost of work performed


People use mind maps as a learning tool to remember vocabulary and to brainstorm Ideas In language learning, you can use a mind map to remember which words go together Put one word (for example a verb, manage) In the central circle and then show other words (for example nouns prOject, team) which often go with It You can then add adjectives that go with the nouns (for example, dIfficult, challengmg) and so on' People with visual memones find mind maps especialty helpful

Key verbs In project management are

initiate -+ plan -+ execute -+ control -+ close

Se ctton 5 Business management 53


Management development

Edgar Schwarz's assessment interview has not gone very well. A human resources manager is telling him about the training he needs. Match each type of training (a-j) with the things he needs to learn (1-10).

a financial management

b delegation

C intercultural communication skills

d communication skills

e project management team development

9 leadership

h time management

assertiveness training

negotiating skills


o 0


'We think you need quite a lot of" training: about five years' worth, actually.'

54 Section 5: Business management


You need to learn how to:

You need a course Ill:


work with other people


2 motivate and direct other people

3 talk to and listen to people better

4 work with people from different countries and backgrounds

5 bargain with business partners

6 increase margins and control costs

7 set budgets, organize schedules and meet deadlines

8 prioritize your work, and not put off important tasks

9 be more ready to stand up to other people

10 give work to your subordinates


Another term for assessment interview IS appraisal interview. If it happens once a year, It is your annual appraisal interview. And one where the appraisal is done by people at the samo lewl as you and below you in the organization, as well as by your boss, IS called a 360-degree appraisal.

SocllD/J c, Busifless management 55


The management conference

Complete the letter to Dr Strupar by choosing the correct word (a, b, c or d) for each of the gaps (1-10).

1 a) keyhole @keynote
c) turnkey d) keyboard
2 a) conference b) exhibition
c) trade fair d) party
3 a) seminar b) workshop
c) session d) presentation
4 a) Tests b) Tendencies
c) Trends d) Subjects
5 a) plenary session b) whole session
c) big talk d) split session
6 a) crowd b) spectators
c) onlookers d) audience
7 a) commission b) royalty
c) fee d) pay
8 a) aids b) equipment
c) material d) helps
9 a) pavilion b) shop
c) stand d) floor
10 a) market b) fair
c) forum d) exhibition 56 Section 5: Business management

Consultants, a discounted rate for a (9) _

conference (10) _

in the

l>edl l Jr Strupar,

We would like you to be the (1) speaker at our

next international management (2) . We would

like you to make a forty-minute (3) on the

subject of (4) in International Management in

the Twenty-first Century. This will be the subject of the

(5) which will open this annual five-day event.

The (6) will be composed largely of senior

managers and management consultants. We should like to propose a

(7) of $2,000 for your talk plus expenses.

If you are happy to accept, I should be grateful it you would let me know what (8) you will need tor your talk. In addition, I am pleased to be able to offer you r l 0111 (ld ny, Strupar

I hope you will be able to accept our invitation .lilt! I look Iorw.ird to hearing from you soon.

Yours Sincerely,

Jerry A. Poborsky

Secretary General, Association of International 1,\('( 1I1IVl'~

SeCil()ll;l BUSiness management 57

Presentations 1

Suzy Capra wants to give a good presentation so she has made a list of some of the things she wants to say. Unfortunately she has dropped all her language cards (a-j) on the floor. Help her to put them in the right order by matching them with the cues (1-10).


Give SUBJECT of presentation.


3 LEAD INTO Part 1: History.

4 SUMMARIZE and close Part 1.

5 LINK to Part 2: Options.

6 VISUAL AID: show figures (transparency).

7 Summarize and CLOSE Part 2.

8 MOVE ON to Part 3: Recommendations.



58 Section 6: Business communication


Language cards



Let's now move on to the option which I personally ...


Please interrupt if you h

ave anything you'd ,.,

1M' to ask.



As you can sec, till' results are ...


To sum up, the past record of this project is ...

I want to talk

to you today about.

