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ÅÐÉÓÔÇÌÏÍÉÊÇ ÅÐÏÐÔEÉÁ

Äñ Ãéþñãïò Ãéáííáêüðïõëïò
Éóôïñéêüò - Âéâëéïèçêïíüìïò
- Áñ÷åéïíüìïò

ÓÕÃÃÑÁÖH - ÅÑÅÕÍÁ
Áíáóôáóßá Ëåñßïõ,
Äñ Áñ÷áéïëïãßáò

ÁÐÏÔÕÐÙÓÇ ÓÇÌÅÑÉÍÇÓ ÏØÇÓ


Ãéþñãïò Âåñãüðïõëïò
Ïéêïíïìïëüãïò

SCIENTIFIC SUPERVISOR ÅÊÄÏÔÉÊÇ ÅÐÉÌÅËÅÉÁ - Ó×ÅÄÉÁÓÌÏÓ


Dr Giorgos Giannakopoulos ÄçìÞôñçò Ëïýêáò
Historian - Librarian - Archivist ÁÃÃËÉÊÇ ÁÐÏÄÏÓÇ
AUTHOR - RESEARCHER Ãåþñãéïò ÂáâïõñáíÜêçò
Dr Anastasia Leriou, ÖÉËÏËÏÃÉÊÇ ÅÐÉÌÅËÅÉÁ
Archaeologist Ìáñßá Ëåðåíéþôç
CONTEMPORARY COMMENTARY YÐÅÕÈÕÍÏÓ ÓÅËÉÄÏÐÏÉÇÓÇÓ
George Vergopoulos Êùíóôáíôßíïò Ðáðáêùíóôáíôßíïõ
Economist
ÖÙÔÏÃÑÁÖIÓÅÉÓ
Óðýñïò Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò
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Þ ôìçìÜôùí ôïõ ìå ïðïéïíäÞðïôå ôñüðï, óýìöùíá ìå ôéò äéáôÜîåéò ôïõ í. 2121/1993
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7

×áéñåôéóìüò ÄçìÜñ÷ïõ

¸íá ïäïéðïñéêü óôéò éóôïñéêÝò ìíÞìåò ôçò ðüëçò ìáò åßíáé ôï âéâëßï ðïõ
êñáôÜôå óôá ÷Ýñéá óáò. Áðü êáéñü åß÷áìå åðéóçìÜíåé ôçí Ýëëåéøç ìéáò
óõóôçìáôéêÞò êáé ïëïêëçñùìÝíçò êáôáãñáöÞò ôçò éóôïñéêÞò äéáäñïìÞò ôïõ
ôüðïõ ìáò, ãåãïíüò ðïõ áäéêïýóå ôçí ðüëç.
¸ôóé ïäçãçèÞêáìå óôçí Ýêäïóç áõôÞ, ðïõ öùôßæåé ôïí ìáêñü÷ñïíï âçìáôéóìü
ôçò êáé áíáäåéêíýåé ôçí éóôïñßá ôçò. ÍçöÜëéá êáé áíôéêåéìåíéêÜ, ÷ùñßò
õðåñâïëÝò, êáôáãñÜöïíôáé ïé óõíáíôÞóåéò ôçò ðüëçò ìáò ìå ôçí Éóôïñßá. Êáé ðáñÜëëçëá
ðñïóäéïñßæïíôáé ïé éóôïñéêïß ôüðïé êáé ôá ìíçìåßá ðïõ áõôÝò ïé óõíáíôÞóåéò êëçñïäüôçóáí óôéò
íåüôåñåò ãåíéÝò.
¸ôóé, áõèüñìçôá óõíåéäçôïðïéïýìå üôé üëïé åìåßò ðïõ êáôïéêïýìå óôï ×áúäÜñé, åßìáóôå áðïäÝêôåò
ìéáò óçìáíôéêÞò éóôïñéêÞò êëçñïíïìéÜò ðïõ ç ðñïâïëÞ êáé ç áíÜäåéîÞ ôçò ëåéôïõñãåß ðñïò
äýï êáôåõèýíóåéò. Êáô’ áñ÷Þí äßíåé îå÷ùñéóôÞ áîßá êáé êýñïò óôçí ßäéá ôçí ðüëç. Ôáõôü÷ñïíá,
åíäõíáìþíåé ôïõò äåóìïýò ìáò ìå áõôüí ôïí ôüðï, ãéáôß ç óõíáßóèçóç ôçò éóôïñéêÞò ôïõ óçìáóßáò,
åíéó÷õìÝíç áðü ôçí îå÷ùñéóôÞ ôïõ áéóèçôéêÞ, äçìéïõñãåß åýëïãá óõíáéóèÞìáôá éêáíïðïßçóçò êáé
ðåñçöÜíéáò. Ìå áõôü ôïí ôñüðï ï áèÝáôïò âéùìáôéêüò äéÜëïãïò áíÜìåóá óôïí ôüðï êáé ôïõò
êáôïßêïõò ôïõ ãßíåôáé áêüìç ðéï ïõóéáóôéêüò, êáé ðéï áéóéüäïîïò. Êáé Ý÷åé áõôü ìåãáëýôåñç óçìáóßá
ãéá ôç íåïëáßá ìáò ðïõ ìå ôïí Üäïëï óõíáéóèçìáôéóìü ôçò äçìéïõñãåß âáèýôåñïõò óõíåéñìïýò ãéá
ôïí ôüðï ðïõ óõíäÝåôáé ìå ôá ðñþôá óêéñôÞìáôá êáé ìå ôéò ðñþôåò áíáæçôÞóåéò ôçò.
Ìå ôçí åëðßäá üôé ôï Ýñãï áõôü èá Ý÷åé ôç äéêÞ ôïõ ðéá áõôüíïìç éóôïñéêÞ óõìâïëÞ, åêöñÜæù ôéò
èåñìÝò ìïõ åõ÷áñéóôßåò ó’ üëïõò üóïé åñãÜóôçêáí ãéá ôç äçìéïõñãßá ôïõ.

Ï ÄÞìáñ÷ïò ×áúäáñßïõ
ÊõñéÜêïò Íôçíéáêüò
9

Mayor’s Greeting

The book in hand is a journey through the historical memories of our town. The
absence of a systematic and complete recording of the historical trajectory of our
place had been noted since a long time, and it had been unfair for the town.
Hence, we led ourselves to this edition, which illuminates its long course and
promotes its history. Calmly and objectively, without exaggeration, the meetings of
our town with history are recorded. And in parallel, historical places, as well as the
monuments that these meetings have bequeathed the younger generations, have been defined.
Thus, all of us residing in Chaidari become conscious of the fact that we receive a significant
historical heritage, the promotion of which operates towards two directions. First, it gives special value
and prestige to the town itself. At the same time, it reinforces our bonds with this place, because the
sense of its historical significance, reinforced by its special style, creates obvious feelings of content
and pride. This way, the invisible experiential dialogue between the place and its residents becomes
more substantial and more optimistic. And this has a greater significance for our youth with its
innocent sentimentalism, which creates deeper connotations for the place which is related to their first
excitements, as well as their first pursuits.
Hoping that this work will have its own autonomous contribution, I express my warm
acknowledgements to all those who worked for its making.

The Mayor of Chaidari


Kyriakos Nteniakos
10

Åéóáãùãéêü Óçìåßùìá

Ô
ï ×áúäÜñé, ãíùóôü ùò äÞìïò ¸ñìïõ êáôÜ ôçí áñ÷áéüôçôá, äåí Þôáí ìüíï Ýíá óçìáíôéêü
ðÝñáóìá ìåôáîý Áèçíþí êáé Åëåõóßíáò áëëÜ êáé ç äõôéêÞ åßóïäïò ôçò ÁèÞíáò, ôï óçìåßï
áðü ôï ïðïßï ïé ôáîéäéþôåò áðü ôç Èåóóáëßá, ôç ÓôåñåÜ ÅëëÜäá êáé ôçí Ðåëïðüííçóï
ðñùôïáíôßêñéæáí ôç ëáìðñÞ ðïëéôåßá. Ï äñüìïò ðïõ óõíÝäåå ôï Üóôõ ìå ôï åëåõóéíéáêü éåñü
ôçò ÄÞìçôñáò Þôáí ç ðåñßöçìç ÉåñÜ Ïäüò, ç ïðïßá ðåñíïýóå êáôÜ ìÞêïò ôçò ðåñéï÷Þò ðïõ
êáôáëáìâÜíåé ï óçìåñéíüò ÄÞìïò ×áúäáñßïõ, áêïëïõèþíôáò ðåñßðïõ ôçí ðïñåßá ôçò óýã÷ñïíçò ïìþíõìçò
ïäïý. ÉåñÜ êáé åíôõðùóéáêÜ ôáöéêÜ ìíçìåßá êïóìïýóáí ôéò ðáñõöÝò ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý. ÓçìáíôéêÜ éåñÜ óôá
üñéá ôïõ óçìåñéíïý ×áúäáñßïõ õðÞñîáí ï íáüò ôïõ Áðüëëùíá, óôç èÝóç üðïõ âñßóêåôáé óÞìåñá ç ìïíÞ
Äáöíßïõ, êáé ôï éåñü ôçò Áöñïäßôçò óôïí ÓêáñáìáãêÜ.
Ç ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ Þôáí ó÷åôéêÜ Ýñçìç óôá âõæáíôéíÜ êáé ìåôáâõæáíôéíÜ ÷ñüíéá, êáëõììÝíç áðü
ðõêíÜ äÜóç. ÌïíáäéêÞ, áëëÜ éäéáéôÝñùò åîÝ÷ïõóá åîáßñåóç áðïôÝëåóå ç ðåñßöçìç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ, ÷ôéóìÝíç
óôç èÝóç ôïõ íáïý ôïõ Äáöíáßïõ Áðüëëùíïò. Ôï Äáöíß õðÞñîå Ýíá áðü ôá ðéï öçìéóìÝíá ìïíáóôÞñéá ôïõ
åëëáäéêïý ÷þñïõ êáé óçìáíôéêüò ðüëïò Ýëîçò ìïíá÷þí êáé ðñïóêõíçôþí áðü ôïí 11ï ìÝ÷ñé êáé ôïí 16ï
áéþíá. Ôüóï ç åíôõðùóéáêÞ áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ üóï êáé ç ëáìðñÞ øçöéäùôÞ äéáêüóìçóç ôïõ íáïý ôçò ìïíÞò
Äáöíßïõ, ôçí êáèéóôïýí Ýíá áðü ôá ðëÝïí åîáéñåôéêÜ ìíçìåßá ôçò âõæáíôéíÞò ôÝ÷íçò.
Ç ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ Ýðáéîå éäéáßôåñá óçìáíôéêü ñüëï êáôÜ ôá ÷ñüíéá ôçò ÅëëçíéêÞò ÅðáíÜóôáóçò,
áöïý åêåß Ýëáâáí ÷þñá äýï óçìáíôéêÝò ìÜ÷åò óôéò 6 êáé 8 Áõãïýóôïõ 1826. Ïé åðáíáóôáôçìÝíïé ¸ëëçíåò
áãùíßæïíôáí íá äéáóþóïõí ôï ôåëåõôáßï ï÷õñü ðïõ åß÷áí óôá ÷Ýñéá ôïõò, ôçí Áêñüðïëç ôùí Áèçíþí, ôçí
ïðïßá ðïëéïñêïýóáí éó÷õñÝò ôïõñêéêÝò äõíÜìåéò. Ç áêñéâÞò ôïðïèåóßá üðïõ Ýãéíáí ïé ìÜ÷åò óôï ×áúäÜñé
åíôïðßæåôáé óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ãýñù áðü ôïí ðýñãï ÐáëáôÜêé. Åêåß õðÞñ÷å ìåãÜëï ðåñéöñáãìÝíï áãñüêôçìá,
ãíùóôü ùò Á÷åñäÜñé (×áúäÜñé). Ïé ðïëåìéóôÝò ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç ôáìðïõñþèçêáí ðßóù áðü ôïí ðåñßâïëï ôïõ
áãñïêôÞìáôïò êáé óôïõò ãýñù ëüöïõò, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá áíôéìåôùðßóïõí ôá óôñáôåýìáôá ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ.
Ôï åîáéñåôéêÜ åíäéáöÝñïí áðü áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞò áðüøåùò ÐáëáôÜêé ÷ôßóôçêå ëßãï ðñéí áðü ôá ìÝóá ôïõ
19ïõ áéþíá. Óôïí îåíþíá ôïõ ï ìåãÜëïò ¸ëëçíáò æùãñÜöïò Íéêüëáïò Ãýæçò öéëïôÝ÷íçóå ôçí åíôõðùóéáêÞ
ôïé÷ïãñáößá ôùí ÔåóóÜñùí Åðï÷þí. Åîßóïõ åíôõðùóéáêÝò åßíáé êáé ïé ôïé÷ïãñáößåò ðïõ öéëïôÝ÷íçóå
ï Íéêçöüñïò Ëýôñáò óôï åêêëçóÜêé ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ, ðïõ êáôÜ ôçí ðåñßïäï åêåßíç áíÞêå óôï êôÞìá
×áúäÜñé.
11

Ç ðåñßïäïò ôçò Êáôï÷Þò ó÷åôßæåôáé Üìåóá ìå ôï ×áúäÜñé, êáèþò åäþ âñéóêüôáí ôï ðéï ìåãÜëï íáæéóôéêü
óôñáôüðåäï óõãêÝíôñùóçò óôçí ÅëëÜäá. Ôï óôñáôüðåäï ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ äåí õðÞñîå áðëþò Ýíáò ÷þñïò
êñÜôçóçò, âáóáíéóìþí êáé åêôåëÝóåùí. Ôá åãêëÞìáôá ðïõ ãßíïíôáí åêåß Þôáí Ýíá ìÝóï ôñïìïêñÜôçóçò
ôïõ ëáïý, ìéá ðñïóðÜèåéá íá êáìöèåß ç áíôéóôáóéáêÞ äñÜóç. Áðü ôï óôñáôüðåäï ðÝñáóáí óõíïëéêÜ
ðåñéóóüôåñïé áðü 21.000 êñáôïýìåíïé. Ôï óôñáôüðåäï ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ, ï ôüðïò üðïõ ìáñôýñçóáí ôüóïé
Üíèñùðïé, áðïôåëåß óÞìåñá óýìâïëï åëðßäáò ãéá ôçí åðéêñÜôçóç ôùí áíèñþðéíùí áîéþí åðß ôçò
âáñâáñüôçôáò.
ÁõôÜ ðáñïõóéÜæåé ç ðáñïýóá Ýêäïóç óôá ôÝóóåñá êåöÜëáéÜ ôçò: ôÝóóåñéò óõíáíôÞóåéò ìå ôçí Éóôïñßá,
ôÝóóåñéò éóôïñéêÝò ðåñéüäïõò, ôÝóóåñéò ôüðïõò ðïõ êáèïñßæïõí ôçí éóôïñéêÞ äéáäñïìÞ ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ.
Ç éäÝá íá ìçí ãñáöôåß ìéá óõìâáôéêÞ éóôïñßá ôçò ðüëçò, áëëÜ íá öùôéóôïýí ïé ðéï óçìáíôéêÝò, ßóùò,
ðôõ÷Ýò ôçò, áíÞêåé óôïí äÞìáñ÷ï ÊõñéÜêï Íôçíéáêü· éäÝá ôçí ïðïßá ðñïóðáèÞóáìå íá õëïðïéÞóïõìå
ìå ôïí êáëýôåñï äõíáôü ôñüðï. Ôá åðéóôçìïíéêÜ áêñéâÞ êáé ôáõôü÷ñïíá åýëçðôá êåßìåíá ôçò äñïò
Áíáóôáóßáò Ëåñßïõ êáé ç åêäïôéêÞ - êáëëéôå÷íéêÞ åðéìÝëåéá ôïõ ÄçìÞôñç Ëïýêá áðÝöåñáí
Ýíá åîáéñåôéêÜ éêáíïðïéçôéêü áðïôÝëåóìá.
Óôï ôÝëïò åêÜóôïõ êåöáëáßïõ Ý÷ïõí ðñïóôåèåß, áðü ôïí åéäéêü óõíåñãÜôç ôïõ ÄÞìïõ, ïéêïíïìïëüãï
Ãéþñãï Âåñãüðïõëï, êåßìåíá ðïõ óõíäÝïõí ôï ÷èåò ìå ôï óÞìåñá. Åêåß ìðïñåß ï áíáãíþóôçò íá äåé
ôéò ðñïóðÜèåéåò ôïõ ÄÞìïõ ×áúäáñßïõ íá äéáóþóåé êáé íá ðñïâÜëåé ôçí éóôïñßá ôïõ· íá äéáìïñöþóåé,
íá óõíôçñÞóåé êáé íá áíáäåßîåé ÷þñïõò êáé ìíçìåßá ðïõ áíÞêïõí óôïõò äçìüôåò ôïõ áëëÜ
êáé óå üëïõò ôïõò ¸ëëçíåò.
Ôï âéâëßï, ëéôü, áêñéâÝò êáé åýóôï÷ï, áðïêáëýðôåé åîáñ÷Þò ôïí óôü÷ï ôïõ: íá öùôßóåé ôï óçìáíôéêü,
ôï îå÷ùñéóôü, ôï óðïõäáßï· íá ðáñïõóéÜóåé ôï ðáñåëèüí ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ, óõìâÜëëïíôáò Ýôóé êáé óôç
äéáìüñöùóç ìéáò ïñèïëïãéêÞò Üðïøçò ãéá ôç áðïôßìçóç áõôïý ôïõ ðáñåëèüíôïò.

Äñ Ãéþñãïò Ãéáííáêüðïõëïò
Éóôïñéêüò - Âéâëéïèçêïíüìïò - Áñ÷åéïíüìïò
12

Introductory Note

C
haidari, known as the Hermos deme in antiquity, was not simply an important passage
between Athens and Eleusina, but also the west gate of Athens, the point from where
all travellers from Thessaly, the Southern Mainland and the Peloponnese first viewed the
splendid city. The road connecting the Eleusinian sanctuary of Demeter to the city was the
famous Sacred Way, which passed through the area of the modern municipality of Chaidari,
and followed about the same course as the modern road. The banks of the Sacred Way were adorned with
impressive burial monuments. Important sanctuaries within the limits of modern Chaidari were the temple of
Apollon at the modern location of the Daphni Monastery and the sanctuary of Aphrodite at Skaramangas.
The area of Chaidari was relatively deserted during Byzantine and post-Byzantine times, covered with dense
forrests. A unique and rather prominent exception is the famous Daphni Monastery, built on the location of
the temple of Apollon Daphnaios. Daphni was one of the best known Helladic monasteries and an important
attraction for monks and pilgrims from the 11th to the 16th century. The impressive architecture and the brilliant
mosaic decoration of the church of the Daphni Monastery cast it one of the most exceptional monuments of
Byzantine art.
The area of Chaidari played a rather important role during the Greek Revolution, since it was the theatre of two
significant battles that took place on the 6th and 8th of August 1826 respectively. The revolted Greeks fought
to save their last stronghold, the Akropolis of Athens, which was being besieged by strong Turkish forces. The
exact location of the battles of Chaidari is around the Palataki tower. This was within a large fenced estate,
known as Acherdari (Chaidari). Karaiskakis’ fighters fortified behind the fence and on the surrounding hills in
order to confront Kutahiye’s troops. The exceptionally interesting for its architecture Palataki was built just
before the middle of the 19th century. In its guest quarters the great Greek artist Nikolaos Gyzis painted the
impressive murals of the Four Seasons. Equally impressive are the mural paintings by Nikephoros Lytras in the
church of Agios Georgios, which then belonged to the Chaidari estate.
The period of the German Occupation is directly related to Chaidari, since this was the location of the largest
Nazi conentration camp in Greece. The Chaidari camp was not simply a place for imprisonment, torturing
and executions. The crimes that happened in there became ameans of terrorizing the people, a method for
discouraging resistance activity. 21000 prisoners passed from the camp in total. Among them were many Jews,
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the great majority of which was transferred to concentration camps in Central Europe. The Chaidari camp, the
place where so many people suffered martyrdom, is today a symbol of hope for the prevalence of human
values over barbarism.
These are presented within the book in hand: Four meetings with history, four historical periods, four places
that define the historical trajectory of Chaidari.
The idea of refraining from a conventional town history and, instead, illuminating probably its most significant
aspects, belongs to mayor Kyriakos Nteniakos; an idea that we tried to materialize in the best possible way.
The scientifically accurate and at the same time easily understandable texts by Dr. Anastasia Leriou and the
editing and artistic design by Dimitris Lucas brought an exceptionally pleasing result.
At the end of each chapter there are added texts by George Vergopoulos, econoist and special associate
of the Municipality. These texts connect yesterday with today. The reader may see there the attempts by
the Municipality of Chaidari to rescue and promote its history; to attend, restore and enhance places and
monuments that belong to its residents, as well as to all Greeks.
The book, frugal, accurate and to the point, reveals its aim from the beginning: to illuminate the important, the
special, the great; to present the past of Chaidari, thus contributing to the formation of a rational view on the
management of this past.

Dr Giorgos Giannakopoulos
Historian – Librarian - Archivist
ÊåöÜëáéï É
Áñ÷áßá Ðåñßïäïò
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Áñ÷áßá ðåñßïäïò:
Éóôïñéêïß ôüðïé êáé äñþìåíá óôï ×áúäÜñé
ÉåñÜ Oäüò - ÄÞìïò ¸ñìïõ

Ç
èÝóç ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ ìåôáîý ÁèÞíáò êáé üëï ôïí ÷ñüíï. Ôá áíôéêåßìåíá áõôÜ, ðïõ ðáñáìÝíåé
Åëåõóßíáò, êáé ìÜëéóôá óôï óçìáíôéêü Üãíùóôï ôé áêñéâþò Þôáí, ôïðïèåôïýíôáí óôï åí
ðÝñáóìá ìåôáîý ôùí ïñåéíþí üãêùí ¢óôåé Åëåõóßíéïí2, Ýíá éåñü óôç âüñåéá êëéôý ôçò
ôïõ ÁéãÜëåù êáé ôïõ Ðïéêßëïõ, Ýðáéîå Áêñüðïëçò, êáé ïé åïñôáóìïß îåêéíïýóáí åðßóçìá. Ôá
ðñùôáñ÷éêü ñüëï óôçí åîÝëéîç ôçò ÌåãÜëá ÌõóôÞñéá äéáñêïýóáí åííÝá çìÝñåò êáé åß÷áí
ðåñéï÷Þò êáôÜ ôçí áñ÷áéüôçôá. Ï äñüìïò ðïõ óõíÝäåå áíôéêåßìåíï ôïí åïñôáóìü ôçò óõìâïëéêÞò Ýíùóçò ôçò
áõôïýò ôïõò äýï ðüëïõò Þôáí ç ðåñßöçìç ÉåñÜ èåÜò ÄÞìçôñáò ìå ôçí êüñç ôçò Ðåñóåöüíç ìåôÜ ôçí
Ïäüò, ç ïðïßá ðåñíïýóå êáôÜ ìÞêïò ôçò ðåñéï÷Þò åðÜíïäï ôçò ôåëåõôáßáò áðü ôïí ¢äç 3.
ðïõ êáôáëáìâÜíåé ï óçìåñéíüò ÄÞìïò ×áúäáñßïõ, ÊáôÜ ôçí ðÝìðôç çìÝñá ôá éåñÜ áíôéêåßìåíá ôçò
áêïëïõèþíôáò ðåñßðïõ ôçí ðïñåßá ôçò óýã÷ñïíçò ÄÞìçôñáò åðÝóôñåöáí óôçí Åëåõóßíá óõíïäåõüìåíá
ïìþíõìçò ïäïý. Ç ÉåñÜ Ïäüò áðïôÝëåóå ôïí âáóéêü áðü ðïëõðëçèÞ ðïìðÞ ðïõ áðïôåëïýíôáí áðü ôïõò
Üîïíá êáôÜ ìÞêïò ôïõ ïðïßïõ áíáðôý÷èçêå ôï áñ÷áßï õðïøÞöéïõò ìýóôåò áëëÜ êáé Þäç ìõçìÝíïõò ðéóôïýò.
×áúäÜñé, ðïõ óôïõò êëáóéêïýò êáé åëëçíéóôéêïýò ÐÞãáéíáí óôçí Åëåõóßíá, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ôéìÞóïõí
÷ñüíïõò Þôáí ãíùóôü ùò ¸ñìïò. ÌåôÜ ôçí êëåéóèÝíåéá ôç ÄÞìçôñá óõììåôÝ÷ïíôáò óå ôåëåôïõñãßåò ìå
ìåôáññýèìéóç, óôá ôÝëç ôïõ 6ïõ áéþíá ð.×., ï ¸ñìïò ìõóôéêéóôéêü êáé Ýíôïíá ðíåõìáôéêü ÷áñáêôÞñá, ãéá
áðïôÝëåóå Ýíáí áðü ôïõò ðéï óçìáíôéêïýò äÞìïõò ôçò ôéò ïðïßåò åëÜ÷éóôá óôïé÷åßá ãíùñßæïõìå óÞìåñá.
Áêáìáíôßäïò öõëÞò. Ç ðïñåßá áðü ôçí ÁèÞíá ðñïò ôçí Åëåõóßíá åß÷å ìÞêïò
Ç ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ åß÷å éäéáßôåñá óôåíÞ ó÷Ýóç ðåñßðïõ 20 ÷éëéüìåôñá. Ôï Ýíá ôÝôáñôï ôçò äéáäñïìÞò
ìå ôçí Åëåõóßíá êáé ôá éåñÜ ôçò. ÁõôÞ ïöåéëüôáí óôéò áõôÞò åíôïðßæåôáé ìÝóá óôá üñéá ôïõ óýã÷ñïíïõ
ìåãÜëåò ëáôñåõôéêÝò ðïìðÝò áðü ôçí ÁèÞíá ðñïò ôçí ×áúäáñßïõ êáé óõãêåêñéìÝíá áðü ôï üñéï ìå ôïí ÄÞìï
Åëåõóßíá ðïõ ðñáãìáôïðïéïýíôáí êÜèå öèéíüðùñï óôï ÁéãÜëåù ìÝ÷ñé êáé ôïí ÓêáñáìáãêÜ.
ðëáßóéï ôùí ÌåãÜëùí Ìõóôçñßùí 1. Óôéò 14 ôïõ ìÞíá Ç äéáäñïìÞ ðåñíïýóå ìÝóá áðü äñïóåñÝò äáóþäåéò
Âïçäñïìéþíá (ìåôáîý Óåðôåìâñßïõ êáé Ïêôùâñßïõ) åêôÜóåéò, áãñïýò êáé êáëëéåñãçìÝíá ÷ùñÜöéá, åíþ
ôï åëåõóéíéáêü éåñáôåßï, óõíïäåõüìåíï áðü ôéìçôéêÞ éåñÜ êáé åíôõðùóéáêÜ ôáöéêÜ ìíçìåßá êïóìïýóáí ôéò
öñïõñÜ, ìåôÝöåñå óôçí ÁèÞíá ìÝóù ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý ðáñõöÝò ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý. Óå êÜðïéá áðü ôá ðáñüäéá
ôá éåñÜ áíôéêåßìåíá ðïõ öõëÜóóïíôáí óôçí Åëåõóßíá éåñÜ ïé ðéóôïß ôçò ÄÞìçôñáò Ýêáíáí óôÜóåéò ãéá íá

Ôï ìåãÜëï åëåõóéíéáêü áíÜãëõöï, ìÝóá 5ïõ áéþíá ð.×. (ýøïò 2,2 ì. êáé ðëÜôïò 1,55 ì.). ÄåîéÜ åéêïíßæåôáé ç
Ðåñóåöüíç (Êüñç) ìå äÜäá óôï ÷Ýñé, êáé óôá áñéóôåñÜ ç ÄÞìçôñá. Ïé äýï èåÝò áðï÷áéñåôïýí ôïí âáóéëéÜ
ôçò Åëåõóßíáò Ôñéðôüëåìï, ðïõ ðáñéóôÜíåôáé óôï êÝíôñï, ï ïðïßïò åôïéìÜæåôáé íá äéäÜîåé ôç ãåùñãßá óôïõò
áíèñþðïõò óýìöùíá ìå ôéò ïäçãßåò ôçò èåÜò ÄÞìçôñáò (Åèíéêü Áñ÷áéïëïãéêü Ìïõóåßï).
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îåêïõñáóôïýí Þ íá ôåëÝóïõí éåñïõñãßåò ó÷åôéæüìåíåò ôç ìåëÝôç ôùí åëåõóéíéáêþí éåñþí5.


ìå ôá ÌõóôÞñéá. Óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ ôÝôïéá Ç ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ Þôáí åîßóïõ óçìáíôéêÞ
ïñüóçìá õðÞñîáí ï íáüò ôïõ Áðüëëùíá, óôç èÝóç êáé ãéá ôçí ÁèÞíá, áöïý óôçí ïõóßá áðïôåëïýóå ôï
üðïõ âñßóêåôáé óÞìåñá ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ, êáé ôï éåñü äõôéêüôáôï Üêñï ôçò. Åßíáé ôï óçìåßï, üðïõ ìüëéò
ôçò Áöñïäßôçò óôïí ÓêáñáìáãêÜ, ôá ïðïßá èá äïýìå Ýöôáíáí ïé åðéóêÝðôåò áðü ôç Èåóóáëßá, ôç ÓôåñåÜ
áíáëõôéêÜ ðáñáêÜôù4. ÅëëÜäá êáé ôçí Ðåëïðüííçóï êáôáëÜâáéíáí üôé åß÷áí
Óôï óçìåßï áõôü èá ðñÝðåé íá ðñïóèÝóïõìå üôé ôï ðëÝïí Ýñèåé óôïí ðñïïñéóìü ôïõò, êáèþò áðü ôïí
×áúäÜñé åßíáé Üìåóá óõíäåäåìÝíï ìå ôçí Åëåõóßíá ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêü ëüöï ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá Ýâëåðáí ôç
êáé óå åñåõíçôéêü-áñ÷áéïëïãéêü åðßðåäï. Åßíáé ëáìðñÞ ðïëéôåßá íá áðëþíåôáé ìðñïóôÜ óôá ðüäéá
÷áñáêôçñéóôéêü üôé ïé óõóôçìáôéêÝò Ýñåõíåò ðïõ ôïõò. Ôá óõíáéóèÞìáôá èáõìáóìïý êáé äÝïõò ôùí
Ýãéíáí óôéò áñ÷Ýò ôçò äåêáåôßáò ôïõ 1930 êáôÜ ìÞêïò áñ÷áßùí ôáîéäéùôþí Ýíéùóå ôïõëÜ÷éóôïí åßêïóé áéþíåò
ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý, áðü ôïí ëüöï ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá ìÝ÷ñé áñãüôåñá êáé ï ÃÜëëïò ñïìáíôéêüò óõããñáöÝáò êáé
ôç ëßìíç Êïõìïõíäïýñïõ, óôá óýíïñá ×áúäáñßïõ êáé ëüãéïò François René Chateaubriand (1768-1848), óôçí
Áóðñoðýñãïõ, ïöåßëïíôáí óôçí ðñïóðÜèåéá ôïõ ôüôå ðïñåßá ôïõ áðü ôçí Åëåõóßíá ðñïò ôçí ÁèÞíá êáôÜ
äéåõèõíôÞ ôçò áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò õðçñåóßáò Êùíóôáíôßíïõ ôçí ðåñéÞãçóÞ ôïõ óôçí ÅëëÜäá ôï 1806.
Êïõñïõíéþôç (1878-1945) íá áíáäåßîåé ôá éóôïñéêÜ Áíôéêñßæïíôáò ôçí ÁèÞíá áðü ôï õðåñõøùìÝíï ôïðßï
óôïé÷åßá ôçò ÉåñÜò ïäïý. ¸÷ïíôáò åñåõíÞóåé ôïõ ëüöïõ, áíáöÝñåé:
äéåîïäéêÜ ôïí áñ÷áéïëïãéêü ÷þñï ôçò Åëåõóßíáò,
«Ïἱ ôὴí ðüëéí ôïῦ ÊÝêñïðïò ἐðéóêåðôüìåíïé
åðéäßùîå íá åðåêôåßíåé ôéò áíáóêáöÝò êáé óôçí ÉåñÜ
ðåñéçãçôáὶ ἀöéêíïῦíôáé óõíÞèùò åἰò áὐôὴí äéὰ ôïῦ
ïäü, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ïëïêëçñþóåé
Ðåéñáéῶò ἤ ôῆò Åὐâïßáò, óôåñïýìåíïé ïὕôù ìÝãá
ìÝñïò ôïῦ èåÜìáôïò· êáèüôé ἡ Ἀêñüðïëéò äὲí
öáßíåôáé ôïῖò äéὰ èáëÜóóçò ἀöéêíïõìÝíïéò, ὁ äὲ
Ἄã÷åóìïò ἐðéðñïóèåῖ ôïῖò ἐî Åὐâïßáò ἐñ÷ïìÝíïéò.
Ἐãὼ ὅìùò ἀãáè ôý÷ῃ ἔöèáóá åἰò ἈèÞíáò äéὰ
ôῆò ὁäïῦ, ἀö’ ἧò öáßíåôáé ἡ ðüëéò ἐí ðÜóῃ ô
ëáìðñüôçôé áὐôῆò.
»Ôὸ ðñῶôïí ἀíôéêåßìåíïí, ὅðåñ åἶäïí, ἦôï ἡ
Ἀêñüðïëéò öùôéæüìåíç ὑðὸ ôïῦ ἀíáôÝëëïíôïò
ἡëßïõ· ὑøïῦôï äὲ êáôáíôéêñὺ ðÝñáí ôῆò ðåäéÜäïò
êáὶ ἐöáßíåôï ἐñåéäïìÝíç ἐðὶ ôïῦ Ὑìçôôïῦ,
ó÷çìáôßæïíôïò ôὸí ὁñßæïíôá ôῆò åἰêüíïò ôáýôçò.
Ðáñßóôá äὲ óõãêå÷õìÝíïí ìßãìá ἐê êéïíïêñÜíùí
ôῶí Ðñïðõëáßùí, êéüíùí ôïῦ Ðáñèåíῶíïò
êáὶ ôïῦ íáïῦ ôïῦ Ἐñå÷èÝùò, ἐðÜëîåéò ôåé÷ῶí
êáíïíïöüñùí, Ãïôèéêῶí ἐñåéðßùí ×ñéóôéáíéêῶí êáὶ
Ὀèùìáíéêῶí êáëõâῶí»6.

×Üñôçò ôçò ÄõôéêÞò ÁôôéêÞò ôçò äåêáåôßáò ôïõ 1830 (J. Dower).
Áðåéêïíßæåôáé ç ðïñåßá ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý áðü ôïí Êåñáìåéêü Ýùò
ôçí Åëåõóßíá. Óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ðïõ êáôáëáìâÜíåé ï óýã÷ñïíïò ÄÞìïò
×áúäáñßïõ óçìåéþíïíôáé ôá ôïðùíýìéá “Aidari” (×áúäÜñé), “A Georgi”
(¢ãéïò Ãåþñãéïò), “A Elea” (ÐñïöÞôçò Çëßáò), “Daphne” (Äáöíß) êáé
“Tor Venus” (éåñü Áöñïäßôçò).
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ÔìÞìá ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý óôïí ëïößóêï áíáôïëéêÜ ôùí Ñåéôþí


(ÐñáêôéêÜ Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò 1936, óåë. 30, åéê. 4).

Ç ìáñôõñßá ôïõ ðåñéçãçôÞ Ðáõóáíßá êôÞñéá êáôÜ ôçí ðåñßïäï áðü ôïí 2ï áéþíá ð.×.
ãéá ôç äéáäñïìÞ ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý ìÝ÷ñé ôçí åðï÷Þ ôïõ Ðáõóáíßá. ¼ëá áõôÜ
ï áêïýñáóôïò ðåñéçãçôÞò ôá êáôÝãñáøå
ÐñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ãíùñßóïõìå ôá áñ÷áéïëïãéêÜ ìíçìåßá ìå ìåèïäéêüôçôá êáé áîéïèáýìáóôç áêñßâåéá 7.
ðïõ åíôïðßæïíôáé óôá üñéá ôïõ óýã÷ñïíïõ ÄÞìïõ Ç ðåñéÞãçóç ôçò ÁèÞíáò êáé ôùí ãýñù ðåñéï÷þí
×áúäáñßïõ, èá áêïëïõèÞóïõìå ôç äéáäñïìÞ ðïõ Ýêáíáí áðïôÝëåóå ôïí óôü÷ï ôïõ ðñþôïõ ôáîéäéïý ôïõ
ïé ðéóôïß ôçò ÄÞìçôñáò, üôáí ìåôÝâáéíáí Ðáõóáíßá óôçí ÅëëÜäá. Ç åðßóêåøç óôçí Åëåõóßíá
óôçí Åëåõóßíá. Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá ôçí ßäéá ðïñåßá ðïõ Ýêáíå êáé êáôüðéí óôç Ìåãáñßäá áðïôÝëåóå ôçí ôåëåõôáßá
ëßãï ðñéí áðü ôá ìÝóá ôïõ 2ïõ áéþíá ì.×. åîüñìçóç ôïõ ðåñéçãçôÞ ðñéí åãêáôáëåßøåé ôçí ÁôôéêÞ
ï ðåñéçãçôÞò Ðáõóáíßáò, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ðÜåé êáé óõíå÷ßóåé ðñïò ôçí Ðåëïðüííçóï. Óôï ðëáßóéï
áðü ôçí ÁèÞíá óôï åëåõóéíéáêü éåñü. ÅðéëÝîáìå ôçí áõôÞò ôçò åîüñìçóçò åíôÜóóåôáé êáé ç äéÝëåõóç ìÝóù
áöÞãçóç ôïõ Ðáõóáíßá ùò âÜóç ãéá ôçí ðåñéÞãçóÞ ìáò ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý áðü ôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ðïõ êáôáëáìâÜíåé
óôï ×áúäÜñé, äéüôé ðåñéÝ÷åé ìéá ðëçñÝóôáôç ðåñéãñáöÞ óÞìåñá ï ÄÞìïò ×áúäáñßïõ. Ç Åëåõóßíá áðïôåëïýóå
ôçò ÁèÞíáò êáé ôùí ðåñé÷þñùí êáôÜ ôïí 2ï áéþíá, Ýíáí áðü ôïõò ðéï óçìáíôéêïýò éåñïýò ÷þñïõò
üôáí ç ðüëç äéáôçñïýóå áêüìç óå êáëÞ êáôÜóôáóç óôçí ÁôôéêÞ Þäç áðü ôïí 6ï áéþíá 8. Ôçí åðï÷Þ ôïõ
üëá ôá ëáìðñÜ ìíçìåßá ôçò êëáóéêÞò åðï÷Þò. ðåñéçãçôÞ ôá Åëåõóßíéá ìõóôÞñéá êáé ç ëáôñåßá óôï
ÅðéðëÝïí, áðïëáìâÜíïíôáò ôçí åýíïéá çãåìüíùí ïíïìáóôü éåñü, ðïõ êáôÜ ôç äéÜñêåéá
êáé âáèýðëïõôùí èáõìáóôþí ëüãù ôïõ Ýíäïîïõ ôçò ìáêñáßùíçò æùÞò ôïõ åß÷å åìðëïõôéóôåß ìå
ðáñåëèüíôïò ôçò, åß÷å êïóìçèåß ìå ðïëõôåëÞ ìíçìåéþäç êôßóìáôá9, óõíå÷ßæïíôáí êáíïíéêÜ.
20
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¸ôóé, ç åðßóêåøç ôïõ Ðáõóáíßá åêåß Ýìïéáæå åíôåëþò ìåãáëýôåñç ðýëç ôïõ Äéðýëïõ. Ðåñíïýóáí ôéò ðýëåò
åðéâåâëçìÝíç, éäßùò áí ëÜâåé êáíåßò õðüøç ðùò ï êáé óõãêåíôñþíïíôáí Ýîù áðü ôá ôåß÷ç, óôïí ÷þñï
ðåñéçãçôÞò Þôáí ìõçìÝíïò óôç ìõóôéêÞ äéäáóêáëßá êáé üðïõ âñßóêåôáé óÞìåñá ç óõìâïëÞ ôçò ïäïý Ðåéñáéþò
ôéò ó÷åôéêÝò éåñïõñãßåò 10. ìå ôç óýã÷ñïíç ÉåñÜ Ïäü. Áðü åêåß îåêéíïýóáí ôçí
ôåëåôïõñãéêÞ ðïñåßá ôïõò ðñïò ôçí Åëåõóßíá 14.
Ç ÉåñÞ Ðýëç äåí áíáöÝñåôáé êáèüëïõ áðü ôïí
Ç áöåôçñßá:
Ðáõóáíßá. Ãéá ôçí áêñßâåéá, ç ìüíç áèçíáúêÞ ðýëç ðïõ
ôï Äßðõëï êáé ç ÉåñÞ Ðýëç
áíáöÝñåôáé óôá êåßìåíá ôïõ ðåñéçãçôÞ åßíáé ôï Äßðõëï.
Áõôü ïöåßëåôáé êáôÜ ðÜóá ðéèáíüôçôá óôï ãåãïíüò üôé
Ï Ðáõóáíßáò îåêßíçóå ôçí ðïñåßá ôïõ ðñïò ôçí
ôï Äßðõëï Þôáí ç ìüíç ðýëç ôçò êëáóéêÞò ï÷ýñùóçò
Åëåõóßíá áðü ôï Äßðõëï, ôç ìåãÜëç ðýëç óôç äõôéêÞ
ðïõ åß÷å äéáôçñçèåß óå êáëÞ êáôÜóôáóç ìÝ÷ñé ôá
ðëåõñÜ ôïõ áèçíáúêïý ôåß÷ïõò, äßðëá óôï íåêñïôáöåßï
÷ñüíéá ôïõ Ðáõóáíßá. Öáßíåôáé ðùò ïé Áèçíáßïé ôï
ôïõ Êåñáìåéêïý, ç ïðïßá ìÝ÷ñé ôá ôÝëç ôïõ 4ïõ áéþíá
óõíôçñïýóáí êáé ôï åîùñÜéæáí óõóôçìáôéêÜ ëüãù
Þôáí ãíùóôÞ êáé ùò ÈñéÜóéáé Þ Êåñáìåéêïý Ðýëáé. Óôï
ôçò ìíçìåéáêÞò ìïñöÞò ôïõ. Ïé õðüëïéðåò ðýëåò
óçìåßï áõôü êáôÝëçãáí ïé äñüìïé áðü ôïí ÐåéñáéÜ, ôçí
åß÷áí êáôáñãçèåß, åß÷áí áíôéêáôáóôáèåß Þ åß÷áí
Åëåõóßíá, ôçí Áêáäçìßá áëëÜ êáé ôçí Ðåëïðüííçóï,
êáôáóêåõáóôåß åê íÝïõ óôï ðëáßóéï ôçò áíÝãåñóçò
ôç ÓôåñåÜ ÅëëÜäá êáé ôç Èåóóáëßá. Ôï Äßðõëï
åêôåôáìÝíïõ ôåß÷ïõò áðü ôïí áõôïêñÜôïñá Áäñéáíü
áðïôåëïýóå, ïõóéáóôéêÜ, ôçí êýñéá åßóïäï óôçí ðüëç
ãýñù óôï 125 ì.×.
ôùí Áèçíþí ü÷é ìüíï óôá ñùìáúêÜ ÷ñüíéá áëëÜ êáé
êáôÜ ôïõò êëáóéêïýò êáé åëëçíéóôéêïýò ÷ñüíïõò 11.
Óôï óçìåßï áõôü ðñÝðåé íá äéåõêñéíéóôåß üôé ç ÉåñÜ Ç ÉåñÜ Ïäüò
Ïäüò äåí êáôÝëçãå áêñéâþò óôï Äßðõëï, áëëÜ óôçí
ÉåñÞ Ðýëç ðïõ âñéóêüôáí 60 ìÝôñá íïôéüôåñá êáé
Ï äñüìïò ðïõ Ýíùíå ôçí ðüëç ôùí Áèçíþí ìå ôçí
åíôïðßæåôáé óôá üñéá ôïõ áñ÷áéïëïãéêïý ÷þñïõ
Åëåõóßíá óõìâüëéæå ôçí Ýíùóç ôïõ Üóôåùò ìå ôï
ôïõ Êåñáìåéêïý. Ç ïíïìáóßá ôçò ðñïÝêõøå áðü ôïí
óçìáíôéêüôáôï éåñü óôá óýíïñá ôçò ÁôôéêÞò ìå
óõó÷åôéóìü ôçò ìå ôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü êáé ôéò åïñôáóôéêÝò
ôç Ìåãáñßäá. Åßíáé ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêü üôé êáôÜ ôçí
åêäçëþóåéò ðïõ ëÜìâáíáí ÷þñá åêåß óôï ðëáßóéï ôùí
áñ÷áéüôçôá êÜèå äñüìïò ðïõ Ýíùíå ìéá ðüëç ìå
ÌåãÜëùí Ìõóôçñßùí12. Áðü åäþ îåêéíïýóå ç ìåãÜëç
Ýíá ìåãÜëï ðåñéöåñåéáêü éåñü Ýðáéñíå ôçí ïíïìáóßá
ðïìðÞ ðïõ ìåôÝöåñå ôá éåñÜ ôçò ÄÞìçôñáò ðßóù óôï
«éåñÜ ïäüò». Áðü åðéãñáöÝò êáé áñ÷áßá ïñüóçìá
éåñü ôçò Åëåõóßíáò ìÝóù ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý. ¸ôóé, êÜèå
ãíùñßæïõìå üôé ç åðßóçìç ïíïìáóßá ôçò áèçíáúêÞò
öèéíüðùñï ðïëõÜñéèìïé ðéóôïß óõãêåíôñþíïíôáí óôïí
ÉåñÜò Ïäïý Þôáí «ÅëåõóéíéáêÞ» 15. ÕðïèÝôïõìå ðùò
÷þñï áíÜìåóá óôï Äßðõëï êáé ôçí ÉåñÞ Ðýëç, üðïõ
äéáó÷ßóôçêå ðñþôç öïñÜ êáôÜ ôçí õóôåñïåëëáäéêÞ
õðÞñ÷å êáé åéäéêü êôÞñéï ãéá ôçí ïñãÜíùóç åðßóçìùí
ðåñßïäï (1600-1100 ð.×.) áðü ôïõò êáôïßêïõò ôçò ÁèÞíáò
ðïìðþí, ôï Ðïìðåßï (ôÝëç 5ïõ – ôÝëç 1ïõ áéþíá
ðïõ Þèåëáí íá öôÜóïõí óôïí óçìáíôéêü ïéêéóìü ôçò
ð.×.)13. Ç ðïìðÞ åß÷å åðéêåöáëÞò ôï Üãáëìá ôïõ èåïý
Åëåõóßíáò, áëëÜ êáé áíôéóôñüöùò 16. Ç Ýíáñîç ôçò
ºáê÷ïõ, ðÜñåäñïõ ôçò ÄÞìçôñáò êáé ôçò Êüñçò, éåñü
ëáôñåßáò ôçò ÄÞìçôñáò óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ÷ñïíïëïãåßôáé
ôïõ ïðïßïõ áíáöÝñåé ï Ðáõóáíßáò óôá áíáôïëéêÜ ôçò
áðü ôïõò ðåñéóóüôåñïõò åñåõíçôÝò óôïí 11ï áéþíá ð.×.
ÉåñÞò Ðýëçò. ÂÝâáéá, åßíáé ðïëý ðéèáíü ïé ðïëõÜñéèìïé
Þ êáé íùñßôåñá. Ãýñù óôá ìÝóá ôïõ 8ïõ áéþíá, üôáí ïé
ìýóôåò ôùí Åëåõóéíßùí íá ÷ñçóéìïðïéïýóáí êáé ôç
åïñôáóìïß êáé ïé èõóßåò óôçí Åëåõóßíá êáèéåñþèçêáí
åðßóçìá âÜóåé äåëöéêïý ÷ñçóìïý, ç ðïñåßá ôçò ÉåñÜò
ÐÞëéíïò ðßíáêáò ìå ãñáðôÞ äéáêüóìçóç ôïõ áããåéïãñÜöïõ Íßííéïõ, Ïäïý ðñÝðåé íá åß÷å ðáãéùèåß óå ìåãÜëï âáèìü.
ðñþôï ìéóü 4ïõ áéþíá ð.×. (ýøïò 0,45 ì. êáé ðëÜôïò 0,33 ì.). ÊáôÜ ôï äåýôåñï Þìéóõ ôïõ 6ïõ áéþíá, äçëáäÞ åðß ôïõ
Åéêïíßæïíôáé óêçíÝò áðü ôçí åëåõóéíéáêÞ ëáôñåßá
(Åèíéêü Áñ÷áéïëïãéêü Ìïõóåßï). ôõñÜííïõ Ðåéóßóôñáôïõ êáé ôùí ãéùí ôïõ, ç Åëåõóßíá
22

ÔìÞìá ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý ìðñïóôÜ óôï éåñü ôçò Áöñïäßôçò óôçí Áöáßá ÓêáñáìáãêÜ
(ÐñáêôéêÜ Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò 1937, óåë. 37, åéê. 16).

ðñïóáñôÞèçêå ïñéóôéêÜ óôï áèçíáúêü êñÜôïò êáé ôï ôìÞìáôá ôçò áñ÷áßáò ïäïý Þôáí ïñáôÜ Þ áêüìá êáé
éåñü ëáìðñýíèçêå ìå íÝá êôßóìáôá êáé ðñïâëÞèçêå óå ÷ñÞóç, áñêåôÝò öïñÝò åðéóêåõáóìÝíá óôá íåüôåñá
óå ðáíåëëÞíéï åðßðåäï17. Ôüôå ïëïêëçñþèçêå êáé ç ÷ñüíéá19.
äéáìüñöùóç ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý, ðïõ ìÝóù ðïëëáðëþí Ç áñ÷áßá ÉåñÜ Ïäüò áêïëïõèïýóå óå ãåíéêÝò ãñáììÝò
åðéóêåõþí ðáñÝìåéíå óå ÷ñÞóç êáè’ üëç ôç äéÜñêåéá ôçí ðïñåßá ôïõ óýã÷ñïíïõ ïìþíõìïõ äñüìïõ. ÔìÞìáôÜ
ôçò áñ÷áéüôçôáò. ôçò Ý÷ïõí áðïêáëõöèåß óôïí áñ÷áéïëïãéêü ÷þñï ôïõ
Ìå ôç óôáäéáêÞ åðéêñÜôçóç ôïõ ÷ñéóôéáíéóìïý, Êåñáìåéêïý áëëÜ êáé áìÝóùò äõôéêÜ ôïõ. ÅðéðëÝïí,
óå óõíäõáóìü ìå ôá áõóôçñüôáôá äéáôÜãìáôá ôï áñ÷áßï ïäüóôñùìá Ý÷åé åíôïðéóôåß óå ðïëëÜ
åíáíôßïí ôùí Åèíéêþí ðïõ åîÝäùóáí ïé Âõæáíôéíïß óçìåßá ôçò ðåäéÜäáò ôïõ áèçíáúêïý Êçöéóïý 20.
áõôïêñÜôïñåò êáôÜ ôïí 4ï áéþíá ì.×., ôá éåñÜ ôçò ÔìÞìá ôçò ïäïý, ìÞêïõò 44 ì., Ý÷åé áíáóêáöåß ìðñïóôÜ
Åëåõóßíáò ðáñÞêìáóáí. Ç ÷áñéóôéêÞ âïëÞ äüèçêå áðü ôï 9ï Äçìïôéêü Ó÷ïëåßï ×áúäáñßïõ, óôç óõìâïëÞ
áðü ôïõò Âçóéãüôèïõò ôïõ ÁëÜñé÷ïõ ðïõ ôï 395 ì.×. ôçò óçìåñéíÞò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý ìå ôçí ïäü Êïëïêïôñþíç
åéóÝâáëáí óôïí éåñü ÷þñï êáé ôïí êáôáëåçëÜôçóáí, êáé ðñïò ôá äõôéêÜ. Ôï áíáëÞììáôá ôïõ äñüìïõ åßíáé
ìåôáôñÝðïíôÜò ôïí óå åñåßðéá 18. Ðáñ’ üëá áõôÜ ç êáôáóêåõáóìÝíá áðü êñïêáëïðáãåßò ëßèïõò ìåãÜëïõ
÷ñÞóç ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý óõíå÷ßóôçêå åðß ðïëëïýò ìåãÝèïõò Þ áóâåóôïëéèéêÝò ðÝôñåò êáé åäñÜæïíôáé
áéþíåò áñãüôåñá, êáèþò ï äñüìïò åîõðçñåôïýóå ôçí óôïí öõóéêü âñÜ÷ï (êéìçëéÜ) óå âÜèïò ðïõ êáôÜ
åðéêïéíùíßá ôïõ ïéêéóìïý ôçò Åëåõóßíáò êáé ôùí ãýñù ôüðïõò öôÜíåé ôá 1,48 ì.
÷ùñéþí ìå ôçí ÁèÞíá. ÊáôÜ ôïí 19ï áéþíá ðïëëÜ Ìðïñåß êáíåßò íá äéáêñßíåé ôñßá ïäïóôñþìáôá:
23

Ôï ðéï êáëïäéáôçñçìÝíï ôìÞìá ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý, óôá äõôéêÜ ôïõ éåñïý ôçò Áöñïäßôçò óôçí Áöáßá
ÓêáñáìáãêÜ (ÐñáêôéêÜ Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò 1938, óåë. 32, åéê. 3).

ôï êáôþôåñï áðïôåëåßôáé áðü ôç ëåéáóìÝíç åðéöÜíåéá ìéêñüôåñá ôìÞìáôá22. Ôï ìÝóï ðëÜôïò ôïõ áñ÷áßïõ
ôïõ öõóéêïý âñÜ÷ïõ, üðïõ ïé ìéêñÝò ëáêêïýâåò äñüìïõ óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ éåñïý ôçò Áöñïäßôçò Þôáí
Ý÷ïõí ãåìéóôåß ìå ðáôçìÝíï êéìçëü÷ùìá. Ôï ìåóáßï 5 ì. Ï áíáóêáöÝáò ÉùÜííçò Ôñáõëüò ðåñéãñÜöåé ôá
ïäüóôñùìá áðïôåëåßôáé áðü ðá÷ý óôñþìá ðáôçìÝíïõ êáôáóêåõáóôéêÜ ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý
êéìçëï÷þìáôïò ìå ìéêñÝò ðÝôñåò. Ôï áíþôåñï óôï óçìåßï áõôü:
ïäüóôñùìá åßíáé ëéèüóôñùôï ðëÜôïõò 0,20 ì. Ìåôáîý
ôùí ôñéþí ïäïóôñùìÜôùí ìåóïëáâïýí ëåðôüôåñá «Ôὸ ðëÜôïò ôçò […] ðåñéïñßæåôáé ἑêáôÝñùèåí
óôñþìáôá áðü Üììï åìðëïõôéóìÝíç ìå øéëü ÷áëßêé. äéὰ ëßèùí ἐðßôçäåò ôïðïèåôçìÝíùí, ïἱ ὁðïῖïé
Ãýñù óôá 47 ì. äõôéêüôåñá, Ý÷åé áíáóêáöåß ôìÞìá ôçò ἐîåῖ÷ïí êáôὰ ôὸ ἥìéóõ ὑðὲñ ôὸ ἔäáöïò. Ὅðïõ ôὸ
ÉåñÜò Ïäïý ìÞêïõò 23,5 ì., áðü ôï ïðïßï óþæåôáé ìüíï ἔäáöïò ἦôï ìáëáêὸí ἀíôéêáôåóôÜèç äé’ ἐðé÷þóåùò
ôï âüñåéï áíÜëçììá ôïõ äñüìïõ. Ìéêñüôåñá ôìÞìáôá ìéêñῶí ëßèùí êáὶ ÷þìáôïò, ἐðὶ ôῆò ἐðéöáíåßáò
ôïõ áñ÷áßïõ äñüìïõ Ý÷ïõí åíôïðéóôåß êáé ðñïò ôá äὲ ôῆò ἐðé÷þóåùò ôáýôçò öáßíåôáé ὅôé ἐôÝèçóáí
áíáôïëéêÜ, åíôüò ôùí ïñßùí ôïõ óýã÷ñïíïõ ÄÞìïõ ðëáêïåéäåῖò ëßèïé ìåôñßïõ ìåãÝèïõò, ïἱ ὁðïῖïé
×áúäáñßïõ21. ἀðåôÝëåóáí ôὸ ἔäáöïò ôῆò ὁäïῦ»23.
ÌåãÜëï êáé åîáéñåôéêÜ êáëïäéáôçñçìÝíï ìÝñïò
ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý Ý÷åé áíáóêáöåß êïíôÜ óôï éåñü ôçò Óå âñá÷þäåéò ðëáãéÝò, üðùò ï ëüöïò ôçò Ç÷ïýò
Áöñïäßôçò óôçí Áöáßá ÓêáñáìáãêÜ. Áðü ôï óçìåßï (ëüöïò Êáøáëþíáò, âïñåéïáíáôïëéêÝò õðþñåéåò ôïõ
áõôü Ýùò ôçí Åëåõóßíá Ý÷ïõí áðïêáëõöèåß ðïëëáðëÜ Ðïéêßëïõ üñïõò äõôéêÜ ôïõ ¢íù ÄÜóïõò ×áúäáñßïõ
24

êáé âüñåéá ôçò óõíïéêßáò ôïõ Äáöíéïý) ãßíïíôáí ôïõ Äáöíßïõ, äéåíÞñãçóå Ýñåõíåò êáé ìéêñïáíáóêáöÝò
ëáîåýóåéò Þ åêâñá÷éóìïß, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ÷áñá÷èåß êáôÜ ìÞêïò ôïõ áñ÷áßïõ äñüìïõ 25.
ç ðïñåßá ôçò ïäïý, åíþ óôéò êáôçöïñéÝò ï äñüìïò ÐáñÝá, ëïéðüí, ìå ôïí Ðáõóáíßá îåêéíÜìå:
õðïóôçñéæüôáí áðü ÷ôéóôÜ áíáëçììáôéêÜ ôïé÷Üñéá.
Óå áììþäåéò ðåñéï÷Ýò, üðùò ôá ðåñß÷ùñá ôçò ëßìíçò «Áêïëïõèþíôáò êáíåßò áðü ôçí ÁèÞíá ãéá ôçí
Êïõìïõíäïýñïõ, ôï õðüóôñùìá áðïôåëïýíôáí áðü Åëåõóßíá ôç ëåãüìåíç áðü ôïõò Áèçíáßïõò ÉåñÜ
ìéêñÝò ðÝôñåò êáé ÷þìá. Óôï ïäüóôñùìá ôïõ ôìÞìáôïò ïäü, óõíáíôÜ ôï ìíçìåßï ôïõ Áíèåìüêñéôïõ· […].
ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý ðïõ ðåñíÜ ìðñïóôÜ áðü ôï Éåñü ôçò ÌåôÜ ôç óôÞëç ôïõ Áíèåìüêñéôïõ õðÜñ÷åé ôÜöïò
Áöñïäßôçò Ý÷ïõí äéáôçñçèåß áõëáêéÝò-áðïôõðþìáôá ôïõ Ìïëïôôïý· õðÜñ÷åé åðßóçò Ýíáò ôüðïò ðïõ
áðü ôéò ñüäåò ôùí äéåñ÷üìåíùí áñìÜôùí êáé ëÝãåôáé Óêßñïí […]. ÊïíôÜ áõôïý åßíáé êáìùìÝíï ôï
áìáîéþí24. ìíçìåßï ôïõ Êçöéóïäþñïõ […]»26.

Ï Áíèåìüêñéôïò ôÜöçêå ëßãï ðñéí áðü ôïí


Ìíçìåßá êáôÜ ìÞêïò ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý Ðåëïðïííçóéáêü ðüëåìï óå ìåãÜëï êõêëéêü ôáöéêü
ðåñßâïëï, ï ïðïßïò Ý÷åé åíôïðéóôåß ìðñïóôÜ óôçí
Êáè’ üëï ôï ìÞêïò ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý õðÞñ÷áí ÉåñÜ Ðýëç, óôï âüñåéï êñÜóðåäï ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý 27.
ðïëõÜñéèìá åíôõðùóéáêÜ ôáöéêÜ ìíçìåßá Áíôßèåôá, ï ôÜöïò ôïõ Ìïëïôôïý äåí Ý÷åé áðïêáëõöèåß.
äéáêåêñéìÝíùí êáé åõêáôÜóôáôùí ðïëéôþí áëëÜ êáé Ãíùñßæïõìå üôé ï Ìïëïôôüò Ýæçóå êáôÜ ôïí 4ï êáé ï
áñêåôÜ íåêñïôáöåßá ìå ôáðåéíüôåñïõò ôÜöïõò. Ôï Êçöéóüäùñïò êáôÜ ôï â´ Þìéóõ ôïõ 3ïõ áéþíá ð.×.
öáéíüìåíï ôçò ÷ñÞóçò ôùí ðáñüäéùí ðåñéï÷þí ãéá Ï ôÜöïò ôïõ ôåëåõôáßïõ åíôïðßóôçêå ðïëý ðéï
ôÜöïõò Þôáí éäéáßôåñá óýíçèåò ôüóï óôçí ÁèÞíá áíáôïëéêÜ áðü ôï óçìåßï ðïõ áíáöÝñåé ï Ðáõóáíßáò,
üóï êáé óôéò õðüëïéðåò åëëçíéêÝò ðüëåéò. Ïé íåêñïß óôç íüôéá ðëåõñÜ ôçò Ïäïý ôùí ÔÜöùí, óôïí
Ýðñåðå íá âñßóêïíôáé åêôüò ôùí ôåé÷þí áëëÜ óå áñ÷áéïëïãéêü ÷þñï ôïõ Êåñáìåéêïý 28.
óçìåßá ðñïóéôÜ, üðïõ ïé ôÜöïé èá Þôáí ïñáôïß áðü Ôï Óêßñïí âñéóêüôáí óôçí áñ÷Þ ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý, ëßãï
üëïõò. Åêôüò áðü ôáöéêÜ ìíçìåßá, óôéò ðáñüäéåò æþíåò ìåôÜ ôç äéáóôáýñùóç ôçò óçìåñéíÞò ïìþíõìçò ïäïý
õðÞñ÷áí ìéêñÜ éåñÜ êáé íáÀóêïé, ðïõ åîáóöÜëéæáí ôçí ìå ôç ëåùöüñï Êùíóôáíôéíïõðüëåùò. Åäþ îåêéíïýóå
ðñïóôáóßá áëëÜ êáé ôçí îåêïýñáóç ôùí ïäïéðüñùí. ï ìåãÜëïò åëáéþíáò ôçò ðåäéÜäáò ôïõ Êçöéóïý, ðïõ
ÔÝôïéá éåñÜ õðÞñ÷áí, üðùò èá äïýìå áìÝóùò áðëùíüôáí Ýùò ôï ×áúäÜñé. Ôï ìåãáëýôåñï ìÝñïò ôïõ
ðáñáêÜôù, ðÜñá ðïëëÜ êáôÜ ìÞêïò ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý. áñ÷áßïõ åëáéþíá åß÷å äéáôçñçèåß ìÝ÷ñé ôá ìÝóá ôïõ
Áõôü ðñÝðåé íá óõó÷åôéóôåß ìå ôçí åëåõóéíéáêÞ ðïñåßá 19ïõ áéþíá. Óýìöùíá ìå ôéò ðçãÝò, ïé ðåñßöçìåò ìÜ÷åò
êáé ôçí áíÜãêç ôùí ìõóôþí ãéá ðïëëáðëÝò óôÜóåéò óôï ×áúäÜñé ôïí Áýãïõóôï ôïõ 1826 Ýëáâáí ÷þñá ìÝóá
ôåëåôïõñãéêïý ÷áñáêôÞñá áëëÜ êáé ãéá îåêïýñáóç. óå áõôüí ôïí ðõêíü åëáéþíá, ðñÜãìá ðïõ êáèüñéóå
Áõôü ðïõ áðïìÝíåé, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá êëåßóåé óçìáíôéêÜ êáé ôçí åîÝëéîÞ ôïõò.
ç áíáöïñÜ óôçí áñ÷áßá ÉåñÜ Ïäü, åßíáé íá
áêïëïõèÞóïõìå ôçí ðïñåßá ôïõ Ðáõóáíßá «ÌåôÜ ôï ìíçìåßï ôïõ Êçöéóïäþñïõ åßíáé
åíôïðßæïíôáò ôç óçìåñéíÞ èÝóç ôùí áíáöåñüìåíùí èáììÝíïò ï Çëéüäùñïò ¢ëéò […]. Åðßóçò åßíáé
ìíçìåßùí, üðïõ áõôü åßíáé äõíáôü. Ìå ôïí ôñüðï áõôü èáììÝíïò áõôïý êáé ï ÈåìéóôïêëÞò, ãéïò ôïõ
èá ìðïñÝóïõìå íá áðïêôÞóïõìå ìéá ôïðïãñáöéêÞ ÐïëéÜñ÷ïõ, ôñßôïò áðüãïíïò ôïõ ÈåìéóôïêëÞ, ï
áíôßëçøç ôçò áñ÷áßáò äéáäñïìÞò Ýùò ôï ×áúäÜñé êáé ïðïßïò Ýêáíå ôç íáõìá÷ßá êáôÜ ôïõ ÎÝñîç êáé ôùí
ôá ìíçìåßá ôïõ. ÁíÜëïãç ðñïóðÜèåéá Ýêáíå ôï 1860 ìÞäùí. […]. Ðñï÷ùñþíôáò ëßãï óõíáíôÜ êáíåßò
êáé ï ëüãéïò François Lenormant, üôáí ìå ôç âïÞèåéá ôï ôÝìåíïò ôïõ Þñùá Ëáêßïõ, áðü ôïí ïðïßï Ý÷åé
ôùí óôñáôéùôþí ôïõ ãáëëéêïý ôÜãìáôïò ðïõ åß÷å ôï üíïìá ï äÞìïò ËáêéÜäåò, êáé ôï ìíçìåßï ôïõ
åãêáôáóôáèåß óôï ó÷åäüí åñçìùìÝíï ôüôå ìïíáóôÞñé ÍéêïêëÞ áðü ôïí ÔÜñáíôá […]»29.
25

ÊáôÜ ðëÜôïò ôïìÞ ôïõ ôìÞìáôïò ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý êïíôÜ óôç ëßìíç Êïõìïõíäïýñïõ
(ÐñáêôéêÜ Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò 1937, óåë. 35, åéê. 14).

