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Materials and Structures

UNIFIED HANDOUT

MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES - #M-6

Fall, 2008

Mohr’s Circle

Mohr’s circle is a geometric representation of the 2-D transformation of stresses

and is very useful to perform quick and efficient estimations, checks of more

extensive work, and other such uses.

(Note: a similar formulation can be used for tensorial strain)

CONSTRUCTION:

Given the following state of stress:

y2

y1

“Positive shear would cause a clockwise rotation of the infinitesimal

element about the element center.”

Thus, from the illustration above, σ12 is plotted negative on Mohr's circle, and σ21

is plotted positive on Mohr's circle.

MIT, Unified (16.001/16.002) Fall, 2008

Materials and Structures

1. Plot σ11, - σ12 as point A

2. Plot σ22, σ21 as point B

3. Connect A and B

Step 2

Step 3

Step 1

4. Draw a circle of diameter of the line AB about the point where the line

AB crosses the horizontal axis (denote this as point C)

Step 4

Extensional

MIT, Unified (16.001/16.002) Fall, 2008

Materials and Structures

• To read off stresses for a rotated system:

1. Note that the vertical axis is the shear stress axis and the horizontal axis is the

extensional stress axis.

2. Positive rotations are measured counterclockwise as referenced to the original

system and thus to the line AB.

~

y2

y2 ~

y1

REAL

SPACE θ

y1

3. Rotate line AB about point C by the angle 2θ where θ is the angle between the

unrotated and rotated systems.

4. The points D and E where the rotated line intersects the circle are used to read

~

off the stresses in the rotated system. The vertical location of D is - σ12; the

~ ~

horizontal location of D is σ11. The vertical location of E is σ21 , the horizontal

~

location of E is σ22 (Recall Mohr definition with regard to negative/positive sense

of shear stress on Mohr's circle).

“MOHR SPACE”

~

–σ

~ Extensional

σ

~

σ

~

σ

MIT, Unified (16.001/16.002) Fall, 2008

Materials and Structures

• We can immediately see the following:

5. The principal stresses, σI and σII , are defined by the points F and G

~

(along the horizontal axis where σ12 = 0). The rotation angle to the

principal axis is θp which is 1/2 the angle from the line AB to the

horizontal line FG.

6. The maximum shear stress is defined by the points H and H’ which are

the endpoints of the vertical line. The line is orthogonal to the principal

stress line and thus the maximum shear stress acts along a plane 45°

(= 90°/2) from the principal stress system.

Shear

H

σ12max

B

G C F

Extensional

Ext

2θp σI

σII

A

H'

MIT, Unified (16.001/16.002) Fall, 2008

Materials and Structures

(θ as on p.3 figure):

Note: θ is not the direction cosine angle in the tensor transformation relations,

e.g.: σ˜ αβ = lα˜ θ lβ˜ τ σ θτ

by convention, angle is measured positive counterclockwise (+ CCW).

For the situation developed here for Mohr’s circle, the direction cosines are:

l 2˜ 1 = cos(270 o − θ) = −sin(θ)

l 1˜ 2 = cos(90 o − θ) = sin(θ)

l 2˜ 2 = cos( 360 o − θ) = cos(θ)

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