Section 6: Busi ness comm un ic atro n 59


Presentations 2

Match the pictures (a-I) with the Instructions for making good presentations (1-12).


It is important to maintain eye contact with the people you are talking to.

2 Clearly signal the structure of your talk during

the introduction.

3 Select and order your material carefully during the preparation stage of your presentation.

4 Use the right body language to get your message across.

5 Dress appropriately.

6 Difficult questions should always be handled politely and diplomatically.

7 Establish a positive relationship with your audience as quickly as possible.

8 People will lose interest if you do not move your talk along at a lively pace.

9 Take a few deep breaths before you start, to help you overcome your initial nervousness.

10 Use your voice effectively and appropriately.

11 Make sure your visual aids are clear and easy to follow. 12 Design and position your notes so that you can

refer to them easily at all times.

60 Section 6 Business communication



Section 6

Business co

mrnuruc atron




Match the quotes (a-s) with the statements about the meeting (1-19).

1 Sophie welcomed the participants.


2 She checked to see who was present.

3 She opened the meeting.

4 She stated the main objective of the meeting.

5 She reminded everyone of how long the meeting was supposed to last.

6 She asked Toby if he would make notes during the meeting.

7 She invited Sebastian to introduce the first point.

8 Naomi strongly supported Sebastian.

9 Rebecca made an alternative suggestion.

10 Jacob tried to interrupt.

11 But Rebecca wouldn't let him.

12 Sophie tried to speed the meeting up.

13 She obviously felt the discussion was getting away from the main point.

14 Sophie invited Jamie to contribute.

15 Felix asked Jamie for clarification.

16 Sophie summarized the discussion.

17 Then she moved the meeting on to the next point.

18 I;inally, she thanked everyone for coming.

19 And she closed the meeting.

62 Section 6: Busi ness com m u nication

a Let me finish.

b This meeting is scheduled to finish at...

C Could I just say something?

d Let's go on to the next item.

e Let me just go over the main points.

f It's an absolutely great idea. I couldn't agree more.

9 Is everyone here?

h We're running short of time.

I think we're in danger of getting sidetracked.

Could you lead on this one?

k If I understand you correctly, you're sayi ng t ha t. ..

That's all for today.

m Could you take the minutes?

n Yes, but I've got another idea.

o Thanks to everyone for coming. I hope you didn't have: too II11ICh trouble getting here.

P OK, let's make a start.

q What do you think?

r The reason we're all here today is to ...

s I'm grateful to you all for your time.

Section 6: Business communication 63



The staff of this company are having problems with their prepositions on the telephone. Put the correct preposition in the space after the sentence. Choose from the following words. Some words are used more than once.







1 Just a minute while I look through his number in the company phone book.

look up

2 I'm sorry I can't talk to you now. Could I call you down in five minutes'?

call _

3 I'm trying to get off to Mr Schmidt. Could you give me his extension number?

get _

4 I need to take up his name and number.

take _


Could you hang back a minute while I get a pen?

hang _


I was talking to Mrs Bazin when we were cut up.

cut _

7 Please could you put me down again?

put _

64 Section 6: Business communication

8 I've been trying to talk to her all day but every time I call she hangs down.

hangs _


The phone rang and I picked off the receiver straightaway.

picked _


I'm sorry, I don't have this information right now. Can I get up to you tomorrow?

get _


Remember, on the telephone: plan your call

be positive

check that the other person understands KISS: Keep It Short and Simple

Section 6: Business communication 65



Fit the two halves of each dialogue Into the right places In each picture.

A Thanks for a wonderful a So am I.
B The weather's not too b I'm afraid we got lost a
bad today. couple of times.
C Is this your first visit c No, what's happened?
to Rio?
0 Where exactly do you d Better than yesterday.
come from?
E Would you like something e I'm glad you enjoyed it.
to drink?
F I hope you didn't have too f Oh, you've probably never
many problems finding us. heard of it.
G I'm in Chemicals. 9 Yes, it is.
H Have you heard the news? h Just a glass of water, please. 1 2

66 Section 6 BUSiness communication







Section 6 Bus: ness com m U rucat.on 67



Match each of the extracts from business letters (a~k) with the type of letter (1-11) from which it is taken.