Ôá ôáöéêÜ ìíçìåßá ðïõ áíáöÝñïíôáé ðáñáðÜíù äåí ôïõ ìåéëß÷éïõ Äßá. Óôï âùìü áõôü ï Èçóåýò
Ý÷ïõí åíôïðéóôåß, áëëÜ ï ìåãÜëïò äÞìïò ôùí Ëáêéáäþí õðïâëÞèçêå óå êáèáñìïýò áðü ôïõò áðïãüíïõò
Ý÷åé ôáõôéóôåß ìå âåâáéüôçôá ìå ôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ôçò ôïõ ÖõôÜëïõ ìåôÜ ôï öüíï ôùí êáêïðïéþí […].
ÃåùðïíéêÞò Ó÷ïëÞò ôïõ Ðáíåðéóôçìßïõ Áèçíþí. Áõôïý åßíáé êáé ï ôÜöïò ôïõ ÈåïäÝêôç áðü ôç
Öáóçëßäá êáé ôïõ ÌíçóéèÝïõ· […]»32.
«ÕðÜñ÷åé åðßóçò âùìüò ôïõ Æåöýñïõ êáé éåñü ôçò
ÄÞìçôñáò êáé ôçò Êüñçò, üðïõ ôéìþíôáé ìáæß êáé Ç êïßôç ôïõ Êçöéóïý ðïõ äéÜâçêå ï Ðáõóáíßáò
ç ÁèçíÜ êáé ï Ðïóåéäþí. Óôï ìÝñïò áõôü ëÝíå âñéóêüôáí ãýñù óôá 1.200 ìÝôñá áíáôïëéêÜ ôçò
ðùò ï Öýôáëïò åß÷å öéëïîåíÞóåé óôï óðßôé ôïõ ôç óýã÷ñïíçò êïßôçò, äçëáäÞ áíÜìåóá óôç ÃåùðïíéêÞ
ÄÞìçôñá êáé ðùò ç èåÜ ôïõ Ýäùóå óå áíôÜëëáãìá Ó÷ïëÞ êáé ôï åêêëçóÜêé ôïõ Áãßïõ ÓÜââá. ÓÞìåñá, óôï
ôï äÝíôñï ôçò óõêéÜò· […]»30. óçìåßï áõôü ðåñíÜåé âáèý ñÝìá, ðÜíù áðü ôï ïðïßï
Ý÷åé êáôáóêåõáóôåß ãÝöõñá. ÊáôÜ ôïí 19ï áéþíá ôï
Ôï áíáöåñüìåíï éåñü äåí Ý÷åé åíôïðéóôåß, áëëÜ èá ñÝìá áõôü áðïôåëïýóå ôïí ðëÝïí óçìáíôéêü áðü
ðñÝðåé íá âñéóêüôáí óôïí ÷þñï ôïõ åñãïóôáóßïõ ôïõò ôñåéò âñá÷ßïíåò ôïõ Êçöéóïý ðïõ äéÝó÷éæáí
ôçò ÁèçíáúêÞò ×áñôïðïéßáò, áìÝóùò óôá äõôéêÜ ôçí ðåäéÜäá. ¸ôóé, ó÷åäüí üëïé ïé åñåõíçôÝò Ý÷ïõí
ôçò ÃåùðïíéêÞò Ó÷ïëÞò. Ïé ëáôñåõüìåíåò èåüôçôåò óõìöùíÞóåé üôé ðñüêåéôáé ãéá ôïí áñ÷áßï ðïôáìü 33.
õðïäåéêíýïõí Üìåóç óýíäåóç ìå ôçí åëåõóéíéáêÞ Ï ðåñéçãçôÞò ìáò ðÝñáóå ðÜíù áðü ôïí Êçöéóü ìÝóù
ëáôñåßá. ÌÜëéóôá, åäþ ç åëåõóéíéáêÞ ðïìðÞ Ýêáíå ëßèéíçò ãÝöõñáò, ãýñù áðü ôçí ïðïßá ëÜìâáíå ÷þñá
êÜðïéá óôÜóç êáôÜ ôçí åðÜíïäü ôçò óôçí ÁèÞíá, ôï Ýèéìï ôùí «ãåöõñéóìþí». Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá óêùðôéêÜ
ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá áíáóõãêñïôçèåß ãéá ôçí åßóïäü ôçò ðåéñÜãìáôá ðïõ áíôáëëÜóóïíôáí ìåôáîý ôùí ìõóôþí
óôçí ðüëç31. êáé ôùí «ãåöõñéóôþí». Ïé ôåëåõôáßïé öñüíôéæáí íá
öôÜóïõí óôïí ÷þñï ðñéí áðü ôçí ðïìðÞ êáé ðåñßìåíáí
«Ðñéí ðåñÜóåé êáíåßò ôïí Êçöéóü, óõíáíôÜ ôï íá äïõí ãíùóôïýò ôïõò Þ êÜðïéá äéÜóçìá ðñüóùðá
ìíçìåßï ôïõ Èåïäþñïõ […]. ÁãÜëìáôá óôï ðïôÜìé ðïõ áêïëïõèïýóáí ôçí ðïìðÞ, ãéá íá ôïõò ðåéñÜîïõí.
õðÜñ÷ïõí Ýíá ôçò ÌíçóéìÜ÷çò êáé Ýíá Üëëï ÊÜôé áíÜëïãï ðñÝðåé íá óõíÝâáéíå êáé óôç óõìâïëÞ
áíáèçìáôéêü ôïõ ðáéäéïý ôçò […]. ¼ôáí êáíåßò ôïõ åëåõóéíéáêïý Êçöéóïý ìå ôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü, ëßãï ðñéí
ðåñÜóåé ôïí Êçöéóü, óõíáíôÜ Ýíá âùìü áñ÷áßï öôÜóåé ç ðïìðÞ óôïí ôåëéêü ðñïïñéóìü ôçò.
26

Ôá ìíçìåßá ôïõ Èåüäùñïõ êáé ôçò ÌíçóéìÜ÷çò äåí ôïõ ìåãÜëïõ ìåãÝèïõò ôïõ, ïé áíáóêáöåßò ðéóôåýïõí
Ý÷ïõí áíáêáëõöèåß, áëëÜ ï âùìüò êáé ôï éåñü ôïõ üôé ï ðåñßâïëïò ðåñéåß÷å ðåñéóóüôåñïõò ôÜöïõò.
ìåéëß÷éïõ Äßá ðñÝðåé íá âñßóêïíôáí óôç èÝóç ðïõ Åêôüò áðü ôïõò ëáêêïåéäåßò ôÜöïõò, Ý÷ïõí åíôïðéóôåß
êáôÝ÷åé ï íáÀóêïò ôïõ Áãßïõ ÓÜââá, ãéá ôçí áíÝãåñóç êáé äåêáÝîé áêáíüíéóôá ïñýãìáôá. ÊÜðïéá áðü áõôÜ
ôïõ ïðïßïõ Ý÷ïõí ÷ñçóéìïðïéçèåß áñ÷áßïé ëßèïé êáé ðéóôåýåôáé üôé áíÞêáí óå ëáêêïåéäåßò ôÜöïõò. Åðßóçò,
ôìÞìáôá ãëõðôþí. ôáöÝò èá ðñÝðåé íá õðÞñ÷áí êáé óå åðéöáíåéáêÝò
åðé÷þóåéò ðïõ áöáéñÝèçêáí, êáèþò ç èÝóç ôïõ
«Óôï äñüìï åßíáé ÷ôéóìÝíïò êáé Ýíáò íáüò, ü÷é ðåñéâüëïõ âñéóêüôáí ãýñù óôá 3,62 ì. øçëüôåñá áðü
ìåãÜëïò, ðïõ ëÝãåôáé ôïõ Êõáìßôïõ· […]. Áðü ôá ôï åðßðåäï ôçò óýã÷ñïíçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý 36.
ìíçìåßá ðïõ îå÷ùñßæïõí óôï ìÝãåèïò êáé ôï Ï ïñèïãþíéïò ôáöéêüò ðåñßâïëïò åíôïðßæåôáé óôï
äéÜêïóìï Ýíá áíÞêåé óå êÜðïéï ñüäéï, ï ïðïßïò âüñåéï êñÜóðåäï ôçò áñ÷áßáò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý. ÊïíôÜ
ìåôïßêçóå óôçí ÁèÞíá· ôï Üëëï ôï Ýêáíå ï óå áõôüí áíáóêÜöçêå ôáöéêüò ðåñßâïëïò ó÷Þìáôïò
ìáêåäüíáò ¢ñðáëïò […]»34. à ìå ôñåéò óõëçìÝíïõò ëáêêïåéäåßò ôÜöïõò óôï
åóùôåñéêü ôïõ. Áí êáé ïé ôÜöïé äåí áðÝäùóáí
Ï ìéêñüò íáüò ôïõ Êõáìßôïõ âñéóêüôáí óôï óçìåßï üðïõ åõñÞìáôá, ç êåñáìéêÞ ðïõ Þôáí äéÜóðáñôç óôïí ÷þñï
äéáóôáõñþíåôáé ç ÉåñÜ Ïäüò ìå ôçí ïäü Ðñïýóóçò óôï ôïõ ðåñéâüëïõ áíÜãåôáé óôïí 4ï áéþíá ð.×. Êáèþò
ÁéãÜëåù. Åêåß õðÜñ÷åé ìéêñüôáôç åêêëçóßá áöéåñùìÝíç äåí õðÜñ÷ïõí ôáöÝò óôï ìåãáëýôåñï ìÝñïò ôïõ,
óôïí Üãéï Ãåþñãéï. Ôá óôïé÷åßá ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôï ìíçìåßï ïé áíáóêáöåßò õðïèÝôïõí üôé ï ðåñßâïëïò Ýðáøå
ôïõ Ñüäéïõ åßíáé áñêåôÜ áóáöÞ þóôå íá åíôïðéóôåß êÜðïéá óôéãìÞ íá ÷ñçóéìïðïéåßôáé. Ìåôáîý ôïõ ôáöéêïý
êáé áêïëïýèùò íá ôáõôéóôåß ôï ìíçìåßï. ¼óïí áöïñÜ ðåñßâïëïõ êáé ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý áðïêáëýöèçêå âÜèñï
ôï ìíçìåßï ðïõ êáôáóêåýáóå ï ¢ñðáëïò, óôï ïðïßï ôáöéêïý ìíçìåßïõ ìåãÜëïõ ìåãÝèïõò ÷ôéóìÝíï áðü
õðÜñ÷åé éäéáßôåñç áíáöïñÜ óôç óõíÝ÷åéá, ìðïñïýìå êñïêáëïðáãåßò ïñèïãþíéïõò ïãêüëéèïõò. Óôïí ßäéï
ìå áñêåôÞ âåâáéüôçôá íá ôï ôïðïèåôÞóïõìå ÷þñï åíôïðßóôçêå êáé ìáñìÜñéíï ÷Ýñé áãÜëìáôïò
óôïí ëüöï ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá óôï ×áúäÜñé. õðåñöõóéêïý ìåãÝèïõò, ôï ïðïßï êáôÜ ðÜóá
Åêôüò áðü ôá åðþíõìá ìíçìåßá ðïõ áíáöÝñåé ï ðéèáíüôçôá óôåêüôáí ðÜíù óôï âÜèñï 37.
Ðáõóáíßáò, êáôÜ ìÞêïò ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý, áðü ôçí Ìå âÜóç ôá ðáñáðÜíù áíáóêáöéêÜ åõñÞìáôá, åßíáé
áöåôçñßá ôçò óôï ýøïò ôçò ïäïý Ðåéñáéþò ìÝ÷ñé êáé ðñïöáíÝò üôé ç ðåñéï÷Þ ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý óôï ýøïò
ôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ëüöïõ ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá óôï ×áúäÜñé, ôïõ ÄñïìïêáÀôåéïõ öéëïîåíïýóå óçìáíôéêÜ ôáöéêÜ
Ý÷ïõí áíáóêáöåß ðïëõÜñéèìïé ôÜöïé. Ïé ôÜöïé áõôïß ìíçìåßá êáôÜ ôá êëáóéêÜ êáé ôá åëëçíéóôéêÜ ÷ñüíéá.
÷ñïíïëïãïýíôáé áðü ôïí 8ï áéþíá ð.×. ìÝ÷ñé êáé Åðßóçò, Ý÷ïõí áíáöåñèåß ìåìïíùìÝíïé ôÜöïé åíôüò ôïõ
ôá ýóôåñá ñùìáúêÜ ÷ñüíéá 35. Óôï ôìÞìá ôçò ÉåñÜò ðåñéâüëïõ ôïõ ÄñïìïêáÀôåéïõ íïóïêïìåßïõ, áëëÜ êáé
Ïäïý áðÝíáíôé áðü ôçí åßóïäï ôïõ ÄñïìïêáÀôåéïõ ãýñù áðü áõôüí, ðïõ ÷ñïíïëïãïýíôáé óôïí 4ï êáé ôïí
øõ÷éáôñåßïõ áíáóêÜöçêå åêôåôáìÝíïò ôáöéêüò 3ï áéþíá ð.×.38.
ðåñßâïëïò ïñèïãþíéïõ ó÷Þìáôïò êáé äéáóôÜóåùí
21,4x14,75 ì. Ïé ôïß÷ïé ôïõ åßíáé ÷ôéóìÝíïé êáôÜ ôï
Ôï ôáöéêü ìíçìåßï ôçò Ðõèéïíßêçò
éóïäïìéêü óýóôçìá áðü êñïêáëïðáãåßò ïñèïãþíéïõò
óôïí ëüöï ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá
ïãêüëéèïõò. Óôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ ðåñßâïëïõ
áðïêáëýöèçêáí åðôÜ ëáêêïåéäåßò ôÜöïé ëáîåõìÝíïé
óôïí âñÜ÷ï. Êáèþò êáé ïé åðôÜ åß÷áí óõëçèåß, Ôï ðéï åíôõðùóéáêü ôáöéêü ìíçìåßï óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ
åëÜ÷éóôá êéíçôÜ åõñÞìáôá åíôïðßóôçêáí. ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ Þôáí áíáìößâïëá ôï êåíïôÜöéï ðïõ
ÁõôÜ ðåñéëáìâÜíïõí êõñßùò êåñáìéêÞ ðïõ êáôáóêåýáóå ï Ìáêåäüíáò ¢ñðáëïò ðñïò ôéìÞí ôçò
÷ñïíïëïãåßôáé óôá ôÝëç ôïõ 4ïõ – áñ÷Ýò ôïõ 3ïõ áéþíá ëáôñåìÝíçò ôïõ óõæýãïõ Ðõèéïíßêçò. Ôï êåíïôÜöéï
ð.×. Óå ðÝíôå ôÜöïõò åíôïðßóôçêáí ß÷íç ðõñÜò. Ëüãù ôïðïèåôåßôáé óôïí ëüöï ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá, äçëáäÞ
27

ãýñù óôá 1.200 ì. âïñåéïäõôéêÜ ôùí ôáöéêþí ìíçìåßùí


óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ÄñïìïêáÀôåéïõ. Ôç óêáíäáëþäç
éóôïñßá ôïõ áäßóôáêôïõ ¢ñðáëïõ ìáò ìåôáöÝñåé ìå
ãëáöõñüôçôá ï ÄçìÞôñéïò Êáìðïýñïãëïõ (1852-1942):

«Áὐôὸò ἦôïí ἔìðéóôïò ößëïò ôïῦ ÌåãÜëïõ


ἈëåîÜíäñïõ, èåùñçèåὶò äὲ ðáñ’ áὐôïῦ
ἀêáôÜëëçëïò äéὰ ôὸí ðüëåìïí äéùñßóèç
èçóáõñïöýëáî ôῶí ἐí Âáâõëῶíé èçóáõñῶí êáὶ
äéá÷åéñéóôὴò ôῶí ðñïóüäùí.
Ὅôáí ὁ ἈëÝîáíäñïò ἐôñÜðç ðñὸò ôὴí ἸíäéêÞí,
ὁ Ἅñðáëïò ôὸ ἔññéîå óôὸ ãëÝíôé, ðñïóåêÜëåóå
äὲ ἀðὸ ôὰò ἈèÞíáò êáὶ ôὴí öçìéæüìåíçí äéὰ ôὴí
åὐìïñößá ôçò åὐöõåóôÜôçí äïýëçí ôῆò áὐëçôñßäïò
Âáê÷ßäïò êáß, ἅìá ἔöèáóå êïíôὰ ôïõ ìὲ ôὸ êáëü,
ôῆò ἀðÝíåéìå ôéìὰò âáóéëéêÜò.
Ἀôõ÷ῶò ἡ Ðõèéïíßêç ἀðÝèáíå åἰò ôὴí Âáâõëῶíá,
ὁ äὲ Ἅñðáëïò ôὴí ἀíôéêáôÝóôçóå ìÝí, ἀëëὰ äὲí
ôὴí ἐëçóìüíçóåí· ὅôáí äὲ ὑðÝðåóåí åἰò äéêáßáí ÄçìÞôñéïò Êáìðïýñïãëïõ (1852-1942).

äõóìÝíåéáí êáὶ êáôáäéùêüìåíïò êáôÝöõãåí åἰò ôὰò


ἈèÞíáò, ἀíÞãåéñåí åἰò áὐôὴí ðåñéêáëëὲò ìíçìåῖïí áðü ôçí Åëåõóßíá Ý÷åé ãéá ðñþôç öïñÜ èÝá ôçò
ἐðὶ ôῆò Ἱåñᾶò ὁäïῦ, äéὰ ôὸ ὁðïῖïí ἐäáðÜíçóåí áèçíáúêÞò áêñüðïëçò áëëÜ êáé ïëüêëçñçò ôçò ðüëçò
ὑðὲñ ôὰ 2 1/2 ἐêáôïììýñéá êáὶ ἐäçìéïýñãçóå ôùí Áèçíþí42. Ï ëüöïò ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá ðñïöáíþò
ôὰ ἑëëçíéêþôáôá óêÜíäáëá ὄ÷é ìüíïí äéὰ ôὴ åßíáé ôï ôïðßï óôï ïðïßï áíáöÝñåôáé ôï ðáñáðÜíù
äùñïäïêßáí ôῶí ôüôå ἰó÷õñῶí, ἀëëὰ êáὶ äéὰ ó÷üëéï. ÂÝâáéá, ðáñüôé ç ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ëüöïõ Ý÷åé
ôὴí ἀíáêÞñõîéí ôῆò ößëçò ôïõ ὡò Ἀöñïäßôçò åñåõíçèåß äéåîïäéêÜ, ôá êáôÜëïéðá ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ äåí
Ðõèéïíßêçò»39. Ý÷ïõí åíôïðéóôåß. Áõôü åßíáé áñêåôÜ ðáñÜäïîï, áöïý
ôüóï ï Ðáõóáíßáò, üóï êáé ï Äéêáßáñ÷ïò áíáöÝñïõí
Ï Ðëïýôáñ÷ïò áíáöÝñåé üôé ï ¢ñðáëïò åß÷å ðëçñþóåé üôé ôï ìíçìåßï Þôáí åðéâëçôéêü êáé âñéóêüôáí óå èÝóç
ôñéÜíôá ôÜëáíôá ãéá ôçí áíÝãåñóç ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ ôçò åîáéñåôéêÜ ðåñßïðôç. Ï Ðáõóáíßáò ôï ÷áñáêôçñßæåé ùò
Ðõèéïíßêçò40. Ðïëý ðåñéóóüôåñá, üìùò, ðñÝðåé íá åß÷å
«ôï ðåñéóóüôåñï áîéïèÝáôï áíÜìåóá ó’ üëá ôá
äþóåé ãéá ôïí åðéâëçôéêü ôÜöï ôçò óôç Âáâõëþíá.
ðáëáéÜ åëëçíéêÜ åðéôÜöåéá ìíçìåßá»43
ÌÜëéóôá, áðü åðéóôïëÞ ôïõ éóôïñéïãñÜöïõ Èåüðïìðïõ
ôïõ ×ßïõ ðñïò ôïí ößëï ôïõ ÁëÝîáíäñï, ðïõ ìáò åíþ ï Äéêáßáñ÷ïò ôïíßæåé üôé üðïéïò ôï Ýâëåðå ÷ùñßò
äéÝóùóå ï ÁèÞíáéïò, ðëçñïöïñïýìáóôå üôé åêôüò áðü íá ãíùñßæåé óå ðïéïí áíÞêå, ðßóôåõå ðùò Þôáí äçìüóéï
ôï ìíçìåßï åß÷å êáôáóêåõÜóåé êáé âùìü, þóôå ç íåêñÞ êôßóìá ðñïò ôéìÞí êÜðïéïõ åðéöáíïýò Áèçíáßïõ ôïõ
íá ôéìÜôáé ùò Áöñïäßôç Ðõèéïíßêç 41. åðéðÝäïõ ôïõ Êßìùíá, ôïõ ÌéëôéÜäç Þ ôïõ ÐåñéêëÞ 44.
Ç ôïðïèÝôçóç ôïõ êåíïôáößïõ ôçò Ðõèéïíßêçò óôïí ÅðéðëÝïí äåí Ý÷ïõìå êáíÝíá óôïé÷åßï ãéá ôç ìïñöÞ
ëüöï ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ âáóßæåôáé óå ôïõ êåíïôáößïõ, êáèþò ïé ðçãÝò ìáò åîáíôëïýíôáé óôï
ó÷üëéï ôïõ ÄéêáéÜñ÷ïõ, ðïëõìáèïýò öéëïóüöïõ ôïõ íá ðåñéãñÜöïõí ôçí åíôýðùóç ðïõ ðñïêáëïýóå óå
â´ çìßóåùò ôïõ 4ïõ áéþíá ð.×., ðïõ ðáñáôßèåôáé áðü üóïõò ôï Ýâëåðáí, êáé ü÷é ôï ìíçìåßï áõôü êáèáõôü.
ôïí ÁèÞíáéï. Óýìöùíá ìå áõôü, ôï ìíçìåßï âñéóêüôáí Ç áäõíáìßá íá åíôïðéóôåß ôï ìíçìåßï ôçò Ðõèéïíßêçò
êïíôÜ óôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü, óå ýøùìá áðü üðïõ ï åñ÷üìåíïò Ý÷åé åîçãçèåß áðü ôïí ÄçìÞôñéï Êáìðïýñïãëïõ,
28

ï ïðïßïò åñåõíþíôáò ôçí ðåñéï÷Þ áíáêÜëõøå óôá ÐÜíôùò, åßíáé ãåãïíüò üôé ïé áñ÷áßåò ðëçñïöïñßåò ãéá
êñÜóðåäá ôïõ ëüöïõ ôåñÜóôéá áóâåóôïêÜìéíï. ôï ìíçìåßï ôçò Ðõèéïíßêçò ðñïêáëïýóáí ôï åíäéáöÝñïí
Óýìöùíá ìå ôïí Êáìðïýñïãëïõ, åßíáé ðéèáíü ôï êáìßíé ôùí íåüôåñùí ðåñéçãçôþí ôçò ðåñéï÷Þò, üðùò
áõôü íá áíÜãåôáé áêüìá êáé óôá ÷ñüíéá áêñéâþò ç óðÜíéá ïìïñöéÜ ôçò åôáßñáò ðñïêáëïýóå
ôçò Öñáãêïêñáôßáò Þ ôçò Ôïõñêïêñáôßáò. ôç öáíôáóßá ôùí áñ÷áßùí Áèçíáßùí ëßãï ìåôÜ ôá
Ï áóâÝóôçò ðïõ ðáñÜ÷èçêå åêåß ÷ñçóéìïðïéÞèçêå ìÝóá ôïõ 4ïõ áéþíá ð.×. Åßíáé éäéáßôåñá åíôõðùóéáêü
ðñïöáíþò áðü ôïõò ìïíá÷ïýò ôï ãåãïíüò üôé ôï ìíçìåßï áíáöÝñåôáé ó÷åäüí áðü
ôïõ Äáöíßïõ óå óõóôçìáôéêÝò åðéóêåõÝò ôùí üëïõò ôïõò äéáâáóìÝíïõò ðåñéçãçôÝò ðïõ ðÞãáéíáí
êôéóìÜôùí ôçò ìïíÞò. Ìå âÜóç «óõíôñßììáôá ãëõðôþí óôçí Åëåõóßíá êáôÜ ôïí 18ï êáé ôïí 19ï áéþíá ì.×.
ìáñìÜñùí» ðïõ âñÝèçêáí ãýñù êáé ìÝóá óôï êáìßíé, Áò ðÜñïõìå ãéá ðáñÜäåéãìá ôïí ÃÜëëï äéáíïïýìåíï,
ï Êáìðïýñïãëïõ õðÝèåóå üôé, üðùò ðïëëÜ áñ÷áßá êáé éáôñü êáé éóôïñéêü François Pouqueville (1770-1838),
âõæáíôéíÜ ãëõðôÜ, Ýôóé êáé ôï ìíçìåßï ôçò äéÜóçìçò ðïõ ðåñéçãÞèçêå ôçí ÁôôéêÞ áëëÜ êáé ïëüêëçñç ôçí
åôáßñáò èá ìåôáôñÜðçêå óå áóâÝóôç 45. Ç õðüèåóç ÅëëÜäá êáôÜ ôçí ðåñßïäï 1805-1815· ïé åõöÜíôáóôåò
áõôÞ, áí êáé åíäéáöÝñïõóá, äåí Ý÷åé åñåõíçèåß óêÝøåéò ôïõ ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôçí Ðõèéïíßêç êáé ôï ìíçìåßï
ðåñáéôÝñù ïýôå Ý÷åé ôåêìçñéùèåß åðéóôçìïíéêÜ. ôçò åßíáé áðïôõðùìÝíåò óôï ðáñáêÜôù áðüóðáóìá:

«¼ôáí ðëçóßáæáí ïé ãüçôåò ôçò ÁèÞíáò óôï


ìíçìåßï ôçò, ôñáãïõäïýóáí ñáßíïíôÜò ôï ìå Üíèç:
“¾ìíïé, ó÷üëéá, ç øõ÷Þ ôùí äéáóêåäÜóåþí ìáò,
êé åóý åëåöáíôïóôÝéíç ëýñá, üëá áíáðáýïíôáé
êÜôù áðü ôï Üøõ÷ï áõôü ìÜñìáñï. Ãéáôß íá
ðåèÜíåéò, åíþ Þóïõí ôüóï üìïñöç;”. Ï ¢ñðáëïò
åß÷å äþóåé äéáêüóéá ôÜëáíôá ãéá íá áíåãåßñåé
áõôü ôï ìíçìåßï êáé ï Ëïõêéáíüò îåóçêþèçêå
áãáíáêôéóìÝíïò, ó÷ïëéÜæïíôáò ðùò ôá ðáéäéÜ ôçò
ðáôñßäáò ðïõ ðÝèáíáí óôç Óéêåëßá ðïëåìþíôáò
ãéá ôçí åëåõèåñßá ôçò ÅëëÜäáò, äåí åß÷áí ïýôå
Ýíá ÷ïñôÜñéíï ôÜöï»46.

Ç áðþëåéá ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ áõôïý óôÝñçóå ôï ×áúäÜñé


áðü Ýíá éäéáßôåñá åíôõðùóéáêü êáé åíäéáöÝñïí
éóôïñéêü óôïé÷åßï.

Ó÷åäéáóôéêÞ áðåéêüíéóç êéüíùí éùíéêïý ñõèìïý áðü ôï éåñü ôïõ


Áðüëëùíá óôï Äáöíß. Áõôüò óôá áñéóôåñÜ âñßóêåôáé óôç äõôéêÞ
ðëåõñÜ ôïõ åîùíÜñèçêá, åíþ áõôüò óôá äåîéÜ ìåôáöÝñèçêå áðü
ôïí ëüñäï ¸ëãéí óôç ÌåãÜëç Âñåôáíßá êáé óÞìåñá âñßóêåôáé
óôï Âñåôáíéêü Ìïõóåßï (Äåëôßïí ôçò ×ñéóôéáíéêÞò Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò
Åôáéñåßáò 1962-1963, óåë. 40, åéê. 18).
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Ï ÷þñïò ôïõ éåñïý ôïõ Áðüëëùíá óôï Äáöíß, óôç èÝóç üðïõ áñãüôåñá éäñýèçêå ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ.

Ôï éåñü ôïõ Áðüëëùíá óôï Äáöíß êáé ï Äáßôïò, áðüãïíïé ôïõ ÊåöÜëïõ, Ýðëåõóáí
óôïõò Äåëöïýò êáé æçôïýóáí áðü ôï èåü åðÜíïäï
ÁöÞíïíôáò ôï ìíçìåßï ôçò Ðõèéïíßêçò êáé óõíå÷ßæïíôáò óôçí ÁèÞíá· åêåßíïò ôïõò ðáñáêéíåß íá èõóéÜóïõí
ôçí ðïñåßá ðñïò ôá äõôéêÜ åðß ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý, ðñþôá óôïí Áðüëëùíá óôï ìÝñïò åêåßíï ôçò
ï Ðáõóáíßáò óõíÜíôçóå óôá áñéóôåñÜ ôïõ, óôç íüôéá ÁôôéêÞò, üðïõ èá äïõí ôñéÞñç íá ôñÝ÷åé ðÜíù
ðëåõñÜ ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý, ôï éåñü ôïõ Áðüëëùíá: óôç óôåñéÜ. ¼ôáí áõôïß Ýöôáóáí óôï Ðïéêßëï
ëåãüìåíï üñïò, ðáñïõóéÜóôçêå Ýíá ößäé íá ôñÝ÷åé
«ÕðÜñ÷åé åðßóçò Ýíá éåñü, üðïõ âñßóêïíôáé âéáóôéêÜ ðñïò ôç öùëéÜ ôïõ. Áõôïß èõóßáóáí
áãÜëìáôá ôçò ÄÞìçôñáò êáé ôçò Êüñçò êáé ôçò óôïí Áðüëëùíá óå áõôü ôï ìÝñïò êáé êáôüðéí
ÁèçíÜò êáé ôïõ Áðüëëùíá· áñ÷éêÜ ôï éåñü Ýãéíå Þñèáí óôçí ÁèÞíá êáé ïé áèçíáßïé ôïõò Ýêáìáí
ìüíï ãéá ôïí Áðüëëùíá. Ó÷åôéêÜ õðÜñ÷åé ç ðïëßôåò»47.
ðáñÜäïóç ðùò ï ÊÝöáëïò, ï ãéïò ôïõ Äçßïíá,
áöïý ìáæß ìå ôïí Áìöéôñýùíá õðÝôáîå êáé Ýäéùîå Ôï éåñü ôïõ Áðüëëùíá Þôáí ìßá áðü ôéò ðéï
ôïõò ôçëåâüåò, êáôïßêçóå ðñþôïò ôï íçóß ðïõ óçìáíôéêÝò óôÜóåéò ôçò åëåõóéíéáêÞò ðïìðÞò. Áõôü
áðü ôïí ÊÝöáëï ïíïìÜóôçêå Êåöáëëçíßá. Ï äéêáéïëïãåß êáé ôçí ýðáñîç ïñãáíùìÝíçò ëáôñåßáò
ÊÝöáëïò Ýìåíå ðñéí óôçí ÈÞâá, åîïñéóìÝíïò áðü ðñïò ôéìÞí ôçò ÄÞìçôñáò êáé ôçò Ðåñóåöüíçò óôï
ôçí ÁèÞíá åîáéôßáò ôïõ öüíïõ ôçò óõæýãïõ ôïõ ðëáßóéï ôïõ áðïëëùíéáêïý ôåìÝíïõò. Ï Áðüëëùí åäþ
Ðñüêñéäïò. Êáôüðéí, óôç äÝêáôç ãåíéÜ, ï ×áëêßíïò åß÷å ðéèáíüôáôá ôçí ðñïóùíõìßá «Äáöíçöüñïò».
30

Ôï óõìðÝñáóìá áõôü ðñïêýðôåé áðü åðéãñáöÞ óå êÜðïéï õðüóôõëï ïéêïäüìçìá, êáèþò óôïí ÷þñï
ìáñìÜñéíç Ýäñá-èñüíï óôï áèçíáúêü èÝáôñï ôïõ âñÝèçêå ìåãÜëïò áñéèìüò óðïíäýëùí êáé êéïíïêñÜíùí
Äéïíýóïõ, üðïõ äéáâÜæïõìå «ÉåñÝùò Áðüëëùíïò éùíéêïý êáé äùñéêïý ôýðïõ. ¸íáò áêÝñáéïò éùíéêüò
Äáöíçöüñïõ». Áõôü óçìáßíåé üôé, óýìöùíá ìå ôç êßùí Ý÷åé ÷ñçóéìïðïéçèåß óôç óôÞñéîç ôùí ôïîùôþí
óõíÞèåéá íá ðáñá÷ùñïýíôáé ôéìçôéêÝò èÝóåéò óôï áíïéãìÜôùí óôç ÍÄ ãùíßá ôïõ åîùíÜñèçêá ôïõ
èÝáôñï óå éåñåßò êáé äéÜöïñïõò áîéùìáôïý÷ïõò, êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò. Ãíùñßæïõìå üôé åêåß õðÞñ÷áí
ç åí ëüãù Ýäñá áíÞêå óôïí éåñÝá ôïõ Áðüëëùíá ôñåéò áêüìá üìïéïé éùíéêïß êßïíåò, ïé ïðïßïé
Äáöíçöüñïõ48. Áöïý, ëïéðüí, ç óõãêåêñéìÝíç ëáôñåßá áöáéñÝèçêáí êáé áíôéêáôáóôÜèçêáí ìå ÷ôéóôïýò
äåí ìáñôõñåßôáé ðïõèåíÜ áëëïý óôçí ÁôôéêÞ, âÜóéìá óôýëïõò áðü ôïí ðåñéþíõìï ëüñäï Elgin. Ïé êßïíåò
ãßíåôáé äåêôü üôé óôï éåñü ôïõ Áðüëëùíá ðïõ áõôïß åß÷áí ôçí ßäéá ôý÷ç ìå ôá Åëãßíåéá êáé óÞìåñá
áíáöÝñåé ï Ðáõóáíßáò, êáé ðïõ åíôïðßæåôáé óå ìéá âñßóêïíôáé óôï Âñåôáíéêü Ìïõóåßï ôïõ Ëïíäßíïõ 50.
ðåñéï÷Þ ãíùóôÞ ìå ôçí ïíïìáóßá Äáöíß, ôïõëÜ÷éóôïí Ï Pouqueville, ðïõ åðéóêÝöôçêå ôï âõæáíôéíü ìïíáóôÞñé
áðü ôá ìÝóá ôïõ 13ïõ áéþíá ì.×. 49 ëåéôïõñãïýóå ìå óêïðü íá åíôïðßóåé ôá åñåßðéá ôïõ íáïý ôïõ
ï éåñÝáò ôçò åðéãñáöÞò. Áðüëëùíá, áíáöÝñåé:
Ï éåñüò ÷þñïò ãéá ôïí ïðïßï ìéëÜ ï Ðáõóáíßáò, Ý÷åé
åíôïðéóôåß óôá üñéá ðïõ êáôáëáìâÜíåé óÞìåñá ç «[…] öôÜóáìå óôç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ, ðïõ åßíáé
âõæáíôéíÞ ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ. ¼ôáí ôïí åðéóêÝöôçêå ÷ôéóìÝíç ðÜíù óôá åñåßðéá ôïõ íáïý ôïõ
ï ðåñéçãçôÞò, èá ðñÝðåé íá ðåñéëÜìâáíå íáü êáé Áðüëëùíá. Ïé äýï ôåëåõôáßåò êïëüíåò áõôïý
ôïõ êôßóìáôïò åß÷áí êëáðåß áðü ôï óýã÷ñïíï
ëåçëáôçôÞ ôïõ Ðáñèåíþíá. ¸ìåíå íá äïýìå ôçí
åêêëçóßá, üðïõ áíôßêñõóá Ýíá ×ñéóôü êáé Üëëåò
ìïñöÝò óå ðïëý êáëÜ äéáôçñçìÝíï ìùóáúêü. Óå
ìßá áðü ôéò ÷áìçëÝò ðëåõñÝò åßäá ìßá áñ÷áßá
êïëþíá, óôçí áõëÞ ðáñáôÞñçóá ìßá óôÞëç ìå
äýï ìïñöÝò êáé óôï ëéèüóôñùôï åíüò äéáäñüìïõ
äéÜâáóá ìåñéêÜ ãñÜììáôá áðü ìßá åðéãñáöÞ, ðïõ
äåí åß÷áí ðéá êáíÝíá íüçìá»51.

ÐñÜãìáôé, üôáí Üñ÷éóáí ïé óõóôçìáôéêÝò áñ÷áéïëïãéêÝò


Ýñåõíåò óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ Äáöíßïõ êáôÜ ôéò ôåëåõôáßåò
äåêáåôßåò ôïõ 19ïõ áéþíá, ôüóï ï ÷þñïò ôçò ìïíÞò
üóï êáé ïé ãýñù áãñïß Ýâñéèáí áñ÷áßùí êáé âõæáíôéíþí
áñ÷éôåêôïíéêþí ìåëþí êáé ãëõðôþí. ÅðéðëÝïí, áñêåôÜ
ëßèéíá êáôÜëïéðá áðü ôï éåñü ôïõ Áðüëëùíá âñÝèçêáí
åíôïé÷éóìÝíá óôá ìåôáãåíÝóôåñá âõæáíôéíÜ êáé
öñÜãêéêá êôßóìáôá:

Ôïðïãñáöéêü äéÜãñáììá ôçò ðåñéï÷Þò ÓêáñáìáãêÜ. Óçìåéþíïíôáé


ïé áñ÷áßåò èÝóåéò êáé ç ðïñåßá ôçò áñ÷áßáò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý áðü ôï
éåñü ôçò Áöñïäßôçò Ýùò ôïõò Ñåéôïýò (ÐñáêôéêÜ Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò
Åôáéñåßáò 1937, óåë. 41, ðßí. Á´).
31

«Ἐíôὸò ìὲí ôïῦ ðåñéâüëïõ ôῆò Ìïíῆò ôὸ ἄíù êáôáóêåõÞ ôçò éó÷õñÞò ï÷ýñùóçò ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ.
ìÝñïò êïñìïῦ íåáñᾶò ãõíáéêüò, ἴóùò ôῆò Êüñçò, ÌÜëéóôá, ôï âüñåéï ôìÞìá ôïõ âõæáíôéíïý ôåß÷ïõò
ἀñßóôçò ôÝ÷íçò, ÷ùñὶò ἀôõ÷ῶò ÷åῖñáò êáὶ êåöáëὴí öáßíåôáé ðùò «ðáôÜåé» ðÜíù óôïí áñ÷áßï ðåñßâïëï,
– åἶ÷ïí ìÜëéóôá ìåôá÷åéñéóèῆ ìåôáãåíåóôÝñùò ôὸí ï ïðïßïò åßíáé ïñáôüò óôéò êáôþôåñåò óôñþóåéò ôïõ
êïñìὸí áὐôὸí ὡò êïéíὸí ëßèïí ôïῦ ìáíäñüôïé÷ïõ. ôïß÷ïõ. ÅðéðëÝïí, ôï ôåñÜóôéï ëßèéíï êáôþöëé ôçò
Êáôὰ ôὴí åἴóïäïí ôïῦ ἀðïêáëõöèÝíôïò äõôéêïῦ áíáôïëéêÞò åéóüäïõ åßíáé êáôÜ ðÜóá ðéèáíüôçôá ôï
ðåñéâüëïõ ôῆò Ìïíῆò ἀíåõñÝèç ðïëýóôé÷ïò êáôþöëé ôïõ áñ÷áßïõ ôåìÝíïõò. Ôçí õðüèåóç áõôÞ
ἐðéãñáöὴ ἀíáãñáöῆò äéáöüñùí ἀñ÷üíôùí, ìὴ åíéó÷ýåé êáé ç äéáðßóôùóç üôé êáôÜ ôá âõæáíôéíÜ ÷ñüíéá
ó÷åôéæüìåíç ðñὸò ôὸí ôüðïí êáὶ ÷ñçóéìïðïéçèåῖóá ç êýñéá ðýëç ôïõ ìïíáóôçñéïý âñéóêüôáí óôï ìÝóïí
äéὰ ôὴí åὐðñåðῆ ἐìöÜíéóéí ôïῦ ðõëῶíïò. Ἔîù äὲ ôçò äõôéêÞò ðëåõñÜò ôïõ ðåñéâüëïõ, äçëáäÞ áðÝíáíôé
ôïῦ ðåñéâüëïõ äýï âÜèñá Ἐñìῶí – ðáñáêÜôù áðü ôçí åßóïäï ôïõ êáèïëéêïý. Ç áíáôïëéêÞ ðýëç, ðïõ
ìßá êåöáëὴ Ἑñìïῦ – äéὰ ôῶí ὁðïßùí ὠäçãÞèçìåí ôáõôßæåôáé ìå ôç óçìåñéíÞ åßóïäï óôïí ôåé÷éóìÝíï
åἰò ôὸí ðñïóäéïñéóìὸí ôῆò óõíå÷åßáò ôῆò Ἱåñᾶò ÷þñï ôçò ìïíÞò, Þôáí óáöþò ìéêñüôåñç. Ðéèáíþò íá
ὁäïῦ»52. ðñüêåéôáé êáé ãéá ôçí ðýëç ôïõ áñ÷áßïõ ðåñéâüëïõ 54.
Ï áêñéâÞò ÷ñüíïò ßäñõóçò ôïõ éåñïý ôïõ Áðüëëùíá
ÓÞìåñá üëá áõôÜ âñßóêïíôáé åêôåèåéìÝíá óå ðëÞñùò ðáñáìÝíåé Üãíùóôïò, áöïý ôá áñ÷áßá óôñþìáôá êÜôù
áíáêáéíéóìÝíç áßèïõóá ôçò óôïÜò ôùí ìïíáóôéêþí áðü ôï ìïíáóôÞñé äåí Ý÷ïõí åñåõíçèåß äéåîïäéêÜ. Ãéá
êåëéþí óôá íüôéá ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò ôïõ Äáöíéïý. ôïí ßäéï ëüãï, ôï êýñéï íáúêü ïéêïäüìçìá, ç ìåëÝôç ôïõ
Ç áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ ìïñöÞ ôïõ íáïý ôïõ Áðüëëùíá ïðïßïõ èá ìáò Ýäéíå êÜðïéá éäÝá ãéá ôç ÷ñïíïëüãçóÞ
áëëÜ êáé ïëüêëçñïõ ôïõ éåñïý ìÜò åßíáé ó÷åäüí ôïõ, äåí Ý÷åé åíôïðéóôåß. ÂÜóåé ôçò ôå÷íïôñïðßáò ôïõ
ïëïêëçñùôéêÜ Üãíùóôç. Ìå âÜóç ôçí áöÞãçóç ôïõ éùíéêïý êßïíá ðïõ âñßóêåôáé åðáíá÷ñçóéìïðïéçìÝíïò
Ðáõóáíßá êáé ôá åëÜ÷éóôá áñ÷áéïëïãéêÜ äåäïìÝíá, óôçí êéïíïóôïé÷ßá ôïõ åîùíÜñèçêá, ç ïðïßá áíÜãåôáé
ï áñ÷áéïëüãïò Ðáðá÷áôæÞò õðïèÝôåé ðùò óôï éåñü óôçí ýóôåñç êëáóéêÞ åðï÷Þ, ìðïñåß íá õðïèÝóåé
õðÞñ÷å Ýíáò íáüò áöéåñùìÝíïò óôïí Áðüëëùíá, üðïõ êáíåßò üôé ï íáüò ôïõ Áðüëëùíá ÷ôßóôçêå êáôÜ ôçí
èá Þôáí ôïðïèåôçìÝíï ôï Üãáëìá ôïõ èåïý áëëÜ êáé ðåñßïäï áõôÞ55. Êáèþò, üìùò, äåí Ý÷ïõìå êáé Üëëá
áõôü ôçò ÁèçíÜò. Ôá áãÜëìáôá ôçò ÄÞìçôñáò êáé ôçò óôïé÷åßá ðïõ íá õðïóôçñßæïõí áõôÞí ôçí õðüèåóç, ôï
Êüñçò, áðü ôçí Üëëç, èá ðñÝðåé íá Þôáí óôåãáóìÝíá óå ìüíï ðïõ ìðïñïýìå íá éó÷õñéóôïýìå ìå âåâáéüôçôá
îå÷ùñéóôü íáúêü ïéêïäüìçìá. Ç ôïðïèÝôçóç ôåóóÜñùí åßíáé üôé ôï éåñü õðÞñ÷å óôá ìÝóá ôïõ 2ïõ áéþíá ì.×.,
ëáôñåõôéêþí áãáëìÜôùí óå Ýíáí óçêü ðñïûðïèÝôåé üôáí ôï åðéóêÝöôçêå ï Ðáõóáíßáò. ÊáôáóôñÜöçêå
ôçí ýðáñîç íáïý ôåñáóôßùí äéáóôÜóåùí, õðüèåóç ðïõ Ýðåéôá áðü ðåñßðïõ äéáêüóéá ðåíÞíôá ÷ñüíéá áðü ôïõò
ìðïñïýìå ìå óéãïõñéÜ íá áðïêëåßóïõìå üóïí áöïñÜ ôï Âçóéãüôèïõò ôïõ ÁëÜñé÷ïõ, ðñïöáíþò óôç äéÜñêåéá ôçò
Äáöíß. ÅðéðëÝïí, ï áñêåôÜ ìåãÜëïò áñéèìüò óöïíäýëùí ßäéáò åðéäñïìÞò ðïõ ðñïêÜëåóå ôçí êáôáóôñïöÞ ôïõ
áðü êßïíåò õðïäåéêíýåé ôçí ýðáñîç êáé äåýôåñïõ íáúêïý éåñïý ôçò Åëåõóßíáò ôï 395 ì.×. 56.
ïéêïäïìÞìáôïò Þ êÜðïéáò óôïÜò. ¸ôóé, ç ÄÞìçôñá êáé Ìå ôçí áíÝãåñóç êáôÜ ôá âõæáíôéíÜ ÷ñüíéá ôçò ìïíÞò
ç Êüñç èá ðñÝðåé íá óôåãÜæïíôáí óå óçêü íáïý Þ Äáöíßïõ, óõíáíôÞèçêáí óôïí ÷þñï áõôü äýï éóôïñéêÝò
óå áíïéêôÞ óôïÜ. ÐÜíôùò, óýìöùíá ìå ôïí Ðáõóáíßá, ðåñßïäïé, ç êëáóéêÞ áñ÷áéüôçôá êáé ôï ÂõæÜíôéï.
áí õðÞñ÷å äåýôåñïò íáüò óôï Äáöíß, Þôáí óáöþò
ìåôáãåíÝóôåñïò áðü áõôüí ôïõ Áðüëëùíá53.
¼ðùò üëá ôá ôåìÝíç óôçí áñ÷áéüôçôá, Ýôóé êáé ôï Ôï óðÞëáéï ôïõ Ðáíüò óôï Äáöíß
éåñü ôïõ Áðüëëùíá óôï Äáöíß ðëáéóéùíüôáí áðü
ðåñßâïëï. ¹ôáí ÷ôéóìÝíïò áðü ìåãÜëïõò ïñèïãþíéïõò Óôçí áðüôïìç ðëáãéÜ ôïõ Ðïéêßëïõ üñïõò ðïõ
êáëïëáîåõìÝíïõò ëßèïõò, ç ðëåéïíüôçôá ôùí ïðïßùí õøþíåôáé ðßóù áðü ôï ìïíáóôÞñé ôïõ Äáöíéïý,
÷ñçóéìïðïéÞèçêå áðü ôïõò Âõæáíôéíïýò óôçí Ý÷åé åíôïðéóôåß óçìáíôéêü ëáôñåõôéêü óðÞëáéï, ôçí
32

Ôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ óðçëáßïõ ôïõ Ðáíüò óôï Äáöíß (Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞ Åöçìåñßò 1936-37, óåë. 394, åéê. 2).

ýðáñîç ôïõ ïðïßïõ öáßíåôáé ðùò áãíïïýóáí åíôåëþò


ï Ðáõóáíßáò êáèþò êáé üëïé ïé ðåñéçãçôÝò ôùí
íåüôåñùí ÷ñüíùí. Ôï óðÞëáéï åíôüðéóå ï ÄçìÞôñéïò
Êáìðïýñïãëïõ óôï ðëáßóéï ôùí åñåõíþí ôïõ óôçí
ÉåñÜ Ïäü óôéò áñ÷Ýò ôçò äåêáåôßáò ôïõ 1890 57 êáé
áíÝóêáøå óõóôçìáôéêÜ ï ÉùÜííçò Ôñáõëüò êáôÜ
ôï Ýôïò 193258. ÐñÝðåé íá óçìåéùèåß üôé ï Äçì.
Êáìðïýñïãëïõ Þôáí ëÜôñçò ôïõ ôïðßïõ ôïõ Äáöíéïý
êáé åßíáé ãíùóôïß ïé ðåñßðáôïß ôïõ, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá
èáõìÜóåé ôçí ðïéêéëüôçôá ôçò ÷ëùñßäáò êáé éäéáßôåñá
ôá ìïíáäéêÜ Üíèç áíåìþíáò. Ç áðüóôáóç ìåôáîý ôçò
íüôéáò ðëåõñÜò ôïõ ìïíáóôçñéáêïý ðåñéâüëïõ êáé

ÊÜôïøç ôïõ óðçëáßïõ ôïõ Ðáíüò óôï Äáöíß


(Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞ Åöçìåñßò 1936-37, óåë. 409, ðßí. Á´).
33

Tï óôüìéï ôïõ óðçëáßïõ ôïõ Ðáíüò óôï Äáöíß (Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞ Åöçìåñßò 1936-37, óåë. 393, åéê. 1).

ôïõ åí ëüãù óðçëáßïõ åßíáé ãýñù óôá äÝêá ëåðôÜ ÉùÜííçò Ôñáõëüò
(1908-1985).
êïðéáóôéêÞò ðåæïðïñßáò-áíÜâáóçò «äé’ ἀôñáðῶí
äõóäéáêñßôùí êáὶ ὀëéóèçñῶí»59.
Ôï óðÞëáéï åßíáé ó÷åôéêÜ ìéêñü, ìå ïëéêü âÜèïò
11,55 ìÝôñá êáé ìÝãéóôï ðëÜôïò 7,8 ìÝôñá. Ôï ó÷Þìá óôçí áõëÞ. Åðßóçò, áðü ôá ðïëëáðëÜ ß÷íç êïíéÜìáôïò
ôïõ åßíáé ÷ùíéïåéäÝò ìå Üíïéãìá ðñïò ôïí ÂïññÜ. óôéò ðáñåéÝò êáé ôï äÜðåäï ôïõ óðçëáßïõ áëëÜ
Ôï ôåëåõôáßï åß÷å êëåéóôåß êáôÜ ôçí áñ÷áéüôçôá ìå êáé ôçí åðéöÜíåéá ôçò áõëÞò, ðñïêýðôåé üôé üëåò
ôïß÷ï áðü áñãïëéèïäïìÞ, óôï êÝíôñï ôïõ ïðïßïõ áõôÝò ïé åðéöÜíåéåò Þôáí åðé÷ñéóìÝíåò
áíïéãüôáí óôåíÞ åßóïäïò. ÌðñïóôÜ áðü ôï óðÞëáéï óôçí áñ÷áéüôçôá.
åß÷å äéáìïñöùèåß åðßðåäç åðéöÜíåéá –Ýíá åßäïò Áðü ôá êéíçôÜ åõñÞìáôá ðïõ áðïêáëýöèçêáí óôï
áõëÞò– ðïõ õðïóôçñéæüôáí áðü áíáëçììáôéêü ôïß÷ï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ óðçëáßïõ áëëÜ êáé ôç ãýñù ðåñéï÷Þ
êáôáóêåõáóìÝíï 2 ìÝôñá âïñåßùò ôïõ áíïßãìáôïò. Ôï óõìðåñáßíïõìå üôé ç ëáôñåßá åäþ ðåñéëÜìâáíå
åóùôåñéêü ôïõ óðçëáßïõ Þôáí áäéáìüñöùôï, ìå ôçí ôåëåôïõñãéêÞ êáýóç ðñïóöïñþí óå ðõñÝò êáé èõóßåò
åîáßñåóç ìéêñïý ôïé÷áñßïõ êáé ïñèïãþíéùí ëáîåýóåùí ìéêñþí æþùí: âñÝèçêáí ïóôÜ ìéêñþí æþùí áëëÜ êáé
óôï äÜðåäï. ÁíÜëïãåò ëáîåýóåéò ðáñáôçñÞèçêáí êáé ôìÞìáôá áããåßùí êáé ðÞëéíùí åéäùëßùí ìå óáöÞ
34

Ïñèïãþíéï ëÜîåõìá óôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ óðçëáßïõ ôïõ Ðáíüò


óôï Äáöíß (Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞ Åöçìåñßò 1936-1937, óåë. 396, åéê. 4).
35

ß÷íç êáýóçò êáé, âÝâáéá, ìåãÜëç ðïóüôçôá óôÜ÷ôçò. Íýìöáò, ἀíáöÝñïíôáé ôὰ ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêþôåñá
Ôá ðåñéóóüôåñá üóôñáêá êáé ôìÞìáôá áããåßùí ôῶí ãåíïìÝíùí ἐí ôῷ óðçëáßῳ åὐñçìÜôùí, áἱ
ðñïÝñ÷ïíôáí áðü ëïõôñïöüñïõò, ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ óéëçíïåéäåῖò ðÞëéíáé ìïñöáὶ êáὶ áἱ ëïõôñïöüñïé»61.
êëåéóôÜ áããåßá ìå ðïëý óôåíü êáé õøçëü ëáéìü,
ðïõ ÷ñçóéìïðïéïýíôáí êáôåîï÷Þí óôçí ôåëåôïõñãßá ÁíÜëïãá óðÞëáéá áöéåñùìÝíá óôç ëáôñåßá ôïõ èåïý
ôùí ãÜìùí êáé óôéò êçäåßåò Üãáìùí ðñïóþðùí 60. Ðáíüò Ý÷ïõí åíôïðéóôåß óå äéÜöïñá óçìåßá ôçò
ÊÜðïéá áðü ôá áããåßá öÝñïõí ãñáðôÞ äéáêüóìçóç, ÁôôéêÞò.
ìåëáíüìïñöç êáé åñõèñüìïñöç, åîáéñåôéêÞò Ôá êéíçôÜ åõñÞìáôá ôïðïèåôïýí ôç ëáôñåßá óôïí ÷þñï
ôå÷íïôñïðßáò. Ôá ðÞëéíá åéäþëéá áíáðáñéóôïýí áðïêëåéóôéêÜ óôïí 5ï áéþíá ð.×. Êáìßá áðïëýôùò
Óéëçíïýò, ôïí èåü ÐÜíá, ôçí Áöñïäßôç êáé äéÜöïñåò Ýíäåéîç ãéá ìåôáãåíÝóôåñç ÷ñÞóç ôïõ óðçëáßïõ
Üëëåò ãõíáéêåßåò ìïñöÝò. äåí Ý÷åé åíôïðéóôåß. Ðéèáíüôáôá ãé’ áõôüí ôïí ëüãï
Ùò ðñïò ôçí ôáõôüôçôá ôçò ëáôñåõüìåíçò èåüôçôáò ôá ï äéáâáóìÝíïò Ðáõóáíßáò äåí ãíþñéæå ôçí ýðáñîç
åõñÞìáôá äåí ìáò áöÞíïõí êáìßá áìöéâïëßá. Óýìöùíá ôïõ óðçëáßïõ. ÊáôÜ ôá âõæáíôéíÜ ÷ñüíéá ôï óðÞëáéï
ìå ôïí áíáóêáöÝá ôïõ óðçëáßïõ: êáôïéêÞèçêå ãéá ìéêñü ÷ñïíéêü äéÜóôçìá, ðéèáíüôáôá
áðü êÜðïéïõò áóêçôÝò, åíþ åðß Ôïõñêïêñáôßáò
«Åἰò ôὸí èåüí, ὁ ὁðïῖïò óõíÞèùò ἐëáôñåýåôï åἰò ÷ñçóéìïðïéÞèçêå ùò óôÜâëïò.
ôὰ ἐñçìéêὰ âÜèç ôῶí äáóῶí êáὶ åἰò ôὰ ÷Üóìáôá
ìåìïíïìÝíùí ἀðïêñÞìíùí óðçëáßùí, åἰò ôὸí
óýíôñïöïí, ôὸí ὁðïῖïí ἐöïâïῦíôï êáὶ ôïῦ ὁðïßïõ Éåñü Áöñïäßôçò óôïí ÓêáñáìáãêÜ
ôὴí åὔíïéáí êáὶ ðñïóôáóßáí ἐæÞôïõí íὰ ἐðéôý÷ïõí
äé’ åὐ÷ῶí êáὶ ðñïóöïñῶí ïἱ ðïéìÝíåò êáὶ ïἱ ÁìÝóùò ìåôÜ ôï éåñü ôïõ Áðüëëùíá, ï Ðáõóáíßáò
ὁäïéðüñïé ïἱ åὑñéóêüìåíïé åἰò ôὰ äÜóç êáὶ ἦóáí áíáöÝñåé êÜðïéï íáü ôçò Áöñïäßôçò:
óõ÷íὰ ὑðï÷ñåùìÝíïé íá æçôïῦí êáôáöýãéïí
åἰò ôὰ óðÞëáéá, åἰò ôὸí ÐÜíá êáὶ åἰò ôὰò «¸ðåéôá åßíáé Ýíáò íáüò ôçò Áöñïäßôçò êáé
èåüôçôáò ìåôὰ ôῶí ὁðïßùí ðñïðÜíôùí ἠñÝóêåôï ìðñïóôÜ ó’ áõôüí Ýíá ôåß÷ïò áðü áêáôÝñãáóôåò
íὰ äéÜãç êáὶ íὰ óõëëáôñåýåôáé ïὗôïò, ôὰò ðÝôñåò áîéïèÝáôï»62.

ÌéêñÜ êåñáìéêÜ áããåßá êáé åéäþëéá Óéëçíþí áðü ôï óðÞëáéï ôïõ


Ðáíüò óôï Äáöíß, 5ïò áéþíáò ð.×. (Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞ Åöçìåñßò 1936-
1937, óåë. 404-405, åéê. 15, 17, 19, 20 êáé 21).
36

Ëïõôñïöüñïò ìå ãñáðôÞ
äéáêüóìçóç ôïõ ôñßôïõ
ôåôÜñôïõ ôïõ 5ïõ áéþíá ð.×.
áðü ôï óðÞëáéï ôïõ Ðáíüò
óôï Äáöíß. Óôçí ðñüóèéá
üøç åéêïíßæåôáé ðáñÜóôáóç
ðñïóöïñÜò ãáìÞëéùí äþñùí
óå íåáñÞ íýöç, åíþ ç ðßóù
ðëåõñÜ êáôáëáìâÜíåôáé áðü
äýï Íßêåò, ðïõ ðëáéóéþíïõí
ôçí ðñüóèéá ðáñÜóôáóç
(Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞ Åöçìåñßò 1936,
óåë. 402-403, åéê. 13 êáé 14).
37

ÃåíéêÞ Üðïøç ôïõ éåñïý ôçò Áöñïäßôçò óôçí Áöáßá ÓêáñáìáãêÜ êáôÜ ôï 1936
(ÐñáêôéêÜ Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò 1937, óåë. 26, åéê. 1).

Ôï åí ëüãù ïéêïäïìéêü óõãêñüôçìá Ý÷åé åíôïðéóôåß äéáñêåß áñêåôÞ þñá, ï âñÜ÷ïò îå÷ùñßæåé êÜôù áðü
óôç óõíïéêßá ôïõ ÄÞìïõ ×áúäáñßïõ Áöáßá ÓêáñáìáãêÜ. ôï äñüìï, êáôçöïñßæïõìå.
Âñßóêåôáé óôï âüñåéï êñÜóðåäï ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý, ãýñù »×áñéôùìÝíç èÝá ôçò èÜëáóóáò: ï êüëðïò ôçò
óôï 1,5 ÷ëì. äõôéêÜ ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ, óôï óçìåßï Ëåøßíáò, êëåéóìÝíïò áíÜìåóá óôá âïõíÜ, ìïéÜæåé
üðïõ ôï ðÝñáóìá ìåôáîý ôïõ ÁéãÜëåù êáé ôïõ Ðïéêßëïõ ìå ëßìíç, äåí îÝñåéò áðü ðïéá ìåñéÜ âñßóêåôáé
üñïõò óôåíåýåé óçìáíôéêÜ, åíþ ìðñïóôÜ áðëþíåôáé ôï ÜíïéãìÜ ôïõ. Ï äñüìïò êáôåâáßíåé ïëüéóéá
ï êüëðïò ôçò Åëåõóßíáò. Ï ÷þñïò ãéá ôïí ïðïßï ìéëÜ áðÝíáíôé, ëåò êáé èá ðÝóåé óôç èÜëáóóá. ÁðáëÝò
ï Ðáõóáíßáò Ý÷åé ôáõôéóôåß ìå óéãïõñéÜ åäþ êáé ðÜñá ðëáãéÝò áñéóôåñÜ· äåîéÜ, ðÜíù óôï âñÜ÷ï (óôç
ðïëëÜ ÷ñüíéá ëüãù ìéáò éäéáéôåñüôçôáò èÝóç ôçò Áöñïäßôçò Ößëçò;) åßíáé óêáëéóìÝíåò
ðïõ äåí Üöçóå ôï éåñü íá ðåñÜóåé áðáñáôÞñçôï áñêåôÝò êïéëüôçôåò, ïé ðåñéóóüôåñåò êáìðýëåò
áðü êáíÝíáí ôáîéäéþôç ðïõ äéÝó÷éæå ôï åí ëüãù óôï ðÜíù ìÝñïò, ìå ýøïò Ýíá ðüäé ðåñßðïõ,
ôìÞìá ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý. Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá ôéò ðïëëáðëÝò ïñéóìÝíåò ôåôñÜðëåõñåò êáé ðïõ öáßíïíôáé
ôåôñÜðëåõñåò êüã÷åò ðïõ Ý÷ïõí áíïé÷ôåß ðñïïñéóìÝíåò íá äÝ÷ïíôáé ìéêñÜ áãÜëìáôá êáé
óôç âñá÷þäç ðáñåéÜ ôïõ üñïõò ÁéãÜëåù, åéêüíåò»63.
ðÜíù óôçí ïðïßá «áêïõìðïýóå» ôï ôÝìåíïò ôçò
Áöñïäßôçò. Ï ÷þñïò ïíïìÜóôçêå áðü ôïõò êáôïßêïõò «íôïõëáðÜêéá»
Ï ðåñßöçìïò ÃÜëëïò óõããñáöÝáò Gustave Flaubert (1821- ëüãù ôùí åóï÷þí ãéá ôá áíáèÞìáôá óôï áíÜãëõöï
1880), ï ïðïßïò îåêßíçóå ôçí ðïñåßá áðü ôçí ÁèÞíá ðñïò ôïõ âñÜ÷ïõ. ¼ðùò ôï ôÝìåíïò ôïõ Áðüëëùíá óôï
ôçí Åëåõóßíá áíÞìåñá ×ñéóôïýãåííá ôïõ Ýôïõò 1850, Äáöíß, Ýôóé êáé ôï éåñü ôçò Áöñïäßôçò Þôáí ìßá áðü
áíáöÝñåé: ôéò âáóéêÝò óôÜóåéò ôçò åëåõóéíéáêÞò ðïìðÞò64. Ïé
ðñþôåò áíáóêáöÝò óôïí ÷þñï Ýãéíáí óôéò áñ÷Ýò ôçò
«Óôçí Üêñç ôçò ðåäéÜäáò áñ÷ßæïõìå íá äåêáåôßáò ôïõ 1890 áðü ôïí Êáìðïýñïãëïõ 65, ï ïðïßïò
áíåâáßíïõìå. Ôá óôåíÜ ôïõ ×áúäáñéïý. Ç áíçöïñéÜ ðåñéãñÜöåé êÜðïéá áðü ôá åíôõðùóéáêÜ åõñÞìáôÜ ôïõ:
38
39

«Êáôὰ ôὰò ἀíáóêáöὰò ἐðÞäçóáí ἀðὸ ôὰ ÷þìáôá


êáὶ ἀãáëìÜôéá Ἀöñïäßôçò êáὶ ἄëëùí èåïôÞôùí, ὧí
ἓí Öåéäéáêῆò ὠñéóìÝíùò ôÝ÷íçò êáὶ óõìðëÝãìáôá
ôῆò ìὲ ôὴí Ðåéèὼ êáὶ ôὸí Ἒñùôá êáὶ ðåñéóôÝñéá
ἐíåðßãñáöá êáὶ ìÞ, êáὶ óýìâïëá ãåííÞóåùò,
êáὶ ῥüäéá ôῆò åὐôåêíßáò êáὶ âÜèñá ἐíåðßãñáöá
êáὶ âÜóåéò óôýëùí êáὶ ãõíὴ ὁäçãïῦóá íåáíßáí,
ðñïóöÝñïíôá ἀíÜèçìá êáὶ êÜðïéïò ἄëëïò íåáíßáò
ἀêÝöáëïò, ðïὺ ðñïóÝñ÷åôáé ìüíïò ôïõ êñáôῶí
ôὸ èõìéáôÞñé.
»Ἀëëὰ êáὶ ἡ åἴóïäïò ôïῦ Ἱåñïῦ êáὶ ἴ÷íç óôïᾶò
ôéíὸò êáὶ âùìὸò êáὶ äéáìåñßóìáôá äéáìïíῆò ἱåñÝùí
ἀðåêáëýöèçóáí êáὶ ὀìâñïäÝêôáé êáὶ èáõìÜóéïí
ëéèïøçößäùìá ôïῦ ἐäÜöïõò. Êáὶ ôÝëïò ôὸ âÜèñïí,
ἐðὶ ôïῦ ὁðïßïõ ἀíõøïῦôï ἄëëïôå ðÜãêáëïí
ôῆò èåᾶò ôὸ ἄãáëìá, ἔ÷ïí ὀðßóù ὡò öüíôï ôὸí
ôñá÷ὺí ἐñõèñüöáéïí âñÜ÷ïí, äåîéὰ êáὶ ἀñéóôåñὰ
ôὰ êáôáðñÜóéíá ðåῦêá êáὶ êÜôù ôὸ ãáëáíὸí ôῆò
ðïñöõñᾶò Óáëáìῖíïò êῦìá»66.

Ïé åóï÷Ýò («íôïõëáðÜêéá») óôï éåñü ôçò Áöñïäßôçò óôçí Áöáßá


ÓêáñáìáãêÜ (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).
Óôçí Ýíèåôç öùôïãñáößá, Üðïøç ôïõ éåñïý ôçò Áöñïäßôçò êáôÜ
ôç äåêáåôßá ôïõ 1930.
40

ÔìÞìá ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý ìðñïóôÜ áðü ôï éåñü ôçò Áöñïäßôçò óôçí Áöáßá ÓêáñáìáãêÜ
(ÐñáêôéêÜ Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò 1937, óåë. 34, åéê. 13).

Ï ÷þñïò åñåõíÞèçêå áíáóêáöéêÜ êáé êáôÜ ôç äåêáåôßá ¹ôáí êáôÜ ðÜóá ðéèáíüôçôá äùñéêïý ôýðïõ
ôïõ 1930 áðü ôïí ÉùÜííç Ôñáõëü êáé ôïí Êùíóôáíôßíï êáé äéÝèåôå ìáñìÜñéíç óôÝãáóç, êáèþò óôéò áíáóêáöÝò
Êïõñïõíéþôç, ïé ïðïßïé ïëïêëÞñùóáí ôçí êÜôïøç ôïõ åß÷áí âñåèåß ôìÞìáôá ôñéãëýöùí áðü ìÜñìáñï 69. Åêôüò
ôåìÝíïõò ôçò Áöñïäßôçò áëëÜ êáé ôçò ãýñù ðåñéï÷Þò 67. áðü ôïí íáÀóêï, óôï ðëáßóéï ôïõ ðåñéâüëïõ Ý÷ïõí
Ï ðåñßâïëïò ôïõ éåñïý Ý÷åé ó÷Þìá áêáíüíéóôï åíôïðéóôåß ìéêñÞ óôïÜ êáé Üëëá êôßóìáôá, óáöþò
ïñèïãþíéï êáé äéáóôÜóåéò 71x21 ì. Ôï âïñåéïáíáôïëéêü ìåãáëýôåñùí äéáóôÜóåùí áðü ôïí íáü, ïñèïãþíéáò
ôìÞìá ôïõ âáßíåé ðÜíù óôç âñá÷þäç ðáñåéÜ, êÜôïøçò êáé Üãíùóôçò ÷ñÞóçò.
ðåñéêëåßïíôáò Ýôóé êáé ôï óçìåßï ôïõ âñÜ÷ïõ ðïõ åß÷å Åðßóçò áíáóêÜöôçêáí âÜèñá ìå ìáñìÜñéíåò
êïðåß êÜèåôá, þóôå íá ëáîåõôïýí ïé ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÝò áíáèçìáôéêÝò åðéãñáöÝò ðñïò ôéìÞí ôçò Áöñïäßôçò,
êüã÷åò. Óôç íüôéá ðëåõñÜ ôïõ ðåñéâüëïõ, áêñéâþò âùìßóêïé êáé ðëÞèïò ìéêñþí áíáèçìÜôùí.
áðÝíáíôé áðü ôéò êüã÷åò, âñéóêüôáí ç åßóïäïò ôïõ Ôá ôåëåõôáßá áðïôåëïýíôáí êõñßùò áðü ðÞëéíá åéäþëéá
ôåìÝíïõò, ðïõ ðñïóôáôåõüôáí áðü ìéêñü ðñüðõëï 68. ôçò èåÜò êáé ðÞëéíá êáé ìáñìÜñéíá ïìïéþìáôá áéäïßùí
Ï íáüò ðïõ áíáöÝñåé ï Ðáõóáíßáò áðïôåëïýíôáí êáé ðåñéóôåñéþí, ðïõ Þôáí ôá éåñÜ ðïõëéÜ
áðü Ýíáí ðïëý ìéêñü, ó÷åäüí ôåôñÜãùíï óçêü ìå ôçò Áöñïäßôçò. Ðñïöáíþò, êáôÜ ôçí åðï÷Þ ëåéôïõñãßáò
ðñüíáï. Åß÷å ÷ôéóôåß óå åðáöÞ ìå ôïí äõôéêü ôïß÷ï ôïõ ôïõ éåñïý ïé êüã÷åò ãÝìéæáí áðü ôÝôïéá áíáèÞìáôá
ðåñéâüëïõ ôïõ éåñïý, ðåñßðïõ óôï ìÝóïí ôïõ. ðïõ ðñüóöåñáí ïé ðéóôïß. Óôï êÝíôñï ôïõ ÷þñïõ
41

Ïé óùæüìåíïé ôïß÷ïé ôïõ ïñèïãþíéïõ êôßóìáôïò ìðñïóôÜ óôï éåñü ôçò Áöñïäßôçò óôçí Áöáßá ÓêáñáìáãêÜ
(ÐñáêôéêÜ Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò 1937, óåë. 28, åéê. 4).

ìðñïóôÜ áðü ôï ðñüðõëï áðïêáëýöèçêå ìåãÜëç âÜóç «Ï êýñéïò Fauvel ìå åß÷å ðñïåéäïðïéÞóåé ðùò,
ðïõ ðñïöáíþò óôÞñéæå êåíôñéêü âùìü Þ ôï ëáôñåõôéêü êÜðïôå, åß÷å áíáêáëýøåé åêåß ÷Üëêéíïõò êßïíåò,
Üãáëìá ôçò Áöñïäßôçò. êáôÜëïéðá êÜðïéùí áíáèçìÜôùí ðïõ õøþíïíôáí
ÃåíéêÜ, ïëüêëçñç ç «áõëÞ» ôïõ éåñïý èá ðñÝðåé íá óôï âñÜ÷ï, âüñåéá ôïõ íáïý»72.
Þôáí ãåìÜôç ìå áíáèÞìáôá, ð.÷. áãÜëìáôá, áíÜãëõöá
êáé óôÞëåò, ìåãÜëá åíôõðùóéáêÜ áããåßá, ôïðïèåôçìÝíá Ðáñ’ üëá áõôÜ, ðñÝðåé íá óçìåéùèåß, üôé ïé
óå âÜóåéò70. Óå ôÝôïéåò ðñïóöïñÝò èá ðñÝðåé íá ðëçñïöïñßåò ôïõ Fauvel äåí Ý÷ïõí åðáëçèåõôåß
áíÞêáí ôá åíôõðùóéáêÜ ãëõðôÜ ðïõ áíáöÝñåé áñ÷áéïëïãéêÜ.
ï Êáìðïýñïãëïõ. Óôá íüôéá ôïõ éåñïý Ý÷åé áðïêáëõöèåß êáëï÷ôéóìÝíï
Ó÷åôéêü åßíáé êáé ôï ó÷üëéï ôïõ ðåñßöçìïõ êôçñéáêü óýìðëåãìá ðïõ Ý÷åé ôáõôéóôåß ìå ôçí ïéêßá ôùí
áñ÷áéüöéëïõ ëïãßïõ Louis-François-Sébastien Fauvel éåñÝùí ðïõ õðçñåôïýóáí ôç èåÜ, ï ïðïßïò èá ðñÝðåé
(1735-1838), ðïõ ãéá ìåãÜëï äéÜóôçìá õðçñÝôçóå íá ëåéôïõñãïýóå êáé ùò îåíþíáò ãéá ôïõò îÝíïõò
ùò ðñüîåíïò ôçò Ãáëëßáò óôçí ÁèÞíá êáé åß÷å ôçí ðñïóêõíçôÝò êáé ôïõò ïäïéðüñïõò73. Óôá íïôéïáíáôïëéêÜ
åõêáéñßá íá ðåñéçãçèåß ôçí ÁôôéêÞ êáôáãñÜöïíôáò êáé ôçò ïéêßáò Ý÷åé áíáóêáöåß ìåãÜëï êáé éäéáßôåñá
óõëëÝãïíôáò áñ÷áéüôçôåò êáé äéåíåñãþíôáò ìéêñÝò êáëïäéáôçñçìÝíï ôìÞìá ôçò áñ÷áßáò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý 74.
áíáóêáöÝò71. Ìáò ôï ìåôáöÝñåé ï Pouqueville Ôï áîéïèÝáôï ôåß÷ïò ðïõ áíáöÝñåé ï Ðáõóáíßáò Ý÷åé
42
43

ÉåñÜ Ïäüò êáé ëüöïò Ç÷ïýò

ÁìÝóùò ìåôÜ ôï éåñü ôçò Áöñïäßôçò, ç ÉåñÜ Ïäüò


äéáêëáäéæüôáí. Ôï Ýíá óêÝëïò Ýöåõãå ìå Á-Ä
êáôåýèõíóç, äéåñ÷üôáí áðü ôï óôåíü ðÝñáóìá ìåôáîý
ôïõ ÁéãÜëåù êáé ôïõ Ðïéêßëïõ üñïõò, Ýâáéíå ãýñù
áðü ôïõò ðñüðïäåò ôïõ ëüöïõ ôçò Ç÷ïýò (ëüöïò
Êáøáëþíáò, âïñåéïáíáôïëéêÝò õðþñåéåò ôïõ Ðïéêßëïõ
üñïõò) êáé Ýóôñåöå ðñïò ÂïññÜ, üðïõ âñßóêïíôáí ïé
äýï ëßìíåò ôùí Ñåéôþí. Ôï Üëëï óêÝëïò áíçöüñéæå
ðñïò ôá âüñåéá, äéåñ÷üôáí áðü ôçí êïñõöÞ ôïõ
ÊÜôïøç ôïõ óõãêñïôÞìáôïò ôïõ éåñïý ôçò Áöñïäßôçò ëüöïõ ôçò Ç÷ïýò êáé áðü åêåß êáôçöüñéæå, ðÜíôá ìå
óôçí Áöáßá ÓêáñáìáãêÜ.
âïñåéíÞ êáôåýèõíóç, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá óõíáíôÞóåé ôï
Üëëï óêÝëïò ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý óôï ýøïò ôçò ëßìíçò
åíôïðéóôåß áìÝóùò íüôéá ôïõ ôìÞìáôïò ôçò áñ÷áßáò Êïõìïõíäïýñïõ. Óå ðïëëÜ óçìåßá ôïõ óêÝëïõò áõôïý
ÉåñÜò Ïäïý. Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá Ýíá ïñèïãþíéï êôßóìá áðü Ý÷ïõí äéáôçñçèåß ÷áñáãìÝíåò óôïí âñÜ÷ï ôñï÷éÝò
áêáôÝñãáóôïõò ëßèïõò (áñãïëéèïäïìÞ) äéáóôÜóåùí áðü ôéò ñüäåò ôùí áñìÜôùí. Óôçí êïñõöÞ ôïõ ëüöïõ
25x15 ì., ðïõ áñ÷éêÜ ÷ñçóéìïðïéÞèçêå ùò öõëÜêéï. Åêåß ôçò Ç÷ïýò åíôïðßóôçêå áðü ôïí É. Ôñáõëü ìåãÜëïò
èá óôåãáæüôáí êÜðïéá öñïõñÜ, ç ïðïßá èá ðñïóôÜôåõå
ôï ðÝñáóìá êáé ôï éåñü ôçò Áöñïäßôçò. Áñãüôåñá
áðÝêôçóå ôáöéêü ÷áñáêôÞñá: äýï óáñêïöÜãïé
åíôïðßóôçêáí óôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ 75.
Ç ÷ñïíïëïãßá ßäñõóçò ôïõ éåñïý ðáñáìÝíåé Üãíùóôç.
Ç ëáôñåßá ôçò Áöñïäßôçò óôïí óõãêåêñéìÝíï ÷þñï
ìïéÜæåé íá ó÷åôßæåôáé óôåíÜ ìå ôïí éåñü ÷þñï ôçò
Åëåõóßíáò êáé ôçí ôåëåôïõñãéêÞ ðïìðÞ ôùí ÌåãÜëùí
Ìõóôçñßùí. ÂÝâáéá, åßíáé ðáñáêéíäõíåõìÝíï íá
õðïèÝóïõìå ôçí ýðáñîç ôïõ ôåìÝíïõò ðñéí áðü ôïí
4ï áéþíá ð.×., êáèþò äåí Ý÷åé áíáóêáöåß ðñùéìüôåñç
êåñáìéêÞ76. ÐÜíôùò ôï éåñü ëåéôïõñãïýóå ìÝ÷ñé êáé ôá
ñùìáúêÜ ÷ñüíéá, óõìðÝñáóìá ðïõ ðñïêýðôåé áöåíüò
áðü ôéò éêáíÝò ðïóüôçôåò ñùìáúêþí áããåßùí ðïõ
Ý÷ïõí áíáóêáöåß êáé áöåôÝñïõ áðü ôç ìáñôõñßá
ôïõ Ðáõóáíßá.
Ï ÷þñïò ôïõ éåñïý ôçò Áöñïäßôçò óôçí Áöáßá
ÓêáñáìáãêÜ Ý÷åé áíáóôçëùèåß, Ý÷åé áíáäåé÷èåß, Ý÷åé
ðåñéöñá÷ôåß êáé åßíáé áíïé÷ôüò óôï êïéíü.

ÁñéóôåñÜ: Óýã÷ñïíç Üðïøç ôïõ éåñïý ôçò Áöñïäßôçò óôçí Áöáßá


ÓêáñáìáãêÜ (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).

ÄåîéÜ: ÔìÞìá ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý êïíôÜ óôï éåñü ôçò Áöñïäßôçò, ìå
âáèéÝò áõëáêþóåéò óôïí âñÜ÷ï áðü ôïõò ôñï÷ïýò ôùí áìáîþí
(ÐñáêôéêÜ Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò 1937, óåë. 36, åéê. 15).
44

ÅõñÞìáôá áðü ôï éåñü


ôçò Áöñïäßôçò óôçí Áöáßá
ÓêáñáìáãêÜ: åíåðßãñáöåò
áíáèçìáôéêÝò âÜóåéò,
ìáñìÜñéíá ðåñéóôÝñéá
êáé ôìÞìáôá ãëõðôþí
(ÐñáêôéêÜ Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò
1937, óåë. 32, åéê. 9 êáé 10).
45

ôåôñÜãùíïò áóâåóôüëéèïò ðëåõñÜò 1,18 ìÝôñùí êáé Ýêáíå ðáñÜêáìøç ðñïò ôá âüñåéá, þóôå íá ðåñÜóåé
ýøïõò 0,47 ìÝôñùí ìå ïñèïãùíéêü ôüñìï óôçí Üíù ðßóù áðü ôéò ðçãÝò. Ôï íåñü ôùí Ñåéôþí Þôáí
åðéöÜíåéÜ ôïõ77. Ï Ôñáõëüò ðéóôåýåé üôé õöÜëìõñï ëüãù ôçò ìéêñÞò áðüóôáóçò ðïõ ôïõò
÷þñéæå áðü ôç èÜëáóóá 80.
«åἶíáé ðïëὺ ðéèáíὴ ἡ ὑðüèåóéò, ὅôé ὁ ëßèïò Ç âüñåéá ëßìíç Þôáí áöéåñùìÝíç óôç èåÜ ÄÞìçôñá,
ἐ÷ñçóßìåõåí ὡò âÜóéò ὃñïõ, ÷ùñßæïíôïò ôὴí åíþ ç «ðñïò ôï Üóôõ» óôçí êüñç ôçò Ðåñóåöüíç.
ðåñéï÷ὴ ôῶí Ἀèçíῶí ἀðὸ ôὴí ðåñéï÷ὴ ôῆò Ìüíï ïé éåñåßò ôùí èåïôÞôùí áõôþí åß÷áí ôï äéêáßùìá
Ἐëåõóῖíïò»78. íá øáñåýïõí åêåß. Ç íüôéá ëßìíç ôçò Ðåñóåöüíçò
äéáôçñåßôáé ìÝ÷ñé óÞìåñá êáé åßíáé ãíùóôÞ ùò
ëßìíç Êïõìïõíäïýñïõ· åíôïðßæåôáé óôá óýíïñá
Ïé Ñåéôïß (ëßìíç Êïõìïõíäïýñïõ) ôïõ óýã÷ñïíïõ ÄÞìïõ ×áúäáñßïõ ìå ôïí ÄÞìï
Áóðñïðýñãïõ. Áíôßóôïé÷á, óôçí áñ÷áéüôçôá ïé Ñåéôïß
ÄõôéêÜ ôïõ éåñïý ôçò Áöñïäßôçò, ï Ðáõóáíßáò åßäå ôïõò áðïôåëïýóáí ôï üñéï ìåôáîý Áèçíþí êáé Åëåõóßíáò.
Ñåéôïýò: Óôï êÝíôñï ðåñßðïõ ôçò ëßìíçò Êïõìïõíäïýñïõ ï
ÉùÜííçò Ôñáõëüò åíôüðéóå ìáêñý ôïß÷ï, ðïõ ðñïöáíþò
«Ïé ëåãüìåíïé Ñåéôïß ìüíï ðïõ ñÝïõí üðùò áðïôåëïýóå ìÝñïò ôïõ öñÜãìáôïò ðïõ óõãêñáôïýóå
ôá ðïôÜìéá· ôï íåñü ôïõò åßíáé èáëáóóéíü. Èá ôá ýäáôá êáé äéáìüñöùíå ôç ëßìíç.
ìðïñïýóå íá ðéóôÝøåé êáíåßò ðùò áðü ôïí Åýñéðï Ï Ôñáõëüò áíáãíþñéóå üôé ïé ëßèïé ðïõ åß÷áí
ôçò ×áëêßäáò ñÝïõí êÜôù áðü ôï Ýäáöïò óå ìéá ÷ñçóéìïðïéçèåß óôï öñÜãìá Þôáí óå äåýôåñç ÷ñÞóç
èÜëáóóá ÷áìçëüôåñç. Ïé Ñåéôïß áðü ðáñÜäïóç êáé âÜóåé ôçò ìïñöïëïãßáò ôïõò ôïõò óõíÝäåóå
èåùñïýíôáé áöéåñùìÝíïé óôçí Êüñç êáé ôç ìå ôï äïìéêü õëéêü ôïõ åëåõóéíéáêïý ôåëåóôçñßïõ
ÄÞìçôñá, êáé øÜñéá áðü áõôïýò ìðïñïýí íá ðïõ åß÷å áíåãåßñåé ï Ðåéóßóôñáôïò êáé êáôáêÜçêå
ðéÜíïõí ìüíï ïé éåñåßò. Ïé Ñåéôïß, üðùò ìáèáßíù, áðü ôïõò ÐÝñóåò ôï 479 ð.×. 81.
óôçí ðáëéÜ åðï÷Þ áðïôåëïýóáí ôï óýíïñï Óôï Áñ÷áéïëïãéêü Ìïõóåßï ôçò Åëåõóßíáò õðÜñ÷åé
ôçò ÷þñáò ôùí Åëåõóéíßùí ðñïò ôïõò Üëëïõò åðéãñáöÞ ìå ôìÞìá øçößóìáôïò ôçò áèçíáúêÞò âïõëÞò
áèçíáßïõò»79. ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôç ãåöýñùóç åíüò áðü ôá äýï ñåýìáôá
ôùí Ñåéôþí. Ç åðéãñáöÞ ÷ñïíïëïãåßôáé óôï 421 ð.×.
Ïé Ñåéôïß Þôáí äýï ìéêñÝò ôå÷íçôÝò ëßìíåò ðïõ êáé áíáöÝñåé üôé ïé Áèçíáßïé åß÷áí áðïöáóßóåé íá
ó÷çìáôßóôçêáí áðü ïìÜäá ðçãþí óôéò äõôéêüôáôåò êáôáóêåõÜóïõí ëßèéíç ãÝöõñá ðëÜôïõò ðÝíôå ðïäþí,
ðáñõöÝò ôïõ üñïõò ÁéãÜëåù êáé ãýñù óôá 300 äçëáäÞ ðåñßðïõ 1,5 ìÝôñïõ, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ ïé éåñåßò
ìÝôñá âïñåßùò ôçò áêôÞò. Ïé ðçãÝò âñßóêïíôáí óå ðïõ ìåôÝöåñáí ôá éåñÜ ôçò ÄÞìçôñáò óôçí ÁèÞíá
öõóéêÜ âáèïõëþìáôá ôïõ åäÜöïõò, ôá ïðïßá êáôÜ íá ðåñíïýí ìå áóöÜëåéá ôá ñåýìáôá. ÐáñÜëëçëá, ôï
ôçí áñ÷áéüôçôá öñÜ÷ôçêáí ðñïò ôçí ðëåõñÜ ôçò ìéêñü ðëÜôïò ôçò ãÝöõñáò áðáãüñåõå ôçí Ýëåõóç
èÜëáóóáò. Ôá ñåýìáôá ðïõ ðåñéãñÜöåé ï Ðáõóáíßáò ôñï÷ïöüñùí, êáèþò ïé óõíïäïß ôùí éåñþí áíôéêåéìÝíùí
åßíáé ïé åêñïÝò ôùí öñáãìÜôùí ðñïò ôïí êüëðï ôçò ôçò èåÜò Þôáí õðï÷ñåùìÝíïé íá åßíáé ðåæïß. Ç
Åëåõóßíáò. ÁõôÝò Þôáí ãåöõñùìÝíåò, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ åðéãñáöÞ åðéóôÝöåôáé áðü áíÜãëõöç ðáñÜóôáóç
íá äéåõêïëýíåôáé ç äéÝëåõóç ôùí ôáîéäéùôþí. ðïõ áðåéêïíßæåé ôéò åëåõóéíéáêÝò êáé ôéò áèçíáúêÝò
Ïé åñåõíçôÝò ðéóôåýïõí üôé ç äéáìüñöùóç ôùí ëéìíþí èåüôçôåò. Óôçí áñéóôåñÞ Üêñç Ý÷ïõìå ôç ÄÞìçôñá êáé
êáé ôùí äéáññïþí ôùí õäÜôùí ðñïò ôç èÜëáóóá Ýãéíå äßðëá ôçò ôçí Ðåñóåöüíç ðïõ êñáôÜ äÜäåò, åíþ óôá
óôá êëáóéêÜ ÷ñüíéá. Ðñéí áðü áõôÜ ç äéÝëåõóç áðü äåîéÜ åéêïíßæåôáé ç èåÜ ÁèçíÜ ðÜíïðëç íá äßíåé ôï äåîß
ôï óçìåßï áõôü èá ðñÝðåé íá Þôáí áäýíáôç åîáéôßáò ÷Ýñé óå íÝï Üíäñá ðïõ óôÝêåôáé ìðñïóôÜ ôçò, äßðëá
ôùí ñåõìÜôùí êáé ôùí åëþí ðïõ ôá ôåëåõôáßá èá óôçí Ðåñóåöüíç. Áõôüò Ý÷åé ôáõôéóôåß áðü êÜðïéïõò
ó÷çìÜôéæáí· Ýôóé, ç ÉåñÜ Ïäüò èá ðñÝðåé áñ÷éêÜ íá áñ÷áéïëüãïõò ìå ôïí åëåõóßíéï Þñùá Ôñéðôüëåìï, åíþ
46
47

Óýã÷ñïíç Üðïøç ôçò ëßìíçò


Êïõìïõíäïýñïõ áðü ôá äõôéêÜ
ðñïò ôá áíáôïëéêÜ.

¸íèåôç: Ç ÉåñÜ Ïäüò êáôÜ ìÞêïò


ôçò ðáñáëßáò ðñïò ôç ëßìíç
Êïõìïõíäïýñïõ óôéò áñ÷Ýò
ôçò äåêáåôßáò ôïõ 1930
(ÐñáêôéêÜ Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò
Åôáéñåßáò 1937, óåë. 40, åéê. 19).
48

Ôï øçöéóìáôéêü
áíÜãëõöï
ãéá ôç ãåöýñùóç
ôùí Ñåéôþí
(ýøïò 0,9 ì. êáé
ðëÜôïò 0,57 ì.),
422/421 ð.×.
(Áñ÷áéïëïãéêü
Ìïõóåßï Åëåõóßíáò).
49

Üëëïé èåùñïýí üôé ðñüêåéôáé ãéá ðñïóùðïðïßçóç ôïõ Ðáëáéïß êÜôïéêïé ôçò ðåñéï÷Þò ÓêáñáìáãêÜ áíáöÝñïõí
ÄÞìïõ ôùí Åëåõóéíßùí82. üôé êáé ïé äýï ëßìíåò õðÞñ÷áí ìÝ÷ñé êáé ôç äåêáåôßá
Ðáñüôé ï Ðáõóáíßáò áíáöÝñåé ìüíï ôá ñåýìáôá, åßíáé ôïõ 1950. Ôéò ðåñéãñÜöïõí ìå ðåíôáêÜèáñá, óõíå÷þò
âÝâáéï ðùò åßäå êáé ôéò ëßìíåò ïé ïðïßåò, óýìöùíá áíáíåïýìåíá ýäáôá, ãåìÜôåò øÜñéá, êõñßùò êÝöáëïõò
ìå äéÜöïñïõò ðåñéçãçôÝò, äéáôçñïýíôáí êáè’ üëç áëëÜ êáé ëáõñÜêéá, ÷Ýëéá ê.Ü. ÐåñéâÜëëïíôáí áðü
ôç äéÜñêåéá ôïõ 19ïõ áéþíá ì.×. ÌÜëéóôá, ïé åêñïÝò øçëïýò êáëáìéþíåò, üðïõ Ýâñéóêáí êáôáöýãéï
ôùí ëéìíþí ðñïò ôç èÜëáóóá ÷ñçóéìïðïéïýíôáí ãéá ðïëëÜ ðïõëéÜ êáé áðïôåëïýóáí ðñáãìáôéêïýò
íá èÝôïõí óå êßíçóç äýï ðáñÜëéïõò õäñüìõëïõò, õäñïâéüôïðïõò86. Ç ïíïìáóßá ôçò íüôéáò ëßìíçò, äçëáäÞ
ðïõ åß÷áí ÷ôéóôåß êïíôÜ óôéò ëßìíåò óôéò áñ÷Ýò ôïõ ôçò ëßìíçò Êïõìïõíäïýñïõ, áíÜãåôáé åßôå óôï üíïìá
ðåñáóìÝíïõ áéþíá, áí ü÷é íùñßôåñá 83. Ï François ïéêïãÝíåéáò ãáéïêôçìüíùí óôïõò ïðïßïõò áíÞêå ç
Pouqueville åðéóêÝöôçêå ôçí ðåñéï÷Þ êáôÜ ôï ðñþôï ðåñéï÷Þ êáôÜ ôïí 19ï áéþíá åßôå óôïí ðñùèõðïõñãü
Þìéóõ ôçò äåêáåôßáò ôïõ 1810: ÁëÝîáíäñï Êïõìïõíäïýñï (1817-1883), óôç èçôåßá ôïõ
ïðïßïõ êáôÜ ôï äåýôåñï Þìéóõ ôçò äåêáåôßáò ôïõ 1860,
«Áöïý ðÞñá ìåñéêÜ äåßãìáôá ôïõ åäÜöïõò (ìåôÜ Ýãéíáí Ýñãá åðé÷ùìÜôùóçò êáé ïäïðïéßáò ìåôáîý
ôï óôåíü ðÝñáóìá ìåôáîý Ðïéêßëïõ êáé ÁéãÜëåù), ôçò áêôÞò ôïõ ÓêáñáìáãêÜ êáé ôçò ëßìíçò 87. ÌåôÜ
åðÝóôñåøá óôçí ÉåñÜ ïäü êáé ôçí áêïëïýèçóá ôïí ´ Ðáãêüóìéï Ðüëåìï, ç åðéöÜíåéá ôçò ëßìíçò
ùò ôïõò Ñåéôïýò Þ áëìõñÝò ðçãÝò áöéåñùìÝíåò Êïõìïõíäïýñïõ ìåéþèçêå óçìáíôéêÜ åîáéôßáò ôçò
óôç ÄÞìçôñá êáé ôçí Ðåñóåöüíç, äßðëá óôéò äéáðëÜôõíóçò ôçò åèíéêÞò ïäïý Áèçíþí - Êïñßíèïõ.
ïðïßåò Ý÷ïõí êôßóåé ìýëïõò. Áð’ áõôü ôï óçìåßï Ç âüñåéá ëßìíç, ãíùóôÞ ùò ÊåöáëÜñé, áðïóôñáããßóôçêå
Ý÷áóá ôá ß÷íç ôñï÷þí ðïõ åß÷áí ó÷çìáôßóåé ïé êáé åðé÷ùìáôþèçêå êáôÜ ôç äåêáåôßá ôïõ 1950 ùò
ñüäåò ôùí êÜñùí êáé ôá ïðïßá áêïëïõèïýóáìå óõíÝðåéá ôçò åãêáôÜóôáóçò äéõëéóôçñßùí óôçí
áðü ôï íáü ôçò Ößëçò Áöñïäßôçò (éåñü Áöñïäßôçò ðáñÜêôéá ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ Áóðñïðýñãïõ. ÓÞìåñá ç èÝóç
ÓêáñáìáãêÜ)»84. ôçò ëßìíçò áõôÞò õðïäçëþíåôáé áðü âÜëôï ðïõ
ó÷çìáôßæåôáé ìåôáîý ôùí Åëëçíéêþí Äéõëéóôçñßùí
Ï Gustave Flaubert êáôÜ ôá ôÝëç ôïõ 1850, áêïëïýèçóå Áóðñïðýñãïõ (ÅËÄÁ) êáé ôçò ëßìíçò Êïõìïõíäïýñïõ.
áíÜëïãç ðïñåßá ìå ôïí Pouqueville:

«ÌïíïìéÜò, óôï ôÝëïò ôçò êáôåâáóéÜò (áìÝóùò


ìåôÜ ôï ðÝñáóìá ìåôáîý Ðïéêßëïõ êáé ÁéãÜëåù),
óôñßâïõìå äåîéÜ, ïé âñÜ÷ïé åßíáé êïììÝíïé ßóéá,
ï äñüìïò Ý÷åé êáôáóêåõáóôåß áðÜíù ôïõò: åßíáé
äß÷ùò áìöéâïëßá ï áñ÷áßïò äñüìïò. Ï äñüìïò
ðåñíÜåé áíÜìåóá óôç èÜëáóóá êáé ôéò ëßìíåò
Ñåéôïß, Ýíá ãåöýñé óïõ åðéôñÝðåé íá ðåñÜóåéò
ôï ìéêñü áõëÜêé ðïõ ôéò åíþíåé. Ïé ëßìíåò Ñåéôïß
èõìßæïõí ôïõò ïñìßóêïõò ðïõ äéáìïñöþíåé ç
ðáëßññïéá. ËÝíå ïé ëßìíåò·· åãþ âëÝðù ìüíï ìßá
Þ ìÜëëïí êÜôé óáí ðëçììõñéóìÝíï âÜëôï»85.

ÁóâåóôïëéèéêÞ âÜóç (ýøïò 0,47 ì. êáé ðëÜôïò 1,18 ì.) ãéá óôÞñéîç
üñïõ, óôçí êïñõöÞ ôïõ ëüöïõ ôçò Ç÷ïýò
(ÐñáêôéêÜ Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò 1937, óåë. 39, åéê. 18).
50

Åðßëïãïò:
Üöéîç óôçí Åëåõóßíá

Ç ìåôÜ ôïõò Ñåéôïýò ðïñåßá ðñïò ôá äõôéêÜ ïäÞãçóå


ôïí Ðáõóáíßá óôçí ü÷èç ôïõ åëåõóéíéáêïý Êçöéóïý:

«Êçöéóüò ðïôáìüò ñÝåé êáé êïíôÜ óôçí Åëåõóßíá


ìå ñåýìá ðéï ïñìçôéêü áðü ôïí Êçöéóü ðïõ
áíÝöåñá ðñéí. ÊïíôÜ óå áõôüí åßíáé Ýíáò ôüðïò
ðïõ ôïí ïíïìÜæïõí Åñéíåü êáé ëÝíå ðùò ï
Ðëïýôùí, üôáí Üñðáîå ôçí Êüñç, êáôÝâçêå áð’
áõôïý. ÊïíôÜ óå áõôüí ôïí Êçöéóü ï Èçóåýò
óêüôùóå ôï ëçóôÞ ðïõ ïíïìÜæïíôáí ÐïëõðÞìùí,
åðéêáëïýíôáí üìùò Ðñïêñïýóôçò»88.

Ï ðïôáìüò ðïõ áíáöÝñåé ï ðåñéçãçôÞò äåí åßíáé


óÞìåñá ôßðïôá ðåñéóóüôåñï áðü Ýíáí îåñïðüôáìï,
ï ïðïßïò åßíáé ãíùóôüò ùò Óáñáíôáðüôáìïò. Óôçí
áñ÷áéüôçôá üìùò ï ðïôáìüò Þôáí ïñìçôéêüò, êáèþò
ó÷çìáôéæüôáí áðü ôá ðïëëáðëÜ ñÝìáôá ôçò äõôéêÞò
ÐÜñíçèáò êáé ôïõ áíáôïëéêïý Êéèáéñþíá. Ðåñíïýóå
ìÝóá áðü ôï ÈñéÜóéï ðåäßï êáé ôïõò ÷åéìåñéíïýò
ìÞíåò ðëçììýñéæå ôç íïôéïäõôéêÞ ðåñéï÷Þ ôçò
ðåäéÜäáò êáôáóôñÝöïíôáò êáëëéÝñãåéåò áëëÜ êáé ôéò
áíáôïëéêÝò ðáñõöÝò ôçò áñ÷áßáò ðüëçò ôçò Åëåõóßíáò.
Ï Ðáõóáíßáò ðÝñáóå ôïí Åëåõóéíéáêü Êçöéóü áðü
ìåãÜëç ëßèéíç ãÝöõñá, ç ïðïßá åß÷å êáôáóêåõáóôåß
áðü ôïí áõôïêñÜôïñá Áäñéáíü óôï óçìåßï óõíÜíôçóçò
ôïõ ðïôáìïý ìå ôçí ÉåñÜ ïäü. Ç ãÝöõñá, ìÞêïõò ãýñù
óôá 50 ì. êáé ðëÜôïõò 5,5 ì., óþæåôáé óÞìåñá óå ðïëý
êáëÞ êáôÜóôáóç äßðëá óôç óýã÷ñïíç ãÝöõñá. Åßíáé
êáôáóêåõáóìÝíç áðü êáëïëáîåõìÝíïõò ðåéñáúêïýò
ðùñüëéèïõò, óõíáñìïóìÝíïõò ìå åîáéñåôéêÞ áêñßâåéá,
êáé áðïôåëåßôáé áðü ôÝóóåñá ôüîá. Ðñéí áðü áõôÞí èá
õðÞñ÷å êÜðïéá Üëëç îýëéíç Þ ëßèéíç êáôáóêåõÞ 89.

ÃåíéêÞ Üðïøç ôïõ áñ÷áéïëïãéêïý ÷þñïõ ôçò Åëåõóßíáò.


51
52

Ç äéáêëÜäùóç ôçò áñ÷áßáò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý óôïí ëüöï ôçò Ç÷ïýò (ÐñáêôéêÜ Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò 1936, óåë. 28, åéê. 1).

¼óïí áöïñÜ ôçí ôïðïèÝôçóç ôçò ðåñéï÷Þò äñÜóçò êáèþò êáé ôçò ðñïðýëáéáò ¢ñôåìçò êáé ôïõ
ôïõ Ðñïêñïýóôç óôçí åëåõóéíéáêÞ ðåäéÜäá, êáôÜ ðáôñüò Ðïóåéäþíïò, êáé Ýíá öñÝáñ ðïõ ëÝãåôáé
ðÜóá ðéèáíüôçôá ðñüêåéôáé ãéá ôïðéêÞ ðáñÜäïóç. Êáëëß÷ïñï, üðïõ ðñþôá ïé ãõíáßêåò ôùí
Óýìöùíá ìå ôïí Ðëïýôáñ÷ï, ôïí âéïãñÜöï ôïõ ÈçóÝá, åëåõóéíßùí Ýóôçóáí ÷ïñü êáé Ýøáëáí ãéá ôç èåÜ.
ï Ðñïêñïýóôçò åß÷å ôçí Ýäñá ôïõ óôçí ïñåéíÞ ðåñéï÷Þ Ãéá ôï ÑÜñéïí ðåäßïí ëÝíå ðùò åßíáé ôï ðñþôï
ôïõ ¸ñìïõ, äçëáäÞ óôï óçìåñéíü ÄÜóïò ×áúäáñßïõ. ðïõ óðÜñèçêå êáé ðáñÞãáãå (äçìçôñéáêïýò)
Ôï èÝìá ôïõ Ðñïêñïýóôç èá áíáðôõ÷èåß ìå êáñðïýò […]. Åäþ äåß÷íïõí êáé Ýíá áëþíé ðïõ ôï
ðåñéóóüôåñåò ëåðôïìÝñåéåò ðáñáêÜôù. ëÝíå ôïõ ÔñéðôïëÝìïõ êáé Ýíá âùìü. Ôá åíôüò ôïõ
Ãýñù óôï 1 ÷ëì. ìåôÜ ôç ãÝöõñá ôïõ Êçöéóïý, ï ðåñéâüëïõ ôïõ éåñïý ôï üíåéñï ìïõ áðáãüñåøå íá
Ðáõóáíßáò Ýöôáóå óôïí ðñïïñéóìü ôïõ, ãéá ôïí ïðïßï, ôá ðåñéãñÜøù· åßíáé öáíåñü ðùò üóïé äåí Ý÷ïõí
üìùò, äåí ìáò äßíåé ðïëëÝò ðëçñïöïñßåò. ¼íôáò ìõçèåß äåí åðéôñÝðåôáé ïýôå íá ðëçñïöïñïýíôáé
ìõçìÝíïò óôç ìõóôçñéáêÞ ëáôñåßá ôçò ÄÞìçôñáò, Þôáí ãéá ü,ôé åìðïäßæïíôáé íá âëÝðïõí»90.
äåóìåõìÝíïò íá ìçí êïéíïëïãÞóåé ôßðïôå ó÷åôéêÜ
ìå ôéò ôåëåôïõñãßåò áëëÜ êáé ôá éåñÜ êôßóìáôá. ¸ôóé ÁíÜëïãç ìõóôéêüôçôá ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôï ðåñéå÷üìåíï
ðåñéïñßóôçêå óôçí áíáöïñÜ ôùí ìíçìåßùí åêôüò ôïõ ôùí ôåëåôïõñãéþí Ý÷åé ðáñáôçñçèåß óå üëïõò ôïõò
ðåñéâüëïõ ôïõ éåñïý: áñ÷áßïõò óõããñáöåßò ðïõ áíáöÝñïíôáé óå áõôÝò.
ÕðÜñ÷ïõí, âÝâáéá, ðïëëÝò áíáöïñÝò ü÷é ìüíï óå
«Óôçí Åëåõóßíá õðÜñ÷åé íáüò ôïõ Ôñéðôüëåìïõ óõããñáöåßò, áëëÜ êáé óå åðéãñáöÝò, ðñïóùðïãñáößåò
53

ôùí éåñÝùí êáé äéÜöïñåò áíáðáñáóôÜóåéò óå áããåßá äéÜñêåéá ôïõ 8ïõ, ôïõ 7ïõ êáé ôïõ 6ïõ áéþíá ç
êáé ãëõðôÜ. Ðáñ’ üëá áõôÜ ôï íá áíáóõóôÞóåé êáíåßò ðëåéïíüôçôá ôùí êáôïßêùí ôçò ÁôôéêÞò, äçëáäÞ ïé
ôéò ôåëåôÝò êáé ôï öéëïóïöéêü ôïõò õðüâáèñï åßíáé öôù÷ïß áêôÞìïíåò, Þôáí Üìåóá åîáñôçìÝíïé, åíßïôå ìå
åîáéñåôéêÜ äýóêïëï. ¸íá ìÝñïò ôïõ êåíïý ðïõ áöÞíïõí åðá÷èåßò üñïõò, áðü ôïõò ðëïýóéïõò ãáéïêôÞìïíåò êáé
ïé ãñáðôÝò ðçãÝò Ý÷åé êáëõöèåß áðü ôéò áíáóêáöÝò áðïêëåéóìÝíïé áðü ôï óþìá ôùí åíåñãþí ðïëéôþí.
óôïí ÷þñï ôçò Åëåõóßíáò, ïé ïðïßåò áðïêÜëõøáí ôá Ç áõóôçñÞ íïìïèåóßá ôïõ ÄñÜêïíôá (621 ð.×.) äåí
äéÜöïñá êôßóìáôá ðïõ áðÝöõãå íá ìáò ðåñéãñÜøåé ï âåëôßùóå ïõóéáóôéêÜ ôçí êáôÜóôáóç ôùí áêôçìüíùí
Ðáõóáíßáò91. Ôï éåñüôåñï êáé ðéï óçìáíôéêü áðü áõôÜ ôçò ÁôôéêÞò. Ç ïëïÝíá åíôåéíüìåíç äéáìÜ÷ç ìåôáîý ôùí
Þôáí ôï ÔåëåóôÞñéï92. Åðßóçò áíáóêÜöçêáí ðïéêßëá ëßãùí ðëïõóßùí êáé ôùí ðïëëþí öôù÷þí áíÜãêáóå
ôåëåôïõñãéêÜ óêåýç êáé ãëõðôÜ-áíáðáñáóôÜóåéò ôùí ôïõò Áèçíáßïõò íá êáôáöýãïõí óå íÝá íïìïèåóßá, ðïõ
ëáôñåõüìåíùí èåïôÞôùí93, ç ìåëÝôç ôùí ïðïßùí, óå èåóðßóôçêå áðü ôïí Óüëùíá (594 ð.×.). Ï íïìïèÝôçò
óõíäõáóìü ìå áõôÞ ôùí áñ÷éôåêôïíéêþí êáôáëïßðùí, Óüëùí Ýèåóå ôéò âÜóåéò ãéá ôçí áèçíáúêÞ äçìïêñáôßá
ìáò äéáöùôßæåé óçìáíôéêÜ ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôéò ìõóôçñéáêÝò ëáìâÜíïíôáò ìÝôñá ãéá ôçí êáôÜñãçóç ôùí ÷ñåþí
ôåëåôïõñãßåò ôçò Åëåõóßíáò. êáé ôçí Üñóç ôùí âáñÝùí óõíåðåéþí ôïõ äáíåéóìïý
¸÷åé Þäç áíáöåñèåß üôé ôá Åëåõóßíéá ÌõóôÞñéá (óåéóÜ÷èåéá) êáé äéåõñýíïíôáò ôï óþìá ôùí ðïëéôþí
ôåëïýíôáí ãéá íá åïñôáóôåß ç åðáíÝíùóç ôçò ÄÞìçôñáò ðïõ ìðïñïýóáí íá áíÝëèïõí óå áîéþìáôá êáé íá
ìå ôçí Ðåñóåöüíç, ýóôåñá áðü ôçí áñðáãÞ ôçò óõììåôÜó÷ïõí óå êñáôéêÜ üñãáíá êáé èåóìïýò.
ôåëåõôáßáò áðü ôïí Ðëïýôùíá êáé ôçí êÜèïäü ôçò óôïí Ç íïìïèåóßá ôïõ Óüëùíá äåí Ýëõóå üëá ôá
¢äç. ¸ôóé, ïé ôåëåôïõñãßåò ó÷åôßæïíôáí ìå ôéò Ýííïéåò ôçò ðñïâëÞìáôá ôçò ÁèÞíáò êáé ç ðüëç óôáäéáêÜ ìðÞêå
áíáãÝííçóçò êáé ôçò ãïíéìüôçôáò. Êïñõöáßï ãåãïíüò îáíÜ óå êáôÜóôáóç áíáôáñá÷Þò, êõñßùò ìåôáîý ôùí
ôùí åïñôáóìþí áðïôåëïýóå ç Üöéîç ôçò ðïìðÞò óôï åõðáôñßäùí êáé ôùí ðëïýóéùí ãåùñãþí, ðïõ åß÷áí
åëåõóéíéáêü éåñü, ç åðéóôñïöÞ ôùí éåñþí áíôéêåéìÝíùí åõíïçèåß áðü ôç óïëþíåéá íïìïèåóßá. Ç Ýêñõèìç áõôÞ
ôçò èåÜò óôï ÔåëåóôÞñéï êáé ç ìýçóç íÝùí ðéóôþí94. êáôÜóôáóç åõíïïýóå ôïí óöåôåñéóìü ôçò åîïõóßáò

Ïé ìåôáññõèìßóåéò ôïõ ÊëåéóèÝíç


êáé ï äÞìïò ¸ñìïõ

ÊáôÜ ôïí 8ï áéþíá ç åîïõóßá óôçí ÁèÞíá åß÷å ðåñÜóåé


óôá ÷Ýñéá ôçò ìéêñÞò ïìÜäáò ôùí åõðáôñßäùí,
äçëáäÞ ôùí ðëïýóéùí ãáéïêôçìüíùí áñéóôïêñáôþí.
Ïé Üñ÷ïíôåò ôïõ ôüðïõ åêëÝãïíôáí ìå âÜóç ôçí
êáôáãùãÞ êáé ôïí ðëïýôï ôïõò. Ôï ðüôå áêñéâþò
óõíôåëÝóôçêå ç ìåôÜâáóç áðü ôç âáóéëåßá óôçí
áñéóôïêñáôßá åßíáé áóáöÝò. ÐÜíôùò êáè’ üëç ôç

Ïé äÞìïé ôçò ÁôôéêÞò ìåôÜ ôç ìåôáññýèìéóç


ôïõ ÊëåéóèÝíç ôï 508 ð.×.
54

êáé ôçí åãêáèßäñõóç ôõñáííéêïý êáèåóôþôïò. Ãýñù Þôáí áíÜëïãïò ìå ôï ðëÞèïò ôùí ðïëéôþí ôïõ.
óôá ìÝóá ôïõ 6ïõ áéþíá ï Ðåéóßóôñáôïò åäñáßùóå ôï Ï äÞìïò Þôáí ç èåìåëéþäçò ìïíÜäá áõôïäéïßêçóçò:
ôõñáííéêü ðïëßôåõìá óôçí ÁèÞíá. ÌåôÜ ôïí èÜíáôü ôïõ äéÝèåôå äéêÞ ôïõ äéïßêçóç (äÞìáñ÷ïò) åðéöïñôéóìÝíç
(527 ð.×.), ôïí äéáäÝ÷èçêáí ïé äýï ãéïé ôïõ, ºððáñ÷ïò ìå ôçí ôÞñçóç ìçôñþùí êáé óôñáôéùôéêþí êáôáëüãùí,
êáé Éððßáò. Ç ôõñáííéêÞ áñ÷Þ ôùí Ðåéóéóôñáôßäùí Ýããåéï ðåñéïõóßá, ôáìåßï êáé ðëÞñç áñìïäéüôçôá ãéá ôç
êáôáëýèçêå ôï 510 ð.×. áðü ôçí áñéóôïêñáôéêÞ ëáôñåßá ôùí èåþí. ÐñïêåéìÝíïõ íá õðÜñîåé éóïíïìßá,
ïéêïãÝíåéá ôùí Áëêìåùíéäþí. íá áðïäõíáìùèïýí ðëÞñùò ïé ðáôñïðáñÜäïôåò öõëÝò
ÌåôÜ ôçí ðôþóç ôçò ôõñáííßáò åðáíÞëèáí óôçí êáé öñáôñßåò êáé íá õðïãñáììéóôåß ç ïìïéïãÝíåéá
ÁèÞíá ðïëëÝò ïìÜäåò åõðáôñßäùí öõãÜäùí ðïõ ôùí ðïëéôþí, ï ÊëåéóèÝíçò üñéóå ïé ðïëßôåò íá
áíôáãùíßóôçêáí ãéá ôçí åîïõóßá ôçò ðüëçò. ÔåëéêÜ ðñïóáãïñåýïíôáé ìå ôï üíïìá ôïõ äÞìïõ óôá ìçôñþá
åðéêñÜôçóå ï ÊëåéóèÝíçò áðü ôçí ïéêïãÝíåéá ôùí ôïõ ïðïßïõ åß÷áí åããñáöåß êáé üðïõ ðéèáíüôáôá
Áëêìåùíéäþí. Ìå ôç íïìïèåóßá ôïõ áíáìüñöùóå êáôïéêïýóáí95.
ïõóéáóôéêÜ ôï áèçíáúêü ðïëéôåéáêü óýóôçìá êáé Óýìöùíá, ëïéðüí, ìå ôéò ìåôáññõèìßóåéò ôïõ ÊëåéóèÝíç,
åãêáèßäñõóå ôï äçìïêñáôéêü ðïëßôåõìá (508 ð.×.). ï äÞìïò ¸ñìïõ áíÞêå óôçí áóôéêÞ ôñéôôý ôçò
Óôü÷ïò ôïõ Þôáí ç ïõóéáóôéêÞ óõíÝíùóç ôùí Áêáìáíôßäïò öõëÞò êáé åß÷å ôç äõíáôüôçôá åêëïãÞò
áíèñþðéíùí ïìÜäùí ðïõ ðáñÝìåíáí ÷ùñéóìÝíåò äýï âïõëåõôþí96. Ï áñ÷áßïò ¸ñìïò ôïðïèåôåßôáé áðü
ëüãù ôçò äéáöïñåôéêÞò ôïõò êïéíùíéêÞò, ïéêïíïìéêÞò, ôïõò åñåõíçôÝò óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ âÜóåé ôçò
åäáöéêÞò êáé èñçóêåõôéêÞò êáôÜóôáóçò óå Ýíá ðëçñïöïñßáò ðïõ ðáñáäßäåé ï Ðëïýôáñ÷ïò, üôé äçëáäÞ
ïìïéïãåíÝò óýíïëï-ðüëç áðïôåëïýìåíï áðü ðïëßôåò ôï ôáöéêü ìíçìåßï ôçò Ðõèéïíßêçò éäñýèçêå óôïí
üìïéïõò êáé ßóïõò. äÞìï ôïõ ¸ñìïõ, ðáñÜ ôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü 97. Ï Áñðïêñáôßùí
¸ôóé äéáßñåóå ôïõò Áèçíáßïõò óå äÝêá íÝåò öõëÝò áíáöÝñåé êáé ôçí ýðáñîç ïìþíõìïõ ðïôáìïý 98. ÊáôÜ
ðïõ åß÷áí ìüíïí ôïðéêÞ óçìáóßá êáé áíôéêáôÝóôçóáí ôç äåêáåôßá ôïõ 1890, ï Ãåñìáíüò áñ÷áéïëüãïò Arthur
ôéò ôÝóóåñéò ðáëáéÝò öõëÝò, ðïõ åß÷áí ïéêïãåíåéáêü- Milchhöfer (1852-1903) ôáýôéóå ôïí ðïôáìü áõôü ìå
êëçñïíïìéêü ÷áñáêôÞñá. Ôá ïíüìáôá ôùí íÝùí öõëþí ðïôáìÜêé ðïõ Ýñåå êÜôù áðü ôï Äáöíß êáé ÷õíüôáí
ó÷åôßæïíôáé ìå ìõèïëïãéêïýò Þñùåò ôçò ÁôôéêÞò êáé óôïí Êçöéóü99.
ïñßóôçêáí áðü ôï ìáíôåßï ôùí Äåëöþí (Åðþíõìïé Ðáñüôé äåí õðÜñ÷ïõí ëüãïé áìöéóâÞôçóçò ôçò
¹ñùåò). ðáñáðÜíù ôáýôéóçò, ç ðåñéï÷Þ äåí Ý÷åé äþóåé ïéêéóôéêÜ
Áêüìá, ï ÊëåéóèÝíçò ìïßñáóå ôçí ÁôôéêÞ óå ôñåéò êáôÜëïéðá êáé ï áñ÷áßïò ïéêéóìüò ôïõ ¸ñìïõ äåí
ãåùãñáöéêÝò ðåñéöÝñåéåò: ôï Üóôõ, ôçí ðáñáëßá êáé Ý÷åé åíôïðéóôåß. Ç ó÷åäüí áðïêëåéóôéêÞ áíáóêáöéêÞ
ôç ìåóïãáßá. ÊÜèå öõëÞ Ýðñåðå íá ðåñéëáìâÜíåé Ýìöáóç óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ êáôÜ ìÞêïò ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý,
äÞìïõò (ïéêéóìïýò êáé ÷ùñéÜ) êáé áðü ôéò ôñåéò áõôÝò óôç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ êáé ôï éåñü ôçò Áöñïäßôçò, äåí
ðåñéöÝñåéåò. Ïé äÞìïé ìéáò öõëÞò ðïõ âñßóêïíôáí óôçí åðÝôñåøå áêüìá óôïõò áñ÷áéïëüãïõò íá åñåõíÞóïõí
ßäéá ãåùãñáöéêÞ ðåñéöÝñåéá óõíáðÜñôéæáí ìßá ôñéôôý. äéåîïäéêÜ ôçí ðåñéï÷Þ, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá åíôïðßóïõí
¸ôóé êÜèå öõëÞ áðïôåëïýíôáí áðü ôñåéò ôñéôôýåò: ôïõ ôá áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÜ êáôÜëïéðá ôïõ ¸ñìïõ. ÓõóôçìáôéêÝò
Üóôåùò, ôçí ðáñáëéáêÞ êáé ôç ìåóüãåéá. Ýñåõíåò åðéöÜíåéáò êáé ðåñáéôÝñù áíáóêáöéêÝò ôïìÝò
Ïé öõëÝò åß÷áí áñ÷çãü ìå åôÞóéá áñ÷Þ, ôáìåßï óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ãýñù áðü ôï Äáöíß êáé ôïí ëüöï ôïõ
êáé ðåñéïõóéáêÜ óôïé÷åßá. ÊÜèå öõëÞ åîÝëåãå ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá, èá ìáò äéáöùôßóïõí ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôç èÝóç
ðåíÞíôá ðïëßôåò áðü ôïõò äÞìïõò ðïõ êáé ôçí Ýêôáóç ôïõ áñ÷áßïõ äÞìïõ.
óõíáðïôåëïýóáí ôéò ôñéôôýåò ôçò, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ ÐÜíôùò, ìðïñïýìå íá õðïèÝóïõìå üôé ï äÞìïò åß÷å
íá ôçí åêðñïóùðÞóïõí óôç âïõëÞ. ¸ôóé ôï óþìá áãñïêôçíïôñïöéêü ÷áñáêôÞñá êáé ü÷é éäéáßôåñá ìåãÜëï
ôùí âïõëåõôþí áõîÞèçêå áðü ôåôñáêüóéïõò, ðïõ áñéèìü êáôïßêùí. Ôï ôåëåõôáßï ðñïêýðôåé áðü ôïí
Þôáí ôçí åðï÷Þ ôïõ Óüëùíá, óå ðåíôáêüóéïõò. ó÷åôéêÜ ìéêñü áñéèìü âïõëåõôþí ðïõ åîÝëåãáí ïé
Ï áñéèìüò ôùí âïõëåõôþí ðïõ åîÝëåãå ï êÜèå äÞìïò ¸ñìåéïé.
55

Ï ÈçóÝáò ôáîéäåýåé ðñïò ôçí ÁèÞíá


êáé óõíáíôÜ ôïí Ðñïêñïýóôç óôï ×áúäÜñé

Ï ÈçóÝáò, ï ðéï óçìáíôéêüò Þñùáò ôùí áñ÷áßùí


Áèçíáßùí, Þôáí ãéïò ôïõ âáóéëéÜ ôùí Áèçíþí ÁéãÝá êáé
ôçò Áßèñáò, êüñçò ôïõ âáóéëéÜ ôçò ÔñïéæÞíáò ÐéôèÝá.
ÌåãÜëùóå êñõììÝíïò óôçí ÔñïéæÞíá, ìáêñéÜ áðü ôïí
ðáôÝñá ôïõ êáé ÷ùñßò íá ãíùñßæåé ôçí ðñáãìáôéêÞ
ôáõôüôçôÜ ôïõ, ãéáôß ï ÁéãÝáò öïâüôáí üôé ïé
Ðáëëáíôßäåò, ïé ïðïßïé äéåêäéêïýóáí ôïí èñüíï ôïõ, èá
Ýêáíáí êáêü óôïí ìéêñü ÈçóÝá. ÌÝ÷ñé íá ãßíåé äåêáÝîé
åôþí, åß÷å åîåëé÷èåß óå Ýíáí äõíáôü, Ýîõðíï êáé
ìõáëùìÝíï íÝï. Ç Áßèñá ôïý áðïêÜëõøå ôçí ôáõôüôçôá
ôïõ ðáôÝñá ôïõ êáé ï ÈçóÝáò îåêßíçóå ãéá ôçí ÁèÞíá,
ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ôïí óõíáíôÞóåé êáé íá ôïí äéáäå÷èåß. ¼óôñáêï åñõèñüìïñöïõ óêýèïõ ìå ðáñÜóôáóç ôïõ ÁéãÝá
ðïõ õðïäÝ÷åôáé ôïí ÈçóÝá óôçí ÁèÞíá, 470-450 ð.×.
Êáèþò Üãñéïé ëçóôÝò êáé êáêïðïéïß ëõìáßíïíôáí ôïõò (Ìïõóåßï Ëïýâñïõ, Ðáñßóé).
÷åñóáßïõò äñüìïõò, ç ìçôÝñá êáé ïé ößëïé ôïõ íåáñïý
Þñùá ôïí ðáñáêÜëåóáí íá ðÜåé óôçí ÁèÞíá äéÜ
èáëÜóóçò. Ðáñ’ üëá áõôÜ, ï ÈçóÝáò ðÞñå ôïí äñüìï ìå ôçí åðùíõìßá Ðñïêñïýóôçò. Áõôüò æïýóå äßðëá
ôçò óôåñéÜò. Ç ðáñáêéíäõíåõìÝíç áõôÞ áðüöáóç Þôáí óôïí äñüìï, óå Ýíá óðßôé ìå äýï êñåâÜôéá, Ýíá
áðïôÝëåóìá ôçò ìåãÜëçò åðéèõìßáò ôïõ íåáñïý íá êïíôü êáé Ýíá ìáêñý. Ðñüóöåñå «öéëïîåíßá» óôïõò
åðéäåßîåé ôçí áíäñåßá ôïõ êáé íá óõíáãùíéóôåß óå áíýðïðôïõò äéáâÜôåò. ÁíÜãêáæå ôïõò ìéêñüóùìïõò
êáôïñèþìáôá ôïí ðñþôï ôïõ îÜäåëöï, ôïí ÇñáêëÞ, ðïõ «öéëïîåíïýìåíïõò» íá îáðëþóïõí óôï ìáêñý êñåâÜôé
ôïí èáýìáæå ðÜñá ðïëý. êáé ôïõò ôñáâïýóå âßáéá, þóôå íá êáëýøïõí üëï ôï
Ï ÈçóÝáò, ëïéðüí, Ýâáëå óêïðü íá «êáèáñßóåé» áðü ìÞêïò ôïõ. Ôïõò õøçëüóùìïõò, áðü ôçí Üëëç ðëåõñÜ,
êáêïðïéÜ óôïé÷åßá ôïí äñüìï ðïõ ïäçãïýóå áðü ôïõò Ýâáæå óôï êïíôü êñåâÜôé êáé ôïõò Ýêïâå ôá ðüäéá,
ôçí ÔñïéæÞíá óôçí ÁèÞíá. Äåí åðéèõìïýóå áðëþò íá ðïõ åîåß÷áí áðü ôï êñåâÜôé 100.
åêäéþîåé ôïõò äéÜöïñïõò êáêïýñãïõò, áëëÜ íá ôïõò Óôï óçìåßï áõôü, óôï ðñáíÝò ôïõ Ðïéêßëïõ êïíôÜ
åêäéêçèåß üðùò èá Ýêáíå ï ÇñáêëÞò: ôéìùñþíôáò ôïõò óôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü, óôï ýøïò ôïõ Äáöíéïý, ï ÈçóÝáò
ìå ôñüðï áíÜëïãï ìå ôá åãêëÞìáôá ðïõ äéÝðñáôôáí áíôéìåôþðéóå êáé íßêçóå ôïí Ðñïêñïýóôç. Óôç óõíÝ÷åéá
åéò âÜñïò ôùí áíýðïðôùí ôáîéäéùôþí. ¸ôóé óôçí êéíÞèçêå áíåíü÷ëçôïò ðñïò ôçí ÁèÞíá, ãéá íá åíùèåß
Åðßäáõñï óêüôùóå ôïí ÐåñéöÞôç êáé ïéêåéïðïéÞèçêå ìå ôïí ðáôÝñá ôïõ êáé áñãüôåñá íá ãßíåé âáóéëéÜò ôçò
ôï ðåëþñéï óéäåñÝíéï ñüðáëï, ìå ôï ïðïßï ï ëçóôÞò ðüëçò. Ç äéáäñïìÞ ðïõ áêïëïýèçóå Þôáí áíÜëïãç
óêüôùíå ôïõò ðåñáóôéêïýò. Óôï ðéï óôåíü óçìåßï ôïõ ìå ôçí ðïñåßá ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý. ÌÜëéóôá, áíáöÝñåôáé
Êïñéíèéáêïý éóèìïý óêüôùóå ôïí Óßíé êáé áêïëïýèùò áðü ôïí Ðëïýôáñ÷ï üôé êïíôÜ óôïí áèçíáúêü Êçöéóü
åîïëüèñåõóå ôç Öáßá, ìéá ìáíéáóìÝíç ôåñáôþäç ï Þñùáò óõíÜíôçóå ôïõò ãéïõò ôïõ Öýôáëïõ, ðïõ ôïí
áãñéïãïõñïýíá, ðïõ ôñïìïêñáôïýóå ôïõò êáôïßêïõò âïÞèçóáí íá åîáãíéóôåß áðü ôï áßìá ðïõ åß÷å ÷ýóåé,
ôïõ Êñïììõþíá, óôá óýíïñá Êïñßíèïõ êáé Ìåãáñßäáò. éäßùò áõôü ôïõ Óßíé, ðïõ Þôáí óõããåíÞò ôïõ áðü ôçí
Óôçí ÊáêéÜ ÓêÜëá ðÝôáîå ôïí Óêßñùíá óôç èÜëáóóá, ðëåõñÜ ôçò ìçôÝñáò ôïõ101. ¸÷åé Þäç áíáöåñèåß üôé
åíþ óôá ðåñß÷ùñá ôçò Åëåõóßíáò óêüôùóå Ýðåéôá áðü ÷þñïò åîáãíéóìïý ôïõ ÈçóÝá, äçëáäÞ ôï ôÝìåíïò ôïõ
Üãñéá ðÜëç ôïí Êåñêýïíá áðü ôçí Áñêáäßá. ìåéëß÷éïõ Äéüò, åíôïðßæåôáé óôïí ÷þñï ðïõ êáôáëáìâÜíåé
Óôá äáóþäç õøþìáôá ôïõ ¸ñìïõ óõíÜíôçóå ôïí óÞìåñá ôï åêêëçóÜêé ôïõ Áãßïõ ÓÜââá, óôá âüñåéá
ÐïëõðÞìïíá, ôïí ðáôÝñá ôïõ Óßíé, ðïõ Þôáí ãíùóôüò êñÜóðåäá ôçò óýã÷ñïíçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý.
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Ç ÉåñÜ Ïäüò óÞìåñá

Ç
ÉåñÜ Ïäüò åßíáé ï áñ÷áéüôåñïò äñüìïò ôçò
÷þñáò ìáò. Ïé áíáöïñÝò óôçí éóôïñßá ôïõ
äñüìïõ áõôïý åßíáé óõ÷íÝò áëëÜ ç áíÜäåéîÞ
ôïõ ùò ìíçìåßïõ ôçò êëáóéêÞò áñ÷áéüôçôáò ìå ôçí
áíôßóôïé÷ç éóôïñéêÞ ôïõ áîßá äåí Ý÷åé ðñï÷ùñÞóåé.
Ùóôüóï ôï óôïé÷åßï ôçò ëåéôïõñãéêÞò áîßáò ôïõ äñüìïõ
áíáäåß÷èçêå ðåñéóóüôåñï áðü ôï éóôïñéêü óôïé÷åßï.
Åßíáé ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêü üôé åðß 2.500 ÷ñüíéá ðáñÝìåíå ï
ìïíáäéêüò åèíéêüò äñüìïò ðïõ óõíÝäåå ôçí ÁèÞíá ìå
ôç Âüñåéá ÅëëÜäá, ôçí ¹ðåéñï êáé ôçí Ðåëïðüííçóï.
Ç êáôáóêåõÞ ôïõ ìå õðïäïìÝò êáé Üóöáëôï Ýãéíå
ôï 1927. ¸êôïôå Ý÷åé ôçí ßäéá ìïñöÞ, ìå ìüíç
äéáöïñïðïßçóç ïñéóìÝíåò äéáðëáôýíóåéò. ÊáìéÜ Üëëç
ðñüóâáóç óôçí ÁèÞíá äåí õðÞñ÷å ìÝ÷ñé ôï 1956,
üôáí êáôáóêåõÜóôçêå ç ëåùöüñïò ÊáâÜëáò, ç ïðïßá
óõíáíôéÝôáé ìå ôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü óôï ýøïò ôçò ìïíÞò ôïõ
Äáöíßïõ. Óôç óõíÝ÷åéá, ìå ôç äéÜíïéîç ôçò åèíéêÞò ïäïý
Ç ëåéôïõñãéêÞ êáé áéóèçôéêÞ áíáâÜèìéóç ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý óõíÝâáëå
Áèçíþí – Ëáìßáò ôï «äéÜóåëï» ôïõ Äáöíéïý Ýðáøå íá óçìáíôéêÜ óôç âåëôßùóç ôçò ðüëçò.
åßíáé ç ìïíáäéêÞ óýíäåóç ìå ôç Âüñåéá ÅëëÜäá.
Ç ìïíáäéêÞ áõôÞ ëåéôïõñãéêüôçôá ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý ùò ôçí ÁèÞíá êáé ôïí ÐåéñáéÜ· áëëÜ êáé ïé óõíïéêßåò ôïõ
ìüíçò åèíéêÞò ïäïý ðïõ ðåñíïýóå áðü ôï ×áúäÜñé, ×áúäáñßïõ, ôùí Êïõíåëéþí, ôïõ ÄÜóïõò êáé ôïõ Äáöíéïý
Ýêáíå ôçí ðüëç íá ãåßñåé ðñïò áõôÞí. Óôï ìÝôùðï åîõðçñåôïýíôáí áðü ôç ìïíáäéêÞ ëåùöïñåéáêÞ ãñáììÞ
ðÜíù óôïí äñüìï áõôü, óôç óõìâïëÞ ìå ôç óçìåñéíÞ ðïõ ðåñíïýóå áðü ôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü. Ôï ãåãïíüò áõôü,
ïäü Öþêáéáò, äçìéïõñãÞèçêå ôï êÝíôñï ôçò ðüëçò. ðÝñá áðü ôçí ôáëáéðùñßá ëüãù ôçò áðüóôáóçò,
Åêåß Ýêáíå óôÜóç ôï ëåùöïñåßï ãéá ôçí ÁèÞíá åß÷å êáé ôç èåôéêÞ ðëåõñÜ ôïõ, êáèþò Ýöåñíå ôïõò
êáé ôïí ÐåéñáéÜ, óôç óôÜóç Óéäçñüðïõëïõ, êáé åêåß ×áúäáñéþôåò óå êáèçìåñéíÞ åðáöÞ êáé áíåðáßóèçôá
âñéóêüôáí ôï éóôïñéêü êáöåíåßï ôïõ Åõáã. ÔóÝñç, ýöáéíå ôçí êïéíùíéêÞ óõíï÷Þ.
ï öïýñíïò ôïõ Åìì. Óßìïõ, ôï öáñìáêåßï ôïõ Áíô. ÐñÝðåé íá óçìåéùèåß üôé óôç óõìâïëÞ ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý
Ìçôñoêþóôá –ôï ðñþôï ôçò ðüëçò–, ôï åìðïñéêü ìå ôç óçìåñéíÞ Áãùíéóôþí ÓôñáôïðÝäïõ õðÞñ÷å Ýíáò
ôïõ Áíáóô. Êïõëáëüãëïõ êáé ôï ðáíôïðùëåßï ôïõ ðõñÞíáò ìå áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÜ áîéüëïãåò êáôïéêßåò, ðïõ
Óéäçñüðïõëïõ. Áðü åêåß ðåñíïýóáí ïé êÜôïéêïé ôçò Ýäéíáí ìéá åéêüíá îå÷ùñéóôÞò áéóèçôéêÞò. Ìåôáîý áõôþí,
êåíôñéêÞò ðåñéï÷Þò ãéá íá ðÜñïõí ôï ëåùöïñåßï ãéá ðéï ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêü Þôáí ôï óðßôé ôïõ ãéáôñïý Óêïõëéêßäç.

ÔìÞìá ôïõ ìåãÜëïõ ôáöéêïý ðåñßâïëïõ óôï âüñåéï êñÜóðåäï ôçò áñ÷áßáò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý,
êïíôÜ óôï ÄñïìïêáÀôåéï (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).
58
59

Ç ðýëç ôïõ ÄñïìïêáÀôåéïõ Éäñýìáôïò åðß ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).

ÁñéóôåñÜ: Ôï ÄñïìïêáÀôåéï ºäñõìá äçìéïõñãÞèçêå ôï 1887 áðü ôïí åõåñãÝôç Ã. ÄñïìïêáÀôç (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).

Ôï ðñüóùðï, ëïéðüí, ôçò ðüëçò Þôáí ðõñÞíáò ôïõ ïéêéóìïý ðåñéêëåéüôáí óå ðÝíôå
ðñïóáíáôïëéóìÝíï ðÜíù óôïí éóôïñéêü äñüìï. ÐÜíù ôåôñÜãùíá êáé áñéèìïýóå ðåíÞíôá êáôïéêßåò, óôéò
óôçí IåñÜ Ïäü Þäç áðü ôï 1887 äçìéïõñãÞèçêå ôï ïðïßåò óôåãÜóôçêáí éóÜñéèìåò ïéêïãÝíåéåò áðü ôçí
ÄñïìïêáÀôåéï ºäñõìá áðü ôïí åõåñãÝôç Ã. ÄñïìïêáÀôç, éóôïñéêÞ Öþêáéá ôçò ÌéêñÜò Áóßáò. Áðü ôéò ðñþôåò
êáôáãüìåíï áðü ôï Ðõñãß ôçò ×ßïõ. Ôï ãåãïíüò áõôü åíÝñãåéåò ôùí ÖùêáÝùí Þôáí ç áíÝãåñóç éåñïý íáïý
áðïôÝëåóå ôï Ýíáõóìá þóôå ðïëëïß ðïõ êáôÜãïíôáí áöéåñùìÝíïõ óôçí Êïßìçóç ôçò Èåïôüêïõ, üðùò Þôáí
áðü ôç ãåíÝôåéñá ôïõ ÄñïìïêáÀôç íá Ýñèïõí íá êáé óôçí ðáôñßäá ôïõò. Ï éåñüò íáüò óôÝãáóå êáé ôçí
åãêáôáóôáèïýí óôï ×áúäÜñé ëüãù ôçò åñãáóßáò ôïõò éóôïñéêÞ åéêüíá ôçò Êïßìçóçò ôçò Èåïôüêïõ ðïõ ïé
óôï ÄñïìïêáÀôåéï. ¸ôóé, äçìéïõñãÞèçêå ï ïéêéóôéêüò ðñüóöõãåò äéÝóùóáí áðü ôçí êáôáóôñïöÞ.
ðõñÞíáò ôçò ÷éáêÞò ðáñïéêßáò, ðïõ êáé óÞìåñá Ï íáüò ìå ôïí ðåñéâÜëëïíôá ÷þñï ôïõ âñßóêåôáé
áðïôåëåß ìéá óçìáíôéêÞ åèíéêïôïðéêÞ êïéíüôçôá ìå ó÷åäüí åðß ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý, óôç óõìâïëÞ ìå ôéò ïäïýò
åíåñãü óõììåôï÷Þ óôçí êïéíùíéêÞ æùÞ ôçò ðüëçò. Çëßá ÂåíÝæç êáé ÊáñáïëÞ êáé Äçìçôñßïõ, êáé åßíáé
Ôï ÄñïìïêáÀôåéï áðïôåëåß óçìáíôéêü êåöÜëáéï ôçò ï ìçôñïðïëéôéêüò íáüò ôçò ðüëçò. Óôïí ðåñßâïëï
éóôïñßáò ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ êáé Ý÷åé ðñïóöÝñåé ðïëëÝò ôïõ íáïý ôùí ÍåïöùêáÝùí õðÜñ÷åé ç ðñïôïìÞ ôïõ
õðçñåóßåò ü÷é ìüíï åõñýôåñá óôïí ÷þñï ôçò õãåßáò ×ñõóüóôïìïõ Óìýñíçò, óå Ýíäåéîç ôéìÞò êáé ìíÞìçò
áëëÜ êáé óôçí ðåñßïäï ôçò ÅèíéêÞò Áíôßóôáóçò. ãéá ôçí ðñïóöïñÜ ôïõ éåñÜñ÷ç, êáé ãåíéêüôåñá ãéá
Óôç óõíÝ÷åéá, ìåôÜ ôç ìéêñáóéáôéêÞ êáôáóôñïöÞ, ìå ôá èýìáôá ôçò ìéêñáóéáôéêÞò êáôáóôñïöÞò. ¸êöñáóç
ìÝôùðï ó÷åäüí åðß ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý, äçìéïõñãÞèçêå ôùí ïéêéóôþí áðü ôç Öþêáéá ôçò ÌéêñÜò Áóßáò åßíáé
ï ïéêéóìüò ôùí ÍåïöùêáÝùí Ðñïóöýãùí. Ï áñ÷éêüò ï Óýíäåóìïò ÍåïöùêáÝùí Ðñïóöýãùí, ðïõ Ý÷åé
60

Ï ÄéïìÞäåéïò Âïôáíéêüò êÞðïò ôïõ


Ðáíåðéóôçìßïõ Áèçíþí, áðïôåëåß
ðïëýôéìï ðíåýìïíá ãéá ôçí ðüëç.
61

óçìáíôéêÞ ðñïóöïñÜ áðü ôçí ßäñõóÞ ôïõ ôï Ýôïò 1927 ï ïðïßïò ôÝìíåé åãêÜñóéá ôï ×áúäÜñé, ôçò ëåùöüñïõ
ìÝ÷ñé óÞìåñá. ÊáâÜëáò, ìåßùóå ôçí êõêëïöïñéáêÞ óçìáóßá ôçò
Áêïëïõèþíôáò ôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü óõíáíôÜìå ôïí ÄéïìÞäåéï ÉåñÜò Ïäïý ãåíéêüôåñá êáé üóïí áöïñÜ ôïí äÞìï
êÞðï, ôïí âïôáíéêü êÞðï ôïõ Ðáíåðéóôçìßïõ Áèçíþí, ìáò, ìåôÝèåóå ôï åðßêåíôñï ôçò ðüëçò ðñïò ôçí ïäü
Ýêôáóçò 1.500 óôñåììÜôùí, ðïõ åêôüò áðü ôçí ÓôñáôÜñ÷ïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç êáé åéäéêüôåñá óôç óõìâïëÞ ôçò
åêðáéäåõôéêÞ ôïõ áîßá, áðïôåëåß ðïëýôéìï ðíåýìïíá ìå ôç ëåùöüñï Áèçíþí, üðïõ ïñèþíåôáé ï éóôïñéêüò
ðñáóßíïõ ãéá ôçí ðüëç êáé öéëüîåíï ÷þñï ðåñéðÜôïõ ðýñãïò ÐáëáôÜêé êáé ôï íÝï äçìáñ÷åßï ôçò ðüëçò.
ãéá ôïõò ×áúäáñéþôåò. Ãéá ôç ëåéôïõñãéêÞ êáé áéóèçôéêÞ áíáâÜèìéóç ôçò
Ï ëüöïò ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá, üðïõ óôçí áñ÷áéüôçôá ÉåñÜò Ïäïý ï ÄÞìïò ×áúäáñßïõ óå óõíåñãáóßá ìå ôïí
âñéóêüôáí ôï ôáöéêü ìíçìåßï ôçò Ðõèéïíßêçò, áðïôåëåß ÁÓÄÁ ðñï÷þñçóå óôçí åêðüíçóç óõíïëéêÞò ìåëÝôçò
óÞìåñá ðüëï Ýëîçò ãéá åðéóêÝðôåò áðü üëç ôçí ÁèÞíá, ãéá ôï ôìÞìá áðü ôá óýíïñá ìå ôï ÁéãÜëåù ìÝ÷ñé
÷Üñç óôçí ðáíïñáìéêÞ èÝá ôïõ ëåêáíïðåäßïõ ðïõ ôï Äáöíß. Ç ìåëÝôç áõôÞ, ìåôÜ ôçí ÝãêñéóÞ ôçò êáé
ðñïóöÝñåé. Óôçí êïñõöÞ âñßóêåôáé ôï åêêëçóÜêé ôïõ áðü ôï Õðïõñãåßï Ðïëéôéóìïý, Üñ÷éóå íá õëïðïéåßôáé
ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá ìå ôç ãýñù ðïëõåðßðåäç ðëáôåßá êáé ôï 2001 áëëÜ äåí Ý÷åé ïëïêëçñùèåß ç åöáñìïãÞ ôçò,
ëßãï ÷áìçëüôåñá ôï áíáøõêôÞñéï ðïõ äçìéïýñãçóå ôï äéüôé Ýöôáóå ìÝ÷ñé ôç óõìâïëÞ ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý ìå ôçí
1988 ï ÄÞìïò ×áúäáñßïõ. ïäü Öþêáéáò. Ç åêôÝëåóç ôïõ óõãêåêñéìÝíïõ Ýñãïõ
Óôç óõìâïëÞ ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý ìå ôç ×ñ. Ðåññáéâïý óõíÝâáëå óçìáíôéêÜ óôç âåëôßùóç ôïõ éóôïñéêïý
âñßóêåôáé ôï ðñþôï êïéíïôéêü êáôÜóôçìá êáé äñüìïõ êáé êáô’ åðÝêôáóç ôçò ðüëçò.
ôáõôü÷ñïíá ôï ðñþôï äçìáñ÷åßï ôçò ðüëçò, ôï ïðïßï Óôï Ýñãï áõôü ôçò áíáâÜèìéóçò ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý
ìå ôçí õð. áñéèì. 419/2000 áðüöáóç ôïõ äçìïôéêïý ðåñéëáìâÜíåôáé êáé ç äçìéïõñãßá ôïõ 2ïõ Áèëçôéêïý
óõìâïõëßïõ êçñý÷èçêå äéáôçñçôÝï. ÊÝíôñïõ ôçò ðüëçò óôï ðáëáéü ãÞðåäï Óéäçñüðïõëïõ,
ÊïíôÜ óôç óõìâïëÞ ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý ìå ôçí ïäü êáèþò êáé êïéíü÷ñçóôïé ÷þñïé ðñáóßíïõ êáé
Êïëïêïôñþíç, Ý÷åé áíáóêáöåß ôï ß÷íïò ôçò áñ÷áßáò èÝóåéò óôÜèìåõóçò. Åßíáé áíÜãêç üìùò ôï Ýñãï íá
ÉåñÜò Ïäïý, Üøåõóôïò ìÜñôõñáò ôçò éóôïñéêÞò ïëïêëçñùèåß êáé íá öôÜóåé ìÝ÷ñé ôç ìïíÞ ôïõ Äáöíéïý.
óõíÝ÷åéáò ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ åðß ôñåéò ÷éëéåôßåò. ÓçìáíôéêÞ åðßóçò âåëôßùóç óôçí åéêüíá ôçò ÉåñÜò
Ç äçìéïõñãßá ìåôÜ ôï 1956 åíüò íÝïõ ïäéêïý Üîïíá Ïäïý ðñüóöåñáí ïé ðáñåìâÜóåéò ôïõ ÄÞìïõ ×áúäáñßïõ

Ôï 2ï Áèëçôéêü ÊÝíôñï ×áúäáñßïõ


óôï ðáëáéü ãÞðåäï Óéäçñüðïõëïõ.
62

Ï éåñüò íáüò ôçò Êïßìçóçò ôçò Èåïôüêïõ, éóôïñéêÞ åêêëçóßá ôùí ÍåïöùêáÝùí (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).
63

Ôï åêêëçóÜêé ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá óôçí êïñõöÞ ôïõ ïìþíõìïõ ëüöïõ.

êáé óõãêåêñéìÝíá ç áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ äéáìüñöùóç ôï 1984 1993 êáé ç ó÷åôéêÞ ÐñÜîç ÅöáñìïãÞò êõñþèçêå ôï 1994.
ôçò Ýêôáóçò ìåôáîý ôçò ëåùöüñïõ Áèçíþí êáé ôçò Ìå ôçí ïëïêëÞñùóç ôùí âáóéêþí Ýñãùí õðïäïìÞò
ÉåñÜò Ïäïý, êáèþò êáé ôçò Ýêôáóçò óôç óõìâïëÞ ôÞò (ïäéêü äßêôõï, äßêôõï ýäñåõóçò, ðëáêüóôñùóç
Ðåññáéâïý ìå ôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü, ðïõ Ýãéíå ôï 1996. ðåæïäñïìßùí, ñõìïôüìçóç) êáé ôç äéáìüñöùóç
×áñáêôçñéóôéêü ìíçìåßï ôçò êëáóéêÞò ðåñéüäïõ óôïí ôùí ïäþí ìå çëåêôñïöùôéóìü, ðëáêïóôñþóåéò,
äÞìï ìáò åßíáé ôï éåñü ôçò Áöáßáò, ðïõ áðïôåëïýóå äåíäñïöõôåýóåéò êáé ìåéùôÞñåò ôá÷ýôçôáò, ïé äýï
óôáèìü ôçò ðïñåßáò ôùí Åëåõóéíßùí. Ï éóôïñéêüò ïéêéóìïß áíáâáèìßóôçêáí êáé äéáìïñöþèçêáí óå äýï
áõôüò ôüðïò ÷Üñç óå ðáñåìâÜóåéò ôïõ Õðïõñãåßïõ óýã÷ñïíåò óõíïéêßåò ôïõ äÞìïõ.
Ðïëéôéóìïý, ðïõ Ýãéíáí ôï äéÜóôçìá 2002-2005 óå Óôç óõíÝ÷åéá ç áñ÷áßá äéáäñïìÞ ôçò ÉåñÜò Ïäïý
óõíåñãáóßá ìå ôïí ÄÞìï ×áúäáñßïõ, ðñïóôáôåýôçêå óõíáíôïýóå, ëßãï ðñéí áðü ôéò ëßìíåò Ñåéôïýò
êáé áíáäåß÷èçêå. Êáô’ áñ÷Üò áðáëëïôñéþèçêáí êáé (Êïõìïõíäïýñïõ), ôçí ðáñáëßá ôïõ ÓêáñáìáãêÜ, ðïõ
êáôåäáößóôçêáí ôá êôßóìáôá ðïõ âñßóêïíôáí ãýñù áðïôåëåß ôï öõóéêü åðßíåéï ôçò ðüëçò ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ
óôïí áñ÷áéïëïãéêü ÷þñï êáé ðáñÜëëçëá ìå êáôÜëëçëç êáé ôç ìïíáäéêÞ äéÝîïäï ôçò ÄõôéêÞò ÁèÞíáò ðñïò
áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ äéáìüñöùóç åðéôåý÷èçêå ç áíÜäåéîÞ ôïõ. ôç èÜëáóóá. ÁãáðçìÝíï ìÝñïò ôùí ×áúäáñéùôþí
ÊïíôÜ óôïí íáü äçìéïõñãÞèçêå ï óýã÷ñïíïò ïéêéóìüò ãéá ìðÜíéï, ç ÁêôÞ ÓêáñáìáãêÜ äÝ÷ôçêå âÜíáõóï
ôçò Áöáßáò ÓêáñáìáãêÜ. Ï ïéêéóìüò, ðïõ áðáñôßæåôáé ðëÞãìá ìå ôçí áðáëëïôñßùóç ìåãÜëïõ ìÝñïõò ôçò
áðü äýï óõíïéêßåò åêáôÝñùèåí ôçò åèíéêÞò ïäïý ãéá ôçí êáôáóêåõÞ ôùí Íáõðçãåßùí ÓêáñáìáãêÜ ôç
Áèçíþí – Êïñßíèïõ, åíôÜ÷èçêå óôï Ó÷Ýäéï Ðüëåùò ôï äåêáåôßá ôïõ ‘50. Ç êáôáóôñïöÞ ôçò ïëïêëçñþèçêå åðß
64

Äéêôáôïñßáò ôï 1973 ìå ôçí áíáãêáóôéêÞ áðáëëïôñßùóç


êáé ôçò õðüëïéðçò Ýêôáóçò ãéá ôçí åðÝêôáóç ôùí
íáõðçãåßùí, áëëÜ êáé ôçí ôáõôü÷ñïíç åðÝêôáóç ìå ôçí
åðé÷ùìÜôùóç ôçò áêôÞò.
ÌåôÜ ôç ìåôáâßâáóç ôçò éäéïêôçóßáò ôùí íáõðçãåßùí
óå îÝíç åôáéñåßá, ôï 2004, Ýãéíå áðüðåéñá äçìéïõñãßáò
éäéùôéêïý ëéìÝíá, áðüðåéñá ðïõ áðïôñÜðçêå ÷Üñç óôç
óèåíáñÞ áíôßóôáóç ôùí åñãáæïìÝíùí ôïõ ÏËÐ êáé
ôïõ ÄÞìïõ ×áúäáñßïõ.
Ï ÄÞìïò ×áúäáñßïõ ìå ïìüöùíåò áðïöÜóåéò ôïõ
äçìïôéêïý óõìâïõëßïõ æçôÜ ôçí åðéóôñïöÞ óôïí
äÞìï ôïõ ôìÞìáôïò ôçò Ýêôáóçò ðïõ äåí åßíáé ðëÝïí
áðáñáßôçôï ãéá ôïõò óêïðïýò ôùí íáõðçãåßùí,
êáé ôçí áíÜêôçóç êáé áíÜðëáóç ôçò áêôÞò, ãéá íá
åðáíáëåéôïõñãÞóåé ùò ÷þñïò ðåñéðÜôïõ, Üèëçóçò
êáé áíáøõ÷Þò ôùí ×áúäáñéùôþí. ÁõôÞ ôç äéåêäßêçóç
õðåíèõìßæåé êáé ç êáèéåñùìÝíç ðéá ëáúêÞ ãéïñôÞ ðïõ
äéïñãáíþíåôáé áðü ôïí äÞìï êÜèå ÷ñüíï óôá ôÝëç
Éïõíßïõ óôçí ÁêôÞ ÓêáñáìáãêÜ.

Ïìüöùíï áßôçìá ôùí êáôïßêùí ôçò ðüëçò áðïôåëåß


ç áíÜêôçóç êáé ç áíÜðëáóç ôçò ÁêôÞò ÓêáñáìáãêÜ.
65

ÊïíôÜ óôï áñ÷áßï éåñü ôçò Áöñïäßôçò äçìéïõñãÞèçêå ï óýã÷ñïíïò ïéêéóìüò ôçò Áöáßáò.
67

Ancient period:
Sacred Way – Hermos Deme

C
haidari occupied a crucial location between
Athens and Eleusina or the mountains Aigaleo
and Poikilo, since the Sacred Way passed
through the modern municipality area, more or less
beneath the modern road. Ancient Chaidari developed
around this road and was known as the deme of Hermos.
Chaidari was closely connected to the ritual procession to
the Eleusinian sanctuaries, which took place every autumn
Plan of the Sacred Way’s section located to the west
(between September and October) as part of the Great of the sanctuary of Aphrodite at Aphaia Skaramanga
(Praktika Archaeologikis Etaireias 1938, p. 30 fig. 2).
Mysteries, lasting nine days and celebrating the return of
Persephone from Hades to her mother, goddess Demeter.
The processual return of the holy objects from Athens through the area of modern Chaidari in order to visit the
to Eleusina was accompanied by worshippers, who Eleusinian sanctuary, both due to the fame of the place
participated in a mystic ceremony, poorly known today. as well as the fact that the traveller had been an initiate.
The procession rested at sanctuaries along the way.
In Chaidari, these were the temple of Apollon, the site
of the Daphni Monastery today, and the sanctuary of Starting point: Dipylon and Sacred Gate
Aphrodite at Skaramangas.
Chaidari was the western tip of Athens, a gateway for Pausanias started from the city gate of Dipylon, also
visitors from Thessaly and the southern mainland and known as Thriasian or Kerameikos Gates until the late
Peloponnese. The admirable view of Athens from the 4th century BC, and essentially the main gate to ancient
Prophitis Ilias hill indicated that they had arrived. The French and Roman Athens. The crowd gathered in the wider
romantic author and traveller, François René Chateaubriand Dipylon area, which featured Pompeion (end of 5th
(1768-1848), who came to Athens in 1806, similarly noted the – end of 1st c. BC), a building specially dedicated
beauty of the view of Athens and its ruins during the sunrise. to processions. The statue of Iakchos was at the head
of the procession. He was a god associated with
Demeter and Kore and had his own sanctuary east
Pausanias in Chaidari of the Sacred Gate.
Pausanias does not mention the neighbouring Sacred
The ancient monuments of Chaidari may be accurately Gate. Perhaps Dipylon had been the only preserved
traced through the writings of Pausanias, the meticulous Classical gate in Roman times and even restored by the
traveller of the 2nd century AD. Pausanias passed emperor Hadrian around 125 AD.

Up: Section of the Sacred Way on the hill to the east of the Retoi Lakes (Praktika Archaeologikis Etaireias 1936, p. 30 fig. 4).

Down: The most well preserved section of the Sacred Way to the west of the sanctuary of Aphrodite at Aphaia Skaramanga
(Praktika Archaeologikis Etaireias 1938, p 32 fig. 3).
68

The Sacred Way and the surrounding villages to Athens. Many parts of the
ancient road remained visible in the 19th century.
Roads connecting ancient towns to important Parts of the ancient road have been exposed at
sanctuaries, such as Athens and Eleusina were named Kerameikos and at the plain of Kephisos river, such as in
«sacred». The official name of the Athenian Sacred front of the 9th Primary School at Chaidari. Road terraces
Way was «Eleusinian», according to incriptions. It was are built with stone boulders set on the natural chalk. The
assumingly established in the Late Helladic period lower road surface layer is the bedrock with artificial
(1600-100 BC) for reasons of communication between chalk soil fill for natural cavities. The middle layer is a
the settlements of Athens and Eleusina. The cult of fill of chalk soil and small boulders. The upper layer
Demeter is dated to the 11th century BC or earlier. By the is cobbled. There are intermediate layers of sand and
mid 8th century, the use of the Sacred Way had been gravel. Another major part of the road has been exposed
well established. Eleusina became part of the Athenian further to the west. Smaller parts have been located to
state in the second half of the 6th century, during the the east too, within the Chaidari municipality.
Peisistratid tyranny. The sanctuary acquired new buildings A great and well preserved part of the Sacred Way has
and the Sacred Way was remodelled and stayed in use been excavated close to the sanctuary of Aphrodite at
throughout Antiquity. Aphaia Skaramanga, while many more but shorter parts
The sanctuary declined with the gradual rise of have been exposed from there to Eleusina. The average
Christianity and the severe imperial decrees against road width is 5 m.
paganism in the 4th century AD. Finally, Alaric’s Visigoths Rocky slopes, such as the Echo hill (today Kapsalonas
sacked the place in 395 AD and turned it to ruins. hill, on the northeast foot of Mt Poikilo), were dug
Nonetheless, the Sacred Way continued to link Eleusina out, while downslopes were terraced in order to
support the road. In sandy areas, such as around Lake
Koumoundourou the underlayer was cobbles and soil.
The part in front of the Sanctuary of Aphrodite preserves
wheel furrows.