1 Letter of invitation
2 Response to an enquiry
3 Letter requesting payment
4 Letter of rejection
5 Letter of apology
6 Letter of enquiry
7 Letter of application
8 Letter of complaint
9 Written Warning
10 Order
11 Hescrvdtion a -~~-~------llljke a

/' . woll (

Mr Kazou ~ with shower double roo d from 12 to

full boar . )

and incluslve.

14 september




. ou that your

I regret !o '~for::post of Deputy

application or h been

C tering Manager as

a S I Thank you for ...


68 Section 6: Bus/nest; communication


I should be grateful if you would send me more information about your Lie range of products including details ofprkes and discounts,


Please would you send to the above address 37 units of product reference number 37/LK/45006 (brown) and send the invoice to our West Central office in the usual way.

- K~ouliS uniGatiOns

corTlrTl I "sed to

d be pc'"

woul d schmidt

e U o

welGOrTl . of its

n openlllg

to t e

new. . . -------


I wish to draw your attention to the very poor treatment our representative received when she called on you last week.




(Match each of these extracts from e-mails (a-I) with the type of message (1-12).

Acknowledgement c
2 Request
3 Complaint
4 Congratulations
5 Forwarded message
6 Attachment
7 Advice
8 Deadline
9 Apology
10 Appointment
11 ( .onflrrnation
12 Thanks a

iii Bill, N('xl M()IIILIY i:; I ilil', hut can we make it 10.30? I have I() ('dldl <i 1'1<111('. All the best, Linda.


Bill, Here's the Id\('::i v"I:;i()11 as promised. With best wishes, r.ind,i .


Hill, File received this mo r n i nq . Best, Linda.

d II i 11 ill, Could you send cop ips of the invoices <I:;, II). Cheers, Linda.


1:,"'11 Hill, Really good of you to see us at II()I i riot.j c e last week. We're all really

I<liclul. With best regards, Linda.


70 Section 6: Business communication


L_B_i_I_I_' _N_e_x_t __ M_o_n_d_a_Y_l_o_. _3_O_. __ L_0_0_k_l_' n_g_f_~() r W did L oiL, I wbw, Linda. ______j



Bill, This carne from Alfredo yest(·I,I., you should see it. Best, Linda.


Dear Bill, It looks good but I til i III sharpen up the beginning a bit. ()f

Dill, Really sorry. It'll never 1,.11'1"" Rest regards, Linda.

Dc'al Bill, We've now asked [or p.lyl'" ", IliC'

last quarter three Limes. This i:i II' ,I

enough. P] ease send i t s oorie s t . Wi I I 1 I

tomorrow if no news, Linda.


~, Thanks [or the lat c;~;t secl i "'I. E___:onday 9 a.In.? See you, Lind,!.

Bill, Saw the news on TV this [fI()1 II I 11'1

Thoroughly des(?rved. Best reganl::, 1.111·1,

I I I" ", I

E-mail is increasingly used instead of fax and letters :;() lilt, :;fVI(~ of e-rnails can be very similar to that of other forms of business (;1111«:;1 .ondence. E-mails, however, are often less formal than either ()1111t~ olhor two.

Notice all the different ways that Linda uses to siqn otl 11I~1 () mails. How well do you think she knows Bill? How formal is their workinq relationship? People sometimes use initials and abbreviations to sign off their e-mails, for example wbw for With best wishes.

Section 6' BUSIIless communication 71


Business forms and documents

Name each form using words from the box.

Accident Application



Employment Expenses

Job Maternity

Iioliday Income Tax


1 I'd like to take a week at Easter and two weeks in July if that's OK.

Holiday___ Request

2 Mr Lee had just taken off his regulation cap and gloves when his hair got

caught in the machine. Report

3 It tells you about your pay, hours, holidays, pension, and discipline

procedures. Statement of Terms of _

4 The duties attached to this post are as follows ...

_____ Description

5 He's been away sick three times already this month.

______ Record

6 She already has two children and ten years' service so she'll get quite a

lot of time off this time.