Monuments along the Sacred Way

Along the whole length of the Sacred Way were


numerous and impressive burial monuments of wealthy
citizens, more modest cemeteries and small sanctuaries
and temples operating as travellers’ stops. Stops were
crucial for the Eleusinian procession, both for ritual
purposes, but also for the walkers’ rest. By following
Pausanias it is possible to locate ancient monuments
and understand the topography of the ancient route
and the area of Chaidari. A similar attempt was made
in 1860 by the French scholar François Lenormant, who

Relief depicting Demeter and Persephone, second quarter of the 5th


century (height 0.78 m and width 0.56 m). Demeter is enthroned, while
Persephone is standing in front of her with torches in both her hands
(Archaeological Museum of Eleusis).
69

conducted excavations along the ancient road. of the then dead Pythionike. Arpalos had built Pythionike
A traveller from Athens to Eleusina would first see an imposing tomb in Babylon too, while he also
several burial monuments and then come across the commisioned an altar, dedicated to the cult of Aphrodite
large olive grove of Kephisos that spread up to Chaidari Pythionike.
and had been preserved until the mid-19th century. After The monument probably stood on the hill of Prophitis
more burial monuments followed the Lakiades deme, Ilias, although there is no supportive material evidence
today the Agricultural School of the University of Athens. yet. Its form is unknown since written sources do not
A subsequent sanctuary, mainly devoted to Demeter and describe the monument itself, but only the authors’
assumingly under the Athenian Paper-making factory impressions.
today, must have been connected to the Eleusinian cult According to Kampouroglou the blocks of the monument
as a procession stop on the way back to Athens. were burnt into a large local Frankish or Ottoman lime
Then the traveller crossed Kephisos river, which ran kiln, used by the Daphni monks. The kiln preserved
about 1200 m east of the modern riverbed, via a stone remains of sculpted pieces. The non-existent monument
bridge. There, procession initiates and outside visitors triggered the imagination of modern travellers too, such
teased each other. The same happened at the junction as the French scholar, doctor and historian and traveller
of the Eleusinian branch of the river with the Sacred Way, François Pouqueville (1770-1838).
just before the final destination of the procession. An
altar to Zeus connected to Theseus and several burial
monuments mentioned by Pausanias have not been The sanctuary of Apollo in Daphni
traced, but the modern Agios Savvas church preserves
ancient spolia. West of the Pythionike monument Pausanias came
A small temple called «of Kyamitos» is at the across the sanctuary of Apollon. It accommodated
crossroads with modern Proussis Street in Aigaleo, at the statues of Demeter and Kore. According to tradition,
site of Agios Georgios church. The area includes many Kephalos, the mythical founder of Kephallonia, sacrifised
excavated cemeteries, spanning from the 8th century to Apollon upon this spot on his return from exile.
BC to the Late Roman period. Especially noted are two The sanctuary was one of the most important stops of
burial enclosures opposite the Dromokaiteio Psychiatry, the Eleusinian procession. According to an inscription
one Roman and one dating to the 4th century BC. A in the theatre of Dionysus in Athens, Apollon was
super-natural sized hand from a marble statue probably worshipped as Daphnephoros (laurel-bearer) and
belongs to a monumental base located close by. Thus, Pausanias reports only one such sanctuary in Attica.
the Dromokaiteion area hosted important Classical and Perhaps it was the one located in the area of Daphni,
Hellenistic monuments. within the Byzantine monastery. It probably included
a colonnaded edifice. Three columns were removed
by Lord Elgin and are exhibited today in the British
The burial monument of Pythionike Museum. Pouqueville attempted to trace the temple and
on the Prophitis Ilias hill Kampouroglou reported the finding of sculpture, today in
exhibition in the monastery.
The cenotaph commissioned by the Macedonian Arpalos The architectural form of the sanctuary is completely
in honour of his wife Pythionike was the most impressive unknown, but the number of the reported statues and the
monument in Chaidari. Arpalos was a friend of Alexander many column parts suggest at least two temples, or a
the Great and treasurer in Babylon. When Arpalos was temple and a stoa. There was an ashlar enclosure wall,
prosecuted for conspicuous spending, he found refuge in which was re-used for the Byzantine fortification of the
Athens and spent 2.5 million drachmas on the cenotaph monastery. It is possible that the threshold of the east
70

gate to the monastery is the ancient threshold to the in weddings and funerary rituals for single persons. Clay
sanctuary. figurines depict Satyrs, Pan, Aphrodite and other females.
The architectural remains suggest a late Classical The excavator attributes the cult to the protector of
construction date for the sanctuary. In view of the poor nature, the woods and the shepherds, namely Pan and
data, it is only possible to state that the sanctuary his companions. Similar caves to Pan have been located
existed in the 2nd century AD, during Pausanias’ visit and elsewhere in Attica too.
was destroyed by Alaric and his Visigoths in 395 AD, Artefacts date the cult to the 5th century BC only, which
along with the Eleusinian sanctuary. explains Pausanias’ ingorance of the site. The cave was
inhabited by Byzantine hermits and was used as a stable
in Ottoman times.
The Cave of Pan in Daphni

A sacred cave on the steep slope of Poikilo, behind the The Sanctuary of Aphrodite at Skaramangas
Daphni Monastery, was first located by D. Kampouroglou
and excavated by I. Traulos. The cave is 11.5 m deep, 7.8 Pausanias mentions a temple of Aphrodite, located
m wide and funnel-shaped. Its entrance - to the north today in Aphaia Skaramanga, a neighbourhood of
- had been blocked by an ancient rubble wall, which Chaidari, about 1.5 km west of the Daphni Monastery. The
nevertheless left an opening. A terrace wall created a monument was located via the many niches carved on
small court in front of the entrance. The interior had only the Aigaleo mountain slope, also noted by the French
one short partition wall and a few rectangular carvings author Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880) on Christmas 1850.
on the floor. Remains indicate that the cave walls had The sanctuary of Aphrodite was also a basic stop of
been plastered. the Eleusinian procession. D. Kampouroglou, the first
Movable finds (pottery, ashes, bones) suggest ritual excavator of the site found statuettes of Aphrodite and
burning of offerings and the sacrifice of small animals. other gods, some reflecting the art of the school of
Most potsherds come from loutrophoroi, vessels used Pheidias. He also located traces of a stoa, an altar, living

Section of the Pan cave at Daphni (Archaeologiki Efimeris 1936-37, p. 395 fig. 3).
71

quarters for the priests and the base for the statue of
the goddess. In the 1930s, I. Traulos and K. Kourouniotis
concluded the excavations.
The sanctuary has a roughly rectangular enclosure wall
(71x21 m), with an entrance and propylon to the south.
There was a very small, almost square temple, with a
doric portico and marble roof, on the west side of the
wall. There is also a stoa and other buildings of unknown
function. There are many bases of statues and votive
inscriptions to Aphrodite, as well as altars and other
votives, mainly clay figurines depicting the goddess, or
vulvae and birds, the symbols of the goddess. It seems
that the whole area of the sanctuary, including the
niches would have been full of votive offerings, including
statues, stelae, large vessels etc.
A complex to the south probably served as residence
area for both priests and travellers. A rectangular guard Clay figurines from the Pan cave at Daphni, 5th century
(Archaeologiki Efimeris 1936-37, p. 406 fig. 23-25).
house (25x15 m) lies south of the Sacred Way. Two
later sarcophagi testify to its funerary re-use. The exact
establishment date of the sanctuary is unknown, but place had been a swamp and impossible to cross. The
it should not be earlier than the 4th century BC. The water had salt, due to its proximity to the sea.
sanctuary lived until the Roman times and is today open The north lake was devoted to Demeter and the south
to the public. to Persephone. The latter is preserved until today and
is called Lake Koumoundourou. It marks the border
between Chaidari and Aspropyrgos, and it used to be
Sacred Way and Echo hill the boundary between Athens and Eleusina. I. Traulos
recognized that some of the building blocks of the dam
The Sacred Way split after the sanctuary of Aphrodite. came from the Peisistratian sanctuary at Eleusina, which
One road went towards the west through the mountains was destroyed by the Persians in 479 BC. An inscription
of Aigaleo and Poikilo, round Echo (Kapsalonas) hill of the Athenian Boule of 421 BC, now in the Museum
and then to the north to the Reiton lakes. Another road of Eleusina, mentions the construction of a bridge 1.5 m
went north over Echo hill and then met the other road at wide, hence for pedestrians only.
lake Koumoundourou. A rectangular stone block, 1.18 m Both streams and lakes had been preserved until the 19th
long and 0.47 m high, may have been a boundary base century and featured two water mills, noted by François
between Athens and Eleusina. Pouqueville, while Gustave Flaubert saw only a swamp. Until
the 1950s both lakes were natural fish reserves. The south
lake was named either after the local land owners, or prime
Reitoi (Koumoundourou Lake) minister Alexandros Koumoundouros (1817-1883), responsible
for road building in the area during the 1860s. The post-World
Reitoi were two small artificial lakes on the west foot of War II widening of the national road reduced the size of the
Mt Aigaleo. Their springs were in natural cavities, which lake significantly. The north lake, Kephalari, was backfilled
were blocked in antiquity. The stream outlets to the during the construction of the oil refinery at Aspropyrgos. Its
sea were crossed via bridges. Before these works the place is today marked by a swamp.
72

Epilogue: Arrival at Eleusina

After Reitoi, Pausanias came across a river, called


Kephisos, like the main Athens river. Today it is dry and
known as Sarantapotamos. It used to be a torrent river,
flooding the Thriasian field. Pausanias crossed over a
stone bridge built by emperor Hadrian, preserved until
today.
Pausanias arrived at Eleusina about 1 km after the
Kephisos bridge. As an initiate under oath he did
not disclose anything of the ritual happenings, which
constitute a general gap of information in the ancient
texts, exactly due to the oath of the initiates. Excavation
has filled this gap partly, as it has exposed the
Telesterion, the main ritual building, as well as ceremonial
paraphernalia and relief representations of the worhipped
deities. As mentioned above, the Eleusinian Mysteries
were in honour of Demeter and her daughter Persephone
coming from Hades. Thus, rituals were related to fertility
and the regeneration of earth. The procession and the
initiation of new members was the most important event
of this cult.

Kleisthenes’ reformations
and the Hermos deme

In the 8th century BC, power in Athens was in the


hands of few aristocratic land owners. Despite Solo’s
legislation (594 BC), which created the basis for the
Athenian democracy, through the abolition of debts and the same zone comprised a trittys. Tribes and demes had
wider access to state offices, tension between rich and local authorities and their own treasuries and property.
poor continued. This allowed Peisistratos first and then The deme also kept the registries, and organized its
his sons, Hipparchos and Hippias, to become tyrrants in own ritual ceremonies. In order to break up aristocratic
the mid 6th century BC and until 510 BC. After their fall descent, Kleisthenes obliged people to be called after
Kleisthenes of the Alkmeonides prevailed in the power their residence deme.
struggle between wealthy families and reformed the The Hermos deme belonged to the urban trittys of the
Athenian state through his legislation (508 BC). Akamantis tribe and elected two Boule members. It was
Aiming to economic, social and religious integration, probably situated within Chaidari and Arpokration mentions a
he divided the Athenians into ten tribes of strictly local river Hermos, a stream below Daphni and into Kephisos river.
significance and divided the land into three zones: urban, The ancient settlement should lie around Daphni and at the
coastal and middle. Each tribe should include demes hill of Phrophitis Ilias. Hermos was probably a rural deme with
from all three zones, while the demes of the tribe within few residents, as indicated by its few Boule members.
73

Section of the burial enclosure by the Sacred Way, near the Dromokaiteion (photo by Sp. Panagiotopoulos).

Theseus travels to Athens Sinis at the Corinthian gulf and after him Phaia, a wild
and meets Prokroustes at Chaidari boar, at Megaris. He threw Skiron into the sea at Kakia
Skala and killed Kerkyon outside Eleusina. He met Sinis’
Theseus, the most important Athenian hero was the father, Polypemon or Prokroustes, at the wooded hills of
son of Aigeus, king of Athens and Aithra, princess of Hermos. Prokroustes had two beds, one short and one
Troizena. The child was raised in Troizena to avoid being long. He obliged short and tall travellers to lie on the
murdered by Aigeus’ enemies. At the age of sixteen wrong bed and killed them by either overstretching or
Theseus headed back to Athens. Despite his mother’s chopping their legs.
warning about bandits, Theseus decided to travel on Then, Theseus moved into Athens and later became king
land, as he wished to compete with the achievements of the city. Plutarch mentions that Theseus was ritually
of his cousin Hercules. cleansed from Sinis’ blood close to Kephisos river, and
Theseus aimed to take exterminate all bandits from there is a sanctuary to Zeus in the area of today’s Agios
Troizena to Athens. He killed Periphetes at Epidauros, Savvas church, on the north side of the Sacred Way.
75

The Sacred Way today

T
he Sacred Way is the oldest road of our country,
and the only national road connecting Athens to
Northern Greece, Epirus and the Peloponnese for
2500 years, until the cosntruction of the national road to
Lamia.
Inevitably, the Chaidari city centre developed around
the Sacred Way, mainly at the crossroads with Phokaias
Street, which concentrated all bus services and shops
and thus weaved a sense of social integration for the
people of Chaidari, despite daily difficulties.
The Dromokaiteion Psychiatry was founded by G.
Dromokaitis from Pyrgi of Chios in 1887 upon the Sacred
Way. It attracted many Chiots, who created their own
neighbourhood.
After the Asia Minor destruction, about 50 refugee
families from Phokaia settled almost upon the Sacred
Way. They built a church to house the icon of the
Dormition of the Virgin, which they had saved. This is the
metropolitan church of the city today. The upgrading of the Sacred Way by the Municipality of Chaidari has
altered the city’s modern face.
Following the Sacred Way we come across the Botanical
Garden of the University of Athens. Then, the hill of
Prophitis Ilias accommodated the Pythionike monument The Aphaia Sanctuary, a major stop of the Classical
and is a visitor attraction today. In the corner of Perraivou Eleusinian procession, has been protected since 2003-
Street and the Sacred Way is the old Town Hall, which 2005, while next to it, there are two new modern
is a listed building. The ancient way may be seen in the settlements with all necessary infrastructure. The Sacred
excavation of Kolokotroni Street. Way then meets the Skaramangas coast, the only
Since 1956, the construction of the Kavalas Avenue swimming option for west Athens. The shipyards have
shifted the traffic stress to Palataki area, where the new been a major blow to the area since the 1950s. The
City Hall lies. The Chaidari Municipality has worked on Chaidari Municipality has asked for the return of the
the aesthetic enhancement of the Sacred Way since area that is not used any more in order to convert it to a
1984 and particularly since 2001, during the office of K. place of recreation. This request is annually reminded by
Nteniakos. the local festival in the end of June.

Up: The modern settlement of Aphaia Skaramanga near the sanctuary of Aphrodite.

Down: The Diomedian Botanical Garden along the Sacred Way; an invaluable section of oxygen producing vegetation
ÊåöÜëáéï ÉÉ
ÂõæáíôéíÞ Ðåñßïäïò
79

ÂõæáíôéíÞ ðåñßïäïò:
ÌïíÞ Äáöíßïõ

Ó
ýìöùíá ìå ôá ìÝ÷ñé ôþñá õðÜñ÷ïíôá Óôçí ðáñïýóá åíüôçôá èá åîåôáóôåß ç ìáêñáßùíç
áñ÷áéïëïãéêÜ äåäïìÝíá, ç åîï÷éêÞ ðåñé- éóôïñßá ôïõ ìïíáóôçñéïý áðü ôçí ßäñõóÞ ôïõ ìÝ÷ñé
ï÷Þ ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ Þôáí ó÷åôéêÜ Ýñçìç ôéò ìÝñåò ìáò. Åðßóçò èá ðáñïõóéáóôåß ç øçöéäùôÞ
óôá âõæáíôéíÜ êáé ìåôáâõæáíôéíÜ ÷ñüíéá, äéáêüóìçóç ôùí êôçñßùí, åíþ ç áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ ôçò
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áðü ôïí 4o ìÝ÷ñé êáé ôïí 18o áéþíá 1.02 Ôá äõôéêÜ üñéá æùÞ êáé ôéò óõíÞèåéåò ôùí ìïíá÷þí. ÔÝëïò, éäéáßôåñç
ôçò ðüëçò ôùí Áèçíþí âñßóêïíôáí óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ Ýìöáóç èá äïèåß óôéò åñãáóßåò óôåñÝùóçò,
Èçóåßïõ êáé ôïõ Êåñáìåéêïý. Áðü åêåß êáé ðÝñá áðëþ- óõíôÞñçóçò êáé áíÜäåéîçò, ðïõ ðñáãìáôïðïéïýíôáé óôï
íïíôáí ôá äõôéêÜ ðñïÜóôéá ôçò ðüëçò, üðïõ õðÞñ÷áí Äáöíß áðü ôéò ôåëåõôáßåò äåêáåôßåò ôïõ 19ïõ áéþíá
êáé êáëëéåñãÞóéìåò åêôÜóåéò ãçò, áãñïêôÞìáôá êáé ìÝ÷ñé êáé óÞìåñá.
åëÜ÷éóôåò êáôïéêßåò. ¼ëá áõôÜ äéáó÷ßæïíôáí áðü ôçí
áñ÷áßá ÉåñÜ Ïäü, ðïõ åîáêïëïõèïýóå íá ðáñáìÝíåé ç
âáóéêÞ ïäéêÞ áñôçñßá ðïõ ïäçãïýóå ôïõò Áèçíáßïõò
óôçí Åëåõóßíá, áëëÜ êáé ôïõò äñüìïõò ðñïò ôçí Ðåëï-
ðüííçóï, ôç ÓôåñåÜ ÅëëÜäá êáé ôç Èåóóáëßá.
Ç çìéïñåéíÞ ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ Þôáí êáëõììÝíç
ìå ðõêíÜ äÜóç. ÌïíáäéêÞ, áëëÜ éäéáéôÝñùò åîÝ÷ïõóá
åîáßñåóç áðïôÝëåóå ç ðåñßöçìç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ,
÷ôéóìÝíç óôç èÝóç ôïõ íáïý ôïõ Äáöíáßïõ Áðüëëùíïò.
Ôï Äáöíß õðÞñîå ìßá áðü ôá ðéï öçìéóìÝíåò ìïíÝò
ôïõ åëëáäéêïý ÷þñïõ êáé óçìáíôéêüò ðüëïò Ýëîçò
ìïíá÷þí êáé ðñïóêõíçôþí áðü ôïí 11ï ìÝ÷ñé êáé ôïí
16ï áéþíá. Ôüóï ç åíôõðùóéáêÞ áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ, üóï êáé
ç ëáìðñÞ øçöéäùôÞ äéáêüóìçóç ôïõ íáïý ôçò ìïíÞò
Äáöíßïõ, ôçí êáèéóôïýí Ýíá áðü ôá ðëÝïí åîáéñåôéêÜ
ìíçìåßá ôçò âõæáíôéíÞò ôÝ÷íçò.

¢ðïøç ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ áðü ôá áíáôïëéêÜ.

ÁñéóôåñÜ: Áåñïöùôïãñáößá ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ ôç äåêáåôßá ôïõ 1950.


80

Ç ðñïÝëåõóç ôçò ïíïìáóßáò ßäñõóç ôïõ Äáöíßïõ ó÷åôßæïíôáé ìå ôç âáóéëïðïýëá


ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ ÄÜöíç. ¼ðùò èñõëåßôáé, ç ÄÜöíç íáõÜãçóå óôç
èÜëáóóá ôïõ ÓêáñáìáãêÜ, áëëÜ äéáóþèçêå ìáæß ìå
Ç ðñïÝëåõóç ôçò ïíïìáóßáò ôçò ìïíÞò Ý÷åé óõíäåèåß äþäåêá âáñÝëéá ãåìÜôá öëïõñéÜ.
áðü ôïõò ðåñéóóüôåñïõò åñåõíçôÝò ìå ôï áñ÷áßï éåñü ÐñïêåéìÝíïõ íá åõ÷áñéóôÞóåé ôçí Ðáíáãßá ðïõ ôçí
ôïõ Äáöíáßïõ Þ Äáöíçöüñïõ Áðüëëùíá, óôç èÝóç ôïõ Ýóùóå, Ý÷ôéóå ôï ìïíáóôÞñé êáé Ýèáøå ôá öëïõñéÜ
ïðïßïõ Ý÷åé ÷ôéóôåß ôï ìïíáóôÞñé. ÊÜðïéïé Üëëïé ôçí ðïõ ðåñßóóåøáí óå åðôÜ ðéèÜñéá óôïí ðåñßâïëï
áðïäßäïõí óôéò äÜöíåò ðïõ ðñïöáíþò áöèïíïýóáí ôçò ìïíÞò104.
óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ êáé åíäå÷ïìÝíùò óõíäÝïíôáé êáé ìå Ï ÄçìÞôñéïò Êáìðïýñïãëïõ áíáöÝñåé êáé Üëëåò
ôçí ßäñõóç ôïõ áñ÷áßïõ éåñïý. Ïé ðåñéçãçôÝò Jacques ðáñáäüóåéò ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôçí ßäñõóç ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ.
Spon (1647-1685) êáé Sir George Wheler (1650-1723) êáé ï ¼ëåò êéíïýíôáé óôïí ÷þñï ôïõ ðáñáìõèéïý, êáèþò
Jean Alexandre Buchon (1791-1846) ðïõ åðéóêÝöôçêáí ôï ðñùôáãùíéóôÝò ôïõò åßíáé üìïñöåò ðñéãêéðïðïýëåò
ìïíáóôÞñé êáôÜ ôá Ýôç 1676 êáé 1840 áíôßóôïé÷á, ìáò êáé ñùìáëÝá âáóéëüðïõëá. Ï óõó÷åôéóìüò ôïõ
âåâáéþíïõí ãéá ôçí ýðáñîç äáöíþí óôïí ðåñéâÜëëïíôá ìïíáóôçñéïý ìå âáóéëéêïýò ãüíïõò ðñïöáíþò
÷þñï103. ÌåôÜ, üìùò, ôá ìÝóá ôïõ 19ïõ áéþíá, üôáí ðñïÝêõøå áðü ôç ëáúêÞ ðåðïßèçóç üôé Þôáí ßäñõìá
ðñáãìáôïðïéÞèçêáí ïé ðñþôåò óõóôçìáôéêÝò ìåëÝôåò Âõæáíôéíïý áõôïêñÜôïñá. Ç ðåðïßèçóç áõôÞ ðÞãáæå
ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ, ïé äÜöíåò åß÷áí áñ÷ßóåé íá óðáíßæïõí. áðü ôç ìíçìåéáêÞ ìïñöÞ êáé ôç ëáìðñÞ äéáêüóìçóç
Ç ïíïìáóßá ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ Ý÷åé óõó÷åôéóôåß êáé ìå ôùí áñ÷éôåêôïíçìÜôùí ôçò ìïíÞò. ×áñáêôçñéóôéêüò,
ôçí Ðáíáãßá ôçò ÄÜöíçò óôçí Êùíóôáíôéíïýðïëç. ëïéðüí, åßíáé êáé ï óõó÷åôéóìüò ôïõ ðáóßãíùóôïõ
Óýìöùíá ìå ôçí ðáñÜäïóç ðïõ äéçãÞèçêå ç äõôéêïý èñýëïõ ôçò âáóéëïðïýëáò Ìáñãáñþíáò
çëéêéùìÝíç ìïíá÷Þ ÌÜñèá ãýñù óôï 1870 óôïí (Maquelone) êáé ôïõ åõãåíïýò ÉìðÝñéïõ, ðïõ áíÜãåôáé
Ãåþñãéï ËáìðÜêç (1854-1912), ç ïíïìáóßá êáèþò êáé ç óôïí 12ï áéþíá, ìå ôï Äáöíß 105.

Ç ßäñõóç ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ

Ç ÷ñïíïëïãßá ßäñõóçò ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ áðïôåëåß


Ýíá óçìáíôéêü áñ÷áéïëïãéêü æÞôçìá, êáèþò äåí Ý÷åé
âñåèåß êáìßá åðéãñáöÞ ðïõ èá åðÝôñåðå ôïí áóöáëÞ
êáèïñéóìü ôçò. Ïé áíáóêáöåßò ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ, üðùò
åðßóçò êáé ïé ðåñéóóüôåñïé åñåõíçôÝò, áíÜãïõí ôçí
ßäñõóç ôïõ ìïíáóôçñéïý óôïí 6ï áéþíá, äçëáäÞ óôá
ðáëáéï÷ñéóôéáíéêÜ ÷ñüíéá. ÅðéðëÝïí, ðéóôåýïõí üôé
èá ðñÝðåé íá åíôá÷èåß óôï ðëáßóéï ôçò óõóôçìáôéêÞò
åîÜðëùóçò ôçò ÷ñéóôéáíéêÞò ëáôñåßáò óôçí ðüëç
ôùí Áèçíþí êáé óôá ðåñß÷ùñÜ ôçò êáôÜ ôçí ðåñßïäï
áõôÞ106.
Åßíáé ãåãïíüò üôé êáôÜ ôç äéÜñêåéá ôïõ 5ïõ êáé ôïõ
6ïõ áéþíá óôçí ÁèÞíá ÷ôßóôçêáí ðïëëÝò åêêëçóßåò,

Ó÷åäéáóôéêÞ áðüäïóç ôïé÷ïãñáößáò Âõæáíôéíïý áõôïêñÜôïñá


ðïõ åíôïðßóôçêå óôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ,
óôïí äõôéêü ôïß÷ï, êïíôÜ óôçí ðüñôá
(×ñéóôéáíéêÞ Áñ÷áéïëïãßá ôçò ÌïíÞò Äáöíßïõ, óåë. 71).
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Óýã÷ñïíç Üðïøç ôïõ ðåñéâüëïõ ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ áðü ôá âüñåéá.


Äéáêñßíåôáé ï ôñïýëïò êáé ìÝñïò ôçò óôÝãçò ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ìå ôá õðïóôçñßãìáôá ðïõ ôïðïèåôÞèçêáí
ðñüóöáôá, óôï ðëáßóéï ôçò ãåíéêÞò áíáóôÞëùóçò êáé áðïêáôÜóôáóçò ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ
(öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).
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åíþ ðïëëïß åéäùëïëáôñéêïß íáïß ìåôáôñÜðçêáí óå ôïí 7ï ìÝ÷ñé ôïí 11ï áéþíá, üôáí ðñáãìáôïðïéÞèçêå
÷ñéóôéáíéêïýò. Ç äñáóôçñéüôçôá áõôÞ Þôáí óõíÝðåéá ç óõóôçìáôéêÞ áíáêáßíéóç-áíáâßùóç ôçò ìïíÞò
ôçò óôáäéáêÞò åðéêñÜôçóçò ôïõ ÷ñéóôéáíéóìïý ìåôÜ ôçí Äáöíßïõ. ÁõôÞ åßíáé êõñßùò åìöáíÞò óôçí áíÝãåñóç
áíáêÞñõîÞ ôïõ óå åðßóçìç èñçóêåßá ôïõ âõæáíôéíïý ôïõ ìíçìåéþäïõò íáïý óå óôáõñïåéäÞ ïêôáãùíéêü
êñÜôïõò áðü ôïí áõôïêñÜôïñá Èåïäüóéï Á´ (379-395), áñ÷éôåêôïíéêü ôýðï, êáèþò êáé óôç äéáêüóìçóÞ ôïõ ìå
áëëÜ êõñßùò ôùí áõóôçñüôáôùí äéáôáãìÜôùí êáôÜ ôùí ôá ëáìðñÜ øçöéäùôÜ ðïõ èá åîåôÜóïõìå áíáëõôéêÜ
Åèíéêþí ðïõ åîÝäùóå ï Èåïäüóéïò ´ (408-450). ¸ôóé, óôç óõíÝ÷åéá.
ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá åðÝëèåé ï åîáãíéóìüò ôùí áñ÷áßùí Ç Ýëëåéøç óôïé÷åßùí ðïõ áíáöÝñèçêå ðáñáðÜíù
íáþí êáé éåñþí, åðéâëÞèçêå ç ìåôáôñïðÞ ôïõò óå áðïôåëåß ìßá áêüìç Ýêöáíóç ôçò ãåíéêüôåñçò Ýíäåéáò
÷ñéóôéáíéêÝò åêêëçóßåò. ×áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ ðáñáäåßãìáôá óå áñ÷áéïëïãéêÜ äåäïìÝíá ãéá ôçí ÁèÞíá áðü ôïí 7ï
ôÝôïéáò ìåôáôñïðÞò áðïôåëïýí ï Ðáñèåíþíáò, ôï Ýùò ôïí 9ï áéþíá. Ôï öáéíüìåíï áõôü áðïäßäåôáé óôéò
ÅñÝ÷èåéï êáé ï íáüò ôïõ Çöáßóôïõ, ðïõ åßíáé ãíùóôüò äýóêïëåò óõíèÞêåò ðïõ åðéêñÜôçóáí êáôÜ ôçí ðåñßïäï
êáé ùò «Èçóåßï». ÐáñÜëëçëá ÷ôßóôçêáí ðïëëïß áõôÞ óôçí ðüëç åîáéôßáò ôùí åðéäñïìþí áðü ôïí
÷ñéóôéáíéêïß íáïß, ôüóï óôï êÝíôñï ôçò ÁèÞíáò êáé ÂïññÜ áëëÜ êáé áðü ôç èÜëáóóá 110.
óôéò ãýñù ðåñéï÷Ýò üóï êáé óå äéÜöïñåò ôïðïèåóßåò
óå ïëüêëçñç ôçí ÁôôéêÞ (ÃëõöÜäá, ¢ëéìïò, Åëåõóßíá,
Ðáéáíßá, Ðüñôï Ãåñìåíü, Ìáñêüðïõëï ê.Ü.) 107. Áíáèåþñçóç ôçò ÷ñïíïëüãçóçò
Ïé ÷ñéóôéáíéêïß íáïß áíÞêáí óôïí áñ÷éôåêôïíéêü ôçò ßäñõóçò ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ
ôýðï ôçò âáóéëéêÞò. Åðñüêåéôï, äçëáäÞ, ãéá åðéìÞêç
ïñèïãþíéá êôÞñéá ìå ðñïóáíáôïëéóìü Á-Ä. Óôçí Ç êïéíþò áðïäåêôÞ Üðïøç ãéá ôç ÷ñïíïëüãçóç ôçò
áíáôïëéêÞ, óôåíÞ ðëåõñÜ âñéóêüôáí ðñïóáñôçìÝíç ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ ìÝóá óôïí 6ï áéþíá áíáèåùñÞèçêå
ç êüã÷ç ôïõ éåñïý âÞìáôïò. Óõ÷íÜ ôï åóùôåñéêü ó÷åôéêÜ ðñüóöáôá áðü ôïí êáèçãçôÞ ×áñÜëáìðï
áõôþí ôùí íáþí Þôáí äéáìïñöùìÝíï óå ôñßá êëßôç Ìðïýñá, ï ïðïßïò õðïóôÞñéîå üôé ç ßäñõóç ôçò ìïíÞò
(äéáäñüìïõò), ðïõ ÷ùñßæïíôáí áðü äýï êéïíïóôïé÷ßåò ðñÝðåé íá áíÝâåé ÷ñïíïëïãéêÜ óôïí 11ï áéþíá. Ôï
ðïõ Ýôñå÷áí ðáñÜëëçëá ìå ôïí êáôÜ ìÞêïò Üîïíá ôïõ óõìðÝñáóìá áõôü âáóßæåôáé óôçí åðáíåîÝôáóç
íáïý (ôñßêëéôåò âáóéëéêÝò) 108. üëùí ôùí áíåóêáììÝíùí áñ÷éôåêôïíçìÜôùí, ç ïðïßá
ÔÝôïéïõ áñ÷éôåêôïíéêïý ôýðïõ ðéóôåýåôáé ðùò Þôáí êáé áðÝäåéîå üôé êáíÝíá áðü áõôÜ äåí åßíáé äõíáôüí íá
ç åêêëçóßá ðïõ åß÷å ÷ôéóôåß óôï Äáöíß êáôÜ ôïí 6ï ÷ñïíïëïãçèåß ðñéí áðü ôïí 11ï áéþíá 111.
áéþíá, óôç èÝóç ôïõ éåñïý ôïõ Äáöíáßïõ Áðüëëùíá. Ôï Ç áíá÷ñïíïëüãçóç ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ âñßóêåôáé óå
ôåëåõôáßï êáôáóôñÜöçêå êáôÜ ôçí åðéäñïìÞ ôùí Ãüôèùí áðüëõôç óõìöùíßá ìå ôçí áðïõóßá ìïíáóôçñéþí óôçí
ôïõ ÁëÜñé÷ïõ ôï 395 ì.×. Ç âáóéëéêÞ ôïõ Äáöíßïõ ðåñéï÷Þ íïôßùò ôïõ Ïëýìðïõ ðñéí áðü ôï ôÝëïò ôçò
èåùñåßôáé üôé áðïôåëïýóå êáèïëéêü ìïíÞò, äçëáäÞ ôïí Åéêïíïìá÷ßáò, äçëáäÞ ôéò áñ÷Ýò ôïõ 9ïõ áéþíá 112. Ç
êýñéï íáü ìïíáóôçñéáêïý óõãêñïôÞìáôïò. Åêôüò áðü ÷ñïíïëüãçóç óôïí 6ï áéþíá ïöåßëåôáé óôïõò ðñþôïõò
ôïí íáü, ç ìïíÞ èá ðåñéëÜìâáíå êáé äéÜöïñá Üëëá óõóôçìáôéêïýò ìåëåôçôÝò ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ, ðïõ åñåýíçóáí
ïéêïäïìÞìáôá, üðùò êåëéÜ êáé îåíþíåò, ôñáðåæáñßåò, ôïí ÷þñï êáôÜ ôéò äåêáåôßåò ôïõ 1880 êáé ôïõ 1890. Ï
ìáãåéñåßá ê.Ü., êáé ðåñéâáëëüôáí áðü éó÷õñü ÃÜëëïò áñ÷áéïëüãïò Gabriell Millet óôçí Ýêèåóç ðïõ
ï÷õñùìáôéêü ôåß÷ïò109. Ç ï÷ýñùóç êñßèçêå áðïëýôùò óõíÝèåóå ìåôÜ ôï ðÝñáò ôùí åñåõíþí ôïõ, ïõóéáóôéêÜ
áíáãêáßá ëüãù ôçò èÝóçò ôçò ìïíÞò, ðïõ Þôáí áöåíüò ôçí ðñþôç ìïíïãñáößá ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ,
áñêåôÜ áðïìáêñõóìÝíç áðü ôçí ÁèÞíá êáé áöåôÝñïõ õðïóôÞñéîå ðùò åß÷å éäñõèåß êáôÜ ôïí 6ï áéþíá êõñßùò
ðÜíù óå óçìáíôéêü äñüìï-ðÝñáóìá ðñïò ôçí ôåëåõôáßá. âÜóåé ôùí ãëõðôþí ðïõ Þôáí äéáóêïñðéóìÝíá óôïí
Óôç óõíÝ÷åéá, ç ìïíÞ öáßíåôáé ðùò ðáñÞêìáóå Þ ÷þñï. Ðßóôåøå ðùò áõôÜ êïóìïýóáí ôï êáèïëéêü
êáôáóôñÜöçêå êáé áêïëïýèùò åãêáôáëåßöèçêå. ÃåíéêÜ, ôçò ìïíÞò ôïõ 6ïõ áéþíá, ôï ïðïßï, üðùò Ý÷ïõìå
äåí õðÜñ÷ïõí äåäïìÝíá ãéá ôç ìáêñÜ ðåñßïäï áðü ðñïáíáöÝñåé, èá Þôáí ìéá âáóéëéêÞ 113. Óôçí ðñþéìç
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Ó÷åäéáóôéêÞ áíáðáñÜóôáóç ôçò íüôéáò ðëåõñÜ ôïõ êáèïëéêïý áðü ôïí Benouville (1877).

áõôÞ ðåñßïäï áðïäßäïíôáí êáé êÜðïéá ìïíáóôéêÜ êåëéÜ, Ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ ôïí 11ï êáé ôïí 12ï áéþíá
êáèþò êáé ï ï÷õñùìáôéêüò ðåñßâïëïò. Ç âáóéëéêÞ
ðñïöáíþò êáôåäáößóôçêå ïëïêëçñùôéêÜ ðñïêåéìÝíïõ Ôá êôÞñéá ðïõ óõíáíôÜ ï óçìåñéíüò åðéóêÝðôçò ôçò
íá áíåãåñèåß ï ìíçìåéþäçò óôáõñïåéäÞò ïêôáãùíéêüò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ áíôéêáôïðôñßæïõí åí ðïëëïßò ôçí
íáüò ôïõ 11ïõ áéþíá. Ðáñ’ üëá áõôÜ, ïé áñ÷áéïëüãïé åéêüíá ðïõ åß÷å ôï ìíçìåßï êáôÜ ôïí 11ï êáé ôïí 12ï
ðïõ Ý÷ïõí ìåëåôÞóåé ôá äéÜöïñá ãëõðôÜ ìÝëç ðïõ áéþíá, äçëáäÞ ôçí åðï÷Þ ôçò ìåãÜëçò ôïõ áêìÞò.
åßíáé äéáóêïñðéóìÝíá óôïí ÷þñï ôïõ ðåñéâüëïõ Ìå âÜóç ôç óôõëéóôéêÞ áðïôßìçóç ôçò áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞò
Ý÷ïõí êáôáëÞîåé ðùò, áí êáé õðÜñ÷ïõí êÜðïéá êáé ôçò äéáêüóìçóçò, ìðïñïýìå íá ðïýìå üôé ç ìïíÞ
ðáëáéï÷ñéóôéáíéêÜ ðáñáäåßãìáôá, ç ðëåéïíüôçôÜ ôïõò Äáöíßïõ éäñýèçêå êáôÜ ôç äéÜñêåéá ôïõ â´ çìßóåùò ôïõ
ðñÝðåé íá ÷ñïíïëïãçèåß óôç ÌÝóç ÂõæáíôéíÞ ðåñßïäï 11ïõ áéþíá, êáôÜ ðÜóá ðéèáíüôçôá ãýñù óôï 1080, ìå
(843-1204). ÅðéðëÝïí, ïé áíáóêáöéêÝò ðñïóðÜèåéåò ðïõ ÷ïñçãßá äùñçôÞ. Áõôüò èá ðáñáìåßíåé áíáãêáóôéêÜ
Ý÷ïõí ãßíåé ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá åíôïðéóôåß ç âáóéëéêÞ ôïõ Üãíùóôïò, áöïý ìÝ÷ñé ôþñá äåí Ý÷åé áðïêáëõöèåß
6ïõ áéþíá, Ý÷ïõí áðïâåß åíôåëþò Üêáñðåò. êÜðïéá êôçôïñéêÞ Þ áöéåñùìáôéêÞ åðéãñáöÞ.
Óôï óçìåßï áõôü èá ðñÝðåé, üìùò, íá õðïãñáììßóïõìå Åîáéôßáò ôçò Ýëëåéøçò ðëçñïöïñéþí ó÷åôéêÜ ìå
ôï ãåãïíüò üôé ïé åí ëüãù áíáóêáöÝò õðÞñîáí ôïí äùñçôÞ, ç ßäñõóç ôçò ìïíÞò óôï óõãêåêñéìÝíï
ðåñéïñéóìÝíåò óå Ýêôáóç êáé óå óõ÷íüôçôá. Ç óõíÝ÷éóç óçìåßï êáé ôç óõãêåêñéìÝíç åðï÷Þ äåí åßíáé åýêïëï
ôçò áíáóêáöéêÞò Ýñåõíáò êáé ìåëÝôçò ôïõ ÷þñïõ åßíáé íá åñìçíåõôåß. Ðáñ’ üëá áõôÜ ç áðÜíôçóç ðñÝðåé íá
åðéâåâëçìÝíç, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá áðïäåé÷ôåß ç ïñèüôçôá ó÷åôßæåôáé ìå ôç óôñáôçãéêÞ èÝóç ôïõ ìïíáóôçñéïý óôï
Þ ìç ôùí áðüøåùí ôïõ ×áñÜëáìðïõ Ìðïýñá 114. óôåíü ðÝñáóìá ðïõ åëÝã÷åé ôçí ðñüóâáóç ðñïò ôçí
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Ó÷åäéáóôéêÞ áíáðáñÜóôáóç ôïõ øçöéäùôïý óôïí ôñïýëï ôïõ êáèïëéêïý,


êáèþò êáé ôùí äýï áé÷ìþí âåëþí, ðïõ âñÝèçêáí êáñöùìÝíåò óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ôùí ìáôéþí
ôïõ ÐáíôïêñÜôïñá. Ôá ó÷Ýäéá Ýãéíáí áðü ôïí Ãåþñãéï ËáìðÜêç ôï 1889
(×ñéóôéáíéêÞ Áñ÷áéïëïãßá ôçò ÌïíÞò Äáöíßïõ, óåë. 129).
85

ÁèÞíá áðü ôçí Ðåëïðüííçóï êáé ôç ÓôåñåÜ ÅëëÜäá. óôïí Õìçôôü (920), ç ìïíÞ ÊáéóáñéáíÞò (11ïò áéþíáò), ç
ÁõôÞ ç õðüèåóç åíéó÷ýåôáé êáé áðü ôçí éó÷õñüôáôç ìïíÞ Áãßïõ ÉùÜííïõ ôïõ Êõíçãïý ôùí Öéëïóüöùí óôïí
ï÷ýñùóç ðïõ ôï ðåñéâÜëëåé. Õìçôôü (12ïò áéþíáò) êáé ç ìïíÞ Íôáïý ÐåíôÝëçò 116.
Ï ìíçìåéþäçò ÷áñáêôÞñáò ôùí êôéóìÜôùí êáé Ç ìïñöÞ ôçò ìïíÞò êáôÜ ôá âõæáíôéíÜ ÷ñüíéá
ç ëáìðñÞ äéáêüóìçóÞ ôïõò Ý÷åé ïäçãÞóåé ôïõò ðåñéãñÜöåôáé áíáëõôéêÜ óôéò åðüìåíåò åíüôçôåò.
åñåõíçôÝò óôï óõìðÝñáóìá üôé ï äùñçôÞò Þôáí Ôï ìïíáóôÞñé ðåñéâáëëüôáí áðü éó÷õñü ôåß÷ïò êáé
êÜðïéïò õøçëÜ éóôÜìåíïò áîéùìáôïý÷ïò Þ áêüìá êáé ðåñéëÜìâáíå ôï åíôõðùóéáêü êáèïëéêü, ÷ôéóìÝíï
êÜðïéïò áõôïêñÜôïñáò. ¸ôóé åîçãåßôáé êáé ç óáöÞò óå óýíèåôï ïêôáãùíéêü áñ÷éôåêôïíéêü ôýðï êáé
êùíóôáíôéíïõðïëßôéêç åðßäñáóç ðïõ ðáñáôçñåßôáé ôüóï äéáêïóìçìÝíï ìå åîáéñåôéêÞò ðïéüôçôáò øçöéäùôÜ.
óôçí áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ üóï êáé óôçí øçöéäùôÞ äéáêüóìçóç Åðßóçò õðÞñ÷áí åêôåôáìÝíá óõãêñïôÞìáôá êåëéþí ãéá
ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò. Åßíáé, ìÜëéóôá, ó÷åäüí âÝâáéï ôïõò ìïíá÷ïýò, êáèþò êáé äéÜöïñá âïçèçôéêÜ êôÞñéá,
üôé ãéá ôçí áíÝãåñóç ôïõ ìåãáëïðñåðïýò íáïý åß÷áí üðùò ôñáðåæáñßá êáé ìáãåéñåßï, ëïõôñÜ, âéâëéïèÞêç ê.Ü.,
êëçèåß ôå÷íßôåò, êôßóôåò, ãëýðôåò êáé øçöïèÝôåò áðü ðïõ êÜëõðôáí ôéò ðïéêßëåò áíÜãêåò êáé äñáóôçñéüôçôåò
ôçí Êùíóôáíôéíïýðïëç. ôùí ìïíá÷þí.
Ðïëëïß åñåõíçôÝò åß÷áí óõíäÝóåé ôï Äáöíß ìå ôïí
Âáóßëåéï ´ ôïí Âïõëãáñïêôüíï (976-1025), ï ïðïßïò
Ýôñåöå ìåãÜëï èáõìáóìü ãéá ôçí ðáíÜñ÷áéá ðüëç ôùí Ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ
Áèçíþí. ÊáôÜ ôï 1018, ìåôÜ ôç íéêçöüñá ôïõ ðïñåßá êáé ïé Êéóôåñêéáíïß ìïíá÷ïß (1207-1458)
åíáíôßïí ôùí ÂïõëãÜñùí, ï Âáóßëåéïò ´ åðéóêÝöôçêå
ôçí ÁèÞíá ãéá íá èáõìÜóåé ôá ìíçìåßá ôçò. ÌÝóá óå ÊáôÜ ôá ôÝëç ôïõ Ýôïõò 1204 ç ÁèÞíá êáôáëÞöèçêå
éäéáßôåñá ðáíçãõñéêÞ áôìüóöáéñá ï áõôïêñÜôïñáò áðü ôïõò óéäçñüöñáêôïõò ÖñÜãêïõò éððüôåò ôïõ
áíÝâçêå óôçí Áêñüðïëç êáé ðñïóêýíçóå ôïí íáü ÂïíéöÜôéïõ ôïõ Ìïìöåñáôéêïý, ïé ïðïßïé ëåçëÜôçóáí
ôçò Ðáíáãßáò ôçò Áèçíéþôéóóáò, óôïí ïðïßï åß÷å ìå Üãñéá ìáíßá ôïõò èçóáõñïýò ðïõ âñÞêáí óôéò
ìåôáôñáðåß ï Ðáñèåíþíáò115. ÂÝâáéá, ç áíáëõôéêÞ åêêëçóßåò ôçò ðüëçò êáé ôùí ðåñé÷þñùí. Åíôõðùóéáêü
ôå÷íïôñïðéêÞ ìåëÝôç ôçò áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞò êáé ôçò äåßãìá ôçò ìáíßáò áõôÞò âñÝèçêå óôï êáèïëéêü ôçò
äéáêüóìçóçò ôïõ êáèïëéêïý Ý÷åé ïäçãÞóåé óÞìåñá ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ: ðñüêåéôáé ãéá äýï ëßèéíåò áé÷ìÝò
ôïõò áñ÷áéïëüãïõò óôï óõìðÝñáóìá üôé ï íáüò âåëþí ðïõ âñÝèçêáí êáñöùìÝíåò óôï êÝíôñï ðåñßðïõ
÷ôßóôçêå óôá ÷ñüíéá ãýñù óôï 1080. ¸ôóé äåí ìðïñïýìå ôïõ ôñïýëïõ, óôï ìÜôé êáé ôçí ðáñåéÜ ôçò ìïñöÞò ôïõ
íá ôïí áðïäþóïõìå óå ÷ïñçãßá ôïõ Âáóéëåßïõ ´ áëëÜ ÐáíôïêñÜôïñá ðïõ ôïí êïóìïýóå. Öáßíåôáé ðùò ï
êÜðïéïõ áðü ôïõò äéáäü÷ïõò ôïõ. ðáèéáóìÝíïò óôáõñïöüñïò ðïõ ìðÞêå óôçí åêêëçóßá
ÁíåîÜñôçôá áðü ôçí ôáõôüôçôá ôïõ äùñçôÞ, ç ßäñõóç äåí ìðüñåóå íá áíôéóôáèåß óôçí éåñüóõëç åðéèõìßá íá
ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ ôïðïèåôåßôáé óå Ýíáí ãåíéêü ôïîåýóåé åíáíôßïí ôïõ áëëüäïîïõ Èåïý 117.
ïéêïäïìéêü ïñãáóìü ðïõ ðáñáôçñåßôáé óôçí ðüëç Ç ÁèÞíá áëëÜ êáé ïëüêëçñç ç ÁôôéêÞ ðáñá÷ùñÞèçêáí
ôùí Áèçíþí áðü ôïí 10ï ìÝ÷ñé ôá ìÝóá ôïõ 12ïõ ùò öÝïõäï (äïõêÜôï) áðü ôïí ÂïíéöÜôéï óôïí
áéþíá. ÊáôÜ ôï äéÜóôçìá áõôü ÷ôßóôçêáí ðïëëÝò Âïõñãïõíäü åõðáôñßäç Otto de la Roche, ðïõ
íÝåò åêêëçóßåò êáé åðéóêåõÜóôçêáí ïé ðåñéóóüôåñåò ðñïóáãïñåýôçêå Êýñéïò ôùí Áèçíþí (Dominus
ðáëáéï÷ñéóôéáíéêÝò âáóéëéêÝò. ÅðéðëÝïí, êÜðïéïé Athenarum, Sire d’Athènes) Þ ÌÝãáò Êýñçò. Áõôüò ìå ôç
áñ÷áßïé íáïß, ìåôáôñÜðçêáí óå ÷ñéóôéáíéêïýò. ¸ôóé ôï óåéñÜ ôïõ ðáñá÷þñçóå ôç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ ôï 1207 óå
óýíïëï ôùí åêêëçóéþí ðïõ ëåéôïõñãïýóáí óôçí ÁèÞíá ôÜãìá Êéóôåñêéáíþí (Citeaux) ìïíá÷þí, ðñïåñ÷üìåíï
ãýñù óôá ìÝóá ôïõ 12ïõ áéþíá Ý÷åé õðïëïãéóôåß óôéò áðü ôï âïõñãïõíäéáêü áââáåßï ôïõ Bellevaux.
óáñÜíôá. ÊáôÜ ôçí ðåñßïäï áõôÞ éäñýèçêáí, åêôüò Ïé Êéóôåñêéáíïß ìïíá÷ïß áðïôåëïýí êëÜäï ôùí
áðü ôï Äáöíß, êáé Üëëá óçìáíôéêÜ ìïíáóôÞñéá óôá Âåíåäéêôßíùí, ðïõ ó÷çìáôßóôçêå ôï 1098 áðü ôïí
ðåñß÷ùñá ôçò ðüëåùò, üðùò ç ìïíÞ ÁóôÝñç-ÔáîéÜñ÷åò çãïýìåíï Robert óôç âïõñãïõíäéêÞ ðüëç Citeaux,
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ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ôçñçèïýí ðéï áõóôçñÜ ïé êáíüíåò êáé Áðü äéÜöïñá Ýããñáöá êáé ôéò åðéãñáöÝò ðñïêýðôåé
ôá äéäÜãìáôá ôïõ Áãßïõ ÂåíÝäéêôïõ. Öïñïýóáí ëåõêü üôé åðß Öñáãêïêñáôßáò ôï Äáöíß Þôáí ãíùóôü ùò ìïíÞ
ñÜóï æùóìÝíï ìå ìáýñç æþíç ãéá íá äéáêñßíïíôáé Delfino, Dauferins, Dalphino, Dalphineto Þ Dalphinet.
áðü ôïõò õðüëïéðïõò Âåíåäéêôßíïõò, ðïõ öïñïýóáí Ïé ïíïìáóßåò áõôÝò èåùñïýíôáé ðáñáöèïñÜ ôçò
ìáýñá ñÜóá. Ïé Êéóôåñêéáíïß åß÷áí éäéáßôåñá åíåñãü åëëçíéêÞò120. Åðßóçò äéáèÝôïõìå ôá ïíüìáôá êÜðïéùí
óõììåôï÷Þ óôéò óôáõñïöïñßåò. ÌÜëéóôá, ï Otto de la áðü ôïõò êáèïëéêïýò çãïýìåíïõò: Etienne (1237), Jean
Roche öáßíåôáé ðùò ðáñá÷þñçóå ôï Äáöíß óôï ôÜãìá (1250), Í. (1263), Jean (1271), Pierre (1283), Jacques (1308),
áðü ôï Bellevaux ãéá íá ôïõò åõ÷áñéóôÞóåé ãéá ôïí Jean Fondremand (14ïò áé.) êáé Peter Strosberch (1412).
áãþíá ðïõ Ýêáíáí óôï ðëåõñü ôùí óôñáôéùôþí ôïõ 118. Óýìöùíá ìå Ýããñáöï ðïõ óõíÝôáîå ï çãïýìåíïò
¸ôóé, ïé ïñèüäïîïé ìïíá÷ïß áíáãêÜóôçêáí íá öýãïõí Jacques óôéò 30 Ïêôùâñßïõ 1308, ï Guy II de la Roche
áðü ôç ìïíÞ ôï 1207 êáé ôç èÝóç ôïõò ðÞñáí ïé
êáèïëéêïß Êéóôåñêéáíïß, ïé ïðïßïé ðáñÝìåéíáí óôï «äïὺî Áèçíῶí ἀðïèáíὼí ô 5 Ïêôùâñßïõ 1308, ô
Äáöíß åðß äõüìéóé áéþíåò. Åßíáé ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêü ðùò ἐðáýñéïí 6 Ïêôùâñßïõ êáôåôÝèç ἐí ôῷ ôÜöῳ ôῶí
áêüìá êáé üôáí ôï ÄïõêÜôï ôùí Áèçíþí ðÝñáóå áðü ἑáõôïῦ ðñïãüíùí ἐí ô ìïí Dalphinet»121.
ôá ÷Ýñéá ôùí ÖñÜãêùí óå áõôÜ ôùí Êáôáëáíþí (1311-
1388) êáé áêïëïýèùò ôùí Öëùñåíôéíþí (1387-1458), ïé Öáßíåôáé, ëïéðüí, ðùò ãéá êÜðïéï äéÜóôçìá ôï Äáöíß
Âïõñãïõíäïß ìïíá÷ïß ôïõ Äáöíßïõ äåí åíï÷ëÞèçêáí ÷ñçóßìåõóå ùò ôüðïò ôáöÞò ôùí äïõêþí ôçò ÁèÞíáò.
êáèüëïõ. Ìüíï üôáí ç ðüëç ôùí Áèçíþí êáôáëÞöèçêå Ðïëëïß áðü ôïõò ìåëåôçôÝò ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ
áðü ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò ôïõ ÌùÜìåè ´, ïé Êéóôåñêéáíïß èåùñïýí üôé ôï ìáõóùëåßï ôùí äïõêþí âñéóêüôáí
åêäéþ÷èçêáí êáé ôï ìïíáóôÞñé ðáñá÷ùñÞèçêå êáé ðÜëé óå êñýðôç ðïõ åíôïðßóôçêå êÜôù áðü ôï äÜðåäï ôïõ
óôïõò ïñèüäïîïõò 119. íÜñèçêá ôïõ êáèïëéêïý. Ìå áõôÞí óõíäÝèçêáí êáé ïé
äýï ìáñìÜñéíåò ëÜñíáêåò ðïõ êáôÜ ôç äéÜñêåéá ôïõ
â´ çìßóåùò ôïõ 19ïõ áéþíá âñßóêïíôáí ôïðïèåôçìÝíåò
óôïí íÜñèçêá êáé èåùñÞèçêáí üôé ó÷åôßæïíôáé ìå ôïõò
de la Roche. Ï óõó÷åôéóìüò âáóßóôçêå óå áíÜãëõöç
ðáñÜóôáóç óå ìßá áðü áõôÝò, ðïõ áíáãíùñßóôçêå ùò
ôï ïéêüóçìï ôçò âïõñãïõíäéêÞò ïéêïãÝíåéáò.
ÓÞìåñá ç ôáýôéóç áõôÞ èåùñåßôáé ëáíèáóìÝíç. ÅðéðëÝïí,
ôá áñ÷áéïëïãéêÜ äåäïìÝíá ðïõ Ý÷ïõìå óôç äéÜèåóÞ ìáò
åßíáé åîáéñåôéêÜ ðåñéïñéóìÝíá êáé äåí åðéôñÝðïõí ôçí
áäéáìöéóâÞôçôç ôáýôéóç ôçò êñýðôçò ìå ôïí áíáöåñüìåíï
óôï Ýããñáöï ôïõ çãïýìåíïõ Jacques ùò ôüðï ôáöÞò ôùí
äïõêþí ôùí Áèçíþí. Áí, üíôùò, õðÞñ÷å ôÝôïéï ìáõóùëåßï
óôï Äáöíß, ßóùò äåí Ý÷åé åíôïðéóôåß áêüìá. ¢ëëùóôå,
êáé ôá Ýããñáöá êáé ïé ëïéðÝò ãñáðôÝò ðçãÝò äåí ìáò
åðéôñÝðïõí íá åßìáóôå áðüëõôá âÝâáéïé ðáñÜ ìüíï ãéá
ôçí ôáöÞ ôïõ äïýêá Guy II de la Roche óôï Äáöíß122.
Áíôßèåôá, ãéá ôïí ôüðï ôáöÞò ôùí õðüëïéðùí äïõêþí

ÁíÜãëõöç äéáêüóìçóç óå ìáñìÜñéíç ëÜñíáêá ðïõ åíôïðßóôçêå


óôïí íÜñèçêá ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ
(×ñéóôéáíéêÞ Áñ÷áéïëïãßá ôçò ÌïíÞò Äáöíßïõ, óåë. 49).
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¢ðïøç ôçò íïôéïäõôéêÞò ãùíßáò ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ êáé ôçò ðôÝñõãáò
ôùí êåëéþí ôùí ìïíá÷þí.
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ìðïñïýìå íá êÜíïõìå ìüíï õðïèÝóåéò êáé åéêáóßåò.


Áí êáé ïé Êéóôåñêéáíïß äåí óõíÞèéæáí íá
÷ñçóéìïðïéïýí ìïíáóôÞñéá êáôáóêåõáóìÝíá áðü
Üëëá ìïíá÷éêÜ ôÜãìáôá, ôï ôÜãìá áðü ôï Bellevaux
ðïõ åãêáôáóôÜèçêå óôï Äáöíß Ýêáíå åëÜ÷éóôåò
áëëáãÝò êáé ðñïóèÞêåò óôïõò ÷þñïõò. ÄéáôÞñçóáí
ôï êáèïëéêü üðùò áêñéâþò ôï Üöçóáí ïé ïñèüäïîïé
ðñïêÜôï÷ïß ôïõò. Ãýñù óôá ôÝëç ôïõ 13ïõ Þ óôéò
áñ÷Ýò ôïõ 14ïõ áéþíá åðéóêåýáóáí ôïí åîùíÜñèçêá, ï
üñïöïò êáé ç ðñüóïøç ôïõ ïðïßïõ åß÷áí êáôáññåýóåé
ëüãù óåéóìþí. ÅðéðëÝïí, ìåôÝôñåøáí ôïí üñïöï ôïõ
åîùíÜñèçêá óå ðïëåìéêü áìõíôÞñéï åðéóôåöüìåíï
áðü åðÜëîåéò. Ç êñýðôç êÜôù áðü ôïí íÜñèçêá ôïõ
íáïý ÷ñçóéìïðïéÞèçêå ùò ìáõóùëåßï, üðùò åßäáìå
ðáñáðÜíù. ÔÝëïò, ïé Êéóôåñêéáíïß Ý÷ôéóáí ìßá ïìÜäá
êåëéþí óôá íüôéá ôïõ êáèïëéêïý, ôá ïðïßá áñãüôåñá
îáíá÷ôßóôçêáí áðü ôïõò ïñèüäïîïõò 123.

Ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ êáôÜ ôçí Ôïõñêïêñáôßá

Ïé Ôïýñêïé êáôÝëáâáí ôçí ÁèÞíá ôïí Éïýíéï ôïõ 1458,


ìåôÜ ôçí êáôüðéí óõíèçêïëüãçóçò ðáñÜäïóç ôçò
Áêñüðïëçò áðü ôïí ôåëåõôáßï äïýêá ôùí Áèçíþí, ôïí
Francesco II Acciajuoli, óôïí äéïéêçôÞ ôçò Èåóóáëßáò
ÏìÜñ. Óôç ìáêñáßùíç éóôïñßá ôçò ðüëçò ôùí Áèçíþí,
áõôÞ ç êáôÜëçøç áðü ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò áðïôåëåß ôç
ìïíáäéêÞ ðåñßðôùóç «åéñçíéêÞò» êáôÜêôçóÞò ôçò
÷ùñßò êáôáóôñïöÞ124. Ï ÌùÜìåè ´ åðéóêÝöôçêå ôçí
ðüëç ãýñù óôá ôÝëç ôïõ Áõãïýóôïõ ôçò ßäéáò ÷ñïíéÜò,
ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ôçí åðéèåùñÞóåé áëëÜ êáé íá èáõìÜóåé
ôá ðåñßöçìá áñ÷áßá ìíçìåßá ðïõ ôçí êïóìïýóáí. Ç
åíôýðùóç ðïõ ôïõ ðñïêÜëåóáí ôá ôåëåõôáßá, éäßùò
ç Áêñüðïëç, Þôáí ôåñÜóôéá. ÌÜëéóôá, óýã÷ñïíïé
÷ñïíïãñÜöïé áðïäßäïõí óå áõôÞí ôçí åðéåßêåéá ìå ôçí
ïðïßá áíôéìåôþðéóå ôïõò Áèçíáßïõò, ðáñá÷ùñþíôáò
ôïõò ðïéêßëá ðñïíüìéá, üðùò ôçí åëåõèåñßá ôçò
ëáôñåßáò êáé ôç ó÷åôéêÞ áõôïäéïßêçóç. ¸ôóé, óôáäéáêÜ ç
ðüëç áíáðôý÷èçêå êáé ðÜëé, ìåôÜ ôçí åîáèëßùóç óôçí

Ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ áðü ôá íïôéïáíáôïëéêÜ, åðé÷ñùìáôéóìÝíç


ëéèïãñáößá ôïõ Théodore du Moncel (1843).
89
90

Öáßíåôáé, üìùò, ðùò ïé ðåéñáôéêÝò êáé ëçóôñéêÝò


åðéäñïìÝò êáôÜ ôç äéÜñêåéá ôïõ 16ïõ êáé ôïõ 17ïõ
áéþíá Þôáí ôüóï óõ÷íÝò, þóôå ðïëëïß ìïíá÷ïß
åãêáôÝëåéøáí ôï Äáöíß. Ï ÃÜëëïò ãéáôñüò êáé
áñ÷áéïëüãïò Jacques Spon, ðïõ åðéóêÝöôçêå ôï
ìïíáóôÞñé ðáñÝá ìå ôïí ¢ããëï Sir George Wheler
óôéò 15 Öåâñïõáñßïõ 1676, áíáöÝñåé üôé ï ÷þñïò
Þôáí ó÷åäüí Ýñçìïò êáé ìåôÜ âßáò êáôüñèùóå íá
«îåôñõðþóåé» äýï êáëüãåñïõò. Áõôïß ðëçñïöüñçóáí
ôïõò åðéóêÝðôåò üôé ëüãù ôçò áíáóöÜëåéáò ðïõ
ðñïêáëïýóáí ïé åðéäñïìÝò, ïé õðüëïéðïé ìïíá÷ïß
ôïõ Äáöíßïõ åß÷áí óõãêåíôñùèåß óå êÜðïéï Üëëï
ìïíáóôÞñé óå êïíôéíü âïõíü 127. Ï Êáìðïýñïãëïõ åéêÜæåé
üôé åðñüêåéôï åßôå ãéá ôç ìïíÞ Êëåéóôþí óôçí ÐÜñíçèá
åßôå ãéá áõôÞ ôïõ Ïóßïõ Ìåëåôßïõ óôïí Êéèáéñþíá, ðïõ
óõíäÝïíôáí ìå ôï Äáöíß 128.
ÁíÜëïãç åßíáé êáé ç ìáñôõñßá ôïõ ¢ããëïõ ðåñéçãçôÞ
Richard Chandler (1738-1810), ðïõ ðÝñáóå áðü ôï Äáöíß
êáôÜ ôï 1765, äçëáäÞ ïãäüíôá åííÝá ÷ñüíéá ìåôÜ ôïõò
Spon êáé Wheler:
¢íù: TìÞìá ìáñìÜñéíïõ êáëýììáôïò ëÜñíáêáò ìå áíÜãëõöç
äéáêüóìçóç óåéñþí öõëëùìÜôùí, ðïõ åíôïðßóôçêå óôïí íÜñèçêá ôïõ «Ôï ìïíáóôÞñé ôïõ Äáöíßïõ åßíáé Ýíá Üèëéï êáé
êáèïëéêïý (×ñéóôéáíéêÞ Áñ÷áéïëïãßá ôçò ÌïíÞò Äáöíßïõ, óåë. 72).
âáñâáñéêü ïéêïäüìçìá, ðåñéöñáãìÝíï áðü õøçëü
ÊÜôù: Åã÷Üñáêôç åðéãñáöÞ ôïõ Ðáñèåíßïõ, åíüò áðü ôïõò
çãïýìåíïõò ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ, ÷ñïíïëïãïýìåíç óôéò 9 Áðñéëßïõ
ôåß÷ïò. ÌðñïóôÜ óôçí ðýëç õðÜñ÷åé ðçãÜäé ìå
1788. Åíôïðßóôçêå óå ìéêñÞ Ýñçìç åêêëçóßá óôïí Åëáéþíá, ãíùóôÞ íåñü åîáéñåôéêÞò ðïéüôçôáò. Ç åêêëçóßá, ðïõ
ùò Ðáíáãßá Ìïõóôáðßäåíá (×ñéóôéáíéêÞ Áñ÷áéïëïãßá ôçò ÌïíÞò
Äáöíßïõ, óåë. 59). öçìßæåôáé ùò ç áñ÷áéüôåñç óôçí ÁèÞíá, åßíáé
ìåãÜëç êáé øçëÞ. Ôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ èüëïõ åßíáé
ïðïßá åß÷å ðåñéðÝóåé êáôÜ ôç Öñáãêïêñáôßá 125. êïóìçìÝíï ìå ìßá ìùóáúêÞ ðáñÜóôáóç ôïõ
Óôï ðëáßóéï ôùí ðáñáðÜíù åîåëßîåùí ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ ×ñéóôïý, óå ìåãÜëï âáèìü öèáñìÝíç. Óå Ýíá
áðïäüèçêå óå ïñèüäïîïõò ìïíá÷ïýò, ïé ïðïßïé áðü ôá ðáñåêêëÞóéá âñßóêåôáé ìßá ìáñìÜñéíç
åðéóêåýáóáí äéÜöïñá ôìÞìáôá ôçò ìïíÞò, êõñßùò ôá óáñêïöÜãïò. Ïé Ôïýñêïé åßíáé óõ÷íïß áëëÜ
êåëéÜ. Ãéá ðïëëÜ ÷ñüíéá ïé ïñèüäïîïé ìïíá÷ïß óôï áíåðéèýìçôïé åðéóêÝðôåò üôáí ðçãáßíïõí Þ
Äáöíß èá Ýñ÷ïíôáé áðü ôïí ÌùñéÜ. Óôï ðáñåëèüí ïé
êïõñóÜñïé ôï ëõìáßíïíôáí áðü ôç èÜëáóóá êáé
«ἔæùí ἡóý÷ùò ἐñãáæüìåíïé, ôñåöüìåíïé Þôáí ó÷åäüí åñçìùìÝíï. ÂñÞêá åêåß Ýíá éåñÝá
êáôáëëÞëùò, ἀãáèïåñãïῦíôåò ἐíßïôå, ìå Ýíá-äýï ìïíá÷ïýò. ÊáôÜ ðÜóá ðéèáíüôçôá ôï
êëåéüìåíïé ἐíùñὶò åἰò ôὰ êåëëßá ôùí öüâῳ ìïíáóôÞñé Ý÷åé êôéóèåß óôç èÝóç ôïõ íáïý ôïõ
ôῶí êáêïðïéῶí –êáὶ ἰäßùò ôῶí Ἀöñéêáíῶí Áðüëëùíá. Ìåñéêïß áñ÷áßïé êßïíåò âñßóêïíôáé
êïõñóÜñùí ôῆò Óáëáìῖíïò, åἰò ôïὺò âñÜ÷ïõò åíôïé÷éóìÝíïé óå ôïß÷ï êïíôÜ óôçí åêêëçóßá»129.
ôῆò ὁðïßáò ἐíåöþëåõïí– äñïóéæüìåíïé ìὲ ôὰ
íÜìáôá ôïῦ ìïíáäéêïῦ öñÝáôïò, ἡ êáëëïíὴ ôïῦ ÐáñÜ ôéò ðáñáðÜíù ìáñôõñßåò, åßíáé äýóêïëï íá
ὁðïßïõ ἐíÝðíåõóå êáὶ ôὴí ëáúêὴí Ìïῦóáí, êáὶ áðïäå÷ôïýìå ôçí õðüèåóç üôé ôï ìïíáóôÞñé ôïõ
äïîïëïãïῦíôåò ôὸí Ὕøéóôïí ἐðὶ ôïýôïéò»126. Äáöíßïõ Þôáí åñçìùìÝíï óå ôüóï ìåãÜëï âáèìü êáôÜ
91

ôïí 17ï êáé ôïí 18ï áéþíá. Áðü åðéãñáöÝò, Ýããñáöá êáé ἀìðÝëïõò êáὶ ἄëëáò ἐñãáóßáò ôῆò Ìïíῆò,
Üëëåò ãñáðôÝò ðçãÝò ìáèáßíïõìå ïíüìáôá äéáöüñùí êñýðôïíôáé öïâïýìåíïé ôὴí äßøáí êáὶ ἰäßùò ôὴí
çãïõìÝíùí, üðùò ôïõ Íéêçöüñïõ, ôïõ Áíáíßá (1764), ðåῖíáí ôïῦ åὐëáâïῦò ἐðéóêÝðôïõ. Êáὶ ïὕôùò
ôïõ Ðáñèåíßïõ (1788 êáé 1790) êáé ôïõ ÁãÜðéïõ (1801 êáé ὁ ἐðéóêÝðôçò áὐôüò, ὅôáí ìÜëéóôá åἶíáé îÝíïò
1803)130. Ãíùñßæïõìå, åðßóçò, êáé äéáöüñïõò áñ÷éåñåßò êáὶ äὲí ἐðéìåßíåé æçôῶí ἀ÷ñÞóôïõò åἰò áὐôὸí
ðïõ åðéóêÝöôçêáí ôç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ Þ Ýìåéíáí ó’ áõôÞí ðëçñïöïñßáò, ἕíá-äýï ìïíá÷ïὺò åἶíáé öõóéêὸí
ãéá êÜðïéï äéÜóôçìá, üðùò ï áñ÷éåðßóêïðïò Áéãßíçò, íὰ óõíáíôᾷ êáὶ ἕíá-äýï íὰ ἀíáöÝñåé ὡò
ï åðßóêïðïò Ùñåþí êáé ï ìçôñïðïëßôçò Áèçíþí ὑðÜñ÷ïíôáò»132.
Âáñèïëïìáßïò. Óýìöùíá ìå ôï ÷ñïíéêü ôïõ ¢íèéìïõ,
ï ôåëåõôáßïò áíáãêÜóôçêå íá êáôáöýãåé óôç ìïíÞ ôï Ðáñ’ üëá áõôÜ, öáßíåôáé ðùò ç ìïíÞ åñÞìùóå
1770 õðü ôçí áðåéëÞ ôùí Ôïýñêùí: óçìáíôéêÜ óôéò áñ÷Ýò ôïõ 19ïõ áéþíá, êáèþò ïé ðçãÝò
ó÷åôéêÜ ìå áõôÞí óðáíßæïõí.
«Åἰò ôὰ 1770, ðåñὶ ôὰò ἀñ÷ὰò ôïῦ ἔôïõò, ἐí ἀêì
ïὔóçò ôῆò ìÜ÷çò ìåôáîὺ Ôïýñêùí êáὶ Ìïóêüâùí,
ἦëèåí ὁ êὺñ Âáñèïëïìáῖïò ἀðὸ Ëåâáäåßáò åἰò ôὸ Ï ëüñäïò Elgin óôï Äáöíß
Äáöíß. Ïἱ Ôïῦñêïé ἐóçêþèçóáí ἐðὶ ðïäῶí íὰ ôὸí
èáíáôþóïõí, ἂí ἤèåëåí ἔìâç åἰò ôὴí ðïëéôåßáí»131. ÊáôÜ ôá ðñþôá ÷ñüíéá ôïõ 19ïõ áéþíá ôï ìïíáóôÞñé
äÝ÷ôçêå Ýíáí äéáâüçôï åðéóêÝðôç, ôïí ëüñäï Thomas
Ï Êáìðïýñïãëïõ áðïäßäåé ôçí åãêáôÜëåéøç ðïõ Bruce Elgin (1766-1841)133. Ï ¢ããëïò ðåñéçãçôÞò êáé
ìáñôõñïýí ïé Spon, Wheler êáé Chandler óôçí ôáêôéêÞ áñ÷áéïëüãïò Ådward Dodwell (1767-1832), ðïõ ðÝñáóå
ôùí ìïíá÷þí íá áðïöåýãïõí ôçí åðáöÞ ìå ôïõò áðü ôï Äáöíß ôï öèéíüðùñï ôïõ 1805, áíáöÝñåé:
åðéóêÝðôåò:
«ÐåñÜóáìå áðü ôï ìïíáóôÞñé ôïõ Äáöíßïõ, ðïõ
«Ïἱ åὐëïãçìÝíïé êáëüãçñïὶ ìáò, êáὶ ὁóÜêéò âñßóêåôáé ðÜíù áðü ôá åñåßðéá åíüò áñ÷áßïõ
äὲí åἶíáé ἀðåóôáëìÝíïé åἰò ÷ùñÜöéá, êáὶ ἰäßùò íáïý, êáôÜ ðÜóá ðéèáíüôçôá áöéåñùìÝíïõ

ÔìÞìáôá éùíéêþí êéüíùí áðü ôç äõôéêÞ ðëåõñÜ ôïõ åîùíÜñèçêá. Åíôïðßóôçêáí ìÝóá óôïí ðåñßâïëï ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ
(Äåëôßïí ôçò ×ñéóôéáíéêÞò Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò, 1962-1963, óåë. 41, åéê. 19).
92

óôïí Áðüëëùíá. ¼ôáí åðéóêÝöôçêá ãéá ðñþôç


öïñÜ ôçí ÅëëÜäá [äçëáäÞ êáôÜ ôï Ýôïò 1801],
õðÞñ÷áí åêåß áêüìá ìåñéêïß ìéêñïß éùíéêïß êßïíåò
ìå ôá êéïíüêñáíÜ ôïõò. ¸íáò “âïëéêüò” óåéóìüò
ëÝãåôáé üôé êáôÝóôñåøå ôïí íåüôåñï ôïß÷ï, üðïõ
ïé êßïíåò åß÷áí åí ìÝñåé åíôïé÷éóôåß. Ï ëüñäïò
¸ëãéí, ìå áîéÝðáéíï åíäéáöÝñïí ãéá ôçí áðïöõãÞ
ìåëëïíôéêþí êáôáóôñïöþí êáé ðáñáêéíçìÝíïò áðü
ôï ãíùóôü ôïõ ðÜèïò ãéá ôçí áðüêôçóç åëëçíéêþí
áñ÷áéïôÞôùí, ôïõò Ýóôåéëå óôçí Áããëßá. Ôþñá
âñßóêïíôáé óôï Âñåôáíéêü Ìïõóåßï»134.

Ôçí áðüóðáóç ôùí éùíéêþí êéüíùí áðü ôïí Elgin


áíáöÝñïõí ôüóï ï ÃÜëëïò François Pouqueville 135
üóï êáé ï Ãåñìáíüò Ludwig Ross (1806-1859) 136, ðïõ
åðéóêÝöôçêáí ôïí ÷þñï ìåôÜ, êáôÜ ôéò äåêáåôßåò ôïõ
1810 êáé ôïõ 1830 áíôéóôïß÷ùò. ÐñÜãìáôé, ï ëüñäïò
Elgin áðÝóðáóå ôñåéò ëåðôïýò éùíéêïýò êßïíåò ðïõ
óôÞñéæáí ôá ôïîùôÜ áíïßãìáôá ôçò ðñüóïøçò ôïõ
åîùíÜñèçêá ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò 137. Ìüíï Ýíáò
áðü ôïõò êßïíåò ôïõ åîùíÜñèçêá äéÝöõãå ôïõ Elgin êáé
ðáñáìÝíåé ìÝ÷ñé óÞìåñá óôçí áñ÷éêÞ ôïõ èÝóç, óôç
ÍÄ ãùíßá ôïõ êôßóìáôïò. Ïé õðüëïéðïé, áêñéâþò üðùò
áíÝöåñå ï Dodwell, âñßóêïíôáé óôï Âñåôáíéêü Ìïõóåßï
ôïõ Ëïíäßíïõ138. Ç áñ÷éêÞ èÝóç ôùí êéüíùí áõôþí
öáßíåôáé ðùò Þôáí óôï éåñü ôïõ Äáöíáßïõ Áðüëëùíïò,
ôïí ðáíÜñ÷áéï ðñüãïíï ôçò ÷ñéóôéáíéêÞò ìïíÞò ôïõ
Äáöíéïý.

Ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ
êáôÜ ôçí EðáíÜóôáóç ôïõ 1821

Ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ óõíäÝåôáé ìå ôçí EðáíÜóôáóç ôïõ


1821 ìÝóù ðáñáäüóåùí, óýìöùíá ìå ôéò ïðïßåò ôï
ìïíáóôÞñé êõñéåýôçêå áðü ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò ðáñÜ ôïí
éó÷õñüôáôï ï÷õñùìáôéêü ôïõ ðåñßâïëï. Ç Üëùóç
ðñáãìáôïðïéÞèçêå ìÝóù áâáèïýò ðçãáäéïý ðïõ
âñéóêüôáí Ýîù áðü ôïí ðåñßâïëï êáé óõíäåüôáí
õðïãåßùò ìå Üëëá ôñßá ðçãÜäéá åíôüò ôçò ìïíÞò. Ôï
ìõóôéêü áõôü ðÝñáóìá áðïêáëýöèçêå óôïõò Ôïýñêïõò
Äßëïâï Üíïéãìá ôçò íüôéáò ðëåõñÜò ôïõ åîùíÜñèçêá ìå ôïí áðü ôïí ìïíá÷ü ÐáÀóéï. Ï ËáìðÜêçò äéçãåßôáé ðþò
éùíéêü êßïíá áðü ôï éåñü ôïõ Äáöíáßïõ Áðüëëùíá (Äåëôßïí ôçò
×ñéóôéáíéêÞò Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò 1962-1963, ðßí. 5, åéê. 2). áêñéâþò Ýãéíå ç ðñïäïóßá:
93

«Ëáâὼí [ï ÐáÀóéïò] êÜäïí ἐâýèéóåí áὐôὸí ἐíôὸò


ἑíὸò ôῶí öñåÜôùí ôῆò ðñþôçò áὐëῆò ôῆò ìïíῆò,
ἀöïῦ ἤäç ðñïóÝäåóåí ἰó÷õñῶò ἔîùèåí ôὸ ó÷ïéíßïí
ôïῦ êÜäïõ, óõíÝèåôï äὲ ìåôὰ ôῶí Ôïýñêùí ὅðùò
ïὗôïé êáôÝëèùóéí åἰò ôὸ öñÝáñ ôὸ ἔîù ôῆò ìïíῆò,
åἴôá äὲ ðñï÷ùñïῦíôåò ὑðïãåßùò ìå÷ñéóïῦ åὕñùóé
ôὸí êÜäïí, äéὰ ôïῦ ó÷ïéíßïõ ôïýôïõ ἀíÝëèùóéí ἐðὶ
ôῆò áὐëῆò ôῆò ìïíῆò, ὅðåñ êáὶ ἐãÝíåôï, êáὶ ïὕôùò
ïἱ Ôïῦñêïé äéὰ ìéᾶò, ἐíôὸò ôῆò ìïíῆò åὑñåèÝíôåò,
ἐãÝíïíôï êýñéïé áὐôῆò»139.

ÁìÝóùò ìüëéò åéóÞëèáí ïé Ôïýñêïé óôç ìïíÞ, ôçí


ðáñÝäùóáí óôéò öëüãåò. Ôï ßäéï öáßíåôáé ðùò
Ýêáíáí êáé óôïí ðñïäüôç ÐáÀóéï. ËÝãåôáé, ìÜëéóôá,
ðùò ôá áðïìåéíÜñéá ôïõ êáñâïõíéáóìÝíïõ ðôþìáôüò
ôïõ óþæïíôáí ðåôáìÝíá óå ìéá ãùíéÜ ôçò áõëÞò
ìÝ÷ñé ôï 1854, üôáí êÜðïéïò óõíôáãìáôÜñ÷çò ôçò
áããëïãáëëéêÞò êáôï÷Þò öñüíôéóå ãéá ôçí ïñéóôéêÞ Êéïíüêñáíï êáé âÜóç åíüò áðü ôïõò ôñåéò éùíéêïýò êßïíåò ðïõ
áðïìÜêñõíóÞ ôïõò. ìåôÝöåñå ï ëüñäïò Elgin áðü ôï Äáöíß óôç ÌåãÜëç Âñåôáíßá.
ÓÞìåñá âñßóêïíôáé óôï Âñåôáíéêü Ìïõóåßï (Äåëôßïí ôçò
Áí êáé ç ðáñáðÜíù éóôïñßá áíÞêåé óôç óöáßñá ôçò ×ñéóôéáíéêÞò Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò, 1962-1963, ðßí. 10).
ðáñÜäïóçò, ç Üëùóç ôçò ìïíÞò áðü ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò
èåùñåßôáé ãåãïíüò áäéáìöéóâÞôçôï ëüãù ôïõ ÌåôÜ ôá ãåãïíüôá áõôÜ, åßíáé ðéèáíüí ôï åñåéðùìÝíï
ðõêíüôáôïõ óôñþìáôïò êÜðíáò ðïõ êÜëõðôå ôá ðëÝïí ìïíáóôÞñé íá ëåéôïýñãçóå ùò ïñìçôÞñéï
øçöéäùôÜ ôïõ íáïý ðñéí áðü ôïí êáèáñéóìü ôïõò êÜðïéùí ïðëáñ÷çãþí, ìåôáîý ôùí ïðïßùí êáé ï
êáôÜ ôç äåêáåôßá ôïõ 1890. Ç êÜðíá ðñïåñ÷üôáí áðü ÉùÜííçò Ãêïýñáò (1791-1827), Ýíáò áðü ôïõò âáóéêïýò
öùôéÜ ðïõ ïé Ôïýñêïé Üíáøáí êáé äéáôçñïýóáí åðß õðåñáóðéóôÝò ôçò Áêñüðïëçò ôùí Áèçíþí êáôÜ ôç
ôñåéò ïëüêëçñåò çìÝñåò óôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ êáèïëéêïý, äåêÜìçíç ðïëéïñêßá ôçò áðü ôïí Êéïõôá÷Þ, åðéóôïëÞ
ðéóôåýïíôáò üôé Ýôóé èá áíáëõèåß ï ÷ñõóüò ôùí ôïõ ïðïßïõ öáßíåôáé ðùò åóôÜëç áðü ôï Äáöíß 142.
øçößäùí140.
Ç ÷ñïíïëïãéêÞ ôïðïèÝôçóç ôïõ ðáñáðÜíù åðåéóïäßïõ
åßíáé åîáéñåôéêÜ äýóêïëç, ëüãù ôçò Ýëëåéøçò éóôïñéêÜ Ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ
ôåêìçñéùìÝíùí ðëçñïöïñéþí. ÐÜíôùò, ç Üëùóç óôá ìåôåðáíáóôáôéêÜ ÷ñüíéá
ôïõ ìïíáóôçñéïý äåí ó÷åôßæåôáé ìå ôçí åéóâïëÞ ôïõ
Êéïõôá÷Þ óôçí ÁèÞíá ôï 1826, ôéò óçìáíôéêÝò ìÜ÷åò ÌåôÜ ôçí åðáíÜóôáóç ç ìïíÞ åß÷å åñçìùèåß ðëÞñùò.
ðïõ Ýëáâáí ÷þñá óôï ×áúäÜñé ôïí Áýãïõóôï ôïõ 1826 Ï ôåëåõôáßïò çãïýìåíïò, óýìöùíá ìå ôéò ðçãÝò, Þôáí
êáé ôç ìéêñüôåñç ìÜ÷ç óôï Äáöíß óôéò 21 Ìáñôßïõ ï ÁãáèÜããåëïò, ï ïðïßïò áíÝëáâå ôï áîßùìá êÜðïéá
1827. Ï Êáìðïýñïãëïõ ôçí ôïðïèåôåß óôç äéÜñêåéá óôéãìÞ ìåôÜ ôï 1815 êáé ôï äéáôÞñçóå åðß ðåñßðïõ
ôçò åêóôñáôåßáò ôïõ ÏìÝñ Âñõþíç óôçí ÁôôéêÞ ìßá äåêáðåíôáåôßá. Áí êáé åß÷å ôçí åðïðôåßá ôçò
ôï êáëïêáßñé ôïõ 1821. Ç Ýêâáóç ôçò åðé÷åßñçóçò êéíçôÞò êáé áêßíçôçò ðåñéïõóßáò ôçò ìïíÞò, êáôïéêïýóå
õðÞñîå áñíçôéêÞ ãéá ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò, ðïõ áðÝóõñáí áñêåôÜ ìáêñéÜ áðü áõôÞí, óôï êÝíôñï ôçò ÁèÞíáò.
ôá óôñáôåýìáôÜ ôïõò ìå áñêåôÝò áðþëåéåò. ¸ôóé, ïé Óôï ìïíáóôÞñé ðéèáíüôáôá äéÝìåíå ìüíï êÜðïéïò
êáôáêôçôÝò ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ ôçí åãêáôÝëåéøáí çëéêéùìÝíïò öýëáêáò, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá öñïíôßæåé
Ý÷ïíôáò ðñïêáëÝóåé óçìáíôéêüôáôåò öèïñÝò 141. óôïé÷åéùäþò ôçí åêêëçóßá.
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¢ðïøç ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ áðü ôá íïôéïáíáôïëéêÜ, ãêñáâïýñá ôïõ 19ïõ áéþíá.

ÊáôÜ ôçí ðåñßïäï 1838-1839 åãêáôáóôÜèçêáí óôïí ôïõò öýôñùíáí èÜìíïé êáé ðåñéêïêëÜäåò, ôï
÷þñï ôïõ Äáöíßïõ Âáâáñïß óôñáôéþôåò, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ ðåñéôñéãýñéæáí. Åêåß êïíôÜ åß÷áí êôßóåé äýï îýëéíåò
íá åðéôçñïýí ôï óôåíü ðÝñáóìá áðü êáé ðñïò ôçí ðáñÜãêåò. Ç ìßá Þôáí êÜôé óáí êáöåíåßï êé ç Üëëç
ÁèÞíá. Ï ÃÜëëïò åñåõíçôÞò ôçò ìåóáéùíéêÞò éóôïñßáò ðÜëé Ýíá åßäïò ìáãáæéïý ãéá ôïõò ìïíá÷éêïýò
Jean Alexandre Buchon åðéóêÝöôçêå ôï ìïíáóôÞñé ôï ôáîéäéþôåò. Ïé îýëéíåò áõôÝò ðáñÜãêåò êïíôÜ
1840 êáé ôï âñÞêå ðáíôåëþò Ýñçìï 143. Ôçí åðüìåíç óôá ÷áëÜóìáôá Ýâáæáí, èáññåßò, óôï ôïðßï ôçí
÷ñïíéÜ, óôéò áñ÷Ýò ôçò Üíïéîçò, Ýöôáóå óôï ìïíáóôÞñé ôåëåõôáßá ðéíåëéÜ ôçò åëëçíéêÞò ìåëáã÷ïëßáò»144.
ï ðåñßöçìïò Äáíüò óõããñáöÝáò Hans Christian
Andersen (1805-1875), ï ïðïßïò ìáò Üöçóå ìéá áñêåôÜ ¼ôáí ï Andersen ìå ôïõò óõíïäïéðüñïõò ôïõ, ôïí
ëåðôïìåñÞ êáé éäéáßôåñá åíäéáöÝñïõóá ðåñéãñáöÞ ôïõ Ludwig Ross êáé ôïí ¸ëëçíá êáèçãçôÞ Ößëéððï
ìïíáóôçñéïý: ÉùÜííïõ, ìðÞêå óôçí áõëÞ ôïõ ìïíáóôçñéïý, óõíÜíôçóå
åéêüíá áêüìá ìåãáëýôåñçò åãêáôÜëåéøçò:
«Ôï áãÝñé Þôáí êñýï êáé ôá óýííåöá Ýãñáöáí
ìáýñåò óêéÝò óôá ãõìíÜ âïõíÜ. ÊïíôÜ ìáò óå «ÌðÞêáìå óôçí áõëÞ ôçò ìïíÞò. Ðáíôïý öýôñùíáí
ìåãÜëç Ýêôáóç áðëþíïíôáí ôá åñåßðéá ôïõ ùò ìßá ðÞ÷ç ôóïõêíßäåò, ðïõ Ýêñõâáí áíÜìåóÜ
ìïíáóôçñéïý. ØçëÜ ôåß÷ç, ðïõ óôéò ó÷éóìÜäåò ôïõò îÝóêåðá, Üöñáãá ðçãÜäéá. Ðñï÷ùñïýóáìå
95

ðñïóåêôéêÜ âÞìá ðñïò âÞìá, ìç âïõëéÜîïõìå. óýíôñïöïß ôïõò ãëåíôïýóáí êáé ÷åéñïêñïôïýóáí.
¸ôóé öôÜóáìå óôï áðÝíáíôé ôåß÷ïò. Áðü êåé ìáò ¸íá óùñü íåêñïêåöáëÝò êáé êüêêáëá, ðïõ
öÜíçêå ðùò èá áíåâáßíáìå åõêïëþôåñá êáé âñÝèçêáí Ýîù, êÜôù áðü èÜìíïõò êáé ôóïõêíßäåò,
óå ëßãï öôÜóáìå óôç ìéóïãêñåìéóìÝíç óôÝãç Þôáí ôþñá ñéãìÝíá óå ìéá ãùíéÜ, áíÜìåóá óôçí
ôçò åêêëçóßáò. ¼óï êáôáóôñáììÝíï Þôáí ôï Áãßá ÔñÜðåæá êáé óå êåßíï ôïí ôïß÷ï, ðïõ óýìöùíá
êôßñéï, ôüóï ðõêíüöõôç âëÜóôçóç ôï óêÝðáæå. Ôï ìå ôç óõíÞèåéá ôùí åëëçíéêþí åêêëçóéþí ÷ôßæåôáé
óêÝðáóìá ìéáò áñ÷áßáò ìáñìÜñéíçò óáñêïöÜãïõ, ìðñïóôÜ ôçò. Ï ôïß÷ïò áõôüò Ý÷åé ôñåéò ðýëåò
áíÜðïäá âáëìÝíï, Þôáí ôï ðñþôï óêáëïðÜôé åäþ êé åßíáé áðü ðÜíù ùò êÜôù æùãñáöéóìÝíïò
ðÜíù. ¸íá Üëëï ðÜëé ðéï êÜôù Þôáí áðü êïììÜôéá ìå áãéïãñáößåò. Êé áõôÝò áêüìá Þôáí êÜðùò
ìéáò ñáâäùôÞò êïëüíáò áðü ðïñöõñßôç. ÑåæåíôÜ, óâçóìÝíåò áð’ ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò· êé üìùò åäþ ìÝóá
óáðïõíü÷ïñôá, ôóïõêíßäåò öýôñùíáí ðáíôïý. Ïé Ýêáéãáí ôñßá ìéêñÜ, êñåìáóìÝíá êáíôÞëéá. Ôá
íõ÷ôåñßäåò ðåôïýóáí ìÝñá ìåóçìÝñé ðÜíù áð’ ôï öñïíôßæåé Ýíáò ãÝñïò ¸ëëçíáò, ðïõ ìÝíåé óôçí
êåöÜëé ìáò. Åäþ Þôáí ôï óðßôé ôïõò, ôï âáóßëåéü îýëéíç ðáñÜãêá, êÜíåé êáöÝ êáé óåñâßñåé ðïôçñÜêéá
ôïõò, áêüìá êáé ôþñá ðïõ ï Þëéïò Ýëáìðå óôá ìå ñáêß óôïõò îÝíïõò»147.
öôåñÜ ôïõò»145.
Äåêáôñßá ÷ñüíéá ìåôÜ ôïí Andersen, êáôÜ ôç
Ôá êåëéÜ ôùí ìïíá÷þí óôá íüôéá ôïõ êáèïëéêïý äéÜñêåéá ôçò áããëïãáëëéêÞò êáôï÷Þò ôïõ ÐåéñáéÜ,
åß÷áí ìåôáôñáðåß óå óôÜâëïõò áðü ôïõò Âáâáñïýò åãêáôáóôÜèçêå óôç ìïíÞ ãáëëéêü ôÜãìá, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ
óôñáôéþôåò: íá ðñïóôáôåõôåß áðü ôç öïâåñÞ åðéäçìßá ÷ïëÝñáò ðïõ
åß÷å îåóðÜóåé óôçí ðüëç. Ï äéïéêçôÞò ôïõ ôÜãìáôïò,
«Óôç ìÝóç ôïõ ìïíáóôçñéïý ôá êåëéÜ ôùí óôñáôçãüò de Vasoignes, ìáæß ìå ôïõò óôñáôéþôåò
êáëïãÞñùí Ý÷ïõí ìåôáâëçèåß ó’ Ýíá ìåãÜëï ôïõ öñüíôéóáí ãéá ôçí êáèáñéüôçôá ôïõ åñåéðùìÝíïõ
óôÜâëï, üðïõ ïé ÷ùñïöýëáêåò âÜæïõí ô’ ÜëïãÜ ìïíáóôçñéïý êáé Ýêáíáí êÜðïéåò áñ÷áéïëïãéêÝò
ôïõò· áõôÜ ÷ëéìéíôñßæïõí ôþñá åêåß üðïõ Üëëïôå áíáóêáöÝò óôïí ÷þñï ãýñù áðü áõôü, êáèþò êáé óôçí
áêïýãïíôáí ïé ðñïóåõ÷Ýò ôùí ìïíá÷þí»146. ÉåñÜ Ïäü148.

Ôï êáèïëéêü ôçò ìïíÞò, ðïõ äéÝóùæå ß÷íç ôçò


âõæáíôéíÞò ôïõ ëáìðñüôçôáò áëëÜ êáé ôçò ôïõñêéêÞò
áóÝâåéáò, åíôõðùóßáóå éäéáßôåñá ôïí Andersen:

«Åßíáé ìéá èáõìÜóéá åêêëçóéÜ, ðïõ ìðïñåß êáé


ôþñá áêüìá íá åðéóêåõáóôåß. Óôåêüìáóôáí êÜôù
áð’ ôïí ôñïýëï ôçò, ðïõ ôï áóôñáöôåñü ìùóáúêü
ôïõ åéêüíéæå ôï ×ñéóôü […]. ÊáôÜ ôçí ÅðáíÜóôáóç
åäþ ìÝóá îåêïõñÜæïíôáí ïé Ôïýñêïé, åäþ Üíáâáí
öùôéÜ· ï ôïß÷ïò åßíáé áêüìá ìáýñïò áð’ ôçí êáðíéÜ
[…]. Óôï éåñü ðÜëé Ýóâçíáí ôéò áãéïãñáößåò êáé
æùãñÜöéæáí áéó÷ñÝò åéêüíåò óôç èÝóç ôïõò, åíþ ïé

¢íèñùðïé ôçò õðáßèñïõ áðü ôá ðåñß÷ùñá ôçò ÁôôéêÞò,


ãêñáâïýñá ôïõ 19ïõ áéþíá.
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Ï êáôáõëéóìüò ôùí Âáâáñþí óôñáôéùôþí ðïõ êáôáóêåõÜæïõí ôçí ïäü Ðåéñáéþò ôï 1836, õäáôïãñáößá ôïõ Hans Hanke (1838).

¼ôáí ïé ÃÜëëïé óôñáôéþôåò Ýöõãáí áðü ôï Äáöíß, îåêïõñÜóôçêå ç èñõëéêÞ çñùßäá, ðïõ ðåñéðëáíéüôáí
óõãêåíôñþèçêå óôç ìïíÞ ìéêñÞ ïìÜäá áðü óôçí Åõñþðç êáôÜ ôá ôÝëç ôïõ 12ïõ áéþíá, ðñïôïý
ìïíá÷Ýò. Ìßá áðü áõôÝò Þôáí ç ÌÜñèá, ðïõ, üðùò óôåöèåß ðÜðéóóá. Ç ÉùÜííá, ìåôáìöéåóìÝíç óå áäåëöü
ðñïáíáöÝñèçêå, äéçãÞèçêå óôïí Ãåþñãéï ËáìðÜêç ôïí ÉùÜííç, ìáæß ìå ôïí óýíôñïöü ôçò, ðáôÝñá ÖñïõìÝíôéï,
ìýèï ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôçí ßäñõóç ôïõ ìïíáóôçñéïý áðü ôç Ýöôáóáí óôçí ÁèÞíá ìå óêïðü íá åãêáôáóôáèïýí
âáóßëéóóá ÄÜöíç. Êáèþò ïé áñ÷Ýò ôïõ íåïóýóôáôïõ ãéá êÜðïéï ÷ñïíéêü äéÜóôçìá. Áöïý èáýìáóáí ôá
êñÜôïõò öñüíôéæáí áðïôåëåóìáôéêÜ ãéá ôçí áóöÜëåéá áñ÷áßá ìíçìåßá êáé ôéò ëáìðñÝò åêêëçóßåò ôçò ðüëçò,
ôùí ðåñé÷þñùí ôçò ðüëåùò ôùí Áèçíþí, ïé Áèçíáßïé áðïóýñèçêáí óôç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ ãéá íá áíáðáõèïýí 149.
«îåèÜññåøáí» êáé Üñ÷éóáí íá êÜíïõí ìéêñÝò åêäñïìÝò Óôç ãéïñôÞ ôçò åêêëçóßáò, ðïõ Þôáí áöéåñùìÝíç óôçí
óôéò åîï÷Ýò ôçò ÁôôéêÞò. Ï ðåñßðáôïò óôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü Êïßìçóç ôçò Èåïôüêïõ êáé ãéüñôáæå óôéò 23 Áõãïýóôïõ,
ìÝ÷ñé ôï Äáöíß êáé ôç èÜëáóóá ôïõ ÓêáñáìáãêÜ äçëáäÞ ôçí çìÝñá ôçò Áðïäüóåùò ôçò ìåãÜëçò
Þôáí áðü ôïõò ðëÝïí äçìïöéëåßò. ¸íáò áðü áõôïýò åïñôÞò ôçò 15çò Áõãïýóôïõ, äéïñãáíùíüôáí ëáìðñü
ôïõò åêäñïìåßò Þôáí êáé ï ÅììáíïõÞë ÑïÀäçò (1836- ðáíçãýñé. Ï Êáìðïýñïãëïõ, ðïõ ôï Ýæçóå áðü êïíôÜ,
1904). Ï äéáâáóìÝíïò óõããñáöÝáò áðïêáôÝóôçóå ìå ðïëý åðéôõ÷çìÝíá ôï ðáñáëëçëßæåé ìå ôéò åëåõóéíéáêÝò
ôç äçìéïõñãéêÞ öáíôáóßá ôïõ ôï âõæáíôéíü ìåãáëåßï ãéïñôÝò ôçò áñ÷áéüôçôáò:
ôïõ ìïíáóôçñéïý êáé ôï åíóùìÜôùóå óôçí ÐÜðéóóá
ÉùÜííá (1866), ßóùò ôï ðéï ðïëõóõæçôçìÝíï âéâëßï ôçò «Ὅëïé ïἱ Ἀèçíáῖïé êáὶ ἑôåñüäïîïé ἀêüìç,
íåüôåñçò åëëçíéêÞò ëïãïôå÷íßáò. Óôï Äáöíß, ëïéðüí, ἐôñÝðïíôï ôὴí åἰò ôὸ ìïíáóôῆñé ôïῦôï ἄãïõóá
97

Ἱåñὰí Ὁäüí. Êáὶ ἐíüìéæå êáíåßò, ὅôé ἀíÝóôç ἐê Ìïíὴí ἐðéóêÝøåéò, êáὶ ἐìáñÜíèõóáí áἱ ðáíçãýñåéò
ôῆò ôÝöñáò ôῆò ëÞèçò ἡ ðåñßöçìïò ðïìðὴ ôῶí áὐôῆò, áἵôéíåò ðñüôåñïí ἐí ἀðåñéãñÜðôù æùçñüôçôé
Ἐëåõóéíßùí êáὶ ὅôé èὰ ἔâëåðå íὰ ðñïçãåῖôáé ôὸ ô 23 Áὐãïýóôïõ ἐôåëïῦíôï, ôïῦ ðëÞèïõò
ἄãáëìá ôïῦ ἸÜê÷ïõ ἐðὶ ἅñìáôïò ôïðïèåôçìÝíïí ὑðὸ ôὴí âáèåῖáí óêéὰí ôïῦ ἐêåßóå ðåõêῶíïò
ô óõíïäåßᾳ ôïῦ Ἰáê÷áãùãïῦ êáὶ ἐíüðëïõò ôïὺò äéáóêïñðéæïìÝíïõ»151.
ὡñáßïõò ἐöÞâïõò í’ ἀêïëïõèïῦí êáὶ ôὸ ðëῆèïò
ôῶí ðéóôῶí íὰ ἕðåôáé. Ç õðïâÜèìéóç ôçò ìïíÞò åîáéôßáò ôçò ìåôáôñïðÞò
»Ἀëëὰ ôá÷Ýùò óõíÞñ÷åôï ἐê ôῆò ðëÜíçò ὁ ôçò óå øõ÷éáôñåßï Ýöôáóå óôï êáôáêüñõöï êáôÜ ôï
ὀíåéñïðüëïò ìõóôéêïðáèÞò, ὅôáí ἤêïõå ôὸí Ýôïò 1887, üôáí ÷ñçóéìïðïéÞèçêå ùò ðïéìíéïóôÜóéï.
âéïëéôæῆ ôῆò ðáíçãýñåùò íὰ ôñáãïõäῆ ôὸ íåñὸí Ï ¢ããëïò éåñÝáò êáé ëüãéïò Joseph Hirst óå Üñèñï
ôïῦ Äáöíéïῦ “ðïὺ ðßíïõí ïἱ ἄããåëïé” êáὶ ἰäßùò ðïõ äçìïóéåýôçêå óôï ðåñéïäéêü The Reliquary Üóêçóå
ôὸ ðåñßöçìïí äéὰ ôὴí ἱóôïñéêὴí ôïõ óçìáóßáí äñéìåßá êñéôéêÞ óôçí åëëçíéêÞ êõâÝñíçóç ãéá ôçí
ðñïáéῶíéï äßóôé÷ïí: êáôÜóôáóç. ×áñáêôÞñéóå, ìÜëéóôá, ôçí åñÞìùóç êáé
ôçí åãêáôÜëåéøç áõôÞò ôçò ôüóï óçìáíôéêÞò ìïíÞò
Êõñὰ ÷ñõóïäáöíéþôéóóá ìåãÜëç óïõ åἶí’ ἡ ÷Üñç «üíåéäïò ãéá ôï ÷ñéóôéáíéêü áßóèçìá ôïõ Ýèíïõò» 152.
ìὲ ôὸ øçöß, ìὲ ôὸ ñçãëß, ìὲ ôὸ ìáñãáñéôÜñé. Ç ãåíéêÞ êáôáêñáõãÞ óå óõíäõáóìü ìå ôéò ôåñÜóôéåò
öèïñÝò áðü éó÷õñïýò óåéóìïýò êáôÜ ôá Ýôç 1886,
»Ïἱ ðéóôïὶ ôῆò Ἱåñᾶò Ὁäïῦ åἶíáé ôþñá ×ñéóôéáíïß. 1889 êáé 1894, þèçóáí ôïõò áñìüäéïõò óôçí áíÜëçøç
Ἀöïῦ äὲ ἤêïõïí ìὲ ìåãÜëçí êáôÜíõîéí ôὴí èåßáí äñÜóçò ãéá ôç äéÜóùóç, ôç óõíôÞñçóç êáé ôçí áíÜäåéîç
ëåéôïõñãßáí, ἐäáíåßæïíôï ôὰ øçëὰ êáëÜìéá ôïῦ ôïõ Äáöíéïý. Ïé åñãáóßåò áõôÝò, üðùò èá äïýìå óôçí
íåùêüñïõ êáὶ ἔññé÷íáí øçößá ἀðὸ ôὰ ðåñßöçìá åðüìåíç åíüôçôá, óõíå÷ßæïíôáé ìÝ÷ñé êáé óÞìåñá.
ìùóáúêὰ äé’ ἀíÜìíçóéí êáὶ äéὰ öõëá÷ôὸí»150.

ÊáôÜ ôï ÷ñïíéêü äéÜóôçìá 1883-1885 ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ ÅðåìâÜóåéò – áíáóêáöÝò - óõíôÞñçóç


ìåôáôñÜðçêå óå øõ÷éáôñåßï. Ôá êåëéÜ ôùí ìïíá÷þí êáé áíÜäåéîç ôçò ìïíÞò
åðéóêåõÜóôçêáí ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá öéëïîåíÞóïõí ôïõò (ôÝëç 19ïõ – áñ÷Ýò 21ïõ áéþíá)
øõ÷áóèåíåßò êáé óôçí áõëÞ áíïéêïäïìÞèçêáí äéÜöïñá
âïçèçôéêÜ êôßóìáôá ðïõ åðéâÜñõíáí óçìáíôéêÜ ôï Ç ðñþôç åðÝìâáóç óôï ìíçìåßï Ýãéíå ãýñù óôá
ìíçìåßï. Ïé ðñþôïé áóèåíåßò åéóÞëèáí óôï ßäñõìá ôÝëç ôïõ 13ïõ – áñ÷Ýò ôïõ 14ïõ áéþíá åîáéôßáò
óôéò 2 ÌáÀïõ 1883. Ï ËáìðÜêçò äßíåé ìéá åéêüíá åíüò óåéóìïý ðïõ êáôÝóôñåøå ôïí åîùíÜñèçêá ôïõ
ôçò êáôÜóôáóçò ðïõ åðéêñáôïýóå ðßóù áðü ôá êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò. Ïé Êéóôåñêéáíïß ìïíá÷ïß ôïí
ï÷õñùìáôéêÜ ôåß÷ç ôïõ âõæáíôéíïý ìïíáóôçñéïý êáôÜ åðéóêåýáóáí áíôéêáèéóôþíôáò ôá áñ÷éêÜ âõæáíôéíÜ
ôçí ðåñßïäï áõôÞ: ôüîá ìå ïîõêüñõöá ãïôèéêÜ. Åðßóçò ðñï÷þñçóáí óå
óôïé÷åéþäåéò õðïóôçñßîåéò ôïß÷ùí êáé èüëùí ìÝóù
«Ἀðὸ ôῆò ἱåñᾶò ôáýôçò ìïíῆò äὲí ἀíÞñ÷åôï áíÝãåñóçò ôïß÷ùí. ¸÷åé Þäç áíáöåñèåß üôé ìåôÜ ôçí
ðëÝïí ëéâáíùôὸò åἰò ôὰ ὕøç ôῶí ïὐñáíῶí, ïὐäὲ êáôÜëçøç ôçò ÁèÞíáò áðü ôïí ÌùÜìåè ´ ôï 1456 ç
ἠêïýïíôï áἱ ðñïóåõ÷áὶ ôῶí ìïíáæüíôùí, ἀëë’ ïἱ ìïíÞ ðáñáäüèçêå êáé ðÜëé óôïõò ïñèüäïîïõò, ðïõ
ðïéêéëüöèïããïé êñùãìïὶ ôῶí öñåíïâëáâῶí åἰò ðñï÷þñçóáí óå ðñïóèÞêåò, óôç äéáìüñöùóç êåëéþí
âáèõôÜôçí ἀèõìßáí ôïὺò ἀêñïùìÝíïõò âõèßæïíôåò. áëëÜ êáé óôçí åðéóêåõÞ ôùí êôéóìÜôùí óôï äþìá ôïõ
Ïὐäåìßá ä’ ἐðï÷ὴ óõíåôÝëåóå ôïóïýôù åἰò ôὴí íÜñèçêá (êåéìçëéáñ÷åßá, âéâëéïèÞêç êáé êáôïéêßá ôïõ
êáôÜðôùóéí ôῆò Ἱåñᾶò ôáýôçò Ìïíῆò, ὅóù ἡ ἐðï÷ὴ çãïýìåíïõ)153.
áὔôç ôῆò åἰò Öñåíïêïìåῖïí ìåôáôñïðῆò ôáýôçò· ÊáôÜ ôïõò åðüìåíïõò áéþíåò ç ìïíÞ åñçìþèçêå
äéüôé ἀðὸ ôῆò ἐðï÷ῆò ôáýôçò ἔðáõóáí áἱ ðñὸò ôὴí óôáäéáêÜ, ãåãïíüò ðïõ óõíÝâáëå óôç öèïñÜ ôùí
98

Ç ðñþôç óåëßäá ôçò äçìïóßåõóçò ôùí áðïôåëåóìÜôùí ôùí åñåõíþí ôïõ Ãåùñãßïõ
ËáìðÜêç ãéá ôç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ. ¢íù äåîéÜ äéáêñßíåôáé ç õðïãñáöÞ ôïõ óõããñáöÝá
(×ñéóôéáíéêÞ Áñ÷áéïëïãßá ôçò ÌïíÞò Äáöíßïõ, óåë. 1).
99

êôçñßùí ëüãù ôçò Ýëëåéøçò óõíôÞñçóçò. Ïé äéáäï÷éêÝò éó÷õñüôáôïé óåéóìïß åðÝöåñáí êáé Üëëåò æçìéÝò óôï
ôçò ÷ñÞóåéò ùò êáôáöõãßïõ êáé ðõñéôéäáðïèÞêçò ôáëáéðùñçìÝíï ìíçìåßï. ÐáñïõóéÜóôçêáí âáèéÝò
êáôÜ ôçí ÅðáíÜóôáóç ôïõ 1821, ùò óôñáôïðÝäïõ ñùãìÝò óå ðïëëÜ óçìåßá ôïõ ôñïýëïõ, åíþ ìåãÜëï
ãéá ôï ãáëëéêü ôÜãìá ðïõ åãêáôáóôÜèçêå åêåß ìÝñïò ôïõ øçöéäùôïý ôïõ ÐáíôïêñÜôïñá ðïõ ôïí
ôï 1854 êáé ùò øõ÷éáôñåßïõ êáôÜ ôá Ýôç 1883-1885 êïóìïýóå êáôÝðåóå. ÁíÜëïãç Þôáí ç ìïßñá ðïëëþí
åðÝöåñáí óçìáíôéêüôáôåò æçìéÝò óôï ìíçìåßï. Ïé øçöéäùôþí ðáñáóôÜóåùí óå äéÜöïñá óçìåßá ôïõ íáïý.
æçìéÝò áõôÝò Ýêáíáí ôïí Ãåþñãéï ËáìðÜêç, ðïõ åß÷å ¸ôóé ôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ íáïý ãÝìéóå ìéêñÝò øçößäåò ðïõ
óðïõäÜóåé ×ñéóôéáíéêÞ Áñ÷áéïëïãßá óôç Ãåñìáíßá, óêïñðßæïíôáí êáé ÷Üíïíôáí ëüãù ôçò åãêáôÜëåéøçò
íá äéáìáñôýñåôáé Ýíôïíá ìÝóù äçìïóéåõìÜôùí óå ôïõ ÷þñïõ. ÓïâáñÝò ñùãìÝò ðñïêëÞèçêáí óå
åöçìåñßäåò ãéá ôçí åãêáôÜëåéøÞ ôïõ êáé íá æçôÜ ôçí ïëüêëçñï ôï ïéêïäïìéêü óõãêñüôçìá 158.
áíÜëçøç Ýñãïõ ãéá ôçí ðñïóôáóßá ôçò ìïíÞò. Ôï Ïé ôåñÜóôéåò æçìéÝò êëüíéóáí ôï ìíçìåßï êáé þèçóáí,
ðñþôï áðü ôá Üñèñá ôïõ, ðïõ ôåëéêÜ Ýðåéóáí ôïí ôüôå åðéôÝëïõò, ôïõò õðåýèõíïõò óôçí áíÜëçøç ïõóéáóôéêÞò
õðïõñãü Ðáéäåßáò Ä. Âïõëðéþôç íá åíäéáöåñèåß ãéá äñÜóçò. ¸ðåéôá áðü ðñüôáóç ôïõ Õðïõñãåßïõ
ôï èÝìá, åìöáíßóôçêå óôï öýëëï ôçò 30-9-1884 ôçò Ðáéäåßáò ôï 1890 óõóôÜèçêå åðéôñïðÞ åéäéêþí, ðïõ
åöçìåñßäáò Áéþí154. ðñüôåéíå ôçí êáôåäÜöéóç êáé ôçí åê íÝïõ êáôáóêåõÞ
ÅîÝëéîç áðïöáóéóôéêÞò óçìáóßáò ãéá ôç äéÜóùóç ôïõ ôõìðÜíïõ ôïõ ôñïýëïõ êáé ôç óôåñÝùóç ôùí
ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ Þôáí ç ßäñõóç ôçò ×ñéóôéáíéêÞò óöáéñéêþí ôñéãþíùí, ôùí çìé÷ùíßùí, ôùí èüëùí êáé
Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò ôï 1885 óôçí ÁèÞíá. Ï ôùí ðåóóþí ðïõ ôï õðïóôÞñéæáí. Åðßóçò óõíÝóôçóáí
öïñÝáò áõôüò áíÝèåóå óå ôñéìåëÞ åðéôñïðÞ íá ôç äéüñèùóç ôùí øçöéäùôþí ôïõ ôñïýëïõ ÷ùñßò, üìùò,
åîåôÜóåé ôçí êáôÜóôáóç óôçí ïðïßá âñéóêüôáí íá óõìðëçñùèïýí ôá ìÝñç ðïõ Ýëëåéðáí. ¸ôóé, êáôÜ ôï
ôüôå ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ êáé íá ðñïôåßíåé ìÝôñá ãéá ôç 1891 åéäéêïß øçöïèÝôåò áðü ôï âåíåôóéÜíéêï åñãáóôÞñé
óôåñÝùóç ôïõ íáïý. Ç åðéôñïðÞ áðïôåëïýíôáí áðü Facchina áöáßñåóáí ôìçìáôéêÜ ðÜíù óå õöÜóìáôá
ôïí Ã. ËáìðÜêç, ôïí áñ÷éôÝêôïíá Ð. ÆÝæï êáé ôïí Ã. ôéò êáêïðáèçìÝíåò ðáñáóôÜóåéò ôïõ ÐáíôïêñÜôïñá
Âñïýôï, êáèçãçôÞ ãëõðôéêÞò óôï Ó÷ïëåßï ôùí Ôå÷íþí, êáé ôùí äåêáÝîé ðñïöçôþí áðü ôï ôýìðáíï ôïõ
äçëáäÞ ôç ìåôÝðåéôá Áíþôáôç Ó÷ïëÞ Êáëþí Ôå÷íþí. ôñïýëïõ. ÁìÝóùò ìåôÜ ç Õðçñåóßá Äçìïóßùí ¸ñãùí
Ôçí ßäéá ÷ñïíéÜ áíåôÝèç óôïí ËáìðÜêç ìå âáóéëéêü ðñï÷þñçóå óôçí êáôåäÜöéóç ôïõ ôñïýëïõ, êáèþò êáé
äéÜôáãìá ç äéåýèõíóç ôçò Åöïñßáò Âõæáíôéíþí êÜðïéùí ðñïóèçêþí (êùäùíïóôÜóéï êáé ïìÜäá êåëéþí),
Áñ÷áéïôÞôùí. Ôá ðïñßóìáôá ôçò ôñéìåëïýò åðéôñïðÞò 155 ðïõ åß÷áí ðñïóôåèåß óôï óõãêñüôçìá ôçò ìïíÞò åðß
äåí åöáñìüóôçêáí, ü÷é Üìåóá ôïõëÜ÷éóôïí, åíþ ç ìïíÞ Ôïõñêïêñáôßáò.
õðÝóôç ðåñáéôÝñù êáôáóôñïöÝò –êõñßùò ï øçöéäùôüò Óôçí áíáêáôáóêåõÞ ôïõ ôñïýëïõ ÷ñçóéìïðïéÞèçêáí
äéÜêïóìïò– ëüãù ìåãÜëïõ óåéóìïý ôï 1886 156 êáé ôçò ôá áñ÷éêÜ ôïýâëá, ðïõ åß÷áí áöáéñåèåß ìå ðñïóï÷Þ.
áêüëïõèçò ìåôáôñïðÞò ôçò óå ðïéìíéïóôÜóéï ôï 1887.
Ôïí ÍïÝìâñéï ôïõ 1888 ç ÃåíéêÞ Åöïñåßá Áñ÷áéïôÞôùí
åîåôÝëåóå óåéñÜ ìéêñïåðéóêåõþí, ðïõ óýìöùíá ìå ôïí
ËáìðÜêç Þôáí åíôåëþò åðéæÞìéåò. Ç ðëÝïí äñáóôéêÞ
áðü ôéò åðåìâÜóåéò Þôáí ç ïëïêëçñùôéêÞ áöáßñåóç
ôùí âõæáíôéíþí êåñÜìùí ðïõ êÜëõðôáí ôïí ôñïýëï êáé
ôç óôÝãç ôïõ íáïý êáé ç áíôéêáôÜóôáóÞ ôïõò ìå êïéíÜ,
êáêÞò ðïéüôçôïò êåñáìßäéá 157. Äýï ìÞíåò áñãüôåñá

Êïõöéêü êüóìçìá óôï åðßêñáíï ôçò ðáñáóôÜäáò ôïõ åîùíÜñèçêá


ôïõ êáèïëéêïý (Äåëôßïí ôçò ×ñéóôéáíéêÞò Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò,
1962-1963, ðßí. 8, åéê. 1).
100

Ç äõôéêÞ üøç ôïõ åîùíÜñèçêá ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ ðñéí áðü ôçí áíáóôÞëùóç êáé ôçí áðïêáôÜóôáóÞ
ôïõ áðü ôïí ÅõóôñÜôéï Óôßêá êáé ôïí ×áñÜëáìðï Ìðïýñá óôá ôÝëç ôçò äåêáåôßáò ôïõ 1950.

ÄåîéÜ: Ç äõôéêÞ üøç ôïõ åîùíÜñèçêá ìåôÜ ôçí áðïêáôÜóôáóç


(Äåëôßïí ôçò ×ñéóôéáíéêÞò Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò, 1962-1963, ðßí. 1, åéê. 1 êáé 2).

Óôç âÜóç ôïõ ôõìðÜíïõ ôïõ ôñïýëïõ ôïðïèåôÞèçêå êáὶ êáôÝóôñåøáí ôὴí ἀñ÷áßáí ìïñöὴí êáὶ ôὸ
óéäåñÝíéá óôåöÜíç äéáôïìÞò äéðëïý ôáõ, ïñáôÞ áêüìá ὅëïí ïἰêïäüìçìá ôῆò Ìïíῆò Äáöíßïõ, ὥóôå
êáé óÞìåñá, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ ïé ùèÞóåéò êáé ôá âÜñç ôïõ êõñéïëåêôéêῶò äõíÜìåèá íὰ åἴðùìåí ὅôé ὅóç
ôñïýëïõ íá ìåôáâéâÜæïíôáé ïìïéüìïñöá óå ïëüêëçñï ðáñáìüñöùóéí êáὶ êáôáóôñïöὴí ἐðÝöåñáí áἱ
ôï ïéêïäüìçìá159. ἐðéóêåõáὶ áὗôáé åἰò ôὸí Íáüí, äὲí ἐðÝöåñáí ïἱ äé’
Ï ðáèéáóìÝíïò ãéá ôç äéÜóùóç ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ ὅëùí ôῶí áἰþíùí äé’ áὐôïῦ äéåëèῶíôåò âÜñâáñïé.
ËáìðÜêçò äéÝêñéíå óïâáñÝò áðïêëßóåéò áðü ôçí Ôüôå êáôåóôñÜöç ὁ ðåñßêïìøïò ἀñ÷áῖïò ôïῦ
áñ÷éêÞ ìïñöÞ ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ êáé ÷áñáêôÞñéóå ôçí íáïῦ èüëïò êáὶ ἀíô’ áὐôïῦ ὑøþèç ôὸ íῦí ὑðÜñ÷ïí
áíáêáôáóêåõÞ ôïõ ôñïýëïõ êáôáóôñïöéêÞ: ἐîü÷ïõ ἀìáèåßáò ἄìïñöïí ἀñ÷éôåêôïíéêὸí
èïëïåéäὲò ἐîÜìâëùìá. Ôüôå êáôåêñéìíÞóèç
«Áἱ ἀðὸ ôïῦ 1891 ðñὸ ôïῦ ê. Ôñïὺìð äéåíåñãçèåῖóáé ôὸ ἐðὶ ôῆò ìåóçìâñéíῆò ðëåõñᾶò ôïῦ Íáïῦ
ἐðéóêåõáὶ ôïóïῦôï ἐîÞñèñùóáí, ðáñåìüñöùóáí êùäùíïóôÜóéïí, ὅðåñ ἦí ôὸ ìüíïí ἐí ἈèÞíáéò
101

ìíçìåῖïí ôὸ äéáóῶæïí ôὰ ðåôáëüó÷çìá öñáãêéêὰ Ἑëëçíéêïῦ ×ñéóôéáíéóìïῦ ìíçìåῖïí, ὅðåñ ïἱ áἰῶíåò


ôüîá, ôüôå êáôåóôñÜöçóáí ôὰ ëáìðñὰ êáὶ ãëáöõñὰ ó÷åäὸí óῶïí êáὶ ἀâëáâὲò ἡìῖí ðåñéÝóùóáí»161.
êåñáìïðëáóôéêὰ ôïῦ íáïῦ êïóìÞìáôá […]»160.
Ãéá ôçí åðáíáôïðïèÝôçóç ôùí øçöéäùôþí óôïí
Ï ËáìðÜêçò óõíå÷ßæåé êáõôçñéÜæïíôáò ðïéêßëåò ôñïýëï ôï Õðïõñãåßï Ðáéäåßáò êÜëåóå ôïí ÂåíåôóéÜíï
êáôáóôñïöÝò ðïõ åðÝöåñå ç óõíôÞñçóç-óôåñÝùóç ôïõ ìùóáúóôÞ Fransisco Novo, äéüôé áõôüò ôïõ åñãáóôçñßïõ
íáïý, êáé êáôáëÞãåé üôé Facchina ðïõ åß÷å «êáôåâÜóåé» ôçí ðáñÜóôáóç
ôïõ ÐáíôïêñÜôïñá êáé ôùí ðñïöçôþí æçôïýóå
«ôïóáῦôáé ἐðὶ ôïῦ ïἰêïäïìÞìáôïò ἐðÞëèáí õðÝñïãêç áìïéâÞ. Ï Novo îåêßíçóå ôçí åñãáóßá ôïõ
êáôáóôñïöáß, ὥóôå öñßôôåé ôὶò ἀíáëïãéæüìåíïò óôï Äáöíß ôïí Áýãïõóôï ôïõ 1892. ÅñãÜóôçêå åêåß
ὅôé, ôῆò Ἑëëçíéêῆò êõâåñíÞóåùò ÷ïñçãïýóçò, åðß ðÝíôå ÷ñüíéá åðéêïëëþíôáò ôá øçöéäùôÜ ôïõ
äéὰ ðáíôὸò ἀðùëÝóèç ôὸ ðïëýôéìïí ôïῦôï ôïῦ ôñïõëáßïõ ôõìðÜíïõ êáé Üëëá, êáé êáèáñßæïíôáò êáé
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óôåñåþíïíôáò ôçí øçöéäùôÞ äéáêüóìçóç óå ïëüêëçñï ðïëýôéìç óôÞñéîç óôï ìíçìåßï.


ôïí íáü. Ôá áðïôåëÝóìáôá ôçò äïõëåéÜò ôïõ Novo Ôïí ÓåðôÝìâñéï ôïõ 1894 óõãêñïôÞèçêå íÝá åðéôñïðÞ
äåí êñßèçêáí éäéáßôåñá éêáíïðïéçôéêÜ. Ï áñ÷áéïëüãïò ìåëÝôçò ãéá ôçí áíáóôÞëùóç ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ, ç
ÅõóôñÜôéïò Óôßêáò, ï ïðïßïò åñãÜóôçêå óôï Äáöíß áðü ïðïßá áðïöÜóéóå üôé Ýðñåðå íá êáôåäáöéóôåß êáé
ôï 1959 êáé åîÞò, õðïóôÞñéîå: íá áíáóôçëùèåß ï åôïéìüññïðïò äõôéêüò ôïß÷ïò
ôïõ íÜñèçêá êáé íá áöáéñåèïýí ïé ïðïéåóäÞðïôå
«Ὁ Ἰôáëὸò øçöïèÝôçò Íüâï ἔêáíå ðïëëὰ ìåôáãåíÝóôåñåò ðñïóèÞêåò. Ç åñãáóßá áõôÞ áíáôÝèçêå
óöÜëìáôá êáôὰ ôὰò ἐñãáóßáò ἐðáíáôïðïèåôÞóåùò óôïí áñ÷éôÝêôïíá ôçò ÃáëëéêÞò Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò
ôῶí øçöéäùôῶí ôïῦ ôñïýëëïõ· äéüôé åἰñãÜæåôï Ó÷ïëÞò Åugene Troump êáé Ýãéíå ìå äáðÜíåò ôçò
ἄíåõ ïὐäåìéᾶò ἐðéóôçìïíéêῆò ἐðïðôåßáò. Ïὕôù Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò 163.
ἐôïðïèÝôçóå ἐóöáëìÝíùò ôïὺò ðñïöÞôáò åἰò ôὸ ÊáôÜ ôéò ðñþôåò äåêáåôßåò ôïõ 20ïý áéþíá êáìßá
ôýìðáíïí ôïῦ ôñïýëëïõ, äéüôé ἤëëáîå ôὰò èÝóåéò åñãáóßá äåí Ýãéíå óôç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ, ìå åîáßñåóç
ôùí, ἀöïῦ åἰò ôὴí èÝóéí ôïῦ ðñïöÞôïõ ÌùûóÝùò, êÜðïéïõò êáèáñéóìïýò êáé óôåñåþóåéò ðåñéïñéóìÝíçò
ὅóôéò ἦôï ὁ ðñῶôïò êáôὰ óåéñÜí, ἐôïðïèÝôçóå ôὸí Ýêôáóçò164. Ìéá åíäéáöÝñïõóá ðåñéãñáöÞ ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ
ðñïöÞôçí Äáõßä, ὅóôéò ἦôï ὁ ôåëåõôáῖïò, êáὶ ïὕôù êáôÜ ôç äéÜñêåéá ôçò äåêáåôßáò ôïõ 1920 âñßóêïõìå
ἤëëáîå äéáäï÷éêῶò ἁðÜóáò ôὰò ἀñ÷éêὰò èÝóåéò óôï ìõèéóôüñçìá Ëåìïíüäáóïò (1930) ôïõ ÊïóìÜ
ôῶí ðñïöçôῶí. Ὠóáýôùò ὁ Ἰôáëὸò ôå÷íßôçò ðñïÝâç Ðïëßôç (1893-1974). Åêåß, ï êåíôñéêüò Þñùáò Ðáýëïò
åἰò ôὴí äéüñèùóéí ôῶí ῥÞóåùí ôῶí ðñïöçôῶí Áðïóôüëïõ Ý÷åé áíáëÜâåé ìå ôïí ðáôÝñá ôïõ –
êáὶ ôῶí ὀíïìÜôùí ôῶí ἁãßùí êáß, ἐðåéäὴ äὲí áñ÷éôÝêôïíåò êáé ïé äýï óôï åðÜããåëìá– ôçí åðéóôáóßá
ἐãíþñéæå ôὴí ἑëëçíéêὴí ãëῶóóáí, ðáñåìüñöùóå ôçò óõìðëÞñùóçò ôùí øçöéäùôþí ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ðïõ
ôáýôáò, ðáñÞëëáîå äὲ êáὶ äéÜöïñá ãñÜììáôá ôῶí ðáñïõóéÜæïíôáé êáôåóôñáììÝíá óå ìåãÜëï âáèìü 165. Ï
ὀíïìÜôùí ôῶí ἁãßùí. Ðïëßôçò âñßóêåé åõêáéñßá íá ìáò ÷áñßóåé ìéá óýíôïìç
»Ἐêåῖíï ὅìùò ôὸ ὁðïῖï åἶíáé ἀóõã÷þñçôï, åἶíáé ðåñéãñáöÞ ôçò ìïíÞò üôáí ï Ðáýëïò ìå ôç ößëç ôïõ
ὅôé […] ὁ ἐí ëüãῳ øçöïèÝôçò, ðáñὰ ôὴí ῥçôὴí ËÞäá ðçãáßíïõí ìéá óýíôïìç åêäñïìÞ ùò åêåß. Áðü ìéá
ἀðüöáóéí ôῆò ἐðéôñïðῆò íὰ ìὴ ãßíåé ïὐäåìßá ìéêñÞ ðïñôïýëá ìðáßíïõí óôïí ðåñßâïëï:
óõìðëÞñùóéò ôῶí êåíῶí, ἐí ôïýôïéò ïὗôïò ðñïÝâç
åἰò åὐñåßáò, äõóôõ÷ῶò, êëßìáêïò óõìðëÞñùóéí «Êáôåâáßíïìå ìðñïóôÜ óå êÜðïéá ÷áìçëÞ
ôῶí ἐëëåéðüíôùí ìåñῶí ôῶí äéáöüñùí ðïñôïýëá, êé üðùò ôç äéáóêåëßæïìå áöÞíù ðßóù
ðáñáóôÜóåùí»162. ôï ÷áñïýìåíï öùò ôçò áñ÷áßáò ÅëëÜäáò êáé
êáôåâáßíù óôï óêïôÜäé ôïõ ìåóáßùíá.
Åêôüò áðü ôéò áõèáéñåóßåò ôïõ Novo, óôï ìíçìåßï ôïõ Ç ìåãÜëç ÷ïñôáñéáóìÝíç áõëÞ. Óôï âÜèïò ôï
Äáöíßïõ Ýãéíáí êáé Üëëåò ëéãüôåñï Þ ðåñéóóüôåñï ÷ôßñéï ôïõ êïéíüâéïõ ìå ôéò âáñéÝò áøßäåò. Ïé
áõèáßñåôåò åðåìâÜóåéò. ÊáôÜ ôï 1893 ï ìç÷áíéêüò êïëüíåò ôçò óôïÜò, ÷ùóìÝíåò ìåò ôç ãç ùò ðÜíù,
Êáëëßáò ôïðïèÝôçóå óéäåñïäåóéÝò óôïí íÜñèçêá êïíôÜ ùò ôá êéïíüêñáíá, äßíïõí ôçí åíôýðùóç ðùò
áëëÜ êáé óå Üëëá ìÝñç ôïõ êõñßùò íáïý ðïõ Þôáí ÷þíïõíôáé êÜèå óôéãìÞ üëï êáé ðéï âáèéÜ, ðùò äå
åôïéìüññïðá êáé Ý÷ñçæáí Üìåóçò óôÞñéîçò. ÌåôÜ ôïõò è’ áñãÞóåé íá êáôáðéåß ïëüêëçñï ôï ÷ôßñéï ç ãç.
êáôáóôñïöéêïýò óåéóìïýò ôïõ 1894, ðïõ ðñïêÜëåóáí ÖùíÜæïõíå âïÞèåéá êáèþò âïõëéÜæïõí.
ðåñáéôÝñù öèïñÝò óôïí ôñïýëï, äýï ïãêþäåéò Ç åêêëçóßá ïñèþíåôáé ðÜíù óôï æáöåéñÝíéï
áíôéáéóèçôéêÝò áíôçñßäåò, ðïõ Ý÷ïõí åðéâéþóåé ìÝ÷ñé ïõñáíü, ìåôÝùñç, óáí ýøùóç óå ëåéôïõñãßá,
ôéò ìÝñåò ìáò, ðñïóêïëëÞèçêáí óôçí åîùôåñéêÞ êÜëõêáò ÷ñõóüò áíÜìåóá óå äýï óâçóìÝíåò
ðëåõñÜ ôçò âüñåéáò êåñáßáò ôïõ íáïý. ÂÝâáéá, ðáñÜ ôá ìáýñåò ëáìðÜäåò – ôá äýï øçëÜ îåãõìíùìÝíá
áéóèçôéêÜ ðñïâëÞìáôá ðïõ äçìéïýñãçóáí, ïé åí ëüãù êõðáñßóóéá.
áíôçñßäåò ðñïóÝöåñáí êáé óõíå÷ßæïõí íá ðñïóöÝñïõí »Áíåâáßíïìå ôá óêáëéÜ ôïõ ðñüíáïõ. Åêåß ðëÜé
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¢ðïøç ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ áðü ôá âïñåéïáíáôïëéêÜ.

÷Üóêïõíå áíïé÷ôÝò äýï óáñêïöÜãïé, óáí êüêáëá Vasoignes óôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü ôï 1854, áëëÜ êáé áõôÞ ôïõ
ðïõ áóðñßæïõíå óôïí Þëéï. Åßìáé ðéá åîïéêåéùìÝíïò ÄçìÞôñéïõ Êáìðïýñïãëïõ óôïí ÷þñï ãýñù áðü ôç
óôçí áðïóýíèåóç áõôÞ: Ýíá ðåñéâÜëëïí ðïõ êÜèå ìïíÞ ôç äåêáåôßá ôïõ 1890 åß÷áí åíôåëþò åñáóéôå÷íéêü
ìÝñá ðåèáßíåé êáé ëßãï ðéï ðïëý»166. ÷áñáêôÞñá.
ÊáôÜ ôï â´ Þìéóõ ôçò äåêáåôßáò ôïõ 1950 Ýãéíáí
Ç ïñèÞ ôïðïãñáößá ôçò ðåñéãñáöÞò ôïõ Ðïëßôç åêôåôáìÝíåò åñãáóßåò óõíôÞñçóçò óôïí íáü êáé
ìÜò ðåßèåé üôé áðïôåëåß áðïôÝëåóìá åðßóêåøçò óôåñÝùóçò ôïõ øçöéäùôïý äéáêüóìïõ ôïõ áðü ôç
ôïõ óõããñáöÝá óôïí ÷þñï êáé ü÷é ãÝííçìá ôçò Äéåýèõíóç Áíáóôçëþóåùò ôïõ Õðïõñãåßïõ Ðïëéôéóìïý.
äçìéïõñãéêÞò ôïõ öáíôáóßáò. Äõóôõ÷þò, äåí óõíÝ÷éóå ÅðéêåöáëÞò ôçò üëçò åðé÷åßñçóçò Þôáí ï ôüôå
ôçí ðåñéãñáöÞ êáé óôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ êáèïëéêïý, ôï äéåõèõíôÞò Áíáóôçëþóåùí, êáèçãçôÞò ÁíáóôÜóéïò
ïðïßï ç ìõèïðëáóßá ôïõ Þèåëå ãåìÜôï óêáëùóéÝò, ÏñëÜíäïò (1887-1979), ï ïðïßïò óå óõíåñãáóßá ìå
ðïõ åìðüäéóáí ôïõò åðéóêÝðôåò íá èáõìÜóïõí ôá ôïí ôüôå Ýöïñï Âõæáíôéíþí Áñ÷áéïôÞôùí Ìáíþëç
øçöéäùôÜ167. ×áôæçäÜêç Üíïéîå áñêåôÝò áíáóêáöéêÝò ôïìÝò óå
ÊáôÜ ôá Ýôç 1936-1939 ï áñ÷áéïëüãïò ÉùÜííçò äéÜöïñá óçìåßá ôçò ìïíÞò. Ôï Ýñãï ÷ñçìáôïäïôÞèçêå
Ôñáõëüò ðñáãìáôïðïßçóå óõóôçìáôéêÞ áíáóêáöéêÞ áðü ôçí Åí ÁèÞíáéò Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞ Åôáéñåßá 168. Ðåñß
Ýñåõíá óôïí ÷þñï ôïõ ìïíáóôçñéïý, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ôá ôÝëç ôçò äåêáåôßáò ôïõ 1950 ï áñ÷áéïëüãïò
åíôïðßóåé êáé íá ìåëåôÞóåé ôá êáôÜëïéðá ôïõ éåñïý ÅõóôñÜôéïò Óôßêáò ìå ôïí áñ÷éôÝêôïíá ×áñÜëáìðï
ôïõ Äáöíáßïõ Áðüëëùíá. Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá ôçí ðñþôç Ìðïýñá åñãÜóôçêáí óôç óôåñÝùóç êáé óôçí
ïõóéáóôéêÞ áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞ Ýñåõíá óôï Äáöíß, áöïý ç áðïêáôÜóôáóç ôïõ åîùíÜñèçêá ôïõ êáèïëéêïý 169, åíþ
áíáóêáöéêÞ äñáóôçñéüôçôá ôïõ ÃÜëëïõ óôñáôçãïý de ôï 1968 êáèáñßóôçêå ç äõôéêÞ ðýëç ôçò ìïíÞò.
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Ôï 1990 ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ åããñÜöçêå óôïí Ðáãêüóìéï ¸ôóé, ïé áéóéüäïîåò ðñïâëÝøåéò ãéá ôï ëáìðñü
ÊáôÜëïãï ÐïëéôéóôéêÞò ÊëçñïíïìéÜò ôçò UNESCO170. ìÝëëïí ôïõ ìïíáóôçñéïý ðïõ Ýêáíå ï Hans Christian
¸ôóé, ç ðñïóôáóßá ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ åîáóöáëßóôçêå ü÷é Andersen ôï 1841 ìÝóá óôç ÷ïñôáñéáóìÝíç áõëÞ ôïõ
ìüíï óå åèíéêü áëëÜ êáé óå ðáãêüóìéï åðßðåäï. ìïíáóôçñéïý, ìðñïóôÜ óôïí åñåéðùìÝíï íáü, èá
Óýìöùíá ìå ôïõò êáíïíéóìïýò ôçò UNESCO, üëåò ðñáãìáôïðïéçèïýí óôéò áñ÷Ýò ôïõ 21ïõ áéþíá:
ïé ÷þñåò óôéò ïðïßåò âñßóêïíôáé ôá ìíçìåßá ôïõ
ðáñáðÜíù êáôáëüãïõ, Ý÷ïõí äåóìåõôåß íá ôá «Ìá åßìáé óßãïõñïò ðùò ôá êáíôÞëéá èá êáßíå, êáé
óõíôçñïýí êáé íá ôá áíáäåéêíýïõí. ¸ôóé, ç Äéåýèõíóç ôüôå èá ’íáé áóçìÝíéá. ÔñéáíôÜöõëëá èá áíèßæïõí
Âõæáíôéíþí êáé Ìåôáâõæáíôéíþí Ìíçìåßùí, ç Äéåýèõíóç óôïí ôüðï ðïõ óêåðÜæïõí ïé ôóïõêíßäåò. Ôþñá
ÓõíôÞñçóçò Áñ÷áéïôÞôùí, ç Äéåýèõíóç ÁíáóôÞëùóçò äá ìáò ôï ’ëåãå øéèõñéóôÜ ôï êáëü ðíåýìá ôçò
Âõæáíôéíþí êáé Ìåôáâõæáíôéíþí Ìíçìåßùí êáé ç 1ç ÅëëÜäáò. Ôï Äáöíß èá îáíáóçêùèåß ìåó’ áðü ôá
Åöïñåßá Âõæáíôéíþí Áñ÷áéïôÞôùí, üðïõ õðÜãåôáé åñåßðéá êáé óôï äñüìï åäþ ôçò Åëåõóßíáò, üðùò
ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ, åêðüíçóáí Ýíá ìáêñüðíïï ó÷Ýäéï óôçí Éôáëßá, èá ïäïéðïñïýí êáé ðÜëé ïé îÝíïé.
ïëïêëçñùìÝíçò ðñïóôáóßáò êáé áíÜäåéîçò ôïõ Èá îáíáíèßóåé ôï Äáöíß! Óå ôïýôç ôçí áõëÞ, ðïõ
ìíçìåßïõ. ÐáñÜëëçëá ðñïùèÞèçêå ç áîéïðïßçóÞ ôïõ ìüíï ãáúäïõñÜãêáèá âëáóôáßíïõí, èá ðñáóéíßóåé
ãéá äéäáêôéêïýò óêïðïýò ìÝóù ôçò äéïñãÜíùóçò óôïí ç äÜöíç, èá ìïóêïâïëÞóåé ôï ëéâÜíé êáé ôá
÷þñï åêðáéäåõôéêþí ðñïãñáììÜôùí ãéá ìáèçôÝò. ãïíáôéóìÝíá ðáéäéÜ èá âëÝðïõí ìéá éåñÞ ðëçãÞ
Ïé óïâáñÝò æçìéÝò ðïõ õðÝóôç ôï ìïíáóôÞñé ìåôÜ ôïí óôï ìÜôé ôïõ ×ñéóôïý, óôï óôüìá êáé ôç äüîá ôïõ,
ðñüóöáôï éó÷õñü óåéóìü ôïõ 1999 áíÜãêáóáí ôïõò åêåß ðïõ ðÝôõ÷å ôï ôïýñêéêï âüëé»172.
åðéóôÞìïíåò êáé ôçí ðïëéôåßá íá åíôáôéêïðïéÞóïõí
ôç äñÜóç ôïõò, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá åðéôý÷ïõí ôçí
áðïôåëåóìáôéêÞ óôÞñéîç êáé ðñïóôáóßá ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ. Ç áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ
Ï áñ÷áéïëïãéêüò ÷þñïò Ýêëåéóå ãéá ôï êïéíü, êáèþò
åêôåëïýíôáé óõóôçìáôéêÝò åñãáóßåò áðü ôçí 1ç Åöïñßá ¼ðùò êÜèå ìïíÞ, Ýôóé êáé áõôÞ ôïõ Äáöíßïõ åß÷å
Âõæáíôéíþí Áñ÷áéïôÞôùí. Ç õðïóôýëùóç ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ÷ôéóôåß ìå ôÝôïéï ôñüðï, þóôå íá éêáíïðïéåß ôéò
ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ õðÞñîå ôï ðñùôáñ÷éêü ìÝëçìá. ëáôñåõôéêÝò áëëÜ êáé ðñáêôéêÝò áíÜãêåò ôçò
Ðñïò ôï ðáñüí ï íáüò õðïóôçñßæåôáé áðü ìåôáëëéêÜ ìïíáóôéêÞò êïéíüôçôáò ðïõ èá öéëïîåíïýóå. Ç
óôçñßãìáôá óýã÷ñïíçò ó÷åäßáóçò êáé ôå÷íïëïãßáò áðïôåëåóìáôéêÞ åîõðçñÝôçóç áõôþí ôùí áíáãêþí
ó÷åäüí óå ïëüêëçñï ôï ýøïò ôïõ åóùôåñéêÜ êáé õðÞñîå êáé ç êáôåîï÷Þí áéôßá ôùí ðïéêßëùí ðñïóèçêþí,
åîùôåñéêÜ. ÐáñÜëëçëá, äéåíåñãïýíôáé ìåëÝôåò ðïõ èá ôñïðïðïéÞóåùí êáé åðéóêåõþí ðïõ ðñáãìáôïðïéÞèçêáí
åðéôñÝøïõí ôçí ïñéóôéêÞ áðïìÜêñõíóç ôùí ìåôáëëéêþí êáôÜ ôç äéÜñêåéá ôçò ìáêñáßùíçò ëåéôïõñãßáò ôçò 173.
õðïóôõëþóåùí êáé ôçí áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ áðïêáôÜóôáóç Åéäéêüôåñá, ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ áðïôåëåßôáé áðü ôï
êáé áíÜäåéîç ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ. Óôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ êáèïëéêü, ôïí ðåñßâïëï, ôá êåëéÜ ôùí ìïíá÷þí, ôçí
íáïý ðñáãìáôïðïéåßôáé óõóôçìáôéêÞ óõíôÞñçóç ôïõ ôñÜðåæá, ôï ìáãåéñåßï, ôïí ëïõôñþíá, ôçí êéíóôÝñíá êáé
øçöéäùôïý äéÜêïóìïõ. ¸÷åé, áêüìá, ðñïãñáììáôéóôåß ìßá ïñèïãþíéá áßèïõóá.
ìåëÝôç ìÝóù áíáóêáöéêÞò Ýñåõíáò óå äéÜöïñá
óçìåßá ôçò ìïíÞò, ç äçìéïõñãßá ìéêñïý ìïõóåßïõ Ôï êáèïëéêü. Åßíáé ó÷åäüí áõôïíüçôï üôé ôï ðëÝïí
ìå åðïðôéêü õëéêü, ç áíáóôÞëùóç êáé ç áíÜäåéîç óçìáíôéêü êôßóìá åíüò ìïíáóôçñéïý åßíáé ôï êáèïëéêü,
êÜðïéùí ïéêïäïìçìÜôùí ãýñù áðü ôï êáèïëéêü êáé äçëáäÞ ï êõñßùò íáüò, ïõóéáóôéêÜ ôï åðßêåíôñï ôçò
ç äéáìüñöùóç êáé ç ðñïóôáóßá ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò ðíåõìáôéêÞò æùÞò ôùí ìïíá÷þí. Ôï êáèïëéêü Ý÷åé êáôÜ
÷þñïõ171. Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá Ýíá ìáêñïðñüèåóìï êáíüíá ìíçìåéáêÞ ìïñöÞ, ôïõëÜ÷éóôïí óå ó÷Ýóç ìå
ðñüãñáììá, ðïõ óôï÷åýåé óôçí ïñéóôéêÞ áðïêáôÜóôáóç ôá õðüëïéðá êôßóìáôá, êáé êáôáëáìâÜíåé ôï êÝíôñï
ôïõ Äáöíßïõ. ôïõ ÷þñïõ ðïõ ðåñéêëåßåôáé áðü ôïí ðåñßâïëï ôçò
105

ìïíÞò. ÐñÜãìáôé, ôï êáèïëéêü ôïõ Äáöíßïõ, äåóðüæåé êáé ôï ìåôáôñÝðïõí óå ïêôÜãùíï. Óå áõôü óôçñßæåôáé
óôï ìÝóïí ôçò ó÷åäüí ôåôñÜãùíçò åõñý÷ùñçò ï ôñïýëïò ìÝóù ïêôþ ìéêñþí óöáéñéêþí ôñéãþíùí
áõëÞò. Ôï åíôõðùóéáêü ôïõ ìÝãåèïò, ï ðåñßðëïêïò ðïõ ó÷çìáôßæïíôáé ìåôáîý ôùí ôüîùí ðïõ óõíäÝïõí ôá
áñ÷éôåêôïíéêüò ôïõ ôýðïò êáé ç åîáéñåôéêÞò ðïéüôçôáò ïêôþ óôçñßãìáôá.
êáé áêñßâåéáò ôïé÷ïäïìßá ôïõ õðïãñáììßæïõí ôçí Ïé ïêôáãùíéêïß íáïß äéáêñßíïíôáé óå áðëïýò êáé
îå÷ùñéóôÞ ôïõ ëåéôïõñãßá. óýíèåôïõò. Óôïõò ðñþôïõò ôá ïêôþ óôçñßãìáôá
Ôï êáèïëéêü ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ áíÞêåé óôïí óýíèåôï ôïõ ôñïýëïõ åßíáé åíóùìáôùìÝíá óôïõò ôïß÷ïõò
ïêôáãùíéêü áñ÷éôåêôïíéêü ôýðï· áðïôåëåß ìÜëéóôá (ðáñáóôÜäåò), áöÞíïíôáò åíôåëþò åëåýèåñï
Ýíá áðü ôá óçìáíôéêüôåñá ðáñáäåßãìáôá ôïõ ôýðïõ ôïí åóùôåñéêü ÷þñï ôïõ íáïý. Óôïõò óýíèåôïõò
áõôïý óôïí åëëáäéêü ÷þñï. ÅîùôåñéêÜ, ï êõñßùò íáüò ïêôáãùíéêïýò íáïýò ôá óôçñßãìáôá ôïõ ôñïýëïõ
äßíåé ôçí åíôýðùóç ìåãÜëïõ êýâïõ, ðïõ õðïóôçñßæåé âñßóêïíôáé óå êÜðïéá áðüóôáóç áðü ôïõò åîùôåñéêïýò
Ýíáí ðëáôý áëëÜ êáé õøçëü ôñïýëï. ÅóùôåñéêÜ, ï ôïß÷ïõò. ¸ôóé, ï êåíôñéêüò ÷þñïò ðëáéóéþíåôáé óôéò
âáñýò ôñïýëïò «ðáôÜåé» óå ïêôþ éó÷õñÜ ôåôñÜðëåõñá ãùíßåò ìå ìéêñüôåñá äéáìåñßóìáôá. Ïé óýíèåôïé
óôçñßãìáôá (ðåóóïýò), ôÝóóåñá åëåýèåñá êáé ôÝóóåñá ïêôáãùíéêïß íáïß åßíáé óôáõñïåéäåßò åããåãñáììÝíïé 174
åíóùìáôùìÝíá óôïõò ôïß÷ïõò. Ï ÷áñáêôçñéóìüò ìå äéåõñõìÝíï ôïí ÷þñï êÜôù áðü ôïí ôñïýëï.
ïêôáãùíéêüò ðñïêýðôåé áðü ôçí ïêôáðëÞ óôÞñéîç ôïõ Áíôßèåôá áðü ôïõò áðëïýò ïêôáãùíéêïýò, ï óôáõñüò
ôñïýëïõ. Ïé ðåóóïß äéáôáãìÝíïé áíÜ æåýãç ó÷çìáôßæïõí äéáãñÜöåôáé ìå áñêåôÞ óáöÞíåéá ôüóï óôï åóùôåñéêü
ôÝóóåñéò ãùíéáêÝò êüã÷åò (çìé÷þíéá), ïé ïðïßåò üóï êáé óôï åîùôåñéêü ôïõ íáïý 175.
ãåöõñþíïõí ôéò ãùíßåò ôïõ ôåôñáãþíïõ ôçò âÜóçò ÐåñóéêÜ êáé áñìåíéêÜ ðñüôõðá Ý÷ïõí áíáãíùñéóôåß

ÊÜôïøç ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ.