____ Leave Form

7 There's a vacancy in the IT department which I wouldn't mind trying for.


8 I tell her about how far [ think I've achieved my objectives during the

past year and she writes it all down and then we talk about next year. ______ Form

9 Ill' got it for failing to follow instructions and because he broke the

health and safety rules. Employee Notice

10 1'111 happy 10 pay for his flight in business class but I don't think we can

accept his reasons for staying in a five-star hotel for four nights! _____ Claim Form

11 You pay more if you're a higher-rate earner and you pay a lot less if you have several dependent children in full-time education.

______ Return

72 Se c tio n 6: Busme s s cornrnunication



Kazoulis Communications is an international operation. Choose the correct expressions to describe its different locations.

We have operations in:
Birmingham in
2 Vienna in
3 Dresden in
4 Naples in
5 Hong Kong in
6 Bangkok in
7 New Delhi in 8

@)the English Midlands b) Middle England

a) Central Europe

b) the Centre of Europe

a) East Germany

b) the eastern part of Germany

a) Southern Italy a) the Far East

a) South East Asia

b) the South Eastern Asia

b) South of Italy b) Fa I' l'~ast

a) the Indian continent

b) the Indian sub-continent

San Francisco on a) the West Coast

a) the Pacific Edge b) the [,acilic Rim

9 California on

10 Boston on

11 Iowa City in

12 Riyadh in

13 Lagos in

We do business:

b) the Weslern Coast

a) the Eastern Seaboard b) the Ea~,(t'1'II (:()i!\l

a) the Middle West b) till' Mid-Wl'\l

a) the Mid-East b) llll' Middle East

a) Western Africa h) Wl'\l Mrica

14 a) throughout the world 15 a) across all the world


b) through all the world b) all OWl' the world

When referring to what used to be the USSR, you can refer to Russia or, if the place is outside Russia, to the former Soviet Union.

Section 7: Background to business 73

40 Politics

Match the political statements (1-12) with what people are saying about the government (a-I),

5 6

7 8

9 10
i t

3 4


74 Section 7: Background to business







I Ill' pll'\ldcnt 1\ liked by many people, but of course she doesn't have much real power.

Wily c.u i't wechoose the uty boss directly'?


The government is going to fall if the Social Democrats and the Independent Socialists don't stop arguing all the time.

The government can always win a vote Il1 the I ower House and so II thmks It do It Ilkl'\



The Conservatives and Christian Democrats haven't been in power for ages - and they never will be if they don't stop quarrellmg.


(I l.III't ill' bothered () vo«- .J II Y more: it dm'\II't 1II.I"l' any dlikll'lIll'.



We should have a direct say on this - It shouldn't be left to the politicians 111 Parliament to decide.

We w.n il I)()W('I III()Vl'd ,IW.lY 110111 till" hi)', gOVl'11I111l"111 1111111\1 I Il"\ .md .IW.I\ 110111 I ill' (.11111.11 (Ily

We all thought he was great just alter the election, but everyone

I know IS completely fed up with him now.

()'" (Ity council can do wiI.lll'Vl'l It likes. The gO\ l'IIII1Il'l1t should have 111()le control over It.


There are too many government bureaucrats.


Some countnes have strong central government, others have a federal system, and others have strong regional government The body that administers the smaller part of the country where you live IS the local authority.

Sectloll 7 lldckcjI()urld to busures s 75

The economy

Match what people are saying about the economy (1-14) with what the experts say (a-n).


Things seem to be getting a bit better at last - better than last year at any rate.


But things are still far too expensive.


TIll' only new

fal toru-, round here belong to toreigners.



And even if you do

manage to get a job,

it's not in a factory.


And either way, the union can't do anything for you.



11 (/ There's no tourism

!Jel duse it's so expensive , 1", p('ople to come here I I o III abroad.


-........... '\,1<1 IlOW they say w,",,· gOillg to have to \l.lIt P"Y"lg to go into Iwspitdl.








76 SUCtlOl1 7 E:3ackground to business


At least prices aren't going up as quickly as they used to.


The problem nowadays is that no one can get a job.


The government just won't put any money into business.


It's more likely to be serving hamburgers in some fast-food place.

10 '

(No one's got the

qualifications for the jobs you see advertised in the paper.,.




I reckon we've got less in

the bank than we had a couple of years ago.



I wouldn't mind a bit taken off my pay if it meant a bit more for schools and hospitals.















The service sector is getting bigger.

"The cost of living is)




Unemployment is high.

People an: worried about the future or lite welfare state.


There are signs that the recession is ending and that economic recovery

is on the way.


The currency is strong.

The puhl«: would ace cpt higher la\,llloll III return for improvrd puhl«: ,c, vices.

(-:1 Itl' lall' 01 IIlllal'OI1~ I~ 1',01111' .!"WII I )


The manufacturing base is getting smaller.

Inward investment is stable.



Organized labour is weak.


1'<"'.1,",11 <avings .u c low.

The welfare state is the govorr 11110111 ~ly: ;101 II WIIlLlI ljlV( )!l t ielp and care to people -like the old, tho sick and !tIO 1()I)hl!;:; wilt) Imy have problems helping themselves.

IIIII I I I: II I II' (IIIII( I I () t)IJ(,lrl('<:;(~ 77

0U Social



Match the issues (1-12) with what some people are saying about them (a-I).

Homelessness ---9.--
2 Immigration
3 Law and order
4 Social security
5 Pensions
6 Health care
7 Racism
8 Drug abuse
9 Housing
10 Vandaltsm
11 Recycling
12 AIDS 'They're collecting old newspapers to recycle them.'

78 Secllorl 7 Background to business


They collect glass and old newspapers once a week.


You see used needles in the local park.


Last night they smashed a bus shelter and a phone box.


We have young people sleeping rough on the streets of our cities. It's

a scandal.

It's a heterosexual as much as a homosexual problem.


The whole estate should be demolished.


There's a twelve-month waiting list for even simple operations.


I can't live on that when I retire!


There .u c too many people Ilylllg to come to t hi-, . ountry to live.


The pol« (' vhould be cdtllllllg 11101(' \ t iminals and I Ill' \ Olll h vhould be wildilig 111\"111 10 pi ivon 101 IOllg\"1

(nil' gOV('llIllll'llt is l.lyillg oul 100 much 1l101H'V III welfare IWlldlh.

I I WI \"\ .I lot of tension lu-t wct-u lite black and wluto c ommunities.

S('( 111111 I 1:,11 1''11111111'' III Illl',III<",', 79


Travel and transport

Business people often have to talk about how they get around. Match the words and phrases in bold type (1-14) with the pictures (a-n).

I was lucky to get a seat in the carriage.

2 Fortunately there was plenty of room in the buffet car.

3 The high-speed train seemed to get us to the capital in no time.


4 The only hold-up was when the shuttle bus to the airport

got stuck in heavy traffic.

5 The jam soon cleared.

6 The check-in was quick because I only had hand luggage.

7 I flew with my favourite airline as always.

8 On arrival, I went straight to the car hire desk to collect the hatchhack I'd booked.

9 11\ true I could have had a saloon this time since I had

so little luggage.

10 As soon as tlley'd checked my driving licence, I was away. 11 Soon I was cru isi ng round till' bypass.

12 There was a short queue at till' toll station.

13 But it wasn't long before I was inside the ring road heading for the centre.

14 The hotel was just on the edge of the city's main pedestrianized area.

80 SUCllOl1 f: tlackground to business








SecllOll (



Entertainment and media

Find the words in the word square on the next page which mean:

To send out a radio or TV programme.

2 A big media company possibly with TV as well as newspaper and magazine interests. (two words)

3 This category refers to popular newspapers. (two words)

4 This category refers to serious newspapers. (two words)

5 Advertising spots on TV.

6 A kind of TV programme where famous people talk to the host and each other, usually about themselves. (two words)

7 A kind of TV programme where people compete for prizes, often by answering quiz questions. (two words)

8 ;\ kind of TV series about the lives of a group of people which often runs for a long t imc.