106

Ó÷åäéáóôéêÞ áíáðáñÜóôáóç ôçò íüôéáò üøçò ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ
107

(Äåëôßïí ôçò ×ñéóôéáíéêÞò Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò, 1962-1963, óåë. 36, åéê. 15).
108

Ó÷åäéáóôéêÞ áíáðáñÜóôáóç ôçò äõôéêÞò üøçò ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ
(Äåëôßïí ôçò ×ñéóôéáíéêÞò Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò, 1962-1963, óåë. 31, åéê. 11).
109

ÊïóìÞôçò ìå ãëõðôÞ äéáêüóìçóç áðü ôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ.

ãéá ôïõò ïêôáãùíéêïýò íáïýò, ðïõ üìùò äéáäüèçêáí åêêëçóßåò ôïõ íçóéïý, åíþ ðáñáëëáãÝò ôïõ áðáíôïýí
óôïí åëëáäéêü ÷þñï ìÝóù ôçò Êùíóôáíôéíïýðïëçò. óôçí çðåéñùôéêÞ ÅëëÜäá êáé ôçí Êýðñï 176.
Åêåß öáßíåôáé ðùò ç éäÝá ôçò óôÞñéîçò ôïõ ôñïýëïõ Ôüóï óôïõò áðëïýò üóï êáé óôïõò óýíèåôïõò
óå ïêôþ óôçñßãìáôá åðéóôåöüìåíá áðü çìé÷þíéá åß÷å ïêôáãùíéêïýò íáïýò ï ÷þñïò êÜôù áðü ôïí ôñïýëï
÷ñçóéìïðïéçèåß óå áõôïêñáôïñéêÜ éäñýìáôá, êôÞñéá åßíáé áíïéêôüò êáé åíéáßïò, äçìéïõñãþíôáò áßóèçóç
ëáôñåõôéêÜ áëëÜ êáé êïóìéêÜ êáôÜ ôïí 10ï êáé ôïí åíüôçôáò êáé áíÜôáóçò. Óôï Äáöíß, ç áßóèçóç áõôÞ
11ï áéþíá. Ôá êùíóôáíôéíïõðïëßôéêá áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÜ åðéôåßíåôáé áðü ôï öùò ðïõ äéá÷Ýåôáé ïìïéüìïñöá
óôïé÷åßá ðïõ âñßóêïõìå óôï êáèïëéêü ôçò ìïíÞò óôïí ÷þñï áðü ôá äåêáÝîé ìïíüëïâá ðáñÜèõñá
ôïõ Ïóßïõ ËïõêÜ óôç Öùêßäá (áñ÷Ýò 11ïõ áéþíá), ðïõ áíïßãïíôáé óôïí ôñïýëï. ÅîùôåñéêÜ, ôï êôÞñéï
ðïõ áðïôåëåß êáé ôï ðñùéìüôåñï ðáñÜäåéãìá õøþíåôáé ðõñáìéäùôÜ ìÝ÷ñé ôçí êïñõöÞ ôïõ ôñïýëïõ.
ïêôáãùíéêïý íáïý óôïí åëëáäéêü ÷þñï, åíéó÷ýïõí Åßíáé ÷ôéóìÝíï êáôÜ ôï ðëéíèïðåñßêëåéóôï óýóôçìá 177.
áõôÞí ôçí Üðïøç. ÅðéðëÝïí, êáé ç ÍÝá ÌïíÞ ×ßïõ, ôï Äåí õðÜñ÷ïõí êïõöéêÜ äéáêïóìçôéêÜ óôïé÷åßá 178,
êáèïëéêü (1045) ôçò ïðïßáò áðïôåëåß Ýíáí áðü ôïõò åíþ óõ÷íÜ ðáñáëåßðåôáé êáé ç áðëÞ êáôáêüñõöç
óçìáíôéêüôåñïõò ïêôáãùíéêïýò íáïýò óôçí ÅëëÜäá, ðëßíèïò. Óôá ôýìðáíá ôïõ íüôéïõ êáé ôïõ äõôéêïý
åßíáé óôåíÜ óõíäåäåìÝíç ìå ôçí Êùíóôáíôéíïýðïëç. ôïß÷ïõ Ý÷åé åíôïðéóôåß øåõäïêïõöéêüò äéÜêïóìïò.
Ðáñ’ üëá áõôÜ ôá ðëÝïí óçìáíôéêÜ ðáñáäåßãìáôá ÃåíéêÜ, ï êåñáìïðëáóôéêüò äéÜêïóìïò åßíáé áñêåôÜ
áõôïý ôïõ áñ÷éôåêôïíéêïý ôýðïõ ðñïÝñ÷ïíôáé áðü ëéôüò êáé áðïôåëåßôáé êõñßùò áðü ïäïíôùôÝò ôáéíßåò
ôïí åëëáäéêü ÷þñï êáé áöïñïýí áðïêëåéóôéêÜ íáúêÜ ãýñù áðü ôá ôüîá ôùí ðáñáèýñùí. ÐåñéïñéóìÝíïò
ïéêïäïìÞìáôá. Åêôüò áðü áõôÜ ðïõ áíáöÝñáìå áëëÜ åîáéñåôéêÜ êáëïöôéáãìÝíïò Þôáí êáé ï ãëõðôüò
ðáñáðÜíù, Ý÷ïõìå ôç Óþôåéñá ËõêïäÞìïõ óôçí ÁèÞíá äéÜêïóìïò óôï åóùôåñéêü êáé ôï åîùôåñéêü ôïõ íáïý.
(ëßãï ðñéí áðü ôï 1031), ôç Ìåôáìüñöùóç ×ñéóôéÜíïõ Ôï êÜôù ìÝñïò ôùí ôïß÷ùí Þôáí åóùôåñéêÜ êáëõììÝíï
óôçí Ôñéöõëëßá (12ïò áé.), ôçí Áãßá Óïößá Ìïíåìâáóßáò ìå ìáñìÜñéíåò ðëÜêåò (ïñèïìáñìÜñùóç). ÅîùôåñéêÜ,
(1150). Ï óýíèåôïò ïêôáãùíéêüò áñ÷éôåêôïíéêüò ôýðïò, êÜôù áðü ôéò ðïäéÝò ôùí ðáñáèýñùí ìåãÜëïé äüìïé
óôïí ïðïßï åíôÜóóïíôáé ïé ðáñáðÜíù íáïß åêôüò áðü ó÷çìáôßæïõí óôáõñïýò.
áõôüí ôçò ÍÝáò ÌïíÞò ×ßïõ, Þôáí éäéáßôåñá äçìïöéëÞò Óôç äõôéêÞ ðëåõñÜ ôïõ íáïý õðÞñ÷å íÜñèçêáò, üðïõ
óôç ÓôåñåÜ ÅëëÜäá êáé ôçí Ðåëïðüííçóï. Ï áðëüò ðñïóáñôÞèçêå êáé åîùíÜñèçêáò ìå ìïñöÞ áíïéêôÞò
ïêôáãùíéêüò íáüò ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ÍÝáò ÌïíÞò óôç óôïÜò ìå üñïöï êáôÜ ôïí 12ï áéþíá. Åêåß ðñÝðåé íá
×ßï áíôéãñÜöçêå ìå ìéêñÝò ðáñáëëáãÝò êáé óå Üëëåò âñßóêïíôáí ôá äéáìåñßóìáôá ôïõ çãïýìåíïõ êáé ç
110

âéâëéïèÞêç. Óôïí åîùíÜñèçêá Ý÷ïõí åíôïðéóôåß ß÷íç


ôïé÷ïãñáöéþí ôïõ 12ïõ êáé ôïõ 13ïõ áéþíá, åíþ óôïí
íáü Ý÷ïõí âñåèåß ìåôáâõæáíôéíÝò ôïé÷ïãñáößåò (17ïò
áéþíáò).

Ï ðåñßâïëïò. Ç ìïíÞ ðñïóôáôåõüôáí áðü éó÷õñü


ðåñßâïëï ôåôñÜãùíïõ ó÷Þìáôïò ìå ðëåõñÜ ðåñßðïõ
97 ìÝôñá. ¼ðùò óå üëá ôá ìïíáóôÞñéá, Ýôóé êáé óôï
Äáöíß, ï ðåñßâïëïò åß÷å ï÷õñùìáôéêü ÷áñáêôÞñá
êáé ìïñöïëïãßá179, ç ïðïßá ìðïñåß íá ìåëåôçèåß
ëåðôïìåñþò óôç âüñåéá ðëåõñÜ, üðïõ ôï ôåß÷ïò
óþæåôáé óå ðïëý êáëÞ êáôÜóôáóç. Åß÷å ýøïò 8 ìÝôñá
ìå ðåñßäñïìï ðëÜôïõò 1,6 ìÝôñá, äçëáäÞ åóùôåñéêü
äéÜäñïìï ðïõ åðÝôñåðå ôçí êßíçóç êáôÜ ìÞêïò ôïõ
ôåß÷ïõò, óôï ýøïò ôùí 6 ìÝôñùí. Ï ðåñßäñïìïò
õðïóôçñéæüôáí áðü ôõöëÞ ôïîïóôïé÷ßá. Ôï ôåß÷ïò
åðéóôåöüôáí óå ïëüêëçñï ôï ìÞêïò ôïõ áðü åðÜëîåéò,
åíþ ç ðïñåßá ôïõ äéáêïðôüôáí êáôÜ ôáêôÜ äéáóôÞìáôá
áðü ðýñãïõò ôåôñÜãùíçò êÜôïøçò. Ôñåéò áðü áõôïýò
Ý÷ïõí óùèåß ìÝ÷ñé ôéò ìÝñåò ìáò. Âñßóêïíôáé óôç
âüñåéá ðëåõñÜ ôïõ ðåñéâüëïõ êáé åßíáé ïñáôïß
üôáí ðåñíÜåé êáíåßò ìðñïóôÜ áðü ôï ìïíáóôÞñé
äéáó÷ßæïíôáò ôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü. Óôï êôßóéìï ôïõ ðåñéâüëïõ
åß÷áí ÷ñçóéìïðïéçèåß êñïêáëïðáãåßò ëßèïé êïììÝíïé óå
ìåãÜëá ïñèïãþíéá êïììÜôéá ìÞêïõò 1,6 ì. êáé ýøïõò
0,4-0,6 ì. êáé óõíäåäåìÝíïé ìå êïíßáìá, åíþ óõ÷íÜ
ðáñáôçñïýíôáé óôñþóåéò ðçëïðëßíèùí.
Ç êýñéá ðýëç ôïõ ìïíáóôçñéïý âñéóêüôáí óôï ìÝóïí
ôçò äõôéêÞò ðëåõñÜò ôïõ ðåñéâüëïõ, äçëáäÞ áðÝíáíôé
áðü ôçí åßóïäï ôïõ êáèïëéêïý. Ðñïóôáôåõüôáí áðü
ï÷õñùìáôéêü ðýñãï, ï ïðïßïò õøùíüôáí áðü ðÜíù ôçò
êáé åíéó÷õüôáí êáé áðü äýï ðëåõñéêïýò ðñïìá÷þíåò.
¸ôóé, ãéá íá åéóÝëèåé êáíåßò óôçí áõëÞ ôçò ìïíÞò
Ýðñåðå íá ðåñÜóåé áðü ôï äéáâáôéêü, êáìáñïóêÝðáóôï
äéÜäñïìï ìÞêïõò 6 ì. ðïõ áíïéãüôáí êÜôù áðü ôïí
ðýñãï. Ìéêñüôåñç ðýëç õðÞñ÷å êáé óôï ìÝóï ôçò
áíáôïëéêÞò ðëåõñÜò ôïõ ðåñéâüëïõ. Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá
ôçí åßóïäï ðïõ ÷ñçóéìïðïéåß ï óçìåñéíüò åðéóêÝðôçò,

ÅóùôåñéêÞ üøç ôïõ âüñåéïõ ôìÞìáôïò ôïõ ï÷õñùìáôéêïý


ðåñéâüëïõ ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ.
111
112

ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá åéóÝëèåé óôïí ôåé÷éóìÝíï ÷þñï. Ç


ýðáñîç äýï åéóüäùí óôïí ðåñßâïëï ôùí ìïíáóôçñéþí
äåí Þôáí éäéáßôåñá óõíçèéóìÝíï öáéíüìåíï áëëÜ
åðéôñåðüôáí áðü ôïí íüìï. ÐñÜãìáôé óôéò ÍåáñÝò (133,
1) ïñßæåôáé óáöþò üôé ïé ìïíÝò üöåéëáí íá Ý÷ïõí ôï
ðïëý äýï ðýëåò åéóüäïõ180
Ï ðåñßâïëïò Þôáí Ýíá áðü ôï ðéï âáóéêÜ
÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ ôùí âõæáíôéíþí ìïíáóôçñéþí, ðïõ
ëåéôïõñãïýóáí ùò ìéêñïãñáößåò ôùí ðüëåùí-êÜóôñùí.
Ç ðñïóôáóßá ôùí ìïíá÷þí êáé ôçò ìïíáóôéêÞò
ðåñéïõóßáò áðü éó÷õñü ï÷õñùìáôéêü ôåß÷ïò Þôáí
áðïëýôùò áíáãêáßá, êáèþò ïé ìïíÝò Þôáí óõíÞèùò
÷ôéóìÝíåò óå áðïìïíùìÝíåò åñçìéêÝò ôïðïèåóßåò.
Óå ðåñéðôþóåéò ìïíáóôçñéþí ðïõ ëåéôïõñãïýóáí
ìÝóá Þ ðïëý êïíôÜ óå ðüëåéò, ï ðåñßâïëïò êñéíüôáí
áðáñáßôçôïò, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá áðïìïíþóåé ôïõò
ìïíá÷ïýò áðü ôïõò ðåéñáóìïýò ôçò êïóìéêÞò æùÞò.
Ç ï÷ýñùóç ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ, ðïõ Þôáí ÷ôéóìÝíç
óå áðüóôáóç 10 ÷ëì. áðü ôçí ÁèÞíá, óå êáôÜöõôç
çìéïñåéíÞ ðåñéï÷Þ, áëëÜ åîáéñåôéêÜ ðïëõóý÷íáóôç áðü
ôáîéäéþôåò, åìðüñïõò êáé ìéêñïðùëçôÝò, óôñáôéþôåò
áëëÜ êáé ëçóôÝò êáé Üñðáãåò, öáßíåôáé ðùò
åîõðçñåôïýóå êáé ôïõò äýï ðáñáðÜíù óêïðïýò.

Ôá êåëéÜ ôùí ìïíá÷þí. Ôá êåëéÜ üðïõ


îåêïõñÜæïíôáí ïé ìïíá÷ïß êáôáóêåõÜæïíôáí óõíÞèùò
ðñïóêïëëçìÝíá óôçí åóùôåñéêÞ ðëåõñÜ ôïõ ðåñéâüëïõ,
ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá åîïéêïíïìçèåß ÷þñïò êáé íá åíéó÷õèåß
ï áìõíôéêüò ÷áñáêôÞñáò ôïõ. ÓõíÞèùò äéáôÜóóïíôáí
óå äýï ïñüöïõò, áí êáé Ý÷ïõìå ðáñáäåßãìáôá üðïõ ôá
êåëéÜ åß÷áí öôÜóåé ôïõò ôÝóóåñéò ïñüöïõò. Ïé ÷áìçëÝò
ðüñôåò ôùí êåëéþí Üíïéãáí êáôÜ êáíüíá óå óêåðáóôÝò
óôïÝò, ôïõò çëéáêïýò Þ Ýìâïëïõò. ÅóùôåñéêÜ, ôá
ìïíáóôéêÜ êåëéÜ åß÷áí ôéò êëßíåò êáé ìéêñÝò êüã÷åò ãéá
ôá ñïý÷á, ôá âéâëßá êáé ôá ðñïóùðéêÜ áíôéêåßìåíá ôùí
ìïíá÷þí181.
Óôï âüñåéï ôåß÷ïò ôïõ ìïíáóôçñéïý ôïõ Äáöíßïõ Ý÷ïõí
åíôïðéóôåß ß÷íç ðïõ ðñïäßäïõí ôç óáöÞ ýðáñîç êåëéþí:
õðïäï÷Ýò ãéá ôá äïêÜñéá ðïõ óôÞñéæáí ôï îýëéíï
äÜðåäï ôïõ Üíù ïñüöïõ êáé êüã÷åò ãéá ôá ðñïóùðéêÜ
åßäç ôùí ìïíá÷þí. Óôç äõôéêÞ ðëåõñÜ ôïõ ðåñéâüëïõ
ôá êåëéÜ äåí Þôáí ðñïóêïëëçìÝíá óôïí ðåñßâïëï,
Ó÷åäéáóôéêÞ áðüäïóç ôïõ êùäùíïóôáóßïõ ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ. áëëÜ âñßóêïíôáí óå ìéêñÞ áðüóôáóç áðü áõôüí. ¸ôóé,
113

Ðëéíèïðåñßêëåéóôï óýóôçìá
ôïé÷ïðïéßáò óôïí íüôéï ôïß÷ï
ôïõ êáèïëéêïý
ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ
(Äåëôßïí ôçò ×ñéóôéáíéêÞò
Áñ÷áéïëïãéêÞò Åôáéñåßáò,
1962-1963, ðßí.9, åéê. 3 êáé 4).
114

Ó÷åäéáóôéêÞ áíáðáñÜóôáóç êåëéþí


ìïíá÷þí óôç ìïíÞ Êïõôëïõìïõóßïõ,
¢ãéïí ¼ñïò (ÌïíáóôçñéáêÞ
áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ, óåë. 33, åéê. 31).

ÊÜôïøç ôçò ôñÜðåæáò


ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ
(ÌïíáóôçñéáêÞ áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ, åéê. 297).
115

Ó÷åäéáóôéêÞ áíáðáñÜóôáóç ôçò ôñÜðåæáò ôçò ìïíÞò Ïóßïõ ËïõêÜ,


Öùêßäá (ÌïíáóôçñéáêÞ áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ, óåë. 54, åéê. 69).

ÄåîéÜ: ÔïìÞ êáé êÜôïøç ôçò åóôßáò ôïõ ÌåãÜëïõ Ìåôåþñïõ


(ÌïíáóôçñéáêÞ áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ, óåë. 62, åéê. 83).

ó÷çìáôéæüôáí Ýíáò óôåíüò äéÜäñïìïò. Óôá íüôéá ôïõ


êáèïëéêïý õðÜñ÷åé ïìÜäá êåëéþí ìå óôïÝò, ôá ïðïßá
åßíáé ÷ôéóìÝíá ãýñù áðü ìéêñÞ ôåôñÜãùíç áõëÞ. ÁõôÜ
ôá êáôáóêåýáóáí ïé Êéóôåñêéáíïß ìïíá÷ïß êáé ôá
áíáäéáìüñöùóáí ïé ïñèüäïîïé êáôÜ ôïí 16ï áéþíá.

Ç ôñÜðåæá êáé ôï ìáãåéñåßï. Ìßá áðü ôéò ðéï


óçìáíôéêÝò óôéãìÝò óôçí êáèçìåñéíÞ æùÞ ôùí ìïíá÷þí
Þôáí ôï ïìáäéêü ëéôü ãåýìá óôçí ôñÜðåæá ôïõ
ìïíáóôçñéïý. Ïé ôñÜðåæåò åßíáé åõñý÷ùñåò ïñèïãþíéåò
áßèïõóåò ìå áøéäùôÞ áðüëçîç óôç ìßá áðü ôéò äýï
óôåíÝò ðëåõñÝò. Ïé ìïíá÷ïß êÜèïíôáí óå óôåíüìáêñá
êôéóôÜ ôñáðÝæéá Þ ðÜãêïõò ôïðïèåôçìÝíïõò óå
ðáñÜëëçëåò óåéñÝò êáôÜ ìÞêïò ôùí ôïß÷ùí, åíþ ï
çãïýìåíïò Ýôñùãå óå îå÷ùñéóôü ôñáðÝæé óôçí êüã÷ç.
Ïé ôïß÷ïé ôùí ôñáðåæþí Þôáí óõíÞèùò äéáêïóìçìÝíïé
116

ìå óõìâïëéêÝò ðáñáóôÜóåéò üðùò ç Öéëïîåíßá ôïõ óåéñÝò ðáñáèýñùí ðïõ åß÷áí áíïé÷ôåß óôéò ìáêñÝò
ÁâñáÜì, ï Ðïëëáðëáóéáóìüò ôùí ¢ñôùí êáé ôï Äåßðíï ðëåõñÝò ôçò áßèïõóáò, åíþ ôï âñÜäõ Üíáâáí ëý÷íïõò.
óôïõò Åììáïýò182. Ôï êõêëéêü êôßóìá ðïõ Ý÷åé åíôïðéóôåß ðñïóêïëëçìÝíï
Óôï Äáöíß ï ÷þñïò áõôüò åíôïðßæåôáé óå ìáêñüóôåíï óôç âüñåéá ðëåõñÜ ôçò ôñÜðåæáò Þôáí êáôÜ ðÜóá
áøéäùôü ïéêïäüìçìá ìÞêïõò 28,7 ì. óôá âüñåéá ôïõ ðéèáíüôçôá ôï ìáãåéñåßï ôçò ìïíÞò. Ôá ìïíáóôçñéáêÜ
êáèïëéêïý. Ï ðñïóáíáôïëéóìüò ôïõ Þôáí ßäéïò ìå ìáãåéñåßá åß÷áí êåíôñéêÞ åóôßá ìå åó÷Üñá ãéá ôï
áõôüí ôïõ êáèïëéêïý. Ïé ôïß÷ïé, ðïõ óþæïíôáí óå ìáãåßñåìá êáé óôåãÜæïíôáí áðü ÷áìçëïýò èüëïõò ìå
ýøïò ðåñßðïõ 1,7 ì., åß÷áí ÷ôéóôåß ìå ôñüðï êáé õëéêÜ êåíôñéêü ïðáßï-êáðíïäü÷ï. Óôïõò ôïß÷ïõò áíïßãïíôáí
áíÜëïãá ìå áõôÜ ðïõ åß÷áí ÷ñçóéìïðïéçèåß óôçí êüã÷åò ðïéêßëùí ìåãåèþí êáé ó÷çìÜôùí ãéá ôçí
áíÝãåñóç ôïõ êáèïëéêïý, ãåãïíüò ðïõ ôïðïèåôåß ôçí ôïðïèÝôçóç ôùí äéáöüñùí óêåõþí.
áíïéêïäüìçóç ôçò ôñÜðåæáò óôïí ðñï÷ùñçìÝíï 11ï
áéþíá. Ï ëïõôñþíáò. Ç ýðáñîç ëïõôñéêïý óõãêñïôÞìáôïò
Ïé ìïíá÷ïß Ýìðáéíáí óôïí ÷þñï áðü ôñåéò äéðëÝò óå Ýíá ìïíáóôÞñé äåí Þôáí óýíçèåò öáéíüìåíï êáé
èýñåò óôç äõôéêÞ ðëåõñÜ ôïõ. Ç áíáôïëéêÞ ðëåõñÜ õðïäÞëùíå áêìÞ êáé åõçìåñßá. Áí êáé ï áñéèìüò ôùí
êáôáëáìâáíüôáí áðü áøßäá, çìéêõêëéêÞ åóùôåñéêÜ ìïíáóôçñéáêþí ëïõôñþí ðïõ Ý÷ïõí äéáóùèåß åßíáé
êáé çìéåîáãùíéêÞ åîùôåñéêÜ. Ç áßèïõóá óôåãáæüôáí áñêåôÜ ðåñéïñéóìÝíïò, åßìáóôå óå èÝóç íá ãíùñßæïõìå
áðü êáìáñïóêåðÞ, ðïõ óôçñéæüôáí óå åíéó÷õôéêÜ ôüîá üôé ôüóï ç áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ ôïõò äéáìüñöùóç, üóï êáé
êáôÜ ìÞêïò ôùí ìáêñþí ðëåõñþí. ¼óï õðÞñ÷å öùò, ç ôå÷íïëïãßá èÝñìáíóçò êáé êõêëïöïñßáò ôïõ íåñïý
ï ÷þñïò öùôéæüôáí áðü öõóéêü öùò ðïõ Ýìðáéíå áðü Þôáí áíÜëïãåò ìå áõôÝò ôùí ëïõôñþí ôùí ëáúêþí, ðïõ

ÁîïíïìåôñéêÞ áíáðáñÜóôáóç ôùí ëïõôñþí óôç ìïíÞ ôçò Ðáíáãßáò óôï ÄåñâåíïóÜëåóé
(ÌïíáóôçñéáêÞ áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ, óåë. 102, åéê. 113).
117

óõíÝ÷éæáí ôéò ñùìáúêÝò ðáñáäüóåéò. ¸ôóé, ôá ëïõôñÜ


óôéò ìïíÝò áðïôåëïýíôáí áðü ôÝóóåñéò áßèïõóåò.
Ç ðñþôç Þôáí ï ðñïèÜëáìïò, üðïõ ïé ëïõüìåíïé
Üöçíáí ôá ñïý÷á ôïõò. Áêïëïõèïýóáí ïé äýï áßèïõóåò
åößäñùóçò, ôï ÷ëéáñüí Þ ÷ëéáñïøý÷ñéïí êáé ôï èåñìüí.
Ôï ëïõôñü ïëïêëçñùíüôáí óôçí ôÝôáñôç áßèïõóá, üðïõ
õðÞñ÷áí äåîáìåíÝò-ðéóßíåò ãéá êïëýìðé óå èåñìü Þ
êñýï íåñü. Ôï íåñü óôï èåñìüí êáé ôç æåóôÞ äåîáìåíÞ
æåóôáéíüôáí áðü èåñìü áÝñá, ï ïðïßïò ðáñáãüôáí áðü
öùôéÜ ðïõ Ýêáéãå êÜôù áðü ôï äÜðåäï, óôï õðüêáõóôï,
êáé äéá÷åüôáí ìÝóù åíôïé÷éóìÝíùí ðÞëéíùí áãùãþí 183.
Áðü ôá ëïõôñÜ ôïõ Äáöíßïõ Ý÷ïõí óùèåß ìüíï ôá
õðüêáõóôá, ðïõ åíôïðßóôçêáí óôá íïôéïäõôéêÜ ôïõ
êáèïëéêïý. Ç áíïäïìÞ åßíáé ðëÞñùò êáôåäáöéóìÝíç. Ç
åßóïäïò óôïí ÷þñï ãéíüôáí áðü ôá äõôéêÜ.

Ç êéíóôÝñíá. Óôá íïôéïäõôéêÜ ôïõ êáèïëéêïý Ý÷åé


åíôïðéóôåß ïñèïãþíéá õðüãåéá äåîáìåíÞ ìå äéáóôÜóåéò
13,3x4,95 ì. ãéá ôç óõëëïãÞ ôïõ âñü÷éíïõ íåñïý.
Ó÷åäéáóôéêÞ áíáðáñÜóôáóç ôçò êñýðôçò ôïõ ôáöéêïý íáïý
Âñßóêåôáé êÜôù áðü ôá êåëéÜ ôïõ 16ïõ áéþíá. Ï êáôÜ ôïõ Áãßïõ ÍéêïëÜïõ óôç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ
(ÌïíáóôçñéáêÞ áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ, óåë. 147, åéê. 177).
ìÞêïò Üîïíáò ôçò êéíóôÝñíáò Ý÷åé ðñïóáíáôïëéóìü
ÍÁ-ÂÄ êáé âñßóêåôáé óôç óõìâïëÞ (ìéóãÜãêåéáí) äýï
êëéôýùí. Ç ÷ùñçôéêüôçôÜ ôçò Ý÷åé õðïëïãéóôåß óôá 300 óôïé÷åßá äåí åðéôñÝðïõí ôïí êáèïñéóìü ôçò ÷ñÞóçò
êõâéêÜ ìÝôñá, åíþ ï ðõèìÝíáò ôçò âñßóêåôáé óå âÜèïò ôÞò åí ëüãù áßèïõóáò.
ðåñßðïõ 7 ì. áðü ôï óçìåñéíü äÜðåäï ôçò áõëÞò óôá
íüôéá ôïõ íáïý. Ôï åóùôåñéêü Þôáí ÷ùñéóìÝíï óå äýï Ï êïéìçôçñéáêüò íáüò ôïõ Áãßïõ ÍéêïëÜïõ.
êáìáñïóêåðÞ êëßôç ðïõ Ýâáéíáí óå ôñåéò êßïíåò êáé ÌÝóá óôï äÜóïò ðïõ áðëþíåôáé óôá áíáôïëéêÜ ôïõ
ïé ôïß÷ïé Þôáí êáëõììÝíïé ìå õäñáõëéêü êïíßáìá. Ç ðåñéâüëïõ ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ Ý÷åé åíôïðéóôåß ôï
óõëëïãÞ ôïõ íåñïý ãéíüôáí ìÝóù êõêëéêþí áíïéãìÜôùí åñåéðùìÝíï ðáñåêêëÞóéï ôïõ Áãßïõ ÍéêïëÜïõ. Åß÷å
ìå ìáñìÜñéíç åðÝíäõóç óôçí êïñõöÞ ôùí êáìáñþí. Óôï ÷ôéóôåß ôçí ßäéá åðï÷Þ ìå ôï êáèïëéêü êáé öáßíåôáé
÷áìçëüôåñï óçìåßï ôçò Üíù åðéöÜíåéáò ôçò êéíóôÝñíáò üôé áðïôåëïýóå ôïí êïéìçôçñéáêü íáü ôçò ìïíÞò. Ôá
åß÷å áíïé÷ôåß öñåÜôéï êáèáñéóìïý ïñèïãþíéáò íåêñïôáöåßá ôùí ìïíþí ôïðïèåôïýíôáí êáôÜ êáíüíá
äéáôïìÞò. Ðáñüìïéåò äßêëéôåò êéíóôÝñíåò Ý÷ïõí åêôüò ôïõ ðåñéâüëïõ ãéá ëüãïõò õãéåéíÞò 185. Ï ¢ãéïò
åíôïðéóôåß óôç ìïíÞ ôïõ Ïóßïõ ËïõêÜ êáé óôçí Áãßá Íéêüëáïò åßíáé ìéá ìéêñÞ èïëùôÞ âáóéëéêÞ ÷ôéóìÝíç
Óïößá ôïõ ÌõóôñÜ184. Ì’ áõôü ôïí ôñüðï åîáóöáëéæüôáí êáôÜ ôï ðëéíèïðåñßêëåéóôï óýóôçìá ôïé÷ïäïìßáò. ÊÜôù
ç åðÜñêåéá íåñïý. áðü ôïí íáÀóêï åíôïðßóôçêå õðüãåéá êñýðôç óêáììÝíç
óôïí ìáëáêü ðùñüëéèï ôïõ õðåäÜöïõò. Åêåß åß÷áí
Ç ïñèïãþíéá áßèïõóá. Óôá íüôéá ôïõ êáèïëéêïý êáôáóêåõáóôåß ãýñù áðü êåíôñéêü äéÜäñïìï ôñßá
âñßóêïíôáé ôá åñåßðéá ìéáò óôåíüìáêñçò ïñèïãþíéáò ôåôñÜãùíá ïóôåïöõëÜêéá åðéóôåöüìåíá ìå êáìÜñåò
áßèïõóáò äéáóôÜóåùí 23x6,5 ì. ìå ðñïóáíáôïëéóìü (áñêïóüëéá) êáé óêåðáóìÝíá ìå ëßèéíåò ðëÜêåò.
Á-Ä, ôõðéêÞ ìåóïâõæáíôéíÞ ôïé÷ïäïìßá êáé äÜðåäï Ï íáüò ôïõ Áãßïõ ÍéêïëÜïõ óþæåôáé óÞìåñá êáé
óôñùìÝíï ìå ðÞëéíåò ðëÜêåò. ÊáôÜ ìÞêïò ôïõ âüñåéïõ âñßóêåôáé óå áðüóôáóç 20 ìÝôñùí áðü ôï êôÞñéï ôïõ
êáé ôïõ íüôéïõ ôïß÷ïõ õðÞñ÷áí êßïíåò. Ôá äéáèÝóéìá Ôïõñéóôéêïý ÐåñéðôÝñïõ.
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¢íïøç ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ, üðïõ óçìåéþíåôáé ôï åéêïíïãñáöéêü ðñüãñáììá
(ÌåóáéùíéêÜ Ìíçìåßá ôçò ðåäéÜäáò ôùí Áèçíþí êáé ôùí êëéôýùí Õìçôôïý-Ðåíôåëéêïý,
ÐÜñíçèïò êáé ÁéãÜëåù, óåë. 221).
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Ç øçöéäùôÞ äéáêüóìçóç ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ äåóðüæåé ç ìïñöÞ ôïõ ×ñéóôïý ÐáíôïêñÜôïñá
ðëáéóéùìÝíç áðü äéÜöïñïõò ðñïöÞôåò, åíþ óôá
Ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ ÷ñùóôÜ ôç ìåãÜëç öÞìç ôçò óå çìé÷þíéá êáé ôá õøçëüôåñá ìÝñç ôïõ íáïý Ý÷ïõìå
ðáíåëëÞíéï áëëÜ êáé ðáãêüóìéï åðßðåäï óôá ëáìðñÜ åõáããåëéêÝò óêçíÝò, äçëáäÞ åðåéóüäéá áðü ôç æùÞ ôïõ
øçöéäùôÜ ðïõ êïóìïýí ôïõò ôïß÷ïõò ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ×ñéóôïý.
ôçò. ¼ðùò èá äïýìå ðáñáêÜôù, ôüóï ç ôå÷íïôñïðßá Áõôü ôï åéêïíïãñáöéêü ðñüãñáììá óõìâïëßæåé
üóï êáé ç ôå÷íéêÞ êáôáóêåõÞò ôïõò åßíáé åîáéñåôéêÞò ôéò íÝåò äïãìáôéêÝò áíôéëÞøåéò ðïõ ðñïÝêõøáí
ðïéüôçôáò êáé êáèéóôïýí ôï êáèïëéêü ôïõ Äáöíßïõ áðü ôïí èñßáìâï ôçò Ïñèïäïîßáò êáé ôçí ïñéóôéêÞ
Ýíá áðü ôá ðëÝïí óçìáíôéêÜ âõæáíôéíÜ ìíçìåßá ôïõ áðïêáôÜóôáóç ôùí åéêüíùí ôï 843. Ç éäÝá
åëëáäéêïý ÷þñïõ, åöÜìéëëï ôùí ìíçìåéáêþí íáþí ôçò ôçò åíóÜñêùóçò ôïõ Èåßïõ õðÞñîå ôï âáóéêü
Êùíóôáíôéíïýðïëçò. åðé÷åßñçìá ôçò åéêïíüöéëçò ïìÜäáò, êáèþò ÷Üñç
Ôï ìåãáëåßï ôùí øçöéäùôþí äéáôçñåßôáé ìÝ÷ñé ôéò óôçí ðñáãìÜôùóÞ ôçò ïé Üíèñùðïé áðÝêôçóáí
ìÝñåò ìáò, ðáñÜ ôéò åðÜëëçëåò æçìéÝò ðïõ Ý÷ïõí ôç äõíáôüôçôá íá âëÝðïõí êáé óõíáêüëïõèá íá
õðïóôåß áðü óåéóìïýò ôï 1889, ôï 1894, êáé ðéï áðåéêïíßæïõí ôï Èåßï. ¸ôóé, ç èåúêÞ åíóÜñêùóç
ðñüóöáôá ôï 1981 êáé ôï 1999. Åðßóçò, ïé óôåñåùôéêÝò áðïôÝëåóå ôïí âáóéêü Üîïíá ãýñù áðü ôïí ïðïßï
åñãáóßåò ôïõ øçöïèÝôç Fransisco Novo áìÝóùò ìåôÜ äéáìïñöþèçêå ôï íÝï åéêïíïãñáöéêü ðñüãñáììá 186.
ôïí ðñþôï óåéóìü (1892-1897) ðñïêÜëåóáí óçìáíôéêÝò Ôþñá, ëïéðüí, ï íáüò áíôéìåôùðßæåôáé óáí ìéá
áëëïéþóåéò óôï åéêïíïãñáöéêü ðñüãñáììá ôïõ íáïý, ìéêñïãñáößá ôïõ óýìðáíôïò. Ðéï áíáëõôéêÜ, ï ôñïýëïò
êáèþò ïñéóìÝíåò ðáñáóôÜóåéò, êõñßùò ìïñöÝò áãßùí, êáé ç áøßäá ðïõ äåóðüæïõí óôïí êáôáêüñõöï êáé
ôïðïèåôÞèçêáí óå èÝóç äéáöïñåôéêÞ áðü áõôÞí ôïí êáôÜ ìÞêïò Üîïíá ôïõ íáúêïý ïéêïäïìÞìáôïò
ðïõ åß÷áí áñ÷éêÜ. ÅðéðëÝïí, ï Novo ðñï÷þñçóå óå
óõìðëçñþóåéò êáé ðñïóèÞêåò, ïé ïðïßåò óÞìåñá
êñßíïíôáé êáêüôå÷íåò êáé éäéáéôÝñùò áõèáßñåôåò, ìå
Üëëá ëüãéá áíåðßôñåðôåò. ÐÜíôùò óôéò õøçëüôåñåò
åðéöÜíåéåò ôùí ôïß÷ùí ôïõ íáïý ôá øçöéäùôÜ óþæïíôáé
óå áñêåôÜ êáëÞ êáôÜóôáóç. ÐáñÜ ôá ðáñáðÜíù
ðñïâëÞìáôá ïé áñ÷áéïëüãïé, ìå ôç âïÞèåéá ôùí
ðåñéãñáöþí ôùí ðåñéçãçôþí, Ý÷ïõí êáôïñèþóåé íá
áðïêáôáóôÞóïõí ôçí åéêüíá ðïõ åß÷å ç øçöéäùôÞ
äéáêüóìçóç ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ áìÝóùò
ìåôÜ ôçí ïëïêëÞñùóÞ ôçò. ÂÜóåé ôçò óôõëéóôéêÞò
áðïôßìçóçò ôùí áðåéêïíéæüìåíùí óõíèÝóåùí, áõôÞ
ôïðïèåôåßôáé óôéò ôåëåõôáßåò äåêáåôßåò ôïõ 11ïõ áéþíá.
Ôï åéêïíïãñáöéêü ðñüãñáììá áêïëïõèåß óå ìåãÜëï
âáèìü ôá ðñüôõðá ðïõ åß÷áí êáèéåñùèåß óôçí
Êùíóôáíôéíïýðïëç ìåôÜ ôç ëÞîç ôçò Åéêïíïìá÷ßáò
(726-787 êáé 815-843). Áõôü óçìáßíåé üôé óôïí ôñïýëï

Ï ôñïýëïò ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ.


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óõìâïëßæïõí ôçí ïõñÜíéá óöáßñá, åíþ ïé êáôþôåñåò óôçí åíóÜñêùóç ôïõ Èåßïõ êáé åßíáé áñêåôÜ óõ÷íü
æþíåò ôç ãÞéíç. ¸ôóé, ï ôñïýëïò êáôáëáìâÜíåôáé öáéíüìåíï óôá ìåôá-åéêïíïìá÷éêÜ åéêïíïãñáöéêÜ
áðü ðáñÜóôáóç ôïõ ×ñéóôïý ÐáíôïêñÜôïñá, ç ïðïßá ðñïãñÜììáôá188.
áðïôåëåß óôçí ïõóßá Ýêöñáóç ôïõ äüãìáôïò ôïõ Ï õðïâëçôéêüò ÐáíôïêñÜôïñáò 189 ðïõ êáôáëáìâÜíåé
ïìïïýóéïõ. Ï ÐáíôïêñÜôùñ ðåñéóôïé÷ßæåôáé áðü ôï ìåôÜëëéï ôïõ ôñïýëïõ óôï Äáöíß åéêïíßæåôáé ùò
áããåëéêÝò äõíÜìåéò êáé ðñïöÞôåò. Óôá óöáéñéêÜ áðüëõôïò «Äßêáéïò ÊñéôÞò». ÊïéôÜæåé ôïí èåáôÞ ìå
ôñßãùíá ðáñéóôÜíïíôáé ïé ôÝóóåñéò åõáããåëéóôÝò ðëÜãéï, äéáðåñáóôéêü êáé áõóôçñü âëÝììá. Ï Ðáýëïò
ðïõ êáôÝãñáøáí ôç èåßá åíóÜñêùóç êáé Ýäñáóáí ùò Áðïóôüëïõ, ï óõíôçñçôÞò ôùí øçöéäùôþí ôïõ ôñïýëïõ
óýíäåóìïé ìåôáîý ãÞéíçò êáé ïõñÜíéáò óöáßñáò. óôï Ëåìïíüäáóïò ôïõ ÊïóìÜ Ðïëßôç, Ýìåéíå Ýêðëçêôïò
Ç ðñáãìáôïðïßçóç ôçò åíóÜñêùóçò, äçëáäÞ äéÜöïñá êáé ìÜëëïí ìðåñäåìÝíïò ìå ôçí áõóôçñüôçôá ôçò
ðåñéóôáôéêÜ êáé ãåãïíüôá áðü ôçí åðßãåéá æùÞ ôïõ ìïñöÞò:
×ñéóôïý (÷ñéóôïëïãéêÝò óêçíÝò), ôïðïèåôåßôáé óôçí
áìÝóùò êáôþôåñç æþíç ôïõ íáïý, äçëáäÞ ôéò êáìÜñåò, «Ðñéí áñ÷ßóù ôçí åñãáóßá [óôï øçöéäùôü ôïõ
ôá ôýìðáíá ôùí êåñáéþí ôïõ óôáõñïý êáé ôá áíþôåñá ÐáíôïêñÜôïñá], Ýìåéíá åêåß þñåò ïëüêëçñåò,
ìÝñç ôùí ôïß÷ùí. Óôçí êáôþôåñç æþíç ôùí ôïß÷ùí ìïíÜ÷ïò ìå ôïí åáõôü ìïõ, ðñïóðÜèçóá íá
áðåéêïíßæïíôáé ïé Üãéïé, ðïõ áðïëáìâÜíïõí ìáæß ìå êáôáëÜâù. ¢äéêá üìùò.
ôïõò ðéóôïýò ðïõ Ý÷ïõí ðñïóÝëèåé óôïí íáü ôç èÝáóç »ÁëÞèåéá, Ýíéùóá ìüíï Ýíá åíäéáöÝñïí
ôïõ èåßïõ. áñ÷áéïëïãéêü. Äåí ìðïñþ íá ðñïóùðïðïéÞóù
Óôçí áøßäá ôïõ éåñïý ôïðïèåôåßôáé ç Ðáíáãßá- Ýôóé ôï èåü ìïõ, óõíïöñõùìÝíï êáé åêäéêçôéêü.
ÐëáôõôÝñá. Ç Èåïôüêïò, ï öïñÝáò ôçò èåúêÞò ÌÝóá óôï äåîß ìÜôé ôïõ ÐáíôïêñÜôïñá âñÞêá
åíóÜñêùóçò, äÝåôáé ãéá ôç óùôçñßá ôùí áíèñþðùí ìðçãìÝíç ôçí áé÷ìÞ áðü Ýíá âÝëïò. ÂÝâáéá
êáé ìåóïëáâåß ùò óýíäåóìïò ìåôáîý ôçò ïõñÜíéáò Ýíá âÝëïò óáñáêçíü Þ êÜðïéïõ óôáõñïöüñïõ.
êáé ôçò ãÞéíçò óöáßñáò, ìåôáîý ôïõ Èåïý êáé ôùí Äïêßìáóá ôç ÷áñÜ ôïõ óõëëÝ÷ôç ðïõ áðï÷ôÜ Ýíá
áíèñþðùí. Óôï çìéêõëéíäñéêü ôìÞìá ôçò áøßäáò ðïëýôéìï êïììÜôé. Äå èá ’ðñåðå íá öñßîù ãéá ôçí
Ý÷ïõìå èÝìáôá ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôç Èåßá Ëåéôïõñãßá· éåñïóõëßá;»190.
óõíÞèùò ðåñéëáìâÜíïõí ôçí Êïéíùíßá ôùí Áðïóôüëùí
(ìåôÜäïóç-ìåôÜëçøç) êáèþò êáé äéÜöïñïõò ÐáôÝñåò Ç áõóôçñüôçôá ïöåßëåôáé óå ìåãÜëï âáèìü óôá éó÷õñÜ
ôçò Åêêëçóßáò187. ôïîùôÜ öñýäéá êáé ôéò óêïýñåò óêéÝò êÜôù áðü áõôÜ,
Óôï êáèïëéêü ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ, ðïõ åßíáé áëëÜ êáé êÜôù áðü ôá ìÜôéá. Ç óêïõñü÷ñùìç, ðõêíÞ
áöéåñùìÝíï óôçí Êïßìçóç ôçò Èåïôüêïõ, ôï ðáñáðÜíù ãåíåéÜäá åðéôåßíåé ôçí åíôýðùóç ôçò áõóôçñüôçôáò.
ôõðéêü áêïëïõèåßôáé åìðëïõôéóìÝíï ìå óêçíÝò áðü Ç ó÷åôéêÜ ó÷çìáôéêÞ êáé åðßðåäç áðüäïóç ôùí
ôïí âßï ôçò Ðáíáãßáò (ìáñéïëïãéêÝò óêçíÝò). Ç Ýìöáóç ðëáóôéêþí áîéþí ôïõ ðñïóþðïõ ôïõ ÐáíôïêñÜôïñá,
óôçí Ðáíáãßá ðñïêýðôåé áðü ôïí ðñùôáñ÷éêü ôçò ñüëï ôïí áðïìáêñýíåé áðü ôçí êëáóéêéóôéêÞ ôå÷íïôñïðßá ìå
ôçí ïðïßá Ý÷ïõí åêôåëåóôåß üëåò ïé Üëëåò ìïñöÝò. Ç
ìïñöÞ ðëáéóéþíåôáé áðü ðëïýóéá êáóôáíÞ êõìáôéóôÞ
Ï ÐáíôïêñÜôïñáò-«Äßêáéïò ÊñéôÞò» óôï ìåôÜëëéï ôïõ ôñïýëïõ êüìç. Ìå ôï äåîß ÷Ýñé åõëïãåß, åíþ óôï áñéóôåñü êñáôÜ
ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ. Ç áõóôçñüôçôá êáé ç Ýíôáóç
ôïõ âëÝììáôïò ïöåßëïíôáé óå ìåãÜëï âáèìü óôá éó÷õñÜ ôïîùôÜ ïãêþäåò ÷ñõóüäåôï (÷ñõóÞ óôÜ÷ùóç) åõáããÝëéï. Ç
öñýäéá êáé ôéò óêïýñåò óêéÝò ãýñù áðü ôá ìÜôéá. Ç ó÷åôéêÜ ìåãÜëç áðüóôáóç ðïõ ÷ùñßæåé ôïí äåßêôç áðü ôï
ó÷çìáôéêÞ êáé åðßðåäç áðüäïóç ôùí ðëáóôéêþí áîéþí ôïõ
ðñïóþðïõ, áðïìáêñýíåé ôç ìïñöÞ ôïõ ÐáíôïêñÜôïñá áðü ôçí ìåóáßï äÜêôõëï ðÜíù óôï åõáããÝëéï ðñïóäßäåé Ýíôáóç
êëáóéêéóôéêÞ ôå÷íïôñïðßá ìå ôçí ïðïßá Ý÷ïõí åêôåëåóôåß üëåò óôç ÷åéñïíïìßá, ðïõ âñßóêåôáé óå áðüëõôç óõìöùíßá
ïé Üëëåò ìïñöÝò. Ç óêïõñü÷ñùìç, ðõêíÞ ãåíåéÜäá åðéôåßíåé ôçí
åíôýðùóç ôçò áõóôçñüôçôáò. Ç ìåãÜëç áðüóôáóç ðïõ ÷ùñßæåé ôïí ìå ôïí üëï äõíáìéóìü ôçò ìïñöÞò.
äåßêôç áðü ôï ìåóáßï äÜêôõëï ðÜíù óôï åõáããÝëéï ðñïóäßäåé
Ýíôáóç óôç ÷åéñïíïìßá, ðïõ âñßóêåôáé óå áðüëõôç óõìöùíßá
Óôï ôýìðáíï ôïõ ôñïýëïõ åß÷áí ôïðïèåôçèåß ïé
ìå ôïí üëï äõíáìéóìü ôçò ìïñöÞò. ìïñöÝò äåêáÝîé ìåôùðéêÜ éóôÜìåíùí ðñïöçôþí. Ïé
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Þñåìåò óôÜóåéò ôïõò èõìßæïõí áñ÷áßïõò öéëïóüöïõò


êáé ñÞôïñåò. Ç êëáóéêéóôéêÞ áíôßëçøç åßíáé éäéáßôåñá
åìöáíÞò óôï áíÜãëõöï ðëÜóéìï êÜðïéùí ìïñöþí
êáèþò êáé óôç óôï÷áóôéêÞ Ýêöñáóç ôùí ìáôéþí ôïõò.
ÊÜðïéïé, üìùò, áðü ôïõò åéêïíéæüìåíïõò ðñïöÞôåò
Ý÷ïõí âëÝììáôá êáé ðñüóùðá áõóôçñÜ, Ýíôïíá
óêéáóìÝíá, ðïõ èõìßæïõí ôïí ÐáíôïêñÜôïñá.
Ç óçìåñéíÞ ôïðïèÝôçóç êÜðïéùí ìïñöþí äåí åßíáé
ç áñ÷éêÞ.
Óôá ôÝóóåñá çìé÷þíéá ðïõ áíïßãïíôáé êÜôù
áðü ôï ôýìðáíï ôïõ ôñïýëïõ, ïé Âõæáíôéíïß
øçöïèÝôåò åß÷áí áðåéêïíßóåé ôéò ðëÝïí óçìáíôéêÝò
åõáããåëéêÝò óêçíÝò ðñéí áðü ôï ÐÜèïò, äçëáäÞ ôïí
Åõáããåëéóìü (âïñåéïáíáôïëéêü çìé÷þíéï), ôç ÃÝííçóç
(íïôéïáíáôïëéêü çìé÷þíéï), ôç ÂÜðôéóç (íïôéïäõôéêü
çìé÷þíéï) êáé ôç Ìåôáìüñöùóç (âïñåéïäõôéêü çìé÷þíéï).
Êáé ïé ôÝóóåñéò ðáñáóôÜóåéò óþæïíôáé ëéãüôåñï Þ
ðåñéóóüôåñï áðïóðáóìáôéêÜ. Ç ðñþôç áðü áõôÝò
ëáìâÜíåé ÷þñá óå åíéáßï ÷ñõóü êÜìðï (âÜèïò) ÷ùñßò
ôçí ðáñáìéêñÞ äÞëùóç ôïðßïõ. Ï áñ÷Üããåëïò ÃáâñéÞë
ðëçóéÜæåé ìå Þñåìç, áñìïíéêÞ êßíçóç ôçí Ðáíáãßá,
èõìßæïíôáò áñ÷áéïåëëçíéêÞ ðáñÜóôáóç Íßêçò.
Ôá åíäýìáôÜ ôïõ –ëåõêü éìÜôéï ðÜíù áðü óêïýñï
ãáëÜæéï ÷éôþíá– åßíáé åëáöñþò ðôõ÷ùìÝíá êáé
áêïëïõèïýí ôéò êéíÞóåéò ôïõ óþìáôïò. Ç Ðáíáãßá óôá
äåîéÜ, åéêïíßæåôáé ìåôùðéêÜ, íá óôÝêåôáé ìðñïóôÜ óå
èñüíï ìå ôï êåöÜëé óôñáììÝíï åëÜ÷éóôá ðñïò ôá
äåîéÜ. Ç Ýêöñáóç êáé ôùí äýï ìïñöþí åßíáé åõãåíéêÞ
êáé ãáëÞíéá. Ôá öôåñÜ ôïõ áñ÷Üããåëïõ êáé ôá
åíäýìáôá êáé ôùí äýï ìïñöþí Ý÷ïõí óôïëéóôåß êáôÜ
ôüðïõò ìå ÷ñõóÝò øçößäåò.
Ç óêçíÞ ôçò ÃÝííçóçò äéáäñáìáôßæåôáé óå ó÷åäüí
åéäõëëéáêü ôïðßï. Ôï âñá÷þäåò óðÞëáéï ðïõ öéëïîåíåß
ôçí Ðáíáãßá êáé ôïí íåïãÝííçôï ×ñéóôü, ìå ÷ñõóÝò
áíôáýãåéåò óôçí êïñõöÞ ôïõ áðü ôç ëÜìøç ôïõ
áóôåñéïý, ðåñéâÜëëåôáé áðü ÷áìçëïýò ëüöïõò ìå

Ç ÃÝííçóç óôï íïôéïáíáôïëéêü çìé÷þíéï ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò


Äáöíßïõ. Ç ðáñÜóôáóç ÷áñáêôçñßæåôáé áðü Ýíôïíï êëáóéêéóìü, ï
ïðïßïò åßíáé åìöáíÞò óôçí áðüäïóç ôïõ ôïðßïõ, óôá ãáëÞíéá êáé
ìå Ýíôïíç ðëáóôéêüôçôá ðñüóùðá ôùí åéêïíéæüìåíùí ìïñöþí, óôçí
Þñåìç ðôõ÷ïëïãßá ôùí åíäõìÜôùí êáé óôéò áñìïíéêÝò êéíÞóåéò ôïõò.
124

ðåñéïñéóìÝíç âëÜóôçóç, åíþ êÜôù äåîéÜ ïìÜäá


ðñïâÜôùí ðßíåé íåñü áðü Ýíá ñõÜêé. Ï êëáóéêéóìüò
ðïõ ÷áñáêôçñßæåé ôçí áðüäïóç ôïõ ôïðßïõ âñßóêåôáé
óå áðüëõôç óõìöùíßá ìå ôéò ãáëÞíéåò ìïñöÝò ôçò
Ðáíáãßáò êáé ôïõ ÉùóÞö, êáèþò êáé ôùí ôåóóÜñùí
áããÝëùí êáé ôùí äýï âïóêþí ðïõ ãåìßæïõí
ôçí áíþôåñç æþíç ôçò ðáñÜóôáóçò. Êáé åäþ ïé
ðôõ÷ïëïãßåò åßíáé Þñåìåò êáé áêïëïõèïýí ôçí êßíçóç
ôùí óùìÜôùí, ïé êéíÞóåéò åßíáé áñìïíéêÝò êáé ôï
ðëÜóéìï ôùí ðñïóþðùí ÷áñáêôçñßæåôáé áðü Ýíôïíç
ðëáóôéêüôçôá.
Óôï êÝíôñï ôçò éäéáßôåñá óõììåôñéêÞò óêçíÞò ôçò
ÂÜðôéóçò êõñéáñ÷åß ç ãõìíÞ ìïñöÞ ôïõ Éçóïý,
åìâáðôéóìÝíïõ ìÝ÷ñé ôï óôÞèïò óôá íåñÜ ôïõ ÉïñäÜíç.
Ôï ãõìíü óþìá, ðïõ äéáêñßíåôáé îåêÜèáñá ìÝóá óôï
áíïé÷ôü ãáëÜæéï íåñü ôïõ ðïôáìïý, Ý÷åé ðëáóôåß ìå
áâñüôçôá ìÝóù ôçò ÷ñÞóçò ìéêñüôáôùí ëåõêþí êáé
ñüäéíùí øçößäùí. Ôï ßäéï éó÷ýåé ãéá ôï ðñüóùðï
ôïõ ×ñéóôïý áëëÜ êáé ôùí õðüëïéðùí ìïñöþí ôçò
óýíèåóçò. Ïé óùóôÝò áíáëïãßåò ôïõ ãõìíïý óþìáôïò
êáèþò êáé ç åëáöñÜ êßíçóÞ ôïõ óå óôñïöÞ ðñïò ôïí
Ðñüäñïìï óôá áñéóôåñÜ, èõìßæïõí êëáóéêü Üãáëìá.
Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá ìßá áðü ôéò åëÜ÷éóôåò ðáñáóôÜóåéò
Âáðôßóåùò üðïõ ï ×ñéóôüò åéêïíßæåôáé åíôåëþò ãõìíüò.
Óôá äåîéÜ Ý÷ïõí ôïðïèåôçèåß äýï Üããåëïé ìå ôá
÷Ýñéá óêåðáóìÝíá ìå ëÝíôéá (ðñïóüøéá), ðñïêåéìÝíïõ
íá óêïõðßóïõí ôï óþìá ôïõ ×ñéóôïý ìåôÜ ôçí
ïëïêëÞñùóç ôçò âÜðôéóçò. Ôï ÷Ýñé êáé ôï ðüäé ðïõ
äéáêñßíïíôáé êÜôù äåîéÜ áíÞêïõí óå áíäñéêÞ ãåñïíôéêÞ
ìïñöÞ, ôçí ðñïóùðïðïßçóç ôïõ ðïôáìïý ÉïñäÜíç.
ÔÝëïò, óôç óêçíÞ ôçò Ìåôáìüñöùóçò Ý÷ïõìå ôïí
×ñéóôü ìÝóá óå åëëåéøïåéäÞ ãáëáíüëåõêç äüîá,
ðëáéóéùìÝíç áðü ðëáôéÜ ôáéíßá áðü áóçìÝíéåò øçößäåò,
íá äåóðüæåé óå ÷áëáñÞ ìåôùðéêÞ óôÜóç áñ÷áßïõ
ñÞôïñá óôï üñïò Èáâþñ. Ìå ôï äåîß ÷Ýñé åõëïãåß, åíþ
óôï áñéóôåñü êñáôÜ ôõëéãìÝíï åéëçôÜñéï. ¼ðùò ïé
ðñïöÞôåò óôï ôýìðáíï ôïõ ôñïýëïõ, ç ìïñöÞ áíôëåß ôá
ðñüôõðÜ ôçò áðü ôç ãëõðôéêÞ ôùí êëáóéêþí ÷ñüíùí.
Ôï Èáâþñ áðïäßäåôáé ùò óåéñÜ ÷áìçëþí ëüöùí óôï
êáôþôáôï ìÝñïò ôçò óýíèåóçò, üðïõ âñßóêïíôáé êáé ïé
Ç ìïñöÞ ôçò Ðáíáãßáò áðü ôçí Ýíôïíá êëáóéêéóôéêÞ ðáñÜóôáóç ôçò
Óôáýñùóçò. Ôï øõ÷éêü ðÜèïò ôçò Ðáíáãßáò äçëþíåôáé áðü ôç âáèéÜ áðüóôïëïé ÐÝôñïò, ÉùÜííçò êáé ÉÜêùâïò, ãïíáôéóìÝíïé
ìåëáã÷ïëéêÞ Ýêöñáóç êáé ôçí åõãåíéêÞ ÷åéñïíïìßá ôçò. Ç áñìïíéêÞ êáé èáìðùìÝíïé áðü ôç èåúêÞ ëÜìøç. ÁñéóôåñÜ êáé
óùìáôéêÞ äéÜðëáóç êáé ç óôÜóç ôüóï ôçò Ðáíáãßáò üóï êáé ôïõ
ÉùÜííç (áðÝíáíôé) áíÜãïíôáé óå ðñüôõðá ôçò êëáóéêÞò áñ÷áéüôçôáò. äåîéÜ ôïõ Éçóïý âñßóêïíôáé ïé äåüìåíïé ðñïöÞôåò
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Çëßáò êáé ÌùõóÞò áíôßóôïé÷á. Êáé åäþ, ðáñÜ ôïí


Ýíôïíá ìåôáöõóéêü ÷áñáêôÞñá ôçò óêçíÞò, ïé êéíÞóåéò
ôùí ìïñöþí ÷áñáêôçñßæïíôáé áðü ÷Üñç, ç ðôõ÷ïëïãßá
åíáñìïíßæåôáé ìå ôç óõãêñáôçìÝíç êßíçóç ôùí
óùìÜôùí êáé ïé óùìáôéêïß üãêïé êáé ïé ðëáóôéêÝò áîßåò
ôùí ðñïóþðùí áðïäßäïíôáé ìå áíÜãëõöï ôñüðï.
Óôéò ìéêñÝò êüã÷åò êÜôù áðü ôá çìé÷þíéá Ý÷ïõí
ôïðïèåôçèåß óå óôçèÜñéá ï ðñïöÞôçò Ááñþí
(âïñåéïáíáôïëéêü çìé÷þíéï, Åõáããåëéóìüò), ï Üãéïò
Ãñçãüñéïò ï Áêñáãáíôßíïò 191 (íïôéïáíáôïëéêü çìé÷þíéï,
ÃÝííçóç), ï Üãéïò Ãñçãüñéïò ï Èáõìáôïõñãüò
(íïôéïäõôéêü çìé÷þíéï, ÂÜðôéóç) êáé ï ðñïöÞôçò
Æá÷áñßáò (âïñåéïäõôéêü çìé÷þíéï, Ìåôáìüñöùóç).
Ôçí áøßäá ôïõ éåñïý êáôáëáìâÜíåé ç Ðáíáãßá ðïõ Ý÷åé
áðåéêïíéóôåß Ýíèñïíç êáé âñåöïêñáôïýóá.
Ç ìïñöÞ åßíáé êáôåóôñáììÝíç óå ìåãÜëï âáèìü,
êáèþò óþæåôáé ìüíï ôï êÜôù ìÝñïò ôçò. Ôç óõíüäåõå
ç åëÜ÷éóôá óùæüìåíç åðéãñáöÞ «ÌåãÜëç ç äüîá ôïõ
ïßêïõ ôïýôïõ ç åó÷Üôç õðÝñ ôçí ðñþôçí, ëÝãåé Êýñéïò
ÐáíôïêñÜôùñ» (ðñïöçôåßá Áããáßïõ 2, 9). Ç ÐëáôõôÝñá
ôùí Ïõñáíþí ðëáéóéþíåôáé áðü ôïõò åðéâëçôéêïýò
áñ÷Üããåëïõò Ìé÷áÞë êáé ÃáâñéÞë, ðïõ óôÝêïíôáé
ìåôùðéêïß óôéò äýï ðëÜãéåò êüã÷åò. Öïñïýí âáñýôéìá,
÷ñõóïðïéêéëìÝíá åíäýìáôá êáé ðáôïýí óå ðïëõôåëÞ
õðïðüäéá. Ôá ðñüóùðÜ ôïõò åßíáé ãáëÞíéá êáé óïâáñÜ.
Óôïí èüëï ôïõ Éåñïý ÂÞìáôïò åß÷å ôïðïèåôçèåß ç
áðïêáëõðôéêÞ óêçíÞ ôçò Åôïéìáóßáò ôïõ Èñüíïõ, ç
ïðïßá óõìâïëßæåé ôç Äåýôåñç Ðáñïõóßá. Äõóôõ÷þò,
ç ðáñÜóôáóç áõôÞ åßíáé ó÷åäüí ïëïêëçñùôéêÜ
êáôåóôñáììÝíç. Óôá ìÝôùðá ôùí ôïß÷ùí ðïõ ÷ùñßæïõí
ôï éåñü áðü ôá ðáñáâÞìáôá åß÷áí áðåéêïíéóôåß
ïëüóùìïé ç Âñåöïêñáôïýóá Ðáíáãßá (âüñåéïò
ôïß÷ïò) êáé ï ×ñéóôüò (íüôéïò ôïß÷ïò). ÁõôÝò ïé äýï
ðáñáóôÜóåéò, ðïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôáí áðü ðñïóêõíçôÜñéá
åí åßäåé äåóðïôéêþí åéêüíùí, åëÜ÷éóôá óþæïíôáé
óÞìåñá.
Ôï äéáêïíéêü, óôá íüôéá ôïõ Éåñïý ÂÞìáôïò, Ý÷åé
êïóìçèåß ìå ôéò ìïñöÝò ôùí áãßùí Åëåõèåñßïõ,
ÁâÝñêïõ, Ëáõñåíôßïõ êáé Åýðëïõ, ðïõ åßíáé äéáôáãìÝíïé
áíÜ æåýãç óôá ôüîá ðïõ ðëáéóéþíïõí ôï óôáõñïèüëéï
ôçò ïñïöÞò. Ôï ôåëåõôáßï åßíáé äéáêïóìçìÝíï ìå Ç ìïñöÞ ôïõ ÉùÜííç áðü ôçí ðáñÜóôáóç ôçò Óôáýñùóçò.
÷ñéóôüãñáììá. Óôçí êüã÷ç ôïõ äéáêïíéêïý äåóðüæåé ç Ç ìïñöÞ, üðùò êáé áõôÞ ôçò Ðáíáãßáò (áðÝíáíôé), ÷áñáêôçñßæåôáé
áðü áíÜãëõöç ðëáóôéêüôçôá êáé åßíáé äïìçìÝíç ìå óùóôÝò
ìïñöÞ ôïõ áãßïõ ÍéêïëÜïõ. Ç üëç óýíèåóç «ðáôÜåé» áíáëïãßåò.
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Ç ðáñÜóôáóç ôçò ÃÝííçóçò ôçò Èåïôüêïõ áðü ôï êáèïëéêü ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ.
127

óå ÷ñõóü âÜèïò. ÁíÜëïãç äéáìüñöùóç õðÜñ÷åé êáé ðáñáóôÜóåéò ìå åðåéóüäéá áðü ôïí âßï ôïõ ×ñéóôïý:
óôçí ïñïöÞ ôçò ðñüèåóçò, üðïõ óõíáíôÜìå ôïõò óôçí Üíù æþíç ôïõ äõôéêïý ôïß÷ïõ ôçò âüñåéáò êåñáßáò
áãßïõò ÓéëâÝóôñï, ¢íèéìï, ÓôÝöáíï êáé Ñïõößíï, Ý÷ïõìå ôçí ¸ãåñóç ôïõ ËáæÜñïõ (ðëÞñùò üìùò
åíþ ôçí êüã÷ç êáôáëáìâÜíåé ï Üãéïò ÉùÜííçò ï êáôåóôñáììÝíç) êáé óôçí êÜôù ôç óêçíÞ ôçò Åéóüäïõ
Ðñüäñïìïò. Ï Üãéïò Íéêüëáïò êáé ï ÉùÜííçò ï óôá Éåñïóüëõìá (Âáúïöüñïò). Áíôßóôïé÷á, óôïí äõôéêü
Ðñüäñïìïò áðïôåëïýí ôéò ðëÝïí óçìáíôéêÝò ìåôÜ ôçí ôïß÷ï ôçò íüôéáò êåñáßáò åéêïíßæåôáé ç Áðéóôßá ôïõ
Ðáíáãßá ìåóïëáâçôéêÝò-óõíäåôéêÝò ìå ôï Èåßï ìïñöÝò ÈùìÜ êáé ç ÁíÜóôáóç. Ïé ðáñáóôÜóåéò óôá äõôéêÜ
ôçò ÷ñéóôéáíéêÞò Åêêëçóßáò. Ôá áõóôçñÜ ðñüóùðá ôïõ çìé÷þíéá ðåñéëáìâÜíïõí, üðùò Þäç Ý÷åé áíáöåñèåß,
Ðñïäñüìïõ êáé ôïõ áãßïõ ÍéêïëÜïõ, ìå ôï äéáðåñáóôéêü ôç ÂÜðôéóç êáé ôç Ìåôáìüñöùóç. Óôïí äõôéêü ôïß÷ï,
âëÝììá, ôá ôïîùôÜ öñýäéá êáé ôéò óêïýñåò óêéÝò ãýñù áêñéâþò ðÜíù áðü ôçí åßóïäï, äåóðüæåé ç óå ìåãÜëï
áðü ôá ìÜôéá, èõìßæïõí Ýíôïíá ôïí ÐáíôïêñÜôïñá, âáèìü êáôåóôñáììÝíç óÞìåñá ðáñÜóôáóç ôçò
êáèþò êáé êÜðïéåò áðü ôéò ðñïöçôéêÝò ìïñöÝò óôïí Êïßìçóçò ôçò Èåïôüêïõ.
ôñïýëï. Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá ôá ìïíáäéêÜ ðáñáäåßãìáôá óå Ç ìåëåôçìÝíç áíôéðáñÜèåóç ÷ñéóôïëïãéêþí êáé
ïëüêëçñï ôï øçöéäùôü åéêïíïãñáöéêü ðñüãñáììá ôïõ ìáñéïëïãéêþí óêçíþí ÷áñáêôçñßæåé êáé ôç äéáêüóìçóç
êáèïëéêïý, ðïõ äåí áêïëïõèïýí êëáóéêéóôéêÜ ðñüôõðá. ôïõ åóùíÜñèçêá. ¸ôóé, óôï âüñåéï ôìÞìá Ý÷ïõìå
óêçíÝò áðü ôï ðÜèïò ôïõ ×ñéóôïý: ÍéðôÞñáò
Óôéò õðüëïéðåò åðéöÜíåéåò ôùí ôïß÷ùí ôïõ êõñßùò
íáïý Ý÷ïõí áðåéêïíéóôåß ðïéêßëåò óêçíÝò áðü ôç
æùÞ ôïõ ×ñéóôïý, áëëÜ êáé ôçò Ðáíáãßáò, óôçí ïðïßá
åßíáé áöéåñùìÝíïò ï íáüò. Ïé êáôþôåñåò æþíåò
öéëïîåíïýí ìïíÝò ìïñöÝò, äçëáäÞ äéÜöïñïõò áãßïõò
êáé ìÜñôõñåò. Ç áíôéðáñÜèåóç êáé ç äéáóýíäåóç ôùí
÷ñéóôïëïãéêþí ìå ôéò ìáñéïëïãéêÝò ðáñáóôÜóåéò
Þ ìå ÷ñéóôïëïãéêÝò óêçíÝò üðïõ ç Ðáíáãßá ðáßæåé
éäéáßôåñá óçìáíôéêü ñüëï, Ý÷åé ãßíåé ìå ôñüðï
éóïññïðçìÝíï êáé éäéáßôåñá ìåëåôçìÝíï. ¸ôóé óôçí
Üíù æþíç ôïõ áíáôïëéêïý ôìÞìáôïò ôïõ íáïý, üðïõ
äÝóðïæå ç Ýíèñïíç ÐëáôõôÝñá ôçò áøßäáò, âñßóêïõìå
ðáñáóôÜóåéò üðïõ ðñùôáãùíéóôåß ç Èåïôüêïò:
ÃåíÝóéï ôçò Èåïôüêïõ óôïí áíáôïëéêü ôïß÷ï ôçò
âüñåéáò êåñáßáò êáé Ðñïóêýíçóç ôùí ÌÜãùí óôïí
áíáôïëéêü ôïß÷ï ôçò íüôéáò êåñáßáò. Óå áõôÝò Ýñ÷ïíôáé
íá ðñïóôåèïýí ç ÃÝííçóç êáé ï Åõáããåëéóìüò ôçò
Èåïôüêïõ óôá áíáôïëéêÜ çìé÷þíéá, ðïõ åîåôÜóáìå
áíáëõôéêÜ ðáñáðÜíù. ÊÜôù áðü ôï ÃåíÝóéï ôçò
Èåïôüêïõ âñßóêïõìå ôç Óôáýñùóç, åíþ êÜôù áðü ôçí
Ðñïóêýíçóç ôùí ÌÜãùí ôçí ÊÜèïäï óôïí ¢äç, óêçíÝò
èåìåëéþäåéò óôïí ÷ñéóôïëïãéêü êýêëï.
Óôï äõôéêü ôìÞìá, áðü ôçí Üëëç ðëåõñÜ, êõñéáñ÷ïýí

Ç ìïñöÞ ôçò Ðáíáãßáò áðü ôçí ðáñÜóôáóç ôïõ Åõáããåëéóìïý


óôï âïñåéïáíáôïëéêü çìé÷þíéï ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ.
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¢ããåëïé áðü ôçí ðáñÜóôáóç ôçò ÂÜðôéóçò óôï íïôéïäõôéêü çìé÷þíéï ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ.

ÁñéóôåñÜ: Ç ìïñöÞ ôïõ áñ÷Üããåëïõ ÃáâñéÞë, ðïõ ìå ôçí Þñåìç, áñìïíéêÞ êßíçóÞ ôïõ èõìßæåé áñ÷áéïåëëçíéêÞ Íßêç,
áðü ôçí ðáñÜóôáóç ôïõ Åõáããåëéóìïý óôï âïñåéïáíáôïëéêü çìé÷þíéï ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ.