9 A company which makes films i'> often called this.

10 A company which brings Ii lms to the ci nema.

11 The American word for film.

12 An underground system for bringing TV programmes into the home.

13 ;\ TV system which uses a dish to receive the programmes. 14 Many TVs can receive up to SO of these now.

82 Section 7. Background to ousme s s

The answers read vertically, horizontally and diagonally.




o S P J 8

SSM E F H 0 0 L G 0 J M N 0 8 0 C 8 T T F 0 NET U V K C S N CAP A M G CUT 0 N G A J W Q 0 K A 0 L C Q W P 8 HAD E A P 8 U F U P X T 8 0 R V S



E W 0 R R Q U

A 0



P F 0 J E H poe Y A J T T F E S Y E

A U R G K R R Q E P C 8 E F G U W N A

E L veE E 0 E A 8 R 0


M H H N T Y S C H E E C HAN N E L S P V J A 8 A W SPA S H F U V T 8 U M L E N T W R E W WAS Y 8 C Z seT W J

E E N H L TEN 0 N E X U P H Q 1 SOX U (8 R 0 A 0 CAS T) F 0 V T U R Z G Z COW Y 0 R P J Z Y GAM [ S HOW K

Section 7. Uackground to business 83


Complete each sentence with a word or phrase from the box.

allowance havens




exile free

incentives inheritance

-rate- relief return

inspector progressive

value added

The standard rate of income tax in my country is

2S(!!() but well-off people pay more.


Marbock has been sent to prison for tax . He

didn't pay any tax for five years.

3 In Illy country, tax on income is : rich people pay a higger percentage of their income than poor people.


I have to fill in my tax _


before the end of the

5 Some of the items you ca 11 see here are tax- so you don't have to pay any tax on t hem at all.

6 You have to pay almost 20% _ tax on things like perfume, alcohol and petrol.

7 Wc have been told that we will shortly receive a visit from the tax

______ who plans to look at all our accounts for the last

three years.

8 IIH' Bahamas and the Channel Islands are two popular tax

_____ because taxes are low so that foreigners who wall! !o pay less tax invest there.

84 Section 7: Background to business

9 The government is keen for foreign businesses to come to thi:-.

region and therefore gives them a lot of tax _

10 These businesses are given a number of other tax _______ as well.

11 The government has increased the rate of tax we have to pay so the net profit for the business i" Iikc-ly 10 he down next year.

12 He could have received a lot of money after h h lal her's death but he was badly advised and the state took nearly all of it in _______ tax.

13 He earns so much money and taxes are so higll ill his own country that his accountants have advised hiru [() move abroad

and become a tax _

14 I pay less tax than other people because I haw a hig t.uuily and

there is a generous state tax _

lor III i\.


She has to wear special clothes for her job bUI sill' gl"h vouu- ()I the money back from the government because [IH'Y .1)(' [.IX _______ items.


In the US, the tax year runs from 1 July to 30 June. In the UK, it runs from 6 April to 5 April!

Another term for a tax incentive is a tax break.

SeellOI) i: Background to business 85

The internet

Match the terms (1-16) with the definitions (a-p).

Internet Service Provider (ISP)
2 Search engine
4 Bookmark
5 Hyperlink
6 Spam
7 Newsgroup
8 Keyword 9 Online
10 Download
11 Upgrade
12 Browser
13 Homepage
14 Intranet
15 Freeware
16 Virus a an internet application for an internal company network

b a high-speed telephone connection

c bring up to date

d add to a list of favourite website addresses which you keep for easy access

e junk e-mail

f damaging software instructions that enter your computer secretly and can change or destroy information on it