(êáôåóôñáììÝíç óå ìåãÜëï âáèìü), Ìõóôéêüò Äåßðíïò æùíôáíåýåé ç åðßóçìç áôìüóöáéñá êáé ç ðïëõôÝëåéá
(êáôåóôñáììÝíç óå ðïëý ìåãÜëï âáèìü) êáé Ðñïäïóßá ôïõ ðáëáôéïý. Óôçí ðñþôç ç Ðáíáãßá, Ýíèñïíç êáé
ôïõ Éïýäá. Ôï íüôéï ôìÞìá ôïõ åóùíÜñèçêá öéëïîåíåß êñáôþíôáò óôá ÷Ýñéá ôçò ôïí ìéêñü ×ñéóôü, õðïäÝ÷åôáé
óêçíÝò üðïõ ðñùôáãùíéóôåß ç Ðáíáãßá: ç Ðñïóåõ÷Þ ôïõò ôñåéò ÌÜãïõò, ðïõ åßíáé íôõìÝíïé ìå êáôáóôüëéóôá
ôçò áãßáò ¢ííáò ìå ôïí Åõáããåëéóìü ôïõ Éùáêåßì, ç áíáôïëßôéêá åíäýìáôá. Ç Ðñïóåõ÷Þ ôçò áãßáò ¢ííáò
Åõëïãßá ôùí ÉåñÝùí êáé ôá Åéóüäéá ôçò Èåïôüêïõ. åîåëßóóåôáé óå áíèéóìÝíï êÞðï ìå ðëïýóéá âëÜóôçóç
Ïìïßùò ìå ôá øçöéäùôÜ ôïõ ôñïýëïõ êáé ôïõ Éåñïý êáé ìéá êáëïöôéáãìÝíç âñýóç ðïõ åðéóôÝöåôáé áðü
ÂÞìáôïò, ðïõ óõæçôÞóáìå ðñéí, ïé åõáããåëéêÝò óêçíÝò óéíôñéâÜíé. Ðßóù áðü ôçí ðñùôáãùíßóôñéá ôçò óêçíÞò
ðïõ ðñïáíáöÝñèçêáí áêïëïõèïýí êëáóéêéóôéêÜ õðÜñ÷åé ìéêñÞ èåñáðáéíßäá, ðïõ îåðñïâÜëëåé áðü
ðñüôõðá óôçí áðüäïóç ôüóï ôùí ìïñöþí, üóï êáé ôùí ðüñôá öñáãìÝíç ìå ðáñáðÝôáóìá.
ôïðßùí Þ ôùí óêçíéêþí ìÝóá óôá ïðïßá ëáìâÜíïõí Ç êëáóéêéóôéêÞ ëéôüôçôá êáé ç Þñåìç, óõãêñáôçìÝíç
÷þñá. ¸ôóé, óôçí ðáñÜóôáóç ôçò Ðñïóêýíçóçò ôùí èëßøç ôçò Óôáýñùóçò ðñïêáëïýí óõãêßíçóç óôïí
ÌÜãùí áëëÜ êáé óôçí Ðñïóåõ÷Þ ôçò áãßáò ¢ííáò èåáôÞ áêüìç êáé óÞìåñá. Ç Ðáíáãßá êáé ï ÉùÜííçò
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Ç ðáñÜóôáóç ôçò Ðñïóêýíçóçò ôùí ÌÜãùí. Åäþ áíáðáñéóôÜíïíôáé ç åðßóçìç áôìüóöáéñá


êáé ç ðïëõôÝëåéá ôïõ ðáëáôéïý, ðïõ åßíáé éäéáßôåñá åìöáíåßò óôïí èñüíï ôçò Ðáíáãßáò êáé óôá âáñýôéìá åíäýìáôá ôùí ÌÜãùí.

ÁñéóôåñÜ: Ç ðáñÜóôáóç ôçò ÁíÜóôáóçò áðü ôï êáèïëéêü ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ.

óôÝêïíôáé åêáôÝñùèåí ôïõ ÅóôáõñùìÝíïõ, ç áñìïíéêÞ óùóôÝò áíáëïãßåò, åíþ ç áíÜãëõöç ðëáóôéêüôçôÜ ôïõò
óùìáôéêÞ äéÜðëáóç ôïõ ïðïßïõ áíôéêáôïðôñßæåé ðñïêýðôåé áðü ôïõò ìáëáêïýò ÷ñùìáôéêïýò ôüíïõò êáé
êëáóéêÜ ðñüôõðá. Ôï øõ÷éêü ôïõò ðÜèïò äçëþíåôáé ôçí áðïöõãÞ Ýíôïíùí öùôïóêéÜóåùí.
áðü ôç âáèéÜ ìåëáã÷ïëéêÞ Ýêöñáóç êáé ôéò åõãåíéêÝò Óôçí ÁíÜóôáóç ï èñéáìâåõôÞò ×ñéóôüò, ïëüöùôïò, ìå
÷åéñïíïìßåò ôïõò, ðïõ áíÜãïíôáé óå åðéôýìâéá ãëõðôÜ ëåõêü÷ñõóï éìÜôéï êáé ÷éôþíá, êéíåßôáé äõíáìéêÜ ðñïò
ôçò êëáóéêÞò áñ÷áéüôçôáò: ç Ðáíáãßá, óôá áñéóôåñÜ, ôá áñéóôåñÜ êñáôþíôáò ôïí óôáõñü. ÌÝóá áðü ìéá
äåß÷íåé ðñïò ôïí ×ñéóôü ìå ôï äåîß ÷Ýñé, åíþ öÝñíåé ëÜñíáêá óôá áñéóôåñÜ îåðñïâÜëëïõí ï ÁäÜì êáé ç
ôï áñéóôåñü êÜôù áðü ôï ðçãïýíé, êñáôþíôáò Ýíá Åýá, åíþ ðßóù ôïõò äéáêñßíïíôáé ïé äßêáéïé Äáâßä êáé
ìéêñü ìáíôßëé. Ï ÉùÜííçò, óôá äåîéÜ, êëßíåé ôçí êåöáëÞ Óïëïìþí ìå ðïëõôåëÞ åíäýìáôá êáé ÷ñõóÜ óôÝììáôá
ðñïò ôïí ×ñéóôü, áí êáé óôñÝöåé ôï âëÝììá ôïõ óôçí êïóìçìÝíá ìå ìáñãáñéôÜñéá êáé ðïëýôéìïõò ëßèïõò.
áíôßèåôç êáôåýèõíóç, óçêþíïíôáò ðñïò ôá ðÜíù Óôá äåîéÜ Ý÷ïõìå ôïí ÉùÜííç ôïí Ðñüäñïìï êáé ïìÜäá
ôï äåîß ôïõ ÷Ýñé. Ôá åíäýìáôá ðáñïõóéÜæïõí Þñåìç äéêáßùí. Óôá ðüäéá ôïõ íéêçôÞ óöáäÜæåé çôôçìÝíïò ï
ðôõ÷ïëïãßá. Ïé ìïñöÝò åßíáé äïìçìÝíåò ìå ðïëý ¢äçò óå óôÜóç üìïéá ìå áõôÞ ôïõ õóôåñïñùìáúêïý
132

èíÞóêïíôïò ÃáëÜôç, ðïõ ìáñôõñÜ ôçí éäéáßôåñç Ç áíáäñïìÞ óôá êëáóéêÜ ðñüôõðá îåêßíçóå áðü
åîïéêåßùóç ìå ôá êëáóéêÜ ðñüôõðá êáé ôç äçìéïõñãéêÞ ôïõò öùôéóìÝíïõò êýêëïõò ôçò Åêêëçóßáò êáé ôïõ
áöïìïßùóÞ ôïõò. ðáëáôéïý óôçí Êùíóôáíôéíïýðïëç êáôÜ ôá ÷ñüíéá ðïõ
áêïëïõèïýí ôïí èñßáìâï ôçò Ïñèïäïîßáò êáé éäßùò
Óôï óýíïëï ôùí øçöéäùôþí ôïõ Äáöíßïõ ðáñáôçñåßôáé êáôÜ ôçí ðåñßïäï ôçò äõíáóôåßáò ôùí Ìáêåäüíùí.
ç Ýíôïíç äéÜèåóç ãéá áíáâßùóç ôïõ áíèñùðïêåíôñéêïý Ôüôå ðáñáôçñÞèçêå ìéá ïõóéáóôéêÞ áíáãÝííçóç ôçò
÷áñáêôÞñá ôçò êëáóéêÞò ôÝ÷íçò. ÁõôÞ åßíáé éäéáßôåñá ôÝ÷íçò, ìå Üìåóç Þ Ýììåóç áíáäñïìÞ óôéò áñ÷áßåò
öáíåñÞ óôç èáõìáóôÞ éóïññïðßá ðïõ ÷áñáêôçñßæåé ôç ðáñáäüóåéò. Öïñåßò ôùí ôåëåõôáßùí Þôáí ôá Ýñãá
äéÜôáîç ôùí óõíèÝóåùí, óôçí ðëáóôéêÞ – ôñéóäéÜóôáôç ôçò ðñïåéêïíïìá÷éêÞò ðåñéüäïõ ðïõ óôÞñéæáí ôçí
áíôßëçøç ôùí ìïñöþí áëëÜ êáé ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò áõôïêñáôïñéêÞ éäåïëïãßá ôçò ÍÝáò Ñþìçò. ÅîÜëëïõ
÷þñïõ, óôç öùôåéíüôçôá ôùí ôüíùí êáé ôçí çðéüôçôá ç áíáãÝííçóç ôïõ áñ÷áßïõ ðíåýìáôïò åíáñìïíßæåôáé
ôùí ÷ñùìáôéóìþí. Öáßíåôáé ðùò ïé øçöïèÝôåò ðëÞñùò ìå ôï ðíåýìá ôçò èñéáìâåýïõóáò Åêêëçóßáò
ôïõ Äáöíßïõ Ýêáíáí óõíåéäçôÞ ðñïóðÜèåéá íá êáé ìå ôï êëßìá óåâáóìïý ðñïò ôéò ðáñáäüóåéò, ðïõ
áðïäþóïõí ôçí éäáíéêÞ ïìïñöéÜ. Áõôü ïäÞãçóå óå ðñïêýðôåé áðü ôïí óõíôçñçôéóìü – áíôßäñáóç ðñïò ôçí
ìïñöÝò áãáëìáôéêÝò ìå åîáéñåôéêÞ åõãÝíåéá óôéò Åéêïíïìá÷ßá êáé ôá êáôÜëïéðÜ ôçò 192.
êéíÞóåéò, êáëõììÝíåò ìå åíäýìáôá ðïõ ðôõ÷þíïíôáé Ç áíèñùðïêåíôñéêÞ ôÝ÷íç ôïõ Äáöíßïõ ôïðïèåôåß
Üíåôá áêïëïõèþíôáò ôéò êéíÞóåéò ôùí óùìÜôùí. ôá øçöéäùôÜ ôçò ìïíÞò óôïí áíôßðïäá ôçò åîßóïõ
Ôá óõíáéóèÞìáôá åéêïíßæïíôáé óõãêñáôçìÝíá êáé ïé ëáìðñÞò øçöéäùôÞò äéáêüóìçóçò ôïõ êáèïëéêïý
åêöñÜóåéò ôùí ìáôéþí ìïéÜæïõí éäéáßôåñá óôï÷áóôéêÝò. ôçò ìïíÞò ôïõ ¼óéïõ ËïõêÜ óôç Öùêßäá, ðïõ
Åðßóçò ðáñáôçñåßôáé éäéáßôåñç áãÜðç ãéá ôç ëåðôïìåñÞ ÷ñïíïëïãïýíôáé óôçí ôÝôáñôç äåêáåôßá ôïõ 11ïõ
áðüäïóç ôïõ öõóéêïý ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò êáé ôç óýíèåóç áéþíá. Ç ôå÷íïôñïðßá óôïí ¼óéï ËïõêÜ åßíáé
åéäõëëéáêþí ôïðßùí. Ï ïõìáíéóôéêüò ÷áñáêôÞñáò Ýíôïíá áíôéêëáóéêÞ: ïé áíáëïãßåò ôùí ìïñöþí
ôùí øçöéäùôþí ðïõ êïóìïýí ôïí êõñßùò íáü ôïõ åßíáé óõ÷íÜ ðáñáìïñöùìÝíåò, ç ðôõ÷ïëïãßá
êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ âñßóêåé ôá ðéï êïíôéíÜ íåõñéêÞ êáé ôá ðñüóùðá ó÷çìáôïðïéçìÝíá, ìå
ôïõ ðáñÜëëçëá óôéò ìéêñïãñáößåò ôçò ìáêåäïíéêÞò ãñáììéêÜ ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ êáé åðßðåäï ðëÜóéìï 193. Ï
áíáãÝííçóçò. áíôéêëáóéêéóìüò ðïõ åßäáìå óôïí ÐáíôïêñÜôïñá, óå
êÜðïéåò áðü ôéò ìïñöÝò ôùí ðñïöçôþí óôïí ôñïýëï
êáé ôïí Üãéï Íéêüëáï êáé ôïí ÉùÜííç ôïí Ðñüäñïìï óôï
äéáêïíéêü êáé ôçí ðñüèåóç áíôßóôïé÷á, èõìßæåé Ýíôïíá
ôçí ôÝ÷íç ôïõ ¼óéïõ ËïõêÜ. Áðü ôçí Üëëç ðëåõñÜ, óôá
åîáéñåôéêÜ øçöéäùôÜ ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ÍÝáò ÌïíÞò
×ßïõ, ðïõ ÷ñïíïëïãïýíôáé ãýñù óôá ìÝóá ôïõ 11ïõ
áéþíá, ðáñáôçñåßôáé Ýíáò éóïññïðçìÝíïò óõíäõáóìüò
ôçò êëáóéêÞò êáé ôçò ãñáììéêÞò åéêïíïãñáöéêÞò
ðáñÜäïóçò194. Ôï Äáöíß ìáæß ìå ôá äýï ìíçìåßá ðïõ
ìüëéò ðñïáíáöÝñáìå áðïôåëïýí ôá ëáìðñüôåñá
äåßãìáôá øçöéäùôÞò ôÝ÷íçò óôïí åëëáäéêü ÷þñï êáôÜ
ôïí 11ï áéþíá êáé ðñÝðåé ïðùóäÞðïôå íá áðïäïèïýí
óå Êùíóôáíôéíïõðïëßôåò ôå÷íßôåò, ÷Üñç óôçí

Ï Üãéïò ÅõóôñÜôéïò áðü ôï êáèïëéêü ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ.


133

åîáéñåôéêÞ ôå÷íéêÞ êáôáóêåõÞò êáé ôçí Üøïãç áéóèçôéêÞ ÷ñùìáôéêü ðëïýôï êáé óôéëðíüôçôá óôç äéáêüóìçóç.
ðïéüôçôá ðïõ ôá ÷áñáêôçñßæåé. ÂÝâáéá, üðùò äéáðéóôþóáìå åîåôÜæïíôáò ôçí åîáéñåôéêÞ
Ðñéí êëåßóïõìå ôçí ôå÷íïôñïðéêÞ áðïôßìçóç ôùí äéáêüóìçóç ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ, ç
øçöéäùôþí ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ, ïöåßëïõìå íá êáôåîï÷Þí áéôßá ãéá ôç ìïíáäéêÞ ëáìðñüôçôá ôùí
áíáöÝñïõìå ðùò ç ôå÷íïôñïðßá ôùí ðáñáóôÜóåùí âõæáíôéíþí øçöéäùôþí åßíáé ç ÷ñÞóç ÷ñõóþí êáé
ôïõ íÜñèçêá äéáöïñïðïéåßôáé åëáöñþò áðü áõôÞ áñãõñþí øçößäùí. ÁõôÝò ïé øçößäåò ÷ñçóéìïðïéïýíôáí
ôïõ êõñßùò íáïý· ïé ìïñöÝò åßíáé ðéï øéëüëéãíåò, ç ãéá íá ðïéêßëïõí ðïëõôåëÞ Þ éäéáßôåñá öùôéóìÝíá
ðôõ÷ïëïãßá ðéï ó÷çìáôïðïéçìÝíç êáé ïé êéíÞóåéò êáé åíäýìáôá, Ýðéðëá êáé êôÞñéá (÷ñõóïêïíôçëéÜ),
ïé åêöñÜóåéò ðïëý ðéï æùçñÝò. ¼ëá áõôÜ ìáò äßíïõí áëëÜ êõñßùò ãéá íá ãåìßóïõí ôï âÜèïò äéáöüñùí
ìéá ðñüãåõóç ôùí êáëëéôå÷íéêþí åîåëßîåùí ôçò ðáñáóôÜóåùí. Ôï ÷ñõóü âÜèïò ðñïóäßäåé õðåñâáôéêü-
êïìíÞíåéáò ðåñéüäïõ, ôá êýñéá ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ ôçò åîùðñáãìáôéêü ÷áñáêôÞñá óôéò óõíèÝóåéò êáé êÜíåé
ïðïßáò åßíáé ç Ýêöñáóç ôïõ áíèñþðéíïõ ðÜèïõò êáé ç ôéò ðñùôáãùíéóôéêÝò ìïñöÝò íá ìïéÜæïõí Üõëåò. Ïé
Ýíôïíç äñáìáôéêüôçôá. ¸ôóé, ç äéáêüóìçóç ôïõ íÜñèçêá ÷ñõóÝò êáé ïé áñãõñÝò øçößäåò êáôáóêåõÜæïíôáí ùò
ôïðïèåôåßôáé ëßãï áñãüôåñá áðü áõôÞ ôïõ êõñßùò íáïý, åîÞò: ðÜíù óå óôñþìá åéäéêÜ åðåîåñãáóìÝíïõ ãõáëéïý
äçëáäÞ óôï ìåôáß÷ìéï ôïõ 11ïõ ðñïò ôïí 12ï áéþíá 195. Üðëùíáí êüëëá êáé áêïëïýèùò ëåðôüôáôï öýëëï
÷ñõóïý Þ áóçìéïý. Áõôü ìå ôç óåéñÜ ôïõ ôï êÜëõðôáí
ìå ëåðôü ðñïóôáôåõôéêü óôñþìá ãõáëéïý (åöõÜëùóç).
Ç ôå÷íéêÞ êáôáóêåõÞò ÌåôÜ ôçí êáôáóêåõÞ êáé ôçí ðñïóåêôéêÞ åðéëïãÞ ôùí
ôùí âõæáíôéíþí øçöéäùôþí øçößäùí, áêïëïõèïýóå ç ðñïåôïéìáóßá ôïõ ôïß÷ïõ
ðïõ èá öéëïîåíïýóå ôï øçöéäùôü. Áñ÷éêÜ ãéíüôáí
Óôïõò âõæáíôéíïýò íáïýò ôá øçöéäùôÜ êáôáëÜìâáíáí óôåãáíïðïßçóç ìå ÷ñÞóç ðßóóáò Þ ñçôßíçò, þóôå
ôá áíþôåñá ôìÞìáôá ôùí ôïß÷ùí êáèþò êáé ôçí ç ðïëõôåëÞò ðáñÜóôáóç íá ðñïóôáôåõôåß áðü ôçí
ïñïöÞ, äçëáäÞ ôïõò èüëïõò êáé ôïí ôñïýëï, åíþ ïé õãñáóßá ðïõ èá ôñáâïýóå ï ôïß÷ïò. ÐñïêåéìÝíïõ íá
÷áìçëüôåñåò åðéöÜíåéåò ôùí ôïß÷ùí êáëýðôïíôáí áðü óõíäåèåß óôÝñåá ôï õðüóôñùìá ôùí øçöéäùôþí ìå
ìáñìÜñéíåò ðëÜêåò (ïñèïìáñìÜñùóç) 196. ôïí ôïß÷ï, éäßùò óå ðåñéðôþóåéò èüëùí, êÜñöùíáí áíÜ
Ïé øçöéäùôÝò ðáñáóôÜóåéò áðïôåëïýí ôï áðïôÝëåóìá äéáóôÞìáôá êáñöéÜ ìå ðëáôý êåöÜëé, ðïõ åîåß÷áí áðü
ìáêñï÷ñüíéáò êáé åðßðïíçò åñãáóßáò. Ïé ôå÷íßôåò
Ýðñåðå íá åßíáé ïðëéóìÝíïé ìå ìåãÜëç õðïìïíÞ,
þóôå íá áíôåðåîÝëèïõí óôï ÷ñïíïâüñï Ýñãï
ôçò êáôáóêåõÞò êáé áêïëïýèùò ôçò ôïðïèÝôçóçò
ôåñÜóôéùí áñéèìþí ìéêñüôáôùí øçößäùí. ÁõôÝò
êáôáóêåõÜæïíôáí, ãéá ôçí áêñßâåéá êüâïíôáí, áðü
ðïéêßëá õëéêÜ, óõ÷íÜ áêñéâÜ êáé óðÜíéá: ìÜñìáñï êáé
äéÜöïñåò Üëëåò ðÝôñåò ìå Ýíôïíïõò ÷ñùìáôéóìïýò,
êåñáìßäé êáé ÷ñùìáôéóôÞ õáëüìáæá. Ôï ãåãïíüò üôé ôá
âõæáíôéíÜ øçöéäùôÜ Þôáí ìáêñéÜ áðü ôá äÜðåäá êáé
Ýôóé äåí êéíäýíåõáí íá öèáñïýí áðü ôá ðüäéá ôùí
ðéóôþí, åðÝôñåøå ôçí åêôåôáìÝíç ÷ñÞóç ãõÜëéíùí
øçößäùí, ðñÜãìá ðïõ ðñïóÝäéäå áîéïèáýìáóôï

Ï Üãéïò ÂÜê÷ïò áðü ôï êáèïëéêü ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ.


134

Ç ðáñÜóôáóç ôçò Ðñïäïóßáò ôïõ Éïýäá óôïí åóùíÜñèçêá ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò.
135

Ç ìïñöÞ ôïõ áðüóôïëïõ ÐÝôñïõ áðü ôçí ðáñÜóôáóç ôçò


Ìåôáìüñöùóçò óôï âïñåéïäõôéêü çìé÷þíéï ôïõ êáèïëéêïý ôçò ìïíÞò.

ôïí ôïß÷ï êáé ÷þíïíôáí óôï ðñþôï óôñþìá óïâÜ ôïõ ðïëëáðëáóéÜæïíôáò ôç ëÜìøç ôçò ðïëý÷ñùìçò
õðïóôñþìáôïò. åðéöÜíåéáò. Ï ëåðôüôáôïò óïâÜò áðëùíüôáí
ÓõíïëéêÜ ðåñíïýóáí ôçí åðéöÜíåéá ôïõ ôïß÷ïõ ìå ôñßá ôìçìáôéêÜ, óå åðéöÜíåéåò ôüóï ðåñéïñéóìÝíåò, þóôå
åðÜëëçëá óôñþìáôá óïâÜ. Ôï ðñþôï Þôáí áñêåôÜ íá åðéôñÝðïõí óôïõò øçöïèÝôåò íá ðñïëáâáßíïõí
÷ïíäñü, êáèþò ðåñéåß÷å áóâÝóôç, Üììï, èçñáúêÞ ãç íá äïõëåýïõí üóï ôï åðß÷ñéóìá Þôáí áñêåôÜ
êáé ôñéììÝíï êåñáìßäé. Ôï ìåßãìá áõôü, ãíùóôü ùò íùðü êáé ïé øçößäåò êïëëïýóáí êáëÜ. ¸ôóé, êÜèå
õäñáõëéêü êïíßáìá Þ êïõñáóÜíé, Þôáí åîáéñåôéêÞò ìÝñá åñãáóßáò (ìåñïêÜìáôï) îåêéíïýóå ìå ôçí
óêëçñüôçôáò êáé éäéáßôåñá áíèåêôéêü óôçí õãñáóßá. åðßóôñùóç ôïõ ëåðôüôåñïõ óïâÜ óôçí åðéöÜíåéá ðïõ
Áêïëïõèïýóå óôñþìá ëåðôüôåñïõ êáé êáèáñüôåñïõ õðïëüãéæáí ðùò èá ïëïêëçñùíüôáí ìÝ÷ñé ôï ôÝëïò
êïíéÜìáôïò, üðïõ êáé ãéíüôáí ôï ðñïó÷Ýäéï ôçò ôçò çìÝñáò. Óôá óçìåßá üðïõ áðáéôïýíôáí åîáéñåôéêÞ
ðáñÜóôáóçò ôïõ øçöéäùôïý. Åíßïôå ôï ðñïó÷Ýäéï ðñïóÞëùóç êáé ëåðôïìÝñåéá, üðùò ôá êåöÜëéá ôùí
óå ðïëý ãåíéêÝò ãñáììÝò ãéíüôáí êáôåõèåßáí óôïí ìïñöþí, ÷ñçóéìïðïéïýíôáí ç ìÝèïäïò ôçò Ýììåóçò
ãõìíü, áóïâÜôéóôï ôïß÷ï, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ ç äéáêüóìçóç íá øçöïèÝôçóçò: ôá ó÷Ýäéá äïõëåýïíôáí óå ïèüíéá áðü
ïñãáíùèåß áðïôåëåóìáôéêÜ óå ó÷Ýóç ìå ôï åðéèõìçôü ëéíü ðáíß ðïõ ôïðïèåôïýíôáí óôçí êáôÜëëçëç èÝóç
åéêïíïãñáöéêü ðñüãñáììá êáé ôçí áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ ôïõ ôïß÷ïõ197.
äéÜôáîç ôùí ÷þñùí. Óå áíôßèåóç ìå ôá áñ÷áéïåëëçíéêÜ êáé ñùìáúêÜ
ÌåôÜ ôï äåýôåñï óôñþìá åðé÷ñßóìáôïò áðëùíüôáí øçöéäùôÜ, ðïõ ëåéáßíïíôáí åêôåíþò ìåôÜ ôçí
Ýíá áêüìá ëåðôüôåñï êïíßáìá, ðÜíù óôï ïðïßï ïé ôïðïèÝôçóç ôçò ôåëåõôáßáò øçößäáò, ç åðéöÜíåéá
õðïìïíåôéêïß ôå÷íßôåò Ýìðçãáí ôéò øçößäåò. Ôï ôìÞìá ôùí âõæáíôéíþí øçöéäùôþí ðáñÝìåíå åíôåëþò
áõôü ôçò åñãáóßáò Þôáí éäéáßôåñá áðáéôçôéêü, êáèþò áêáôÝñãáóôç. ¸ôóé, ç áíôáíáêëáóôéêüôçôá ôùí óå
ïé áðåéñÜñéèìåò øçößäåò Ýðñåðå íá ôïðïèåôçèïýí äéáöïñåôéêÝò êëßóåéò ôïðïèåôçìÝíùí øçößäùí
óôïí åðé÷ñéóìÝíï ôïß÷ï ìå áíüìïéá êëßóç, þóôå áõîáíüôáí áêüìá ðåñéóóüôåñï, ðñïóäßäïíôáò åðéðëÝïí
íá Ý÷ïõí äéáöïñåôéêÞ óõìðåñéöïñÜ óôï öùò, öùôåéíüôçôá óôï ôåëéêü áðïôÝëåóìá.
136

Ï íáüò ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá êôßóìá, ôï ïðïßï äéáäÝ÷èçêå ï óçìåñéíüò íáüò. Ï


ÐñïöÞôçò Çëßáò áíáöÝñåôáé üôé õðÞñîå ìåôü÷é ôçò
Ï ìéêñüò íáüò ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá âñßóêåôáé óôçí ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ198.
êïñõöÞ ôïõ ïìþíõìïõ ëüöïõ, óôá âüñåéá ôçò ÉåñÜò Óôá ìÝóá ôïõ 19ïõ áéþíá Þñèå óôï ìåôü÷é ï ìïíá÷üò
Ïäïý êáé ãýñù óôá 2 ÷ëì. íïôéïáíáôïëéêÜ ôçò ìïíÞò ÁêÜêéïò, ï ïðïßïò öñüíôéóå ãéá ôçí åðÝêôáóç ôïõ íáïý
Äáöíßïõ. Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá êáìáñïóêÝðáóôç âáóéëéêÞ ðñïò ôá äõôéêÜ, üðïõ êáôáóêåõÜóôçêå ðñüíáïò. ÊáôÜ
áñ÷éêþí äéáóôÜóåùí 4x7,4 ì., ìå çìéêõêëéêÞ áøßäá ìÞêïò ôçò íüôéáò ðëåõñÜò, ðñïóôÝèçêå ðáñåêêëÞóé
éåñïý. Ç ÷ñïíïëüãçóç ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ åßíáé áóáöÞò êáé áöéåñùìÝíï óôïí Üãéï Ôéìüèåï êáé ôçí áãßá Ìáýñá.
ðéèáíüôáôá áíÜãåôáé óôç ìåôáâõæáíôéíÞ ðåñßïäï. Ðáñ’ ¸ôóé, ï íáüò áðÝêôçóå äéáóôÜóåéò 5,1x11,75 ì. 199.
üëá áõôÜ, ï ÏñëÜíäïò áíáöÝñåé üôé äßðëá óôï êáôþöëé Ï ÄçìÞôñéïò Êáìðïýñïãëïõ åðéóêÝöôçêå ôï åêêëçóÜêé
ôçò åêêëçóßáò õðÞñ÷å áðïóðáóìáôéêü èùñÜêéï ìå ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá ãéá ðñþôç öïñÜ óôá ôÝëç ôïõ 1881.
áíÜãëõöç äéáêüóìçóç ñïäÜêùí êáé ðõñïóôñïâßëùí. ÊáôÜ ôçí åðßóêåøç áõôÞ, óõíïìßëçóå ìå ôïí ìïíáäéêü
ÁõôÜ ôá äéáêïóìçôéêÜ èÝìáôá Þôáí éäéáßôåñá óõíÞèç êÜôïéêï ôïõ ÷þñïõ. Ç åìðåéñßá áõôÞ Ýìåéíå áîÝ÷áóôç
êáôÜ ôïí 10ï êáé ôïí 11ï áéþíá· Ýôóé, ìðïñïýìå íá óôïí ëüãéï:
õðïèÝóïõìå üôé ôï èùñÜêéï áíÞêå óå ðñïãåíÝóôåñï
«Ὅôáí ἀíÝâçêá ἐêåῖ ἀðÜíù –ἔëçãå ôὸ ἔôïò
1881– ôὸ ðñῶôïí ðïὺ åἶäá, ἦôïí ìßá ðëÜêá ôÜöïõ
ìὲ ÷ñïíïëïãßáí, ἂí ἐíèõìïῦìáé êáëÜ, 1876,
ἀêïõìðéóìÝíç åἰò ôὸí ôïῖ÷ïí. Ἠñþôçóá ëïéðὸí ἀðὸ
ðåñéÝñãåéáí, êáὶ äéὰ íὰ ἀñ÷ßóù ôὴí ãíùñéìßáí ìáò,
ôὸí ìüíïí ôüôå êÜôïéêïí ôïῦ ÐñïöÞôïõ Ἠëßïõ, ἕíá
ëáúêὸí ἐñçìßôçí, ἀðὸ ãåíåôῆò ôïõ ἀêôÝíéóôïí.
– Ἀðὸ êÜðïéï ëçóìïíçìÝíï ôÜöï èὰ åἶíáé áὐôὴ ἡ
ðëÜêá.
– Ὄ÷é, åἶíáé äéêὴ ìïõ.
– Ðῶò ἡ äéêὴ óïõ! Áὐôὴ ëÝåé ðὼò ὁ ìáêáñßôçò
ðÝèáíå óôá 1876 êáὶ óὺ åἶóáé, ὑðïèÝôù, æùíôáíüò.
– Íáß, ìὰ ἀíôὶò ãéὰ ìÝíá ðÝèáíå ἡ ìÜííá ìïõ.
– Ἤñèáôå ê’ ïἱ äýï óáò óôὰ ÷Ýñéá ìὲ ôὸ ×Üñï êáὶ
ðáëÝøáôå ìÝóç ìὲ ìÝóç;
– Ὄ÷é, ìὰ ὁ ÐñïöÞôçò Ἠëßáò ìïõ åἶ÷å ðῆ óôὸí
ὕðíï ìïõ: “ÈáíÜóç! Èáñèῶ ôὴí Êõñéáêὴ íὰ óὲ
ðÜñù êé ἐôïßìáóå ôὸ ëÜêêï óïõ”. Ê’ ἐðåéäὴ ἡ
ôÝ÷íç ìïõ ἦôïí ìáñìáñÜò, ἐóêÜëéóá êáὶ ôὴí
ðëÜêá. Ôὸ Óáââáôüâñáäï ὅìùò ìïõ öþíáîå ðÜëé:
“ÈáíÜóç! Äὲí èὰ ðÜñù ἐóÝíá, èὰ ðÜñù ôὴ ìÜííá
óïõ”. ÎõðíÜù ôüôåò ôὴ ãñçὰ ìïõ êáὶ ôῆò öùíÜæù:
“ÌÜííá! Èὰ ðåèÜíçò”. Êáὶ ðÝèáíå.
– Äçëáäὴ ôὴí ðÝèáíåò.
Ὕóôåñ’ ἀð’ áὐôὰ äὲí åὑñßóêåôå, ὑðïèÝôù,
ἀäéêáéïëüãçôïí ôὴí ἐóðåõóìÝíçí ἀíá÷þñçóßí ìïõ
Ï ìéêñüò íáüò ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá óôçí êïñõöÞ ἀðὸ ’êåé ἀðÜíù. Ìðïñïῦóå ὁ ÈáíÜóçò íÜêïõå êáὶ
ôïõ ïìþíõìïõ ëüöïõ
(öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò). ãéὰ ìÝíá êáììéὰ öùíὴ ôïῦ ÐñïöÞôïõ Ἠëßá»200.
137

Ôïé÷ïãñáößá ôïõ 16ïõ áéþíá ìå ðáñÜóôáóç ¢êñáò Ôáðåßíùóçò óôçí êüã÷ç ôçò ðñüèåóçò ôïõ íáïý ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ
(öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).

Ï íáüò ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ ôïõ 1850. Ôüôå ôï åêêëçóÜêé áíÞêå óôï êôÞìá ×áúäÜñé,
ôï ïðïßï âñéóêüôáí óôçí êáôï÷Þ ôïõ öéëüôå÷íïõ ÔÞíéïõ
Ï ìéêñüò íáüò ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ âñßóêåôáé ãýñù óôá Íéêüëáïõ ÍÜæïõ. Ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôçí ðáñïõóßá êáé ôï Ýñãï
1,1 ÷ëì. âïñåéïáíáôïëéêÜ ôïõ ëüöïõ ôïõ ÐñïöÞôç Çëßá ôùí ìåãÜëùí ÅëëÞíùí æùãñÜöùí Ëýôñá êáé Ãýæç óôï
êáé 0,5 ÷ëì. âïñåéïäõôéêÜ ôïõ ðýñãïõ ÐáëáôÜêé. Ðñüêåéôáé ×áúäÜñé, èá ãßíåé áíáëõôéêÞ áíáöïñÜ óôçí åðüìåíç
ãéá êáìáñïóêåðÞ ìïíü÷ùñç âáóéëéêÞ äéáóôÜóåùí åíüôçôá. Åäþ, áñêåß íá áíáöÝñïõìå üôé ôï åêêëçóÜêé
4,5x10,4 ì., ìå íÜñèçêá êáé çìéêõêëéêÞ áøßäá éåñïý. Ï ïéêïäïìÞèçêå êáôÜ ôá ìåôáâõæáíôéíÜ ÷ñüíéá. Óôï éåñü,
íáÀóêïò åßíáé ãíùóôüò êõñßùò ãéá ôéò ôïé÷ïãñáößåò ðïõ óôçí êüã÷ç ôçò ðñüèåóçò, óþæåôáé ôïé÷ïãñáößá ìå ôçí
öéëïôÝ÷íçóå ï Íéêçöüñïò Ëýôñáò, ðéèáíüí ìå ôç âïÞèåéá ðáñÜóôáóç ôçò ¢êñáò Ôáðåßíùóçò, ç ïðïßá ôïðïèåôåßôáé
ôïõ óõíáäÝëöïõ ôïõ Íéêüëáïõ Ãýæç, êáôÜ ôç äåêáåôßá óôïí 16ï áéþíá201.
139

Ç ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ Äáöíßïõ óÞìåñá

T
ï ìíçìåßï ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ ðñüóöåñå ìå-
ãÜëç ðñïâïëÞ óôçí åõñýôåñç ðåñéï÷Þ. Åßíáé
÷áñáêôçñéóôéêü üôé ç ïíïìáóßá Äáöíß Þôáí ðéï
ãíùóôÞ áðü ôïí ÄÞìï ×áúäáñßïõ. Åðß ÷ñüíéá, ìÜëéóôá,
ôï ×áúäÜñé áíáöåñüôáí êáé ùò ÄÞìïò Äáöíßïõ. Ðñü-
óèåôç ðñïâïëÞ óôç ìïíÞ ôïõ Äáöíéïý ðñïóÝäùóå ç
ôïõñéóôéêÞ áîéïðïßçóç ôïõ ôïðßïõ ìå ôç äçìéïõñãßá åêåß
ôïõ ïìþíõìïõ Ôïõñéóôéêïý ÐåñéðôÝñïõ áðü ôçí Åëëç-
íéêÞ ÐåñéçãçôéêÞ ËÝó÷ç êáé ôïí ÅÏÔ. ÐñÝðåé íá óçìåé-
ùèåß üôé ôï óõíïëéêü ôïðßï ôçò ðåñéï÷Þò Ý÷åé éäéáßôåñï
öõóéêü êÜëëïò. ÌÜëéóôá, êáé ðñéí áðü ôçí ßäñõóç ôïõ
Ôïõñéóôéêïý ÐåñéðôÝñïõ ðáñáäïóéáêÜ åß÷å êáèéåñùèåß
ç ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ Äáöíéïý ùò ôüðïò áíáøõ÷Þò êáé äéáóêÝ-
äáóçò ãéá ôïõò ðáëéïýò Áèçíáßïõò.
Ìå åðßêåíôñï ôï Ôïõñéóôéêü Ðåñßðôåñï ï Åëëçíéêüò
Ïñãáíéóìüò Ôïõñéóìïý áðü ôï 1954 êÜèå ÓåðôÝìâñç
äéïñãÜíùíå åêåß ôç ÃéïñôÞ ôïõ Êñáóéïý, ç ïðïßá åß÷å
ìåãÜëç ðñïâïëÞ êáé áíáäåß÷èçêå óå óçìáíôéêü ôïõñéóôéêü Ç «Ðýëç», ÷þñïò õðïäï÷Þò ôùí åðéóêåðôþí ôçò ðñùôåýïõóáò.
ãåãïíüò, êáèþò ðëáéóéùíüôáí áðü ëáïãñáöéêÝò
åêäçëþóåéò êáé öïëêëïñéêÜ óôïé÷åßá. Ç ÃéïñôÞ ôïõ Ï ðåñéâÜëëùí ÷þñïò ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ ôá Ýôç 1993
Êñáóéïý, üìùò, ìå ôçí ðÜñïäï ôïõ ÷ñüíïõ áðáîéþèçêå êáé 1994 ìå êáôÜëëçëç áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ äéáìüñöùóç
ùò èåóìüò, ìå áðïôÝëåóìá íá ìçí åíáñìïíßæåôáé âåëôéþèçêå áéóèçôéêÜ êáé ëåéôïõñãéêÜ. Óôç óõíÝ÷åéá,
ìå ôçí éóôïñéêüôçôá ôïõ ôïðßïõ êáé íá õðïâáèìßæåé óôïí áýëåéï ÷þñï ôçò ìïíÞò áðü ôï Ýôïò 1995 êáé åîÞò
ôï öõóéêü êáé ïéêéóôéêü ðåñéâÜëëïí. ¸ôóé, Ýðåéôá áðü äéïñãáíþíïíôáí óçìáíôéêÝò ðïëéôéóôéêÝò åêäçëþóåéò
ðïëëÝò ðáñåìâÜóåéò ôçò ÄçìïôéêÞò Áñ÷Þò óôáìÜôçóå áðü ôïí ÄÞìï ×áúäáñßïõ óå óõíåñãáóßá ìå ôçí Åöïñßá
ç ëåéôïõñãßá ôçò ôï Ýôïò 1991 êáé óôç óõíÝ÷åéá ôï Ýôïò Âõæáíôéíþí Áñ÷áéïôÞôùí.
1996, ìå áðüöáóç ôïõ Õðïõñãåßïõ ÁíÜðôõîçò, ï ÷þñïò Ï óåéóìüò ôçò 7çò Óåðôåìâñßïõ 1999 ðñïêÜëåóå,
ðáñá÷ùñÞèçêå óôïí ÄÞìï ×áúäáñßïõ. üìùò, óïâáñÝò æçìéÝò óôï ìíçìåßï ôçò ìïíÞò ôïõ
Áðü ôï 1983 óõíå÷þò ï ÄÞìïò ×áúäáñßïõ äéïñãáíþíåé Äáöíéïý, êáé éäéáßôåñá óôá ìïíáäéêÜ øçöéäùôÜ. ¸êôïôå
óôïí ÷þñï ôïõ Ôïõñéóôéêïý ÐåñéðôÝñïõ êÜèå ÊáèáñÞ ç ìïíÞ åßíáé êëåéóôÞ, äéüôé ìå âÜóç åîåéäéêåõìÝíç
ÄåõôÝñá ðáñáäïóéáêÞ ãéïñôÞ ìå ôçí åðùíõìßá ìåëÝôç ôçò Åöïñßáò Âõæáíôéíþí Áñ÷áéïôÞôùí ôïõ
×áúäáñéþôéêá Êïýëïõìá. Õðïõñãåßïõ Ðïëéôéóìïý åêôåëïýíôáé åñãáóßåò

ÁñéóôåñÜ åðÜíù: Ìå ôçí áíÜðëáóç ôçò Ýêôáóçò ðïõ ðáñåìâÜëëåôáé áíÜìåóá óôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü êáé ôç ëåùöüñï Áèçíþí
áíáâáèìßóôçêå ç äõôéêÞ åßóïäïò ôçò ðñùôåýïõóáò.

ÁñéóôåñÜ êÜôù: Ôï ¢ëóïò ôïõ Äáöíéïý åßíáé äéáìïñöùìÝíï ãéá ìéêñïýò êáé ìåãÜëïõò ðåñéðÜôïõò óôç öýóç.
140

ôïõ Õðïõñãåßïõ Ðïëéôéóìïý, êáé óýìöùíá ìå ôç ìåëÝôç


ðïõ åãêñßèçêå áðü ôï Áñ÷áéïëïãéêü Óõìâïýëéï,
ðñï÷þñçóå óôçí áðïêáôÜóôáóç ôïõ êôçñßïõ êáé óôçí
áéóèçôéêÞ âåëôßùóç ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò ÷þñïõ. ÓÞìåñá
óôïí ÷þñï ôïõ Ôïõñéóôéêïý ÐåñéðôÝñïõ ëåéôïõñãåß
áíáøõêôÞñéï êáé åóôéáôüñéï.
Óôçí áíáâÜèìéóç ôçò åõñýôåñçò ðåñéï÷Þò óõíÝâáëå
åðßóçò ç áíÜðëáóç áðü ôïí ÄÞìï ×áúäáñßïõ ôá Ýôç
1983-1984, åðß äçìáñ÷ßáò ÊõñéÜêïõ Íôçíéáêïý, ôçò
Ýêôáóçò ðïõ ðáñåìâÜëëåôáé áíÜìåóá óôçí ÉåñÜ
Ïäü êáé ôç ëåùöüñï Áèçíþí, üðïõ äçìéïõñãÞèçêáí
ðáéäüôïðïò, ÷þñïé áèëïðáéäéþí êáé åêôåôáìÝíï
ðñÜóéíï, êáèþò êáé ôïõ áóôéêïý ðÜñêïõ ìðñïóôÜ áðü
ôï ØÍÁ. Ìå ôï áðëü êáé áðÝñéôôï ðñÜóéíï óôéò äßäõìåò
áõôÝò åêôÜóåéò, êáèåìßá áðü ôéò ïðïßåò õðåñâáßíåé ôá
30 óôñÝììáôá, õðçñåôÞèçêå ç áíÜäåéîç ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ,
êáèþò áõôü ïñèþíåôáé áíÜìåóá óôéò õðþñåéåò ôïõ
üñïõò ÁéãÜëåù êáé ôï áóôéêü ðñÜóéíï ôçò äõôéêÞò
ðýëçò ôçò ÁèÞíáò.
Ôï Ýñãï ôçò äéáöýëáîçò êáé áíÜäåéîçò ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ
èá ïëïêëçñþóåé ç õðïãåéïðïßçóç ôïõ åèíéêïý äñüìïõ,
äéüôé áðü ôïõò êñáäáóìïýò êáé ôç ñýðáíóç ðïõ
ðñïêáëåß ç äéÝëåõóç ôùí ï÷çìÜôùí õðÜñ÷åé Üäçëç
öèïñÜ ðïõ õðïíïìåýåé ôï êôÞñéï êáé õðïâáèìßæåé ôï
ðåñéâÜëëïí.
ÁðÝíáíôé áðü ôç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ âñßóêåôáé ï óýã÷ñïíïò
ïéêéóìüò ôïõ Äáöíéïý, ï ïðïßïò Ý÷åé áíáðôõ÷èåß óå
Óôïí ÷þñï ôïõ Ôïõñéóôéêïý ÐåñéðôÝñïõ äéïñãáíþíïíôáé êÜèå
ÊáèáñÞ ÄåõôÝñá ôá ×áúäáñéþôéêá Êïýëïõìá. áõôïôåëÞ óõíïéêßá, ðïõ ðåñéâÜëëåôáé áðü äáóéêü
ðñÜóéíï. ÐñÝðåé íá óçìåéùèåß üôé ãéá ôç äéáóöÜëéóç
äéÜóùóçò ôùí åéêüíùí, êáèþò êáé åíßó÷õóçò ôçò ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ üëç ç ãýñù ðåñéï÷Þ ôïõ óõíïéêéóìïý
óôáôéêÞò ôïõ êôçñßïõ. ¹äç ïé åñãáóßåò âñßóêïíôáé ôïõ Äáöíéïý åëÝã÷åôáé óõíå÷þò áðü ôçí Åöïñßá
óôï óôÜäéï ôçò ïëïêëÞñùóçò êáé ðñïâëÝðåôáé Âõæáíôéíþí Áñ÷áéïôÞôùí, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá áðïôñáðåß ç
üôé ôïí Áðñßëéï ôïõ 2007 ôï ìíçìåßï èá åßíáé êáé åãêáôÜóôáóç ÷ñÞóåùí ìç óõìâáôþí ìå ôï óçìáíôéêü
ðÜëé áíïé÷ôü óôïõò ðïëõÜñéèìïõò åðéóêÝðôåò ôïõ, áõôü ìíçìåßï ôçò âõæáíôéíÞò ðåñéüäïõ.
êõñßùò áëëïäáðïýò ôïõñßóôåò. ÐñÝðåé íá óçìåéùèåß ÁðÝíáíôé áðü ôç ìïíÞ åêôåßíåôáé, åðßóçò, ôï ¢ëóïò
üôé åðåéäÞ ç ìïíÞ ôïõ Äáöíéïý óõãêáôáëÝãåôáé ôïõ Äáöíéïý, ðïõ åßíáé êáôÜëëçëá äéáìïñöùìÝíï ìå
óôá ðéï áîéüëïãá ìíçìåßá ôïõ êüóìïõ óôïõò äéáäñïìÝò ðåñéðÜôïõ êáé êáèéóôéêÜ ãéá ìéêñïýò áëëÜ
êáôáëüãïõò ôçò UNESCO, åßíáé åõñýôåñá ãíùóôÞ êáé ìåãáëýôåñïõò ðåñéðÜôïõò ìÝóá óôç öýóç.
êáé óõìðåñéëáìâÜíåôáé óôá åíäéáöÝñïíôá ôùí Ëßãï ðñéí áðü ôç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ, óôï ñåýìá åéóüäïõ
åðéóêåðôþí ôçò ðñùôåýïõóáò. ôçò åèíéêÞò ïäïý Áèçíþí – Êïñßíèïõ, êáé óõãêåêñéìÝíá
ÓïâáñÝò æçìéÝò áðü ôïí óåéóìü õðÝóôç åðßóçò êáé áðÝíáíôé áðü ôï éåñü ôçò Áöáßáò êáé êÜôù áðü ôï
ôï Ôïõñéóôéêü Ðåñßðôåñï, ôï ïðïßï åß÷å ó÷åäüí ÓðÞëáéï ôïõ Ðáíüò, ï ÄÞìïò ×áúäáñßïõ äçìéïýñãçóå
êáôáññåýóåé. Ï ÄÞìïò ×áúäáñßïõ ìå ôç óõíåñãáóßá ôçí «Ðýëç», Ýíáí ÷þñï õðïäï÷Þò ôùí åðéóêåðôþí
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Éäéáßôåñï åíäéáöÝñïí ðáñïõóéÜæåé ï ìéêñüò íáüò ôïõ Áãßïõ ÍéêïëÜïõ,


ðëçóßïí ôçò ìïíÞò Äáöíßïõ.

ôçò ðñùôåýïõóáò, ðïõ óõíäõÜæåé ôéò ëåéôïõñãßåò ïñåéíþí üãêùí áðü ôçí ïéêïðåäïðïßçóç êáé ôçí
ÊÝíôñïõ Ðëçñïöüñçóçò êáé ìéêñïý áíáøõêôçñßïõ ïéêïäüìçóç Ý÷åé êáôï÷õñùèåß ìå ôï Ãåíéêü
óå äéáìïñöùìÝíï ðåñéâÜëëïí ìå ðõêíü ðñÜóéíï. Ñõèìéóôéêü Ó÷Ýäéï ôçò ðñùôåýïõóáò. Åêåß êáèïñßæïíôáé
Ôá åãêáßíéá Ýãéíáí ôïí Éïýëéï ôïõ 2004 êáé ï ÷þñïò ïé Æþíåò Ðñïóôáóßáò ôïõò êáé áðáãïñåýåôáé êÜèå íÝá
åîõðçñÝôçóå êáé ôïõò åðéóêÝðôåò ôçò ÁèÞíáò êáôÜ åðÝêôáóç ôïõ ïéêéóôéêïý éóôïý ôçò ðüëçò.
ôïõò Ïëõìðéáêïýò Áãþíåò. Ç áðüêñïõóç êÜèå ó÷åäßïõ êáôáðÜôçóçò ôùí
ÊïíôÜ óôçí «Ðýëç» âñßóêåôáé ôï ìíçìåßï ôïõ Íßêïõ ïñåéíþí üãêùí êáé ç äéáöýëáîç ôïõ ðåñéáóôéêïý
Ðëïõìðßäç, óôï óçìåßï ôçò åêôÝëåóÞò ôïõ. Ôï ìíçìåßï ðñáóßíïõ áðïôåëåß êïñõöáßá õðï÷ñÝùóç ôïõ ÄÞìïõ
åßíáé Ýñãï ôïõ ãëýðôç ÊëïõâÜôïõ êáé Ýãéíå áðü ×áúäáñßïõ êáé üëùí ôùí åìðëåêüìåíùí öïñÝùí ôçò
ôïí ÄÞìï ×áúäáñßïõ óå óõíåñãáóßá ìå ôçí ÐÅÁÅÁ Áõôïäéïßêçóçò. ¸ìðñáêôç åöáñìïãÞ áõôïý èá åßíáé ç
ôï Ýôïò 1996. áðïêáôÜóôáóç ôïõ äáóéêïý ðñáóßíïõ óôïõò ïñåéíïýò
Ç ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ âñßóêåôáé óôï ðÝñáóìá áíÜìåóá üãêïõò, ìå åêôåôáìÝíåò êáé óõóôçìáôéêÝò öõôåýóåéò
óôá äýï âïõíÜ ðïõ ðåñéêëåßïõí ôï ×áúäÜñé, ôï üñïò ðïõ èá äþóïõí ìéá óõíïëéêÞ åéêüíá åðßóôåøçò ôùí
ÁéãÜëåù êáé ôï Ðïéêßëï üñïò. Ç ðñïóôáóßá ôùí äýï ïéêéóôéêþí ðåñéï÷þí ìå ðñÜóéíï.
143

Chaidari during Byzantine and post-Byzantine times:


The Daphni Monastery

O
n current archaeological evidence, Chaidari
was a rural deserted area in the long period
between the 4th and 18th century crossed by
the Sacred Way, the basic communication artery to and
from Athens. The semi-mountainous area of Chaidari was
densely wooded. The well-known monastery of Daphni,
built on top of the sanctuary of Apollon Daphnaios was
an exceptional site and attracted monks and pilgrims from
the 11th until the 16th century. Both its architecture and mo-
saics cast it an outstanding monument of Byzantine art.

The origin of the name


of the Daphni Monastery
View of the Daphni Monastery catholicon from the east.
The name of the monastery has been linked with Apollon
Daphnaios or Daphephoros (laurel-bearer), whose etc., and was surrounded by a strong fortification wall,
sanctuary lies beneath the monastery. There were many since it was away from the town and upon an important
laurel bushes in the area too, noted by travellers. The route. The paucity of evidence between the 7th and 11th
monastery has been linked with Panagia of Daphne in century suggests a period of decline or even desertion,
Constantinople, as well as stories involving princes and followed by the systematic renovation, demonstrated by
princesses. These stories stem out of the belief that the the new church, a cross-in-square of the octagonal type
monastery had been an imperial commission. decorated with mosaics.
The construction of Daphni is usually placed within the
6th century, as part of the spreading of the Christian
religion. The first church at Daphni is believed to have A suggestion for re-dating
been a basilica, i.e. a long rectangular building oriented the establishment of the Daphni Monastery
east-west, with an apse on the east side and possibly
divided into three aisles via parallel internal colonnades. A late 11th century re-dating of Daphni is based upon
It functioned as a catholicon, namely the main church the re-examination of the architecture and the lack of
of the monastery complex. The monastery had cells monasteries south of Mt Olympos before the end of the
and visitors’ residence, refectory and cooking areas Iconoclasm, i.e. the early 9th century. The earliest south

Left: View of the Daphni Monastery from the southwest during the 1950s.
144

Helladic monastery is the Dormition of the Virgin at The Daphni Monastery


Skripou in Boiotia (873). The 6th century dating of Daphni in the 11th and 12th century
was based upon the sculpture, as well as some of the
buildings and the fortification. However, the sculpture The site today reflects the acme of the 11th and 12th
may easily fit into the Middle Byzantine (843-1204) trends, century. The stylistic analysis of architecture and
while the existence of an early basilica is simply an decoration places Daphni around 1080. The donor is
assumption. Nonetheless, the lack of excavation data unknown but the monumentality and elaborateness of the
leaves the dating issue open. buildings points towards Constantinople, namely a high
official or even the Emperor. Daphni has been connected
to Basil II, Slayer of the Bulgars (976-1025), who admired
Athens and visited the town in 1018 after his vistory
against the Bulgarians. Nonetheless, Daphni is actually
later, i.e. contemporary with Basil’s successors.
Regardless of the identity of the donor, the monastery is
part of a general building frenzy in Athens between the
10th and 12th century, resulting in about forty functioning
churches in the town. Daphni, which is described in
detail below, featured a strong wall, an impressive
catholicon of a composite octagonal type with high
quality mosaics, cells and auxilliary buildings, e.g.
refectory and cooking areas, baths, library etc, catering
for the needs of the monks.

The Daphni Monastery


and the Cistercian monks (1207-1458)

In 1204 Athens was fiercely sacked by the Franks of


Boniface de Montferrat and became the feud of Otto
de la Roche from Burgundy. He gave Daphni to the
Cistercian monks from the Bellevaux abbey in Burgundy,
in 1207. Cistercians are an austere branch of the
Benedictines, formed in 1098 by Robert in Citeaux, a city
in Burgundy. They actively participated in the Crusades
and were probably given Daphni as a reward. Orthodox
monks had to leave and the Cistercians stayed for two
and a half centuries, unaffected by the Catalan (1311-
1388) and then Florentine occupations (1387-1458). They
only were expelled by the Ottomans of Mehmed II,
when the monastery became orthodox again. Frankish
documents and inscriptions mention the monastery,
which is also supposed to have been the duchal burial
A bilobe window at the Daphni Monastery catholicon (Christianiki
Archaeologia tis Monis Daphniou, p. 82). place. The duchal mausoleum was assumed to have
145

Outer view of the northern section of the Daphni Monastery defensive wall (photo by Sp. Panagiotopoulos).

been in the crypt under the narthex. However, this is only The Daphni Monasteri in the Ottoman period
a hypothesis.
Although the Cistercians did not usually occupy Mehmed II visited Athens after its surrender in 1458.
monasteries of other orders, they settled in Daphni and Impressed by its monuments, particularly Akropolis, he
did few changes and additions, such as the repair of the granted Athens privileges. The town started to develop
exonarthex in the late 13th – early 14th century, which had again after its Frankish decline. Daphni was returned to
collapsed due to earthquakes. Its upper floor became Orthodox monks, but the majority left the place due to
a defensive stronghold with bastions. The narthex crypt the many piratical and bandit raids in the 16th and 17th
became a mausoleum, while a series of cells was built century. On the other hand, Daphni was not completely
to the south of the catholicon. Finally, oral tradition deserted in the 17th and 18th centuries. Inscriptions and
inaccurately connects Daphni with the murder of Chiara other written sources mention several abbots. Several
Giorgi, last duchess of Athens, by her nephew, the archbishops visited the monastery too. D. Kampouroglou
Florentine Francesco II Acciajuoli, last duke before the attributes the picture of abandonement to the attitude of
Ottoman conquest in 1458. the monks to avoid visitors. Nonetheless, the monastery
146

emptied significantly in the 19th century, since it is rarely the soot layer on the mosaics attests to fire, probably
mentioned by historical sources. an attempt to melt the gold of the tesserae. The siege
During the first years of the 19th century, the notorious happened probably during the 1821 unsuccessful
Lord Elgin (1766-1841) visited Daphni and according to campaign by Omar Vrioni. After this, the monastery
various travellers removed three ionic columns from the became the base of Greek guerilla captains.
façade of the exonarthex. They probably belonged to
the sanctuary of Daphnaios Apollon and are today in the
British Museum. The Daphni Monastery after the Revolution

After the Revolution the monastery was completely


The Daphni Monastery deserted. Last abbot was Agathaggelos (about 1815-1840),
during the 1821 Revolution who resided in Athens. In 1838-1839 a Bavarian road
guarison was stationed in Daphni. The French historian
The Ottomans besieged and burnt the monastery during Jean Alexandre visited a deserted place in 1840. So did
the Revolution, with the help of a monk, Paisios. A the famous Danish writer, Hans Christian Andersen
tradition that burnt bodies of the monks were left in the (1805-1875) in 1841, accompanied by Ludwig Ross and
courtyard until 1854 is probably not correct, although Philippos Ioannou. Monk cells had become stables. The
catholicon preserved some of its grandeur but also
traces of the Ottoman disrespect. Thirteen years later,
during the Anglo-French occupation of Piraeus, a French
battalion stationed in the monastery and conducted
archaeological excavations in the area.
After the French, a small group of nuns came to the
monastery. At the same time, Daphni became a popular
excursion destination for Athenians and featured in
Emmanuel Roidis’ Papissa (Female Pope) Ioanna (1866),
one of the most debated books of modern Greek
literature. The church was devoted to the Dormition of the
Virgin and celebrated on the 23rd of August with a large
feast. In 1883-1885 the monastery became a psychiatry.
The wretchedness of the monastery reached its zenith
when it was used as an animal pen in 1887. The general
clamour combined with earthquake damages in 1886,
1889 and 1894 prompted the government to the rescue
and restoration of Daphni. Works continue until today.

Landscape in west Attica with Eleusis in the background.


19th century, engraving.
147

Drawing depicting a restored view of the south side of the Daphni catholicon by Benouville (1877).

Intervention – excavation – restoration inscriptions and the names of persons. What is more,
(end of 19th – beginning of 21st century) he filled in missing parts without guidance and despite
contrary directions by the Greek state. In 1893 and
The first intervention is the late 13th – early 14th century 1894 more arbitrary support works were done. A new
Cistercian repairs. After the Ottoman return of the restoration committee in 1894 commissioned E. Troump,
monastery to orhtodox monks, the buildings were repaired architect of the French Archaeological School to restore
again, but then gradually abandoned. The 19th century the west narthex wall. No important restoration work was
changes in the use of space (psychiatry, animal pen) done early in the 20th century, when Daphni featured in
caused important damages and triggered many complaints. Lemon Forrest, a novel by Kosmas Politis (1893-1974).
Unfortunately, the propositions of G. Lampakis During 1936-1939 I. Traulos excavated Daphni
member and the rest of the committee of the Christian systematically and, for the first time, according to a
Archaeological Society in Athens (1885), were not applied proper scientific methodology. Restoration resumed in
immediately and the monastery suffered more damages. the late 1950s with A. Orlandos and M. Xatzidakis and
In the years following 1888 the tiles were replaced with then E. Stikas and C. Bouras, who continued until 1968.
new ones, of inferior quality, and the dome was rebuilt, Since 1990 Daphni is part of the UNESCO World Heritage
thus losing its original form. monuments, and the Ministry of Culture has organized
The work of the Venetian mosaicist Fransisco Novo a long-term restoration project, as well as educational
(1892-1897) was problematic too, since he restored programmes for children.
several figures in the wrong place and changed the The 1999 earthquake obliged both archaeologists
148

The northwest section of the Daphni Monastery catholicon before the exonarthex’s restoration by Eustratios Stikas
and Charalambos Bouras at the end of the 1950s (Deltion tis Christianikis Archaeologikis Etaireias, 1962-1963, pl. 4, fig. 1).

and the government to close the monastery for the architectural type and high-quality masonry. It is one of
public in order to maximize action and achieve more the most important Helladic examples of the composite
effective protection, which includes supports of the octagonal type. It has a large cube with a large dome,
latest technology, new restoration plans both for the which, on the inside, steps upon four pairs of supports,
architecture and the mosaics, small scale excavations, a both pillars and walljambs. The support pairs form four
smal museum and the protection of the surrounding area. squinches and eight pendentives bearing the dome. The
octagonal type follows Persian and Armenian prototypes,
which were diffused to the Greek mainland through
The architecture of the Daphni Monastery Constantinople, where the idea of squinches had been
invented and used in the 10th and 11th centuries.
Like all monasteries, Daphni was built in order to serve Octagonal churches leave a wide space underneath
the needs of the convent. This dictated the many the dome, which creates a united and uplifting feeling.
additions and repairs during its long history. At Daphni this feeling is further stressed by the light
coming from sixteen dome windows. The exterior is an
The catholicon. Being the most important part example of stone and brick cloisonne masonry, with
of monastic life, the catholicon church is usually pseudo-kufic decoration and simple brick stripes round
monumental and occupies the centre of the monastery. the window arches. The sculpted decoration is restricted
The Daphni church has an impressive size, complex but well-crafted. The narthex acquired an exonarthex in
149

The northwest section of the Daphni Monastery catholicon after the exonarthex restoration
(Deltion tis Christianikis Archaeologikis Etaireias, 1962-1963, pl. 4, fig. 3).

the 12th century, in the form of an open portico with an isolation, or because they wanted to be kept apart from
upper floor, the abbot’s residence and library. It preserves outside temptations. The fortification of Daphni, close but
traces of 12th and 13th century paintings, while the church outside Athens, served both purposes.
has post-Byzantine paintings (17th century).
Monastic cells. Monk cels were usually situated on
The enclosure wall. The monastery was protected the inside of the enclosure wall, in order to economize
by a strong square defensive wall (about 97x97 m). It space and strengthen the wall. They were two and
was 8 m high, with an internal passageway 1.6 m wide, sometimes four-storied complexes, opening to porticos
supported by a blind barrel vaulted corridor. It had and accommodating the beds and a few niches for the
battlements and four square towers, three of which books, clothes and other personal items of the monks.
survive today. The wall was built with conglomerate Daphni had cells on the north and west sides. The west
blocks 1.6 m x 0.4-0.6 m and occasional brick layers. complex was not attached but left a narrow corridor
The main entrance was on the middle of the west side, before the wall. A third, south, complex with an internal
protected by a tower and side bastions. A second courtyard was built by the Cistercians and then repaired
smaller gate, a rare phenomenon for monasteries, was by the Orthodox monks.
on the east side, and is today used for public access.
Convents were miniature castle-towns and the wall was Refectory and cooking area. The simple monastic
an essential feature, as they were frequently located in meal was one of the most important moments in the
150

daily life of the convent. Refectories are spacious heated with air produced by fire under the floor and
rectangular areas with an apse on one short side. Monks distributed with clay pipes. Only the foundations of the
were seated at long tables and the abbot sat at a baths are preserved at Daphni.
special table in the apse. The walls were decorated with
The cistern. An underground rectangular cistern
Old and New Testament scenes. At Daphni the refectory
13.3x4.95 m has been traced underneath the 16th century
is 28.7 m long and is situated north of the catholicon,
cells. It has a capacity of 300 cubic meters. It had two
with which it shares the same orientation. Both buildings
barrel vaulted aisles and circular openings on the roof
display similar masonry and thus the refectory may be
for water collection. It is similar to cisterns at Hosios
dated to the 11th century.
Lukas and S. Sophia at Mystras.
Monks entered through three double doors on the west
side. The room was barrel vaulted and had windows in The rectangular room. A rectangular room, 23x6.5 m
the long walls. A round building attached to the north of with Middle Byzantine masonry but unknown function lies
the refectory was probably used for cooking. It features a south of the catholicon.
central hearth and chimney, as well as niches for utensils.
The sepulchral church of St Nikolaos. In the
The baths. Monastic bath complexes are a rare forrest east of the monastery lies the deserted chapel of
feature suggesting prosperity. They were constructed St Nikolaos. It is contemporary with the catholicon and
accoding to the Roman tradition. They had four areas, may have been the cemetery church. It is a small barrel
namely a dressing room, two hot rooms and one room vaulted basilica with stone and brick cloisonne masonry.
with water pools, either cold or hot. The water was A mausolium crypt lies underneath the church.

Grand plan of the Daphni Monastery.


151

The mosaic decoration


of the Daphni Monastery

Daphni ows its reputation to its high quality mosaics.


Their grandeur is preserved until today, despite the
numerous damages caused by earthquakes, as well as
the mistakes in the restoration of F. Novo. Their stylistical
study suggests a date to the last decades of the 11th
century.
The iconographical programme follows the post-
Iconoclastic standards of Constantinople. Thus the dome
is dominated by Christ Pantocrator (Almighty), surrounded
by prophets, while squinches and other high parts of the
church are decorated with scenes from Christ’s life. This
programme symbolizes the new dogma after the re-
instatement of the icons in 843, such as the incarnation
of God, which made His depiction possible. Thus, His life
on earth became the axis of iconography.
The church was treated as a miniature of the universe.
The dome and apse symbolize heaven, which is why
Christ Pantocrator occupies the dome and is surrounded
by angels and prophets. Pendentives accommodate the
Evangelists that recorded His earthly sojourn. Scenes
from His life were placed at the upper parts of walls and
the drums of the arms of the cross. The lowest level is
occupied by saints. Virgin Mary is placed in the semi-
dome of the apse, as a link between people and God.
The rest of the apse features themes of the Holly Liturgy,
such as the Communion of the Apostles and the Fathers
of the Church.
Daphni follows the above pattern with the additional
emphasis upon the life of the Virgin, a frequent
phenomenon in post-iconoclastic programmes. The
awesome Pantocrator is depicted as the stern judge.
Kosmas Politis has commented in his Lemon Forrest on
the austerity of the figure, achieved through the strong
eybrows and dense beard. The marked stylization is
removed from Classicist art ideals and adds to the
tension of His expression. The dome drum featured
sixteen frontally depicted prophets. Their relaxed posture,

The figure of transfigured Christ; detail from the Transfiguration scene


in the northwest squinch of the Daphni catholicon.
152

the volume of their figure and their thoughtful expression


betrays Classicist prototypes, although some of their
expressions look close to Pantocrator too.
The mosaicists placed the most important evangelical
scenes before the Passion in the squinches, i.e.
Annunciation, Nativity, Baptism and Transfiguration. The
first has a golden background, but figures are subtle and
elegant. Nativity is placed in an idyllic landscape, while
the figures of the Virgin and Joseph are equally gentle
and serene. The Baptism is symmetrically structured.
Christ’s body is reminiscent of a Classical statue. In
Transfiguration, Christ stands like an ancient rhetorician.
Despite the transcendental character of the scene,
figures and dresses are rendered in a graceful manner.
Saints and prophets occupy the niches under the
squinches.
The Virgin is enthroned and holds Christ. The scene
preserves only its lower part and is flanked by
Archangels Michael and Gabriel in luxurius clothes and
serious expression. The Bema dome accommodated
a scene from the Second Coming, today destroyed.
The Diakonikon and the Prothesis feature saints, and
have SS Nikolaos and John the Baptist in their conchs
respectively. The two saints are the most important
intermediaries to God after the Virgin. Their stern faces
remind the Pantocrator and comprise exceptions to the
overall Classicist manner of the mosaics.
The rest of the church has been decorated with scenes
from the life of Christ and the Virgin, while lower parts
accommodate saints and martyrs. The relation between
the scenes of Christ and these of the Virgin is very
balanced and thoughtful. The Virgin is the protagonist in
the scenes of the east part and around the apse: The
Nativity of the Virgin, the Adoration of the Magi, plus
the Annunciation in a squinch. However, there is also
the Crucifixion and the Anastasis (Resurrection), namely
crucial scenes of Christ. Jesus dominates the west part

The slender figure of Saint Anna; detail from the Prayer of Saint Anna
scene in the narthex of the Daphni catholicon.
153

Christ surrounded by the Apostles Peter and John; detail from the entry to Jerusalem (Vaioforos) in the Daphni catholicon.

scenes: The Raising of Lazarus, the Entry to Jerusalem, and gentle colours.
Doubting Thomas and Anastasis, as well as the Baptism As a whole, the Daphni mosaics display a tendency to
and Transfiguration in the squinches. At the same time, revive the anthropocentric character of Classical art.
the west wall featured the Dormition, which is destroyed This is evident in the harmony of the scene structure, the
today. three dimensional perception of the human body and its
The narthex is characterised by the same thoughtful surrounding space, the light and colour combination. The
opposition. The north part is devoted to Christ’s Passion: quest for ideal beauty led the mosaicists to sculpture-like
the Washing (largely destroyed), Last Supper (largely figures with gentle expressions, idyllic landscapes and a
destroyed) and the Treason of Judas. The south part is general humanistic tone paralleled only by the miniatures
devoted to the Virgin: The Prayer of Anna, Joachim and of the Macedonian rennaisance. The Classical return
the Angel, the Blessing and Entrance of the Virgin to the started within progressive Constantinopolitan church
Temple. Similarly to the other mosaics, these scenes circles during the Macedonian dynasty and embraces
display elaborate architectural settings and luxurious both ancient traditions as well as the pre-Iconoclastic
clothing, harmoniously structured figures, which are imperial ideology of the New Rome.
reminiscent of ancient sculpture, aristocratic expressions The art of Daphni is in the antipodes of Hosios Lukas,
154

which features stylized faces, linear features and flat


rendering. Only the Pantocrator and SS Nikolaos and
John the Baptist display such tendencies. The two styles
are found in balance in the mosaics of Nea Moni, Chios.
These three monuments are the best examples of the art
of mosaic in the Greek mainland at the time and have
to be attributed to artists from Constantinople. A final
note concerns the narthex mosaics, which display more
dynamism and movement, and anticipate the artistic
evolution of the Comnenian period, with its dramatic
expressions of passion. Thus the narthex decoration
must be slightly later, i.e. early 12th century.

The technique of the Byzantine mosaics

Byzantine mosaics are found in the upper parts of


churches. Lower parts were covered with dado (marble
slabs). Mosaics require long and tiring and thus patient
work. Tesserae were cut from various types of coloured
stone and teracotta, while the generalised use of glass
allowed for vivid colour combinations. Gold and silver
tesserae, made of sheets covered with glue and glass,
the most expensive material.
The preparation of the wall entailed a first insulation layer
of resin. Nails with wide heads were frequently hammered
in the wall in order to hold the plaster layers that followed.
There were three layers, one coarse and hydraulic, and
two finer layers. The last layer accepted the tesserae
according to a sketch that the artist had already drawn
on the wall. Tesserae were put in different angles, in order
to achieve an increased glittering effect. Details, such
as human heads, were first worked on linen sheets and
then placed on the wall as a whole. Contrary to Greek
and Roman mosaics, there was no final polishing of the
surface, because this increased light glittering.

The statue-like figure of Chirst half-sunk in the river Jordan; detail


from the Baptism scene in the northwest squinch of the Daphni
catholicon.
155

Akra Tapeinosis (Man of Sorrows); wall painting dating from the 16th century
in the Prothesis conch of the small Agios Georgios church (photo by Sp. Panagiotopoulos).

The church of Prophetis Ilias

This small church is on the top of a hill, north of the


Sacred Way and 2 km southeast of Daphni. It is a
vaulted basilika, initially 4x7.4 m, probably post-Byzantine.
Some 10th-11th century sculpture may belong to an earlier
building. The church was an annex of Daphni.
In the mid-19th century the church expanded to the west
and a chapel was added to the south. D. Kampouroglou
visited the church in 1881 and met the only resident of the
area.