9 a link from an e-mail to a web page, accessed by clicking on it

h a virtual location where people can talk and read about a subject of common interest

a company which gives you an account and access to the internet a tool which helps you find things on the Web

k what you enter in a search engine whe-n you are connected

m I (IPY inlorrnation to your computer from another

n .I progralll like Internet Explorer which allows your computer to download documents from the World Wide Web

o I Ill' Ii rst page on a website

p \011 wa rc you don't pay for

86 Section i:l: t3uslness In the twenty-first century

00 Customer .
What do customers appreciate? What do companies aim to provide?
Complete the customer-friendly adjectives below.
1 F8S1 service
2 E - S - payment cond i I iou-,
3 G N R U discounts
4 F N L sales stall
5 H L - F - L answers
6 E T A perforrnano-
7 R P D response
8 C N T N quality
9 C M E E prices
10 A - S - L T guarantee-
11 L N - L S G products
12 C E R instruction-
13 F E delivery
14 C E P insurance
15 ~ efficiency
16 0 E dialogue
17 p R 0 A treatment
18 U -T -D T informal ion Section (J llll:>lIIPSS 111 the twenty-first century 87


Business culture

Can you communicate successfully across cultures? Match the statements (a-k) with the parameters (1-11) which help us to understand other national and corporate cultures

Employee relations

2 Monochromc/polychromc cultures

3 Gender

4 TItles

5 Body language

6 Punctuality

7 Org.rru/uuonal hierarchy

8 Leadi r \11 IJ)

9 Humour


10 111m

11 I )llll tness/rndirectness of com III 1I11 « anon

I III happy to do several things at the same tune

[ think'

88 Sec IIUll 8 8u01ness In the twenty first century

a II (I meeting i'> ,>uppml'd lo start at 9 o'clock, tl u-u I think il should start at 9 o'clock.

b Managers and unions? It's them and us. You'll never gl'l lltl' two sides to really work together.

C Everyone calls each other by their first names and I call walk into the office of anyone in the company.

d If I told a joke at the start of a presentation, Ill'Opll' wuukl think I was not serious about my job.

e I don't like people I don't know to stand loo 110'>1' Itl m«.

f Just because someone has a doctorate, they dOIl'1 h.iv« 10 ill,>i'>l that everyone calls them Doctor.

9 I think it's right for the boss to have another PdY rise. Aftvr all, Ill' takes the risks and the difficult decisions.

h I like to say exactly what I think and I cxpec t ot lur people lo do the same.

I tried to help one of the girls in the off icc: into l ur 10.11 .md Sill' got really angry!

I tried to call this guy in Norway at 3 o'clock Oil l-tii l.rv .111l·rlltltlll and everyone in the office had gone horne!

k I like to do one thing at a time. I can't stand Pt'oplt· who ,>1.111 taking phone calls in the middle of meet i ngs.


The ability to communicate succosslullv across different cultures - national, corporate, professional· is bocominq more and more important in business today.

Section 8: Business In the twontvIu st c o n l ur v 89



Victoria Snape takes learning seriously. Match the different parts of her learning programme (1-11) with what she does (a-k).

The components of Victoria's learning programme are:

1 2

Learner autonomy Emotional intelligence

3 Auditory learning

4 Lateral thinking

5 Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)

6 Focus on the competency gap

7 Distance learning

8 Acccler.ucd learning

9 Graduation from the corporate university

10 I.ifdollg learning

11 Aw.ucncss of multiple intelligences


a thinks about her performance, analyse» it and models it on good


b tries to learn more, faster.

C does intensive training at the company's main training centre.

d plans on continuing learning throughout her career.

e tries to find original solutions to problems lJy making unusual mental con ncctions.

f develops the affective as well as the intellectual side of her personality.

9 aims to manage her own learning.

h IN'~ her computer, multimedia and her organization's intranet for k.llllillg.

111](1('1 \I.IIHh that she learns effectively when she listens and hears a lot. 111](1('1\1.11](1\ that her intelligence is more linguistic and interpersonal 111.1 II logi( d l-mathernatical.

k 11]('.I~liI('\ lite difference between what she can do and what she would lil«: 10 1)(' "Ilk 10 do.