The church of Agios Georgios

This post-Byzantine church lies 1.1 km northeast of


Prophitis Ilias and 0.5 km northwest of Palataki. It is a
vaulted basilica, 4.5x10.4 m, known for the murals painted
by Nikephoros Lytras, possibly with the aid of Nikolaos Ôhe small church of Prophitis Ilias on the top of the homonym hill
Gyzis in the 1850s. (photo by Sp. Panagiotopoulos).
157

The area of Daphni today

D
aphni Monastery has promoted Chaidari
immensely. For example, Chaidari used to
be known as the Daphni municipality. Since
1954 the building of the Tourist Kiosk by government
agencies has boosted tourist visits. A major venue until
1991 was the annual Wine Festival. In 1996 the area was
passed under municipal adnministration, which organizes
important cultural events, and attends the architectural
and aesthetic enhancement of the area.
Due to the earthquake of 7 September 1999 the
monastery closed for restoration. It is scheduled to re-
open in April 2007. It is noted that Daphni belongs to the
top seven UNESCO monuments. The restored Tourist
Kiosk functions as a coffee shop and restaurant today.
The parks in between Athenon Avenue and the Sacred
Way, created in 1983-1984 (with K. Nteniakos in office),
have contributed to the preservation of the area. If the
national road became underground, the monument would
be further protected.
The modern settlement of Daphni lies opposite the
monastery, like the Daphni park, an area of natural
walking paths and sitting areas. Just before the
monastery, the Municipality has built the «Gate», a
reception, recreation and information area for visitors. A
statue of resistance fighter N. Ploumpides by Klouvatos
stands nearby. Daphni is between two mountains, Aigaleo
and Poikilo, which are natural reserves. The Chaidari
Municipality has guarded their character and reacted
dynamically even against official plans, e.g. a decision to
install radio and TV antennas, or the use of explosives
Traditional celebrating of Clean Monday
during railway construction works. at the Tourist Kiosk

Views of the enhanced area between the Sacred Way and Athenon Avenue, which upgraded significantly
the west gate to the city of Athens
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Ç ÓôåñåÜ ÅëëÜäá áðü ôçí Üëëç ðëåõñÜ áðïôÝëåóå ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ, õðïóôçñéæüìåíá áðü áõôÜ ôïõ ÏìÝñ
ðåäßï ðïëëáðëþí êáé éäéáßôåñá óöïäñþí óõãêñïýóåùí. ðáóÜ ôçò Åýâïéáò, ìðÞêáí óôçí ÁôôéêÞ, ïé êÜôïéêïé
ÊáôÜ ôçí ðåñßïäï 1821-1824 ç ìÜ÷ç Þôáí áìößññïðç, ôùí ÷ùñéþí Ýóðåõóáí íá ôïí ðñïóêõíÞóïõí, üíôáò
áëëÜ óôáäéáêÜ ïé åðáíáóôáôéêïß ðõñÞíåò ìåéþèçêáí. éäéáßôåñá äõóáñåóôçìÝíïé áðü ôç âáñéÜ öïñïëïãßá ðïõ
ÊáôÜ ôï 1825 ç ÅðáíÜóôáóç ðåñéïñßóôçêå óôï ôïõò åß÷å åðéâÜëåé ï ÉùÜííçò Ãêïýñáò, ï öñïýñáñ÷ïò
ï÷õñùìÝíï Ìåóïëüããé êáé óôï êÜóôñï ôùí Áèçíþí. ôçò ðüëçò ôùí Áèçíþí211. Ï óôñáôçãüò ÌáêñõãéÜííçò
Ôï Ìåóïëüããé õðÝêõøå óôéò 10 Áðñéëßïõ 1826 Ýðåéôá áíáöÝñåé óôá áðïìíçìïíåýìáôÜ ôïõ:
áðü ðïëýìçíç ðïëéïñêßá áðü ôéò åíùìÝíåò äõíÜìåéò
ôïõ ÉìðñáÞì êáé ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ 206. «Ï ÊéôÜãéáò Þñèå ìå ìåãÜëç äýíáìç áíèñþðùí,
ÌåôÜ ôçí êáôÜëçøç ôïõ Ìåóïëïããßïõ, ï ÉìðñáÞì ìå êáâáëëáñßá, ìå êáíüíéá, ì’ üëá ô’ áíáãêáßá
êéíÞèçêå ôá÷ýôáôá ðñïò ôïí ÌïñéÜ, åíþ ï Êéïõôá÷Þò ôïõ ðïëÝìïõ. ¸ðéáóå ôá ÐáôÞóéá. Ôá ÷ùñéÜ ôá
áíÝëáâå íá áðïêáôáóôÞóåé ôçí êõñéáñ÷ßá ôïõ ðåñéóóüôåñá ôçò ÁèÞíáò ðñïóêýíçóáí, üôé áðü ôçí
óïõëôÜíïõ óå ïëüêëçñç ôç ÓôåñåÜ ÅëëÜäá 207. äéêáéïóýíçí ìáò ðïëëïýò êáôïßêïõò ôïõò çýñáíå
Ç åðé÷åßñçóç áõôÞ Þôáí áñêåôÜ åýêïëç, áöïý ïé öïñôùìÝíïõò ðÝôñåò êáé ôïõò îåöüñôùóáí êé’
ïðëáñ÷çãïß óôç Ñïýìåëç äåí áíôáðïêñßèçêáí Üëëïõò ôïõò ëåõôÝñùóáí, ïðïý ôïõò ðáéäåýáìåí
óôéò åêêëÞóåéò ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç íá óõíå÷ßóïõí ôïí äéÜ ÷ñÞìáôá»212.
ðüëåìï åêåß. Ïé ðåñéóóüôåñïé áðü áõôïýò, üðùò ï
ÁíäñÝáò ºóêïò, ï ÌÞôóïò ÊïíôïãéÜííçò, ï ÃéÜííçò Ïé Áèçíáßïé, Ý÷ïíôáò ðñïâëÝøåé ôçí åðßèåóç ôïõ
ÑÜãêïò, ï ÃéÜííçò ÓôÜéêïò, ïé Ãéïëóáäáßïé, ï Ãåþñãéïò Êéïõôá÷Þ, åß÷áí öñïíôßóåé íá óôåßëïõí Ýíá ìåãÜëï
Äõïâïõíéþôçò êáé Üëëïé, Þñèáí óå óõìöùíßá (êáðÜêéá) ìÝñïò ôùí áìÜ÷ùí óôç Óáëáìßíá êáé ôçí Áßãéíá. Óôçí
ìå ôïí Êéïõôá÷Þ êáé ðÞñáí ôá ðáëéÜ áñìáôïëßêéá ôçò ðüëç åß÷áí ìåßíåé ï ÉùÜííçò Ãêïýñáò ìå äéáêüóéïõò
ÓôåñåÜò ÅëëÜäáò208. Ïé ïðëáñ÷çãïß ðïõ äåí Ýðåóáí ðåíÞíôá Üíäñåò, ï ÓôÜèçò ÊáôóéêïãéÜííçò, ï ÃåñÜóéìïò
óå «êáðÜêéá» ìå ôïí Êéïõôá÷Þ êéíÞèçêáí ðñïò ôçí ÖùêÜò êáé ï Äéïíýóéïò Åõìïñöüðïõëïò ìå ïãäüíôá êáé
Ðåëïðüííçóï êáé áðÝöõãáí íá Ýñèïõí óå åðáöÞ ãýñù óôïõò ïêôáêüóéïõò Áèçíáßïõò õðü ôéò äéáôáãÝò
ìå ôá ôïõñêéêÜ óôñáôåýìáôá, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ìçí ôïõ ÌáêñõãéÜííç, ôïõ Êþóôá ×ïñìïâßôç, ãíùóôïý êáé
ðñïêáëÝóïõí áíôßðïéíá åéò âÜñïò ôùí ðëçèõóìþí ùò ËáãïõìéôæÞ, ôïõ ÌðåíéæÝëïõ, ôïõ ÊáøïñÜ÷ç êáé
ôçò ÓôåñåÜò. ¸ôóé, ìå ôá íþôá ôïõ ðñïöõëáãìÝíá ôïõ ÄÜâáñç. Åðßóçò õðÞñ÷áí êáé ðïëëÝò ãõíáßêåò
ï äáéìüíéïò Êéïõôá÷Þò ðñï÷þñçóå ðñïò ôçí ÁèÞíá. ìå ôá ðáéäéÜ ôïõò, ðïõ ðñïôßìçóáí íá ìåßíïõí óôçí
«Åêäõèåßò ôçí ëåïíôÞí êáé åíäõèåßò ôçí áëùðåêÞí» 209 ðüëç. Ìáæß ìå ôïõò ðïëåìéóôÝò ï÷õñþèçêáí ðßóù áðü
óõíèçêïëüãçóå ìå ôïõò ïðëáñ÷çãïýò êáé êñÜôçóå ôï ôåß÷ïò, ôï ïðïßï åß÷å ÷ôßóåé ôï 1778 ï ôõñáííéêüò
åéñçíéêÞ óôÜóç áðÝíáíôé óôïõò ðëçèõóìïýò, þóôå íá âïåâüäáò ×áôæÞ ÁëÞ ×áóåêÞ213 ìå óêïðü íá ðåñéïñßóåé
åðéôåõ÷èåß ôá÷ýôáôá êáé üóï ôï äõíáôüí ðéï áíáßìáêôá ôïõò êáôïßêïõò, þóôå íá åéóðñÜôôåé ìå åõêïëßá ôïõò
163

¢ðïøç ôçò ÁèÞíáò áðü ôïí Åëáéþíá, ëéèïãñáößá ôïõ Ferdinand Stademann (1835).

âáñýôáôïõò öüñïõò ðïõ åß÷å åðéâÜëåé. Ôï ôåß÷ïò ôïõ áíá÷áéôßæïõí ôïõò åéóâïëåßò. Ç Üëùóç ôçò ðüëçò
×áóåêÞ, ç áíïéêïäüìçóç ôïõ ïðïßïõ êñÜôçóå ìüëéò ðñáãìáôïðïéÞèçêå óôéò 3 Áõãïýóôïõ ìÝóù ìåãÜëïõ
ôñåéò ìÞíåò, Þôáí ðñï÷åéñïöôéáãìÝíï, ìå ðÜ÷ïò ðïõ ñÞãìáôïò êïíôÜ óôç ÌåíéäéÜôéêç Ðüñôá êáé Üëëùí
äåí îåðåñíïýóå ôá 0,8 ìÝôñá. Ç ðïñåßá ôïõ óõíÝðéðôå ñçãìÜôùí. Ï ÌáêñõãéÜííçò, ï ïðïßïò ðÜëåøå ìå ôïõò
óå ìåãÜëï âáèìü ìå áõôÞ ôïõ èåìéóôüêëåéïõ ôåß÷ïõò 214. Üíäñåò ôïõ óôçí Üìõíá ôùí ï÷õñþóåùí, äéçãåßôáé:
ÌÝóá óôï ðñþôï äåêáÞìåñï ôïõ Éïõëßïõ ï ÏìÝñ
ðáóÜò åß÷å êáôáëÜâåé ôá ðåñß÷ùñá ôçò ðüëçò, ôç ìïíÞ «Êáé ìå äéüñéóáí ì’ Üëëïõò äýï Áèçíáßïõò ôïí
ÐåôñÜêç, ôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ôùí Ðáôçóßùí, ôá Óåðüëéá êáé Óõìåþí Æá÷áñßôæá êáé Íåñïýôæïí ÌåôæÝëï êáé
ôçí Ðíýêá, åíþ ï Êéïõôá÷Þò ïñãÜíùóå ôï óôñáôüðåäü Þìáóôå ì’ áíèñþðïõò åéò ôá ôåß÷ç ôçò ðüëåùò· êáé
ôïõ óôá ÐáôÞóéá óôéò 3 Éïõëßïõ. ÁìÝóùò îåêßíçóå ôïí ðïëåìïýóáìåí íý÷ôá êáé çìÝñá ôñéÜíôá ôÝóóåñåò
âïìâáñäéóìü ôçò ðüëçò ìå ôá ðïëõÜñéèìá êáíüíéá çìÝñåò. Ï ÊéôÜãéáò ÷Üëáãå ôá ôåß÷ç ìå êáíüíéá ê’
êáé âïìâïâüëá ôïõ. Ôá ôåß÷ç, óå ðïëëÜ óçìåßá óáèñÜ, åìåßò öêåéÜíáìåí. Êáé êáôáöáíéóôÞêáìåí åéò ôïí
õðï÷ùñïýóáí ìå åõêïëßá. Ïé õðåñáóðéóôÝò ôçò ðüëåùò óêïôùìüí êáé ðëçãùìüí. Ìßáí áõãÞ, ìßáí þñá íá
ôùí Áèçíþí êáôÝâáëëáí õðåñÜíèñùðåò ðñïóðÜèåéåò, öÝîç, áöïý ãêñÝìéóå óå ðïëëÜ ìÝñç ôçò ðüëåùò ôá
ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá åðéäéïñèþíïõí ôéò ñùãìÝò êáé íá ôåß÷ç êáé äåí ìáò Üöéíáí ôá êáíüíéá ô’ áêáôÜðáõóôá
164

Ç ðïëéïñêßá ôùí Áèçíþí áðü ôïí Êéïõôá÷Þ, õäáôïãñáößá ôïõ ÐáíáãÞ ÆùãñÜöïõ ìå âÜóç ôç äéÞãçóç ôïõ ÌáêñõãéÜííç.

íá ìåñåìåôßóïõìåí ôá ôåß÷ç, ôüôå ìðÞêáí ïé Ôïýñêïé ÅèíïóõíÝëåõóç (6-16 Áðñéëßïõ 1926), ïé ðëçñåîïýóéïé
– ôïõò ìÝèõóå ðñþôá ìå ñïýìé êáé ìðÞêáí áðü ôñåéò êëïíßóôçêáí óïâáñÜ ìå ôá äõóÜñåóôá íÝá, ôá ïðïßá
ìåñéÝò. Êé áíáêáôùìÝíïé ìå ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò ðÞãáìå Ýöåñáí ôçí ÅðáíÜóôáóç óå ìéá áðü ôéò ðéï êñßóéìåò
ðïëåìþíôáò ùò ôï êÜóôñïí»215. öÜóåéò ôçò. Ï Êïëïêïôñþíçò áíáöÝñåé:

Ôï êÜóôñï ðïõ áíáöÝñåé ï ÌáêñõãéÜííçò Þôáí ç «ÅâÜëáìå ôá ìáýñá üëïé. ÌéóÞ þñá åóôÜèç óéùðÞ
ôåé÷éóìÝíç Áêñüðïëç, ôï ýóôáôï ï÷õñü ôçò ðüëçò ôùí ðïõ äåí Ýêñåíå êáíÝíáò, áëë’ åìÝôñáå êáèÝíáò ìå
Áèçíþí. Åêåß ïé Áèçíáßïé ðáñÝìåéíáí ðïëéïñêïýìåíïé ôï íïõ ôïõ ôïí áöáíéóìü ìáò. ÂëÝðïíôáò åãþ ôç
áðü ôïí Êéïõôá÷Þ åðß äÝêá ðåñßðïõ ìÞíåò 216. óéùðÞ, åóçêþèçêá åéò ôï ðüäé, êáé ôïõò ïìßëçóá
ëüãéá äéÜ íá åìøõ÷ùèïýí. Ôïõò åßðá üôé ôï
Ìåóïëüããé å÷Üèç åíäüîùò, êáé èá ìåßíåé áéþíáò
Ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò áñ÷éóôñÜôçãïò ôçò Ñïýìåëçò áéþíùí ç áíäñåßá. ÅÜí âÜëïìå ôá ìáýñá êáé
ïêíåýóïìå, èá ðÜñïìå ôï áíÜèåìá êáé èá ðÜñïìå
Ç åßäçóç ôçò ðôþóçò ôïõ Ìåóïëïããßïõ ðñïêÜëåóå ôï áìÜñôçìá ôùí áäõíÜôùí üëùí. Ìå áðåêñßèçêáí:
ìåãÜëç áðåëðéóßá óôïõò ¸ëëçíåò. Óôçí Åðßäáõñï, “Ôé íá êÜìïìå ôþñá, Êïëïêïôñþíç;”. “Ôé íá êÜìïìå”;
üðïõ ìüëéò åß÷å áñ÷ßóåé ôéò åñãáóßåò ôçò ç ô ôïõò ëÝãù. Ôçí áõãÞ íá êÜìïìå óõíÝëåõóç, íá
165

áðïöáóßóïõìå êõâÝñíçóç ðÝíôå, Ýîç, ïêôþ Üôïìá äõíÜìåéò ôïõ, æÞôçóå äõíáìéêÜ áðü ôç Äéïßêçóç ôçí
äéÜ íá ìáò êõâåñíÞóïõí […] êáé çìåßò ïé Üëëïé áñ÷éóôñáôçãßá ôçò Ñïýìåëçò. ÌðñïóôÜ óå áõôÝò
íá óêïñðßóïìå åéò ôåò åðáñ÷ßåò êáé íá ðéÜóïìå ôéò åîåëßîåéò, ï ÆáÀìçò ôïí äéüñéóå áñ÷éóôñÜôçãï
ãåíéêþò ôá Üñìáôá, ùò ôá ðñùôïðéÜóáìå óôçí ôçò ÓôåñåÜò ÅëëÜäáò, áöÞíïíôáò óôçí Üêñç ôçí
åðáíÜóôáóç»217. ðñïóùðéêÞ ôïõ Ý÷èñá, êáèþò ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò êáôÜ ôç
äéÜñêåéá ôïõ åìöýëéïõ ðïëÝìïõ åß÷å ëåçëáôÞóåé ìå
Ç ÅèíïóõíÝëåõóç äéÝêïøå ôéò åñãáóßåò ôçò óôéò ôï áóêÝñé ôïõ ôï óðßôé ôïõ êáé ïëüêëçñï ôï ÷ùñéü ôïõ,
16 Áðñéëßïõ 1826, áöïý áíÝóôåéëå ôç ëåéôïõñãßá ôçí ÊåñðéíÞ, êïíôÜ óôá ÊáëÜâñõôá.
ôçò ÂïõëÞò êáé ôïõ Åêôåëåóôéêïý. Ðáýïíôáò ôçí Ï âéïãñÜöïò ôïõ ìåãÜëïõ ïðëáñ÷çãïý ÄçìÞôñçò
ðñïâëçìáôéêÞ êõâÝñíçóç ôïõ Ãåùñãßïõ Êïõíôïõñéþôç ÖùôéÜäçò ðåñéãñÜöåé ðáñáóôáôéêÜ ôç óôéãìÞ ôçò
åîÝëåîå äùäåêáìåëÞ äéïéêçôéêÞ åðéôñïðÞ ìå ðñüåäñï ýøéóôçò äéêáßùóçò:
ôïí ÁíäñÝá ÆáÀìç.
Ç áíÜãêç ãéá áíáóõãêñüôçóç êáé äõíáìéêü áãþíá «Ôïí öùíÜæïõíå óôï Ìðïýñôæé. Êé üôáí ï
åßíáé öáíåñÞ óôç äéáêÞñõîç ðïõ åîÝäùóå ç íÝá ÊáñáúóêÜêçò Üêïõóå áðü ôï óôüìá ôïõ ÆáÀìç,
êõâÝñíçóç üôáí Ýöôáóå óôï Íáýðëéï äýï çìÝñåò ìåôÜ ôïõ ðáëéïý ôïõ ï÷ôñïý áðü ôïí äåýôåñï åìöýëéï
ôç ëÞîç ôùí åñãáóéþí ôçò ÅèíïóõíÝëåõóçò. Áêüìá ðüëåìï, ðùò ôïí êÜíïõí áñ÷éóôñÜôçãï ôçò
ðéï äõíáìéêÞ, Ýíá ðñáãìáôéêü ðñïóêëçôÞñéï ìÜ÷çò Ñïýìåëçò, ôá ìÜôéá ôïõ âïýñêùóáí êáé äýï ÷ïíôñÜ
ãéá ôïí õðÝñ ðÜíôùí áãþíá, Þôáí áõôÞ ðïõ Ýâãáëå äÜêñõá êýëçóáí óôá âáèïõëùìÝíá ìÜãïõëÜ ôïõ.
ï Êïëïêïôñþíçò óôéò 20 Áðñéëßïõ, üôáí äéïñßóôçêå - Ç ðáôñßäá, ôïõ ëÝåé ï ÆáÀìçò, ãõñåýåé óÞìåñá
áñ÷éóôñÜôçãïò ôïõ ÌïñéÜ 218. Ç áíåìðüäéóôç ðñïÝëáóç áðü ìáò íá ìïíïéÜóïõìå.
ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ óôç ÓôåñåÜ ÅëëÜäá êáé ç ðñïïðôéêÞ ôçò - Íáé, ôï ãõñåýåé! Áðïêñßíåôáé ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò êáé
áðþëåéáò ôçò ðüëçò ôùí Áèçíþí áëëÜ êáé ïëüêëçñçò ñß÷íåôáé óôçí áãêáëéÜ ôïõ ÆáÀìç· öéëÞèçêáí êáé
ôçò Ñïýìåëçò, ðïõ Ýèåôáí óå óçìáíôéêüôáôï êßíäõíï ôï îÝ÷áóáí ôá ðåñáóìÝíá.
ìÝëëïí ôçò ÅðáíÜóôáóçò, áðáéôïýóáí ôç ëÞøç Üìåóùí Óå ôïýôç ôç óêçíÞ Ýëá÷å íá âñßóêåôáé êé ï
êáé äñáóôéêþí ìÝôñùí. Õäñáßïò ìåãáëïíïéêïêýñçò Âáóßëçò Ìðïõíôïýñçò.
Óôï êÝíôñï ôùí åðé÷åéñÞóåùí, ôï Íáýðëéï, åðéêñáôïýóå
ãåíéêÞ áíáôáñá÷Þ êáé áíáâñáóìüò. Óôéò 16 ÌáÀïõ
Ýöôáóáí üóïé åß÷áí áðïìåßíåé áðü ôç öñïõñÜ ôïõ
Ìåóïëïããßïõ. Ï êüóìïò ôïýò õðïäÝ÷ôçêå ìå ìåãÜëç
óõãêßíçóç, äÜêñõá óôá ìÜôéá êáé êáíïíéïâïëéóìïýò
áðü ôï ÐáëáìÞäé êáé ôçí Áêñïíáõðëßá. Áñãüôåñá
Ýöôáóáí ï Ãåþñãéïò ÊáñáúóêÜêçò êáé ïé êáðåôáíáßïé
ôçò Ñïýìåëçò, æçôþíôáò íá âñïõí ìå ðïéï ôñüðï
èá áíôéìåôùðßóïõí ôïí Êéïõôá÷Þ. ¼ìùò ï ïîýò
áíôáãùíéóìüò ðïõ åðéêñáôïýóå ìåôáîý ôùí
ïðëáñ÷çãþí áëëÜ êáé ôùí ðïëéôéêþí, ïé äéÜöïñåò
Ýñéäåò êáé ïé ðáëéÝò âåíôÝôåò, äåí åðÝôñåðáí ôçí
åêðüíçóç êáé ðñïþèçóç ïñãáíùìÝíïõ ó÷åäßïõ äñÜóçò.
Ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò, åêôéìþíôáò ôçí êñéóéìüôçôá ôçò
êáôÜóôáóçò êáé Ý÷ïíôáò ìåãÜëç ðåðïßèçóç óôéò

Ìå÷ìÝô-Ñåóßô ðáóÜò (1780-1839), ãíùóôüò êáé ùò Êéïõôá÷Þò.


166
167

- ÊáñáúóêÜêç, äåí Ýêáìåò ùò ôþñá üóï Ýðñåðå ôï


÷ñÝïò óïõ óôçí ðáôñßäá, ôïõ ëÝåé· ï èåüò íá óå
öùôßóåé íá ôï êÜìåéò áðü äù êé åìðñüò…
- Äåí ôï áñíïýìáé! ÁðáíôÜåé ï ìåãáëüêáñäïò
Üíôñáò. ¼ôáí èÝëù ãßíïõìáé Üããåëïò êé üôáí ðÜëé
èÝëù ãßíïõìå äéÜâïëïò. Áðü ôþñá Ý÷ù óêïðü íá
ãßíù Üããåëïò»219.

Ï íÝïò óåñáóêÝñçò äåí æÞôçóå ïýôå Üíäñåò, ïýôå


÷ñÞìáôá áðü ôç Äéïßêçóç. Ôï ìüíï ðïõ áîßùóå Þôáí
ç äõíáôüôçôá íá äéïñßæåé óôá äéÜöïñá óôñáôéùôéêÜ
áîéþìáôá Üôïìá ôçò äéêÞò ôïõ åðéëïãÞò. ¼ôáí ôï
áßôçìÜ ôïõ Ýãéíå áðïäåêôü, îåêßíçóå ðõñåôùäþò ôçí
ðñïåôïéìáóßá ãéá ôçí åêóôñáôåßá ôïõ óôçí ÁôôéêÞ.
ÐáñÜ ôçí ðñïóðÜèåéá ðïõ êáôÝâáëå, ç åðßôåõîç ôïõ
êýñéïõ óôü÷ïõ ôïõ, äçëáäÞ ç óõíÝíùóç ôùí äéáöüñùí
ïìÜäùí áãùíéóôþí, óôÜèçêå åíôåëþò áäýíáôç. ¸ôóé
îåêßíçóå óôéò 19 Éïõëßïõ ãéá ôçí ðïëéïñêïýìåíç ÁèÞíá
ìáæß ìå ëéãïóôïýò êáðåôáíáßïõò, ôïí ÍÜêï ÐáíïõñãéÜ,
ôïí Êùíóôáíôßíï ÂÝñç, ôïí ÃéáííÜêç Öñáãêßóôá êáé ôïí
áäåëöü ôïõ ÏäõóóÝá Áíäñïýôóïõ ÃéáííÜêç, êáé ðåñß
ôïõò åîáêüóéïõò ðåíÞíôá Üíäñåò 220.

Ôï óôñáôüðåäï ôçò Åëåõóßíáò

ÌåñéêÝò ìÝñåò ìåôÜ ôçí áíá÷þñçóÞ ôïõò áðü ôï


Íáýðëéï, ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò êáé ïé Üíäñåò ôïõ Ýöôáóáí
óôç Óáëáìßíá. Åêåß îåêßíçóå ôçí ïñãÜíùóç ôùí
ó÷åäßùí ãéá ôçí áíáêïýöéóç ôçò ÁèÞíáò óõæçôþíôáò
ìå ôïõò Êñéåæþôç êáé Ìáõñïâïõíéþôç, ðïõ åß÷áí
áíôéìåôùðßóåé ôá óôñáôåýìáôá ôïõ ÏìÝñ êáé ôïõ
Êéïõôá÷Þ óå äéÜöïñåò ìéêñïóõìðëïêÝò, ðñéí ï
ôåëåõôáßïò êáôáëÜâåé ôçí ÁèÞíá. Óôéò 28 Éïõëßïõ
ïé ïðëáñ÷çãïß Ýöõãáí áðü ôç Óáëáìßíá êáé
óôñáôïðÝäåõóáí óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ôçò Åëåõóßíáò, üðïõ
õðÞñ÷å óôñáôüðåäï ïñãáíùìÝíï áðü ôïõò Êñéåæþôç

Ôï óôñáôüðåäï ôçò Åëåõóßíáò,


ó÷Ýäéï ôïõ Théodore du Moncel (1843).
168

×ñéóôüöïñïò Ðåññáéâüò (ð. 1774-1863). ÊÜñïëïò ÖáâéÝñïò (1872-1855).

êáé Ìáõñïâïõíéþôç Þäç áðü ôï 1825 221. Ïé ìÜ÷åò óôï ×áúäÜñé ôïí Áýãïõóôï ôïõ 1826
Åêåß Ýöôáóáí êáé Üëëïé êáðåôáíáßïé, ðïõ îåêßíçóáí
áðü ôï Íáýðëéï ìåôÜ ôçí áíá÷þñçóç ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç, Óôéò ðáñáãñÜöïõò ðïõ áêïëïõèïýí èá ãßíåé ìéá
üðùò ï ×ñéóôüöïò Ðåññáéâüò (ð. 1774-1863) ìå ó÷åôéêÜ áíáëõôéêÞ ðåñéãñáöÞ ôùí ðïëåìéêþí
åîáêüóéïõò Üíäñåò, Èñáêéþôåò, Ìáêåäüíåò êáé óõãêñïýóåùí ìåôáîý ôùí Ôïýñêùí êáé ôùí ÅëëÞíùí
Èåóóáëïýò, ï ÓôÝöáíïò ÓÝñâïò, ï Åõìïñöüðïõëïò óôï ×áúäÜñé. Ç ðåñéãñáöÞ åßíáé åí ðïëëïßò âáóéóìÝíç
ìå ôçí åðôáíçóéáêÞ öÜëáããá, ï ÍéêçôáñÜò ìå óôá áðïìíçìïíåýìáôá ôïõ ïðëáñ÷çãïý ×ñéóôüöïñïõ
Óìõñíáßïõò êáé Üëëïõò ÌéêñáóéÜôåò êáé Ðåññáéâïý223, ï ïðïßïò ðïëÝìçóå óôï ðëåõñü ôïõ
ï Ãåþñãéïò ×åëéþôçò åðéêåöáëÞò ôÜãìáôïò ÊáñáúóêÜêç, êáé ôïõ áîéùìáôéêïý ×ñÞóôïõ ÂõæÜíôéïõ
óôáëìÝíïõ áðü ôïí óôñáôçãü ÉùÜííç ÍïôáñÜ. ¸ôóé, (1805-1877)224, ðïõ õðçñÝôçóå óôéò ãñáììÝò ôùí
ìÝóá óå ëßãåò çìÝñåò ìáæåýôçêáí óôï óôñáôüðåäï ôáêôéêþí óùìÜôùí õðü ôéò äéáôáãÝò ôïõ ÖáâéÝñïõ.
ôçò Åëåõóßíáò ãýñù óôïõò ôÝóóåñéò ÷éëéÜäåò Èåùñïýìå ðùò ç áíôéðáñÜèåóç ôùí áðüøåùí åíüò
áãùíéóôÝò. Óå áõôïýò ðñïóôÝèçêáí ôï ôáêôéêü êáðåôÜíéïõ ôùí áôÜêôùí êáé åíüò áîéùìáôéêïý åßíáé
óôñáôéùôéêü óþìá ÷éëßùí äéáêïóßùí áíäñþí êáé áðïëýôùò áðáñáßôçôç, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá åðéôåõ÷èåß ç
ôï ìéêñü ôÜãìá öéëåëëÞíùí õðü ôéò äéáôáãÝò ôïõ ìåãáëýôåñç äõíáôÞ áíôéêåéìåíéêüôçôá óôçí áöÞãçóç.
ÃÜëëïõ óôñáôéùôéêïý ÊÜñïëïõ ÖáâéÝñïõ (1782-1855), Ïé Ýñéäåò, ïé äé÷ïãíùìßåò êáé ïé óõãêñïýóåéò ðïõ
ðïõ Ýöôáóå óôçí Åëåõóßíá áðü ôá ÌÝèáíá êáôüðéí ðñïÝêõøáí ìåôáîý ôçò ðáñÜôáîçò ôùí áôÜêôùí
êõâåñíçôéêÞò äéáôáãÞò. ÐñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ìçí õðÜñîïõí êáé áõôÞò ôùí ôáêôéêþí êáôÜ ôçí åêóôñáôåßá ôïõ
äõóáñÝóêåéåò ìåôáîý ôùí äýï áñ÷çãþí, ç êõâÝñíçóç ÊáñáúóêÜêç ãéá ôçí áðåëåõèÝñùóç ôùí Áèçíþí,
óõìâïýëåøå ôïí ÊáñáúóêÜêç íá ìçí áöÞíåé ôïí åßíáé éäéáßôåñá åìöáíåßò óôéò äéáöïñÝò –êÜðïéåò
ÖáâéÝñï åêôüò ôùí óõóêÝøåùí ãéá ôçí êáôÜñôéóç öïñÝò áñêåôÜ ìåãÜëåò– ðïõ õðÜñ÷ïõí óôá
ó÷åäßïõ ìÜ÷çò, åíþ îåêáèÜñéóå óôïí ÖáâéÝñï üôé äåí áðïìíçìïíåýìáôá ôùí ðïëåìéóôþí ðïõ óõììåôåß÷áí
ôåëåß õðü ôéò äéáôáãÝò ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç 222. óôá ãåãïíüôá. Ôï öáéíüìåíï áõôü –éäéáßôåñá
169

Ôá ó÷åäéáãñÜììáôá ôùí ìá÷þí ðïõ Ýëáâáí ÷þñá óôï ×áúäÜñé.


Ó÷åäéÜóôçêáí áðü ôïí õðïëï÷áãü ôïõ ðåæéêïý Á. Ê. ÊáôóéìÞäç êáé äçìïóéåýôçêáí óôç äåýôåñç Ýêäïóç ôïõ Ýñãïõ ôïõ ×ñ. ÂõæÜíôéïõ ìå
ôßôëï Éóôïñßá ôùí êáôÜ ôçí åëëçíéêÞí åðáíÜóôáóéí åêóôñáôåéþí êáé ìá÷þí ùí óõììåôÝó÷åí ï ôáêôéêüò óôñáôüò áðü ôïõ 1821 ìÝ÷ñé ôïõ 1833
(áíáôýðùóç áðü ôçí Éóôïñßá ôïõ Åëëçíéêïý ¸èíïõò, ô. É´, óåë. 421).

óõíçèéóìÝíï óôçí éóôïñéêÞ Ýñåõíá– åðéâÜëëåé ôç óôü÷ï ôçí áðåëåõèÝñùóç ôùí Áèçíþí. Åöüóïí ç
÷ñÞóç ðïëëáðëþí ðçãþí225. ðüëç åß÷å êáôáëçöèåß áðü ôïí å÷èñü, ìéá åðßèåóç
Ðßóù, ëïéðüí, óôçí Åëåõóßíá: üôáí ç åßäçóç ôçò ÷ùñßò óôñáôéùôéêÝò äõíÜìåéò éêáíÝò íá åêäéþîïõí
êáôÜëçøçò ôçò ðüëåùò ôùí Áèçíþí áðü ôéò åíôåëþò ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò Þôáí ìÜôáéç. Ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò,
äõíÜìåéò ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ Ýöôáóå óôçí Åëåõóßíá, ïé üìùò, Þôáí áìåôáêßíçôïò óôçí áðüöáóÞ ôïõ ãéá
ïðëáñ÷çãïß áðïöÜóéóáí íá êéíçèïýí, ðáñÜ ôçí åðßèåóç ãéáôß èåùñïýóå üôé áí Ýìåíáí Üðñáêôïé óôçí
áíôßèåôç ãíþìç ôïõ ÖáâéÝñïõ ðïõ Ýëåãå üôé Ýðñåðå Åëåõóßíá, ôá óþìáôá ôùí áôÜêôùí èá äéáëýïíôáí êáé
íá ðåñéìÝíïõí ôçí Üöéîç ôïõ ôáêôéêïý éððéêïý. Ï ïé ìá÷çôÝò èá ãýñéæáí óôá ÷ùñéÜ ôïõò 226. Ðñéí áðü
ÖáâéÝñïò õðïóôÞñéæå üôé ç åêóôñáôåßá åß÷å ãßíåé ìå ôçí åðé÷åßñçóç, ðïõ ïñßóôçêå ãéá ôï âñÜäõ ôçò 5çò
170

«èÝóéí êáëïýìåíç ×áúäÜñé, ìéêñὸí ἀãñïêÞðéïí


ἀðÝ÷ïí ἑðôὰ ðåñßðïõ óôÜäéá ἀðὸ ôῆò ðüëåùò
ôῶí Ἀèçíῶí êáὶ óõíéóôÜìåíïí ἐî ἑíὸò êÞðïõ
ðåñéöñáãìÝíïõ äéὰ ìéêñïῦ ôïß÷ïõ êáὶ ἑíὸò
ðýñãïõ, êáὶ ἔ÷ïíôïò ìåóçìâñéíῶò ὁìáëὸí ëüöïí
êáὶ ðåäßïí êáôáëῆãïí, åἰò ôὸí ἐëáéῶíá ôῶí
Ἀèçíῶí, äõôéêῶò ὀîὺí ëïößóêïí, ἀíáôïëéêῶò
ëüöïí ὑøçëὸí êáὶ êáôüðéí áὐôïῦ ìéêñὰ ὀñïðÝäéá
êáôáëÞãïíôá åἰò ὁìáëὸí êáὶ ἐðßðåäïí ἔäáöïò
ἐíïýìåíïí ìåôὰ ôïῦ ðåäßïõ ôῶí Ἀèçíῶí, ðñὸò
âïññᾶí äὲ ὀëßãïí ὁìáëὸí ἔäáöïò êáὶ ìåôὰ ôïῦôï
ôὸ ὄñïò Áἰãéáëὸí (ÁἰãÜëåù), ôïῦ ὁðïßïõ áἱ ðñὸò
ôὸ ×áúäÜñé êáôùöÝñåéáé áὐôïῦ åἰóὶí ἀðüôïìáé êáὶ
äýóâáôïé»228.

Ôï ôåé÷éóìÝíï êôÞìá, üðùò áíáöÝñèçêå ðáñáðÜíù,


åíôïðßæåôáé óôïí ÷þñï ãýñù áðü ôï ÐáëáôÜêé. Ï
ðýñãïò ðïõ áíáöÝñåé ï ÂõæÜíôéïò öáßíåôáé üôé
áíôéêáôáóôÜèçêå áñãüôåñá áðü ôï ÐáëáôÜêé.
ÁìÝóùò ìüëéò Ýöôáóáí óôï ×áúäÜñé, ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò
Ýäùóå äéáôáãÞ íá ñßîåé üëï ôï áóêÝñé ôïõ ôáõôü÷ñïíá
ìéá ôïõöåêéÜ, þóôå íá êáôáëÜâïõí áõôïß ðïõ Þôáí
êëåéóìÝíïé óôçí Áêñüðïëç üôé åß÷å Ýñèåé âïÞèåéá.
ÉùÜííçò Ãêïýñáò (1791-1826). ÂÝâáéá Ýôóé èá åíçìÝñùíå êáé ôïõò
Ôïýñêïõò ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôç èÝóç ôïõò, áëëÜ äåí ôïí
Áõãïýóôïõ, ï óåñáóêÝñçò åìøý÷ùíå ìå ðýñéíá ëüãéá ðåßñáæå, êáèþò äåí õðïëüãéæå üôé Ý÷åé áñêåôïýò
ôïõò Üíäñåò ôïõ: Üíäñåò þóôå íá åðéôåèåß áéöíéäéáóôéêÜ óôá
óôñáôåýìáôá ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ 229. Ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò ìå ôïõò
«ÁäÝëöéá, ôéìÝò êáé óôáõñïýò áðü åêåßíïõò ðïõ Áèçíáßïõò êáé Üëëïõò áôÜêôïõò ìá÷çôÝò ï÷õñþèçêáí
äßíïõí ôá Üëëá Ýèíç äåí Ý÷åé ôï äéêü ìáò íá óáò ìÝóá óôï áãñüêôçìá, áöïý åíßó÷õóáí ôïí ðåñßâïëï.
äþóåé. Ôï ìüíï âñáâåßï ìáò èá åßíáé ç õðüëçøç Ïé õðüëïéðïé ïðëáñ÷çãïß ìå ôïõò Üíäñåò ôïõò
ðïõ è’ áðï÷ôÞóïõìå áíÜìåóÜ ìáò. Áõôü ìáò Ýðéáóáí ôïõò ãýñù ëüöïõò êáé êáôáóêåýáóáí éó÷õñÜ
öôÜíåé ãéá ôçí þñá, áêüìá êé áí ìáò åßíáé ãñáöôü ÷áñáêþìáôá. Ï ÖáâéÝñïò ìå ôïõò óôñáôéþôåò ôïõ
íá ðåèÜíïõìå»227. óôñáôïðÝäåõóáí óôï ïìáëü ðåäßï ðßóù áðü
ôï êôÞìá, Ý÷ïíôáò ôï ìÝôùðü ôïõò ðñïò ôçí ÁèÞíá.
Ç ìÜ÷ç ôçò 6çò Áõãïýóôïõ 1826. Ôá ìåóÜíõ÷ôá Íùñßò ôï åðüìåíï ðñùß ïé ìá÷çôÝò Üñ÷éóáí íá
ôçò 5çò Áõãïýóôïõ ïé ôáêôéêïß ôïõ ÖáâéÝñïõ êáé ïé åôïéìÜæïíôáé ãéá ôçí åðåñ÷üìåíç óýãêñïõóç ìå ôïí
Üôáêôïé ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç êáé ôùí Üëëùí êáðåôáíáßùí å÷èñü, ôïí ïðïßï ðåñßìåíáí áðü óôéãìÞ óå óôéãìÞ,
óôñáôïðÝäåõóáí óôï ðåñéâüëé ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ, êáèþò ïé ôïõöåêéÝò ðïõ åß÷áí ñßîåé
áíÜìåóá óôïí Êïñõäáëëü êáé ôïí åëáéþíá. Ï ôï ðñïçãïýìåíï âñÜäõ åß÷áí ðñïäþóåé ôç èÝóç ôïõò:
ÂõæÜíôéïò ïñßæåé ìå ëåðôïìÝñåéá ôçí ôïðïèåóßá, üðïõ
âñéóêüôáí ðõñãïåéäÝò êôßóìá ìÝóá óå ôåé÷éóìÝíï «Ðåñὶ ôὸí ὄñèñïí, ô 6 Áὐãïýóôïõ, ἡìÝñá ôῆò
áãñüêôçìá: Ìåôáìïñöþóåùò, ἡ óôñáôéùôéêὴ ìïõóéêὴ ἐóÞìáíå
171

ôὸ ἑùèéíüí, ἅðáò äὲ ὁ óôñáôὸò ἠãÝñèç êáὶ


ἕêáóôïò óôñáôéþôçò ðáñåóêåýáæå ôὸ ὅðëïí
êáὶ ôὰò ðõñéôïâïëὰò áὐôïῦ ðñὸò ìÜ÷çí. Êáὶ
ðñῶôïí ἤäç ἐðὶ ôῆò Ἑëëçíéêῆò ἘðáíáóôÜóåùò
óõíåêñïôÞèåé ôïéïῦôïí óôñáôüðåäïí, ἔ÷ïí ôýðïí
óôñáôéùôéêῆò åὐñùðáúêῆò ôÜîåùò»230.

ÁìÝóùò ìåôÜ ôçí áíáôïëÞ ôïõ çëßïõ öÜíçêå íá


îåðñïâÜëëåé ìÝóá áðü ôïí åëáéþíá ôïõñêéêÞ Ýöéððç
ðåñßðïëïò, ç ïðïßá åêäéþ÷èçêå ìå ðõñïâïëéóìïýò.
Ìßá þñá áñãüôåñá ðïëõÜñéèìç ïìÜäá Ôïýñêùí
éððÝùí åðéôÝèçêå ðñïò ôá óþìáôá ôùí ïðëáñ÷çãþí
ðïõ Þôáí ï÷õñùìÝíá óôïõò ëüöïõò. Ïé ¸ëëçíåò
áíôéìåôþðéóáí óèåíáñÜ ôïõò åðéôéèÝìåíïõò êáé ìå
ôçí ïõóéáóôéêÞ âïÞèåéá ôùí ôáêôéêþí ôáãìÜôùí
ôïõ ÖáâéÝñïõ ôïýò áíÜãêáóáí íá ïðéóèï÷ùñÞóïõí.
Ç óõíåñãáóßá ôáêôéêþí êáé áôÜêôùí õðÞñîå
õðïäåéãìáôéêÞ êáé Üêñùò áðïôåëåóìáôéêÞ. ÊáôÜ ôïí
ÂõæÜíôéï

«Ἀìöüôåñáé áἱ ðñὸò ôὸí ἐ÷èñὸí óõìðëïêáὶ


áὖôáé ἀðÝäåéîáí ôὴí ἐí ìÜ÷ῃ ÷ñçóéìüôçôá ἢ êáὶ
÷ñῆóéí ôïῦ ôáêôéêïῦ óôñáôïῦ åὑñéóêïìÝíïõ ìåôὰ
ôïῦ ἀôÜêôïõ. Ὁ ÊáñáúóêÜêçò, ὡò óôñáôéùôéêὸò Ãåþñãéïò ÊáñáúóêÜêçò (1780-1827).
ðåðåéñáìÝíïò, êáßôïé ìçäåìßáí ðáéäåßáí ἢ
óôñáôéùôéêὰò ãíþóåéò êáôÝ÷ùí, ἀëë’ ὡò öýóåé üëùí ôùí åëëçíéêþí èÝóåùí. Ï ÖáâéÝñïò äéÝôáîå ôï
ὀîýíïõò, ἀíôåëÞöèåé ἐí ôῷ ἅìá, ὅôé ἐí ìÜ÷ῃ ðõñïâïëéêü ôïõ íá áðáíôÞóåé óôéò ôïõñêéêÝò âïëÝò,
óõíáðôïìÝíῃ ἐê ôáêôéêïῦ ìåô’ ἀôÜêôïõ óôñáôïῦ, åíþ Ýóôåéëå ôïõò óôñáôéþôåò ôïõ íá âïçèÞóïõí ôïõò
ïἱ ìὲí ðñῶôïé ðñÝðåé íὰ ìÝíùóé ἐí ἐöåäñåßᾳ áôÜêôïõò óå üëá ôá ìÝôùðá ôùí óõãêñïýóåùí. Ç
ἢ ἐðéêïõñßᾳ, ïἱ äὲ äåýôåñïé íὰ ìÜ÷ïíôáé, êáὶ åíéó÷õìÝíç áðü ôá ôáêôéêÜ ôÜãìáôá ïñìÞ ôùí áôÜêôùí
ὅôé ïὕôùò ἡ ìὲí íßêç ἀóöáëßæåôáé, ἕêáóôïò ä’ áíÜãêáóå ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò óå õðï÷þñçóç.
åὑñßóêåôáé åἰò ôὸ öõóéêὸí óôïé÷åῖïí áὐôïῦ»231. Ï ÖáâéÝñïò, âëÝðïíôáò åíèïõóéáóìÝíïò ôïí å÷èñü
íá áðïóýñåôáé, áðïöÜóéóå íá ôïí êáôáäéþîåé Ýùò
¸ôóé, óõìöùíÞèçêå ìåôáîý ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç êáé ôïõ ôçí ÁèÞíá ìå óêïðü íá ôïí åêäéþîåé êáé áðü ôéò
ÖáâéÝñïõ íá Ý÷ïõí ôá ôáêôéêÜ óþìáôá ñüëï êáôåîï÷Þí åêåß èÝóåéò ôïõ, ðñÜãìá ðïõ èá ïäçãïýóå óôçí
õðïóôçñéêôéêü êáé íá äñïõí ìüíï üôáí åìöáíßæåôáé áðåëåõèÝñùóç ôçò ðüëçò. ¸ôóé, áöïý Ýíùóå ôá
êÜðïéá áíÜãêç. ôÜãìáôÜ ôïõ óå ìßá öÜëáããá, äéÝôáîå ôçí êáôáäßùîç
Ìßá þñá ðåñßðïõ ìåôÜ ôçí õðï÷þñçóç ôùí Ôïýñêùí ôùí õðï÷ùñïýíôùí ðñïò ôçí ÁèÞíá. Ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò,
éððÝùí êáôÝöèáóå éó÷õñüôáôï ôïõñêéêü óþìá üìùò, öïâïýìåíïò üôé ç áéöíéäéáóôéêÞ åðßèåóç ôïõ
áðïôåëïýìåíï áðü ðåæéêü, éððéêü êáé ðõñïâïëéêü. Ïé ôïõñêéêïý éððéêïý óôïí áíïé÷ôü êÜìðï ðïõ áðëùíüôáí
éððåßò êáé ïé óôñáôéþôåò ÷ùñßóôçêáí óå äýï ðôÝñõãåò ìåôáîý ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ êáé ôçò ÁèÞíáò èá áðÝâáéíå
êáé êéíÞèçêáí ðñïò ôá ôáìðïýñéá ôùí ïðëáñ÷çãþí, åîáéñåôéêÜ êáôáóôñïöéêÞ, æÞôçóå áðü ôïí ÃÜëëï
åíþ ôï ðõñïâïëéêü Ýâáëëå áêáôÜðáõóôá åíáíôßïí óõíôáãìáôÜñ÷ç íá óçìÜíåé ïðéóèï÷þñçóç. Ï ÖáâéÝñïò
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áñíÞèçêå éó÷õñéæüìåíïò ðùò Ýôóé èá Ý÷áíáí ìéá êáëÞ ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç, ïé åëëçíéêÝò äõíÜìåéò äåí ðñüëáâáí
åõêáéñßá íá åêäéþîïõí ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò áðü ôçí ÁôôéêÞ. íá áðïóõñèïýí áðü ôï ×áúäÜñé. Óå áõôü óõíÝâáëáí êáé
Ðáñ’ üëá áõôÜ, ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò, ðïõ ãíþñéæå êáëýôåñá ôá íÝá ðïõ Ýöôáóáí áðü ôçí ÁèÞíá üôé ï çôôçìÝíïò
ôçí áéöíéäéáóôéêÞ ôáêôéêÞ ôùí å÷èñþí áëëÜ êáé ôéò Êéïõôá÷Þò åôïéìáæüôáí íá öýãåé áðü ôçí ðüëç. ¸ôóé
äõíáôüôçôåò ôùí áôÜêôùí, åðÝìåéíå óôçí áðüöáóÞ ôïõ. ïé ¸ëëçíåò áðïöÜóéóáí íá ìåßíïõí óôï ×áúäÜñé ãéá
¸ðåéôá áðü áõôÜ, ï ÖáâéÝñïò áíáãêÜóôçêå íá ãõñßóåé íá ÷ôõðÞóïõí ðéï áðïôåëåóìáôéêÜ ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò
áðïãïçôåõìÝíïò óôï óôñáôüðåäï. êáôÜ ôçí áðï÷þñçóÞ ôïõò. ¼ìùò, ç Üöéîç ôïõ ÏìÝñ
¸ôóé, ç ðñþôç óýãêñïõóç óôï ×áúäÜñé óôáìÜôçóå ðáóÜ ôçò Êáñýóôïõ ìå ôñåéò ÷éëéÜäåò Üíäñåò óôéò 7
ôï áðüãåõìá êáé êñÜôçóå ðÜíù áðü ïêôþ þñåò. Ïé Áõãïýóôïõ Üëëáîå ôá ó÷Ýäéá ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ, ï ïðïßïò
áðþëåéåò ãéá ôçí åëëçíéêÞ ðëåõñÜ Þôáí åëÜ÷éóôåò: áíáäéïñãÜíùóå ôá óôñáôåýìáôÜ ôïõ êáé êéíÞèçêå
áñêåôïß ðëçãùìÝíïé, äÝêá Üôáêôïé êáé åßêïóé ôáêôéêïß ðñïò ôï ×áúäÜñé ìå óôü÷ï ôç äéÜëõóç ôïõ åëëçíéêïý
íåêñïß. Ïé Ôïýñêïé, áðü ôçí Üëëç, Ý÷áóáí ðÜíù áðü óôñáôïðÝäïõ233.
äéáêüóéïõò óôñáôéþôåò, áñêåôÜ Üëïãá, äýï óçìáßåò
êáé ðïëëÜ ðïëåìïöüäéá. Óôç ìÜ÷ç äéáêñßèçêáí Ç ìÜ÷ç ôçò 8çò Áõãïýóôïõ 1826. Ïé ¸ëëçíåò,
éäéáßôåñá ôï ôÜãìá ôùí öéëåëëÞíùí ôïõ ÖáâéÝñïõ åíçìåñùìÝíïé ãéá ôéò êéíÞóåéò ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ êáé ôïõ
êáé ï Êñéåæþôçò ìå ôïõò ìá÷çôÝò ôïõ. Ç ðñþôç áõôÞ ÏìÝñ, åíßó÷õóáí ôá ôáìðïýñéá ðïõ åß÷áí êáôáóêåõÜóåé
ìÜ÷ç ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ Þôáí íéêçöüñá ãéá ôéò åëëçíéêÝò êáôÜ ôçí ðñïçãïýìåíç ìÜ÷ç. Ï å÷èñüò öÜíçêå ôï
äõíÜìåéò, ðñÜãìá ðïõ äçìéïýñãçóå éäéáßôåñá îçìÝñùìá ôçò 8çò Áõãïýóôïõ. Áðü ôï óôñáôüðåäï óôï
åõ÷Üñéóôï êëßìá óôï óôñáôüðåäï ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ: ×áúäÜñé åßäáí íá ðëçóéÜæïõí ðåñß ôïõò ïêôþ ÷éëéÜäåò
Ôïýñêïé óôñáôéþôåò ìå åðéêåöáëÞò ôïí Êéïõôá÷Þ êáé
«Ὁ Ἑëëçíéêὸò óôñáôὸò ἦôï ëßáí åὔèõìïò, ïἱ äýï ÷éëéÜäåò éððåßò ìå ôïí ÏìÝñ ðáóÜ. Ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò
ἄôáêôïé óôñáôéῶôáé ἐíçãêáëßæïíôï ìåôὰ ôῶí âëÝðïíôáò ôïí üãêï ôïõ áíôéðÜëïõ áíôéëÞöèçêå ôïí
ôáêôéêῶí ὡò ἀäåëöïὶ ἀìïéâáßùò öéëïöñïíïýìåíïé, ìåãÜëï êßíäõíï êáé Üñ÷éóå íá ôñÝ÷åé áðü ôáìðïýñé
ὡò óõìðïëåìÞóáíôåò êáὶ íéêÞóáíôåò ôὸí ἐ÷èñüí. óå ôáìðïýñé åìøõ÷þíïíôáò ôïõò ìá÷çôÝò ôïõ ðïõ
ÌÝ÷ñé äὲ ôῆò ἑóðÝñáò ôáýôçò ἡ óôñáôéùôéêὴ õðïëåßðïíôáí óçìáíôéêÜ óå áñéèìü óå ó÷Ýóç ìå ôïõò
ìïõóéêὴ äéåóêÝäáæå ôὸ óôñáôüðåäïí äéὰ äéáöüñùí Ôïýñêïõò. Ï ×ñéóôüöïñïò Ðåññáéâüò èõìÜôáé:
ὕìíùí, ὅðåñ ἐîÝðëçôôå ôïὺò ἀôÜêôïõò óôñáôéþôáò,
ὡò êáôὰ ðñῶôïí ἰäüíôáò ôïéïῦôïí óôñáôüðåäïí ἐí «Ὁ Ἀñ÷çãὸò ἐîåëèὼí ôïῦ ðåñéâüëïõ ðåñéÞñ÷åôï
ἙëëÜäé»232. ὅëá ôὰ ὀ÷õñþìáôá ἐíèáññýíùí ôïὺò Ἕëëçíáò,
ðñïóêáëῶí ἕêáóôïí åἰò öéëïôéìßáí, ἀíáìéìíῄóêùí
Ôï âñÜäõ ïé áñ÷çãïß óõãêåíôñþèçêáí, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ ôὰò ðñïëáâïýóáò ἀíäñáãáèßáò ôïõ ἢ
íá áðïöáóßóïõí ôç óõíÝ÷åéá ôùí åðé÷åéñÞóåùí. Ï ðáôñáãáèßáò»234.
ÊáñáúóêÜêçò ðñüôåéíå íá åãêáôáëåßøïõí ôï ×áúäÜñé,
ðïõ êáôÜ ôç ãíþìç ôïõ äåí Þôáí áóöáëÝò, êáé íá Ïé ôïõñêéêÝò äõíÜìåéò êéíÞèçêáí äõíáìéêÜ ðñïò ôéò
êéíçèïýí ðñïò ôïí ÐåéñáéÜ êáé ôçí ÊáóôÝëá. Åêåß, åëëçíéêÝò èÝóåéò. Êé åíþ ïé Üôáêôïé Ýìåíáí ðßóù áðü
Ý÷ïíôáò ôç èÜëáóóá ðßóù ôïõò, èá ìðïñïýóáí åýêïëá ôá ôáìðïýñéá ôïõò öïâïýìåíïé íá äþóïõí ìÜ÷ç óôçí
íá åöïäéÜæïíôáé áðü ôá ðëïßá. Ï ÖáâéÝñïò, üìùò, äåí áíïé÷ôÞ ðåäéÜäá ìå Ýíáí õðåñÜñéèìï áíôßðáëï, ï
óõìöþíçóå êáé äÞëùóå üôé èá Ýìåíå ìå ôç äýíáìÞ ôïõ ÖáâéÝñïò, îåêßíçóå ôç ìÜ÷ç ÷ùñßò íá óõíåííïçèåß ìå
óôï ×áúäÜñé ãéá íá áíôéìåôùðßóåé ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò, áöïý ôïí ÊáñáúóêÜêç óôÝëíïíôáò ôï ðñþôï ôÜãìá, ãýñù
ï óêïðüò ôçò åëëçíéêÞò åêóôñáôåßáò Þôáí ç åðßèåóç óôïõò ðåíôáêüóéïõò Üíäñåò ìå åðéêåöáëÞò ôïí ÃÜëëï
êáé ü÷é ç Üìõíá. Ïé äýï Üíäñåò öéëïíßêçóáí Ýíôïíá, ôáãìáôÜñ÷ç Robert, åíáíôßïí ôïõ ôïõñêéêïý éððéêïý.
ãåãïíüò ðïõ ïäÞãçóå óôçí áðþëåéá ðïëýôéìïõ ÷ñüíïõ. Ôï äåýôåñï ôÜãìá èá áêïëïõèïýóå óå áðüóôáóç
¸ôóé, áí êáé ôåëéêÜ ï ÖáâéÝñïò áðïäÝ÷èçêå ôçí Üðïøç ôñéáêïóßùí âçìÜôùí ðñïò åðéêïõñßá ôïõ ðñþôïõ.
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Ìåôáîý ôïõ ôáêôéêïý óôñáôïý êáé ôïõ ôïõñêéêïý éððéêïý Êéïõôá÷Þ êáé Üíäñáò åîáéñåôéêÜ óêëçñüò óôç ìÜ÷ç,
õðÞñ÷å øçëüò ëüöïò, ðïõ åìðüäéæå ôïõò áíôéðÜëïõò êáé äçìéïýñãçóå ìåãÜëç áíáóôÜôùóç óôéò ãñáììÝò
íá âëÝðïõí ï Ýíáò ôïí Üëëï: ôùí Ôïýñêùí, éððÝùí áëëÜ êáé ðåæþí, ðïõ Üñ÷éóáí
íá ïðéóèï÷ùñïýí. Óå áõôÞ ôç ìéêñÞ áíÜðáõëá ï
«ÐïñåõïìÝíùí ôῶí äýï ôïýôùí óùìÜôùí, äὲí Ðåññáéâüò âñÞêå ôçí åõêáéñßá íá ãñÜøåé óçìåßùìá
ἔâëåðå ôὸ ἓí ôὸ ἄëëï äéὰ ôὸ ὕøïò ôïῦ ëüöïõ· óôïí ÊáñáúóêÜêç:
ὅôáí äὲ ðáñåãÝíïíôï ἀìöüôåñá óõã÷ñüíùò åἰò
ôὴí êïñõöÞí, ἐóôÜèçóáí ἐêóôáôéêὰ êáὶ ἀêßíçôá äéὰ «Ãåííáéüôáôå Ἀñ÷çãÝ!
ôὸ ἀðñïóäüêçôïí ôῆò ἀðáíôÞóåùò· ὁ ἀîéùìáôéêὸò
Ἕëëçí ðñïëáâὼí äéÝôáîå íὰ ðõñïâïëÞóùóéí, ïἱ Ἴäåò öáíåñὰ ôáýôçí ôὴí óôéãìὴí ôὴí ôñïìåñὰí
Ôïýñêïé, ìïëïíüôé ìὲ ôὸí ðñῶôïí ðõñïâïëéóìὸí ὁñìὴí êáὶ ἀðñïóäüêçôïí ὀðéóèïäñüìçóéí ôïῦ
ἐöïíåýèçóáí ἐííÝá, ἀíôåðõñïâüëçóáí êáὶ áὐôïὶ ἐ÷èñïῦ· äéὰ íá êåñäßóùìåí ðëçñåóôÜôçí ôὴí íßêçí,
ôáõôï÷ñüíùò ðëçãþóáíôåò ôñåῖò ἐê ôïῦ ôáêôéêïῦ, óôï÷Üæïìáé ὅôé óõìöÝñåé íá êéíçè ðáñåõèὺò
óõìðåñéëáìâáíïìÝíïõ êáὶ ôïῦ ἀîéùìáôéêïῦ, ὅóôéò ôὸ ἥìéóõ ôïῦ ôáêôéêïῦ ìáæὶ ìὲ ôὸ ôñßôïí ìÝñïò
êáßôïé ðëçãùèåὶò ôὸí ìçñὸí ἐöþíáæå ðῦñ, ðῦñ»235. ôïῦ ἀôÜêôïõ ἐê äåîéῶí, êáὶ ôὸ ἄëëï ðáñïìïßùò
ἐî åὐùíýìùí· ἡ äὲ Ãåííáéüôçò óïõ ἐíùèåὶò ìåè’
Óôá ðñþôá óôÜäéá ôçò óýãêñïõóçò ðëçãþèçêå ἡìῶí íá ó÷çìáôßóïõìå ôὸ êÝíôñï, êáὶ ïὕôùò ἐê
ï Robert êáé åãêáôÝëåéøå ôïõò Üíäñåò ôïõ. Áõôïß óõìöþíïõ íὰ ὁñìÞóùìåí êáôὰ ôïῦ ἐ÷èñïῦ ðñὶí
áðïäéïñãáíþèçêáí êáé Ý÷áóáí ôï èÜññïò ôïõò· Ýôóé ὀ÷õñùèῆ, äéüôé ἤñ÷éóå íá óêÜðôῃ êáὶ ὀ÷õñïýôáé.
Ýãéíáí åýêïëç ëåßá ãéá ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò óôñáôéþôåò,
ðïõ üìùò áíá÷áéôßóôçêáí åãêáßñùò áðü ôïí 8 Áὐãïýóôïõ 1826, ×áúäÜñé
ÊáñáúóêÜêç, ôïí Êñéåæþôç êáé äéáêüóéïõò áíäñåßïõò Ðåññáéâὸò»236.
áãùíéóôÝò, áëëÜ êáé ôï äåýôåñï ôÜãìá ôïõ ÖáâéÝñïõ.
¸ôóé ïé ôáêôéêïß õðï÷þñçóáí ìå ôÜîç êáé ó÷åôéêÜ Ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò óõìöþíçóå ìå ôéò ðñïôÜóåéò ôïõ
ëßãåò áðþëåéåò, åíþ ï ëüöïò êáôáëÞöèçêå êáé óõíáãùíéóôÞ ôïõ êáé ôïõ Ýóôåéëå ôï ðáñáêÜôù
ï÷õñþèçêå áðü ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò, ðïõ äåí ôüëìçóáí óçìåßùìá:
íá ðñï÷ùñÞóïõí ðåñáéôÝñù óôçí ðáñÜôáîç ôùí äýï
åíùìÝíùí ðëÝïí ôáãìÜôùí. «ÓôñáôçãÝ ÐåññáéâÝ!
ÂëÝðïíôáò ôçí ïñìÞ ôùí áíäñþí ôïõ, ï Êéïõôá÷Þò
äéÝôáîå ãåíéêÞ åðßèåóç åíáíôßïí ôùí áôÜêôùí, ðïõ ÌÞñåóåí ç ãíþìç óïõ êáé åßìáé óýìöùíïò,
êñáôïýóáí äýï âáóéêÝò èÝóåéò: ìßá ðñïò ôçí ÁèÞíá, áäåëöÝ, äé’ üóá ãñÜöåéò, åðñïóêÜëåóá ìÜëéóôá
ôçí ðëÝïí åêôåèåéìÝíç, ôçí ïðïßá õðåñáóðßæïíôáí åõèýò ôïí ÓõíôáãìáôÜñ÷çí ÖáâéÝñïí, áíÝãíùóá
ï Ðåññáéâüò êáé ï ÓÝñâïò, êáé ìßá ðßóù áðü áõôÞ, ôï ãñÜììá óïõ· áëë’ áõôüò ì’ áðåêñßèç áðïôüìùò
ðñïò ôï ÁéãÜëåù. Óå áõôÞ ôç äåýôåñç èÝóç, üðïõ ïýôù: “Óåéò êÜìåôå ôá éäéêÜ óáò ó÷Ýäéá êáé åãþ èá
ðïëåìïýóáí ï Êñéåæéþôçò êáé ï Ìáõñïâïõíéþôçò ìå êÜìù ôá åäéêÜ ìïõ”. Ôïýôïõò ôïõò ëüãïõò åéðþí
ôïõò Üíäñåò ôïõò, äåí åß÷áí êáôáóêåõÜóåé ôáìðïýñéá åðÝóôñåøåí åéò ôçí ÷éëéáñ÷ßáí ôïõ ÷ùñßò íá åßðç Þ
ãéáôß Þôáí öõóéêÜ ï÷õñùìÝíç. Ç ìÜ÷ç Üíáøå, óêëçñÞ áêïýóç Üëëï ôé ðåñéóóüôåñïí.
êáé ëõóóáëÝá. ÁäåëöÝ! ç óçìåñéíÞ áíäñåßá êáé áíèßóôáóéò ôïõ
Ï ×ñéóôüöïñïò Ðåññáéâüò äéÝôáîå ôïõò Üíäñåò ï÷õñþìáôüò óáò Ýóùóåí üëïí ôï óôñáôüðåäïí·
ôïõ íá ÷ôõðïýí ðñïóåêôéêÜ óçìáäåýïíôáò ôïõò Ýäùêåí êáé åõôõ÷Þ áñ÷Þí ôçò áñ÷çãßáò ìïõ·
ìðáúñáêôÜñçäåò êáé ôïõò åðéêåöáëÞò. Ìßá éäéáßôåñá åðéèõìþ íá ìéìçèþóéí êé üëá ô’ Üëëá ï÷õñþìáôá
åýóôï÷ç ôïõöåêéÜ âñÞêå êáôáêïýôåëá ôïí áñ÷çãü ôï ðáñÜäåéãìÜ óáò, êáé ôüôå ç íßêç èÝëåé óáëðßóåé
ôïõ éððéêïý, ðïõ ôý÷áéíå íá åßíáé óõããåíÞò ôïõ õðÝñ ÅëëÞíùí. ÂÜóôá, áäåëöÝ, êáé åëðßæù ðñï ôáò
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äÝêáò þñáò íá êáôáðåßóù êáé ôïõò åðéëïßðïõò íá ôñáâÜôå êáôÜ ðßóù, ðñïò ôï ðåñéâüëé üðïõ
ïðëáñ÷çãïýò, äéÜ íá ðñáãìáôïðïéÞóùìåí ôï âñßóêåôáé ï áñ÷çãüò»238.
ñçèÝí ó÷Ýäéïí. Õãßáéíå.
Êáé åíþ ïé Üôáêôïé áðïôñáâéïýíôáí áèüñõâá ðñïò
8 Áõãïýóôïõ 1826, ×áúäÜñé ôï âïõíü, ïé ôáêôéêïß ðïõ åß÷áí åãêáôáóôáèåß ìÝóá
Ï áäåëöüò êáé Áñ÷çãüò óôïí ðåñßâïëï ôïõ áãñïêôÞìáôïò, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ
Ã. ÊáñáúóêÜêçò»237. íá îåêïõñáóôïýí, âñÝèçêáí ðåñéêõêëùìÝíïé áðü
ôïí å÷èñü. Öáßíåôáé ðùò äåí åß÷áí åéäïðïéçèåß
Åí ôù ìåôáîý, üðùò áêñéâþò Ýãñáøå ï Ðåññáéâüò óôïí åãêáßñùò ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôçí áèüñõâç áðï÷þñçóç ôùí
ÊáñáúóêÜêç, ïé Ôïýñêïé êáôáóêåýáóáí ìå èáõìáóôÞ óõíáãùíéóôþí ôïõò, åíþ ïé Ôïýñêïé êáôÜóêïðïé
ôá÷ýôçôá ôáìðïýñéá, åãêáôÝóôçóáí ôá êáíüíéá ôïõò åß÷áí åíçìåñþóåé ôïõò áíùôÝñïõò ôïõò üôé üëåò
êáé Üñ÷éóáí íá âïìâáñäßæïõí ôïõò ¸ëëçíåò. Ìå ïé åëëçíéêÝò èÝóåéò ðëçí ôïõ áãñïêôÞìáôïò åß÷áí
äéáôáãÞ ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ ôï éððéêü ÷ùñßóôçêå óå äýï åãêáôáëåéöèåß. ¼ôáí, ëïéðüí, ï ôáêôéêüò óôñáôüò
ôìÞìáôá êáé ôïðïèåôÞèçêå óôïõò ðñüðïäåò ôïõ åîÞëèå, áíôéìåôþðéóå ôçí åðßèåóç ôùí Ôïýñêùí
Êïñõäáëëïý, åêáôÝñùèåí ôïõ êýñéïõ óþìáôïò ôçò éððÝùí. Åõôõ÷þò, ç íý÷ôá Þôáí óêïôåéíÞ, êáèþò äåí
åëëçíéêÞò ðáñÜôáîçò. Óôü÷ïò ôïõ Þôáí íá ÷ôõðÞóåé õðÞñ÷å öåããÜñé, êé Ýôóé ìüíï ìéêñÞ æçìéÜ ìðüñåóáí
ôéò êåíôñéêÝò èÝóåéò ôùí ÅëëÞíùí, êáé üôáí ôï ìÝôùðï íá ðñïêáëÝóïõí ïé Ôïýñêïé. Ôï ëõðçñüôåñï, âÝâáéá,
èá Ýóðáãå, ïé éððåßò íá åðéôåèïýí óôïõò ðïëåìéóôÝò Þôáí üôé ïé áðï÷ùñïýíôåò ôáêôéêïß áíáãêÜóôçêáí íá
ðïõ èá ïðéóèï÷ùñïýóáí áðü ôá ðëÜãéá. Åõôõ÷þò, ôï åãêáôáëåßøïõí óôç èçñéùäßá ôùí å÷èñþí ðåñß ôïõò
ôÜãìá ôùí áíäñåßùí öéëåëëÞíùí ôïõ ÖáâéÝñïõ ìáæß åßêïóé ðëçãùìÝíïõò óôïí ðåñßâïëï ôïõ ðýñãïõ. ¸ôóé,
ìå ôïõò Üíäñåò ôïõ Êñéåæþôç êáé ôïõ Ìáõñïâïõíéþôç åðÝóôñåøáí êáé ôá ôáêôéêÜ ôÜãìáôá óôï óôñáôüðåäï
áíÜãêáóáí ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò éððåßò óå õðï÷þñçóç ôçò Åëåõóßíáò.
êáé ôï ó÷Ýäéï ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ óå áðïôõ÷ßá. ÃåíéêÜ, ïé Ç äåýôåñç óýãêñïõóç óôï ×áúäÜñé Þôáí ðïëý ðéï
Üíäñåò óå üëá ôá ôáìðïýñéá áãùíßóôçêáí óêëçñÜ, ôñïìåñÞ áðü ôçí ðñþôç. Ïé Üíäñåò ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç êáé
äåí õðï÷þñçóáí êáé áðÝêñïõóáí ìå åðéôõ÷ßá ôéò ôïõ ÖáâéÝñïõ óõíåéäçôïðïßçóáí áðüëõôá ôçí Ýêôáóç
ôïõñêéêÝò åðéèÝóåéò. Óå üëá ôá ìÝôùðá ôçò ìÜ÷çò ôçò äýíáìçò, ôçí ïñìÞ áëëÜ êáé ôï ðåßóìá ôïõ óôñáôïý
ïé ¸ëëçíåò êñÜôçóáí ôéò èÝóåéò ôïõò óáí âñÜ÷ïé, ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ. Õðïëïãßæåôáé üôé ïé Ôïýñêïé Ý÷áóáí
óõ÷íÜ åíéó÷õìÝíïé óçìáíôéêÜ áðü ôïõò ôáêôéêïýò ôïõ ðÜíù áðü ôåôñáêüóéïõò Üíäñåò êáôÜ ôç äåýôåñç ìÜ÷ç
ÖáâéÝñïõ. Ç ìÜ÷ç êñÜôçóå ìÝ÷ñé ôï áðüãåõìá. óôï ×áúäÜñé. Ïé åëëçíéêÝò áðþëåéåò Þôáí ó÷åôéêÜ
ÌåôÜ ôï ôÝëïò ôçò óýãêñïõóçò, ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò, ìéêñüôåñåò: ïé íåêñïß Ýöôáóáí ôïõò åâäïìÞíôá, ïé
õðïëïãßæïíôáò üôé ïé Ôïýñêïé èá Ýöåñíáí åíéó÷ýóåéò ðåñéóóüôåñïé ôáêôéêïß. Åêôüò áðü ôïõò áãùíéóôÝò
ôçí åðïìÝíç, áðïöÜóéóå íá áðïôñáâÞîåé ôïõò Üíäñåò ðïõ óêïôþèçêáí åí þñá ìÜ÷çò, èáíáôþèçêáí êáé ïé
ôïõ óôçí êïñõöÞ ôïõ Êïñõäáëëïý êáé áðü åêåß ðßóù ôñáõìáôßåò ðïõ ðåñéóõëëÝ÷ôçêáí óôï ðåäßï ôçò ìÜ÷çò
óôçí Åëåõóßíá. Ç åðé÷åßñçóç Ýðñåðå íá ãßíåé ìå áðü ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò.
áðüëõôç ìõóôéêüôçôá, þóôå íá ìçí ôïõò áíôéëçöèïýí Ïé óõãêñïýóåéò óôï ×áúäÜñé äåí åß÷áí ïýôå íéêçôÝò
ïé Ôïýñêïé êáé ôïõò åðéôåèïýí. ¸ôóé, áöïý âñÜäéáóå, ï ïýôå çôôçìÝíïõò êáé, ïõóéáóôéêÜ, áðïôÝëåóáí
Ðåññáéâüò öþíáîå óôïõò Üíäñåò ôïõ: áéôßåò óçìáíôéêÞò öèïñÜò ôùí äõíÜìåùí êáé ôùí
äýï ðáñáôÜîåùí. Ïé ¸ëëçíåò, âÝâáéá, êáôÜöåñáí
«Ìüëéò ì’ áêïýóåôå íá öùíÜæù äõíáôÜ “áðÜíù íá åðéôý÷ïõí ôïí êýñéï óôü÷ï ôïõò, äçëáäÞ ôçí
ôïõò, ¸ëëçíåò, áðÜíù ôïõò!”, í’ áñ÷ßóåôå ìå ìéáò íá åíèÜññõíóç ôùí ðïëéïñêçìÝíùí ôçò Áêñüðïëçò. Áðü
÷ôõðÜôå ôá ðïäÜñéá óáò êáé íá ìðÞîåôå ðïëåìéêÝò ôçí Üëëç ðëåõñÜ, üìùò, ï Êéïõôá÷Þò äåí êáôÜöåñå íá
êñáõãÝò, ùóÜí íá åôïéìáæüóáóôå íá êÜíåôå äéáëýóåé ôï åëëçíéêü óôñáôüðåäï, ðáñÜ ôç óõíôñéðôéêÞ
ãéïõñïýóé. Áíôß üìùò íá ðçãáßíåôå êáôÜ ìðñïò, õðåñï÷Þ ôïõ. Ïé áéìáôçñÝò ìÜ÷åò óôï ×áúäÜñé Ýêáíáí
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óáöÝò óôïí âáëÞ ôçò Ñïýìåëçò üôé ç åîïõäåôÝñùóç Ἀöïῦ ïἱ Ôïýñêïé ἔöõãïí ἀö’ ὅëá ôὰ ìÝñç,
ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç êáé ôùí áíäñþí ôïõ èá Þôáí ðïëý ìüëéò ἐìöáíéóèÝíôùí ôῶí óôñáôåõìÜôùí ìáò,
ðéï äýóêïëç õðüèåóç áðü üóï åß÷å áñ÷éêÜ ðéóôÝøåé. ἐðñüôåéíá åἰò ôïὺò ὁðëáñ÷çãïὺò íὰ äéþîùìåí
ÁëëÜ êáé ïé ¸ëëçíåò ïðëáñ÷çãïß êáôÝëçîáí óå ôὸí ἐ÷èñüí. Ïὕôùò ἠèÝëïìåí äéáëýóåé ôὴí
Ýíá óçìáíôéêüôáôï óõìðÝñáóìá ìåôÜ ôï ×áúäÜñé: ç ðïëéïñêßáí ὠöåëçèÝíôåò ἀðὸ ôὴí äåéëßáí ôïõ.
áíôéìåôþðéóç ôùí Ôïýñêùí óå ðåäéíü áíïé÷ôü ÷þñï Ἀëë’ áὐôïὶ êáôåóêåýáóáí ðñïìá÷ῶíåò ἐðß ôéíῶí
Þôáí Üêñùò åðéêßíäõíç êáé Ýðñåðå íá áðïöåõ÷èåß èÝóåùí, ôὰò ὁðïßáò ἐêõñéåýóáìåí. Ôὴí ἐðéïῦóáí
ðÜóç èõóßá. ἔöèáóåí ἀñêåôὴ âïÞèåéá åἰò ôὸí Êéïõôá÷ὴí ἀðὸ