90 SnCII(l11 H' HIISIIIClSS In the twenty-first century

0CJ Organization

What should drive the organization of the future? Match the drivers (1-10) willi the philosophies (a-J).

a learning organization h
2 a knowledge organization
3 a people organization
4 a change organization
5 a diverse organization
6 a cost-driven organization
7 a customer-driven organization
8 a research-driven organization
9 an empowered organization
10 a virtual organization a Technical innovation translated into new pi oclur 1\ hi ought quickly to market: that's the key to bU'>llIl''>'> \lIlll'\ ....

b No office, no hierarchy. We work on-line, we ... ell on-It lie.

C I don't need to ask for the authority to do 1\ 1)('\1 101 Illy customers.

<od Look after the pennies and the pounds writ too" ,111('1 111l'11IWlvl' ....

e The service we provide for our clients i\ scc ond 10 uoru:

f The business environment is in a state ot PCIIll"IH'1I1 transformation.

9 If everyone in the organization is the s.unv, W(' c ould all be caught facing the wrong way.

h We need to train people to be multi- ... "rliL'd, lk-xthle, ready for anything.

Everything of value here is in peopkv hl',,(h We have to find how people can share this inform.iuon cllu rcntly,

Our employees are our most import.uu ,,'> .... ct.

Section 8 RUSlllCc,S 111 the twenty first century 91

o t1 Managing yourself

The concepts (1-16) below are about how to manage yourself. Write the letter of each thought (a-p) next to the correct word or phrase.

work/life balance
2 career development
3 learning from mistakes
4 creativity
5 motivation
6 recognition
7 leadersh i p
8 reward
9 risk
10 flexibility
11 satisfaction
12 sc If-esteem
13 fun
14 time management
15 competency development
16 vision p

Some people set personal and professional targets or goals or objectives lor themselves when they start their career. Americans sometimes call this a game plan.

92 S(~ctJ()n (3, Busirless In the twenty-first century

a I want people - at least the people whose opinion I value - to 11'11 me when I've done a good job.

b I have to prioritize my tasks at the start of each day and then work through them.

C I expect to earn the money I think I deserve for what I do.

d I need to be able to respect myself in what 1 do.

e Life is boring without an element of danger. I want a sense of adventure in my job.

f I want a job where I can have ideas, invent, design and make things.

9 r want regular training opportunities so that I can go on developing my skills.

h I have an exciting picture of the future which drives me and which I want to share with my colleagues.

My job is important to me but so is my family and Illy own private life.

I want to manage my team successfully.


I want to know that there is a future direction and I ill' Cil;lIlCl' of development in my job.

It's important for me to enjoy what I do.

m The job I'm doing now may not exist in two YI';lr~' I imc. I know that I have to adapt to a rapidly changing hll\illl'~~ environment.

n I shouldn't worry if I do it wrong sometimes as long as I try to understand why it went wrong.

o I need stimulating and interesting tasks - otherwise it's hard to get involved.

P You should be able to laugh in your joh. Work should not always be serious.

Section 8: BUSiness in tho twenty-first century 93


Business challenges

Here are some of the challenges facing businesses and business people in the twenty-first century. Match each of the challenges (1-12) with one of the groups (a-I).

1 Risk 7 Communication
2 Growth 8 Organization
3 Emotion 9 Environment
4 People 10 Capital
5 Service 11 Entrepreneurship
6 Globalization 12 Technology
a MBW;\ suggestion schemes company intranet
b loans savings share issues
c em pathy encouragement expression
d initiative non-traditional commitment
e retention recognition reward
f organic acquisition joint venture
9 virtual horizontal project-based
h miniaturization networks connectivi ty
financial volatility catastrophe fraud
trade liberalization economies of scale government
k :-,pl'l'd of response empowerment customer orientation
:-.u:-.Llill.l1J1c renewable resources regulation
dl'Vl' I op me 11 t P Use a dictionary to check the words that you are not sure of. MBWA is Management By Walking Around.

94 S(,cll()11 d HllslllC:ss In the twenty-first century

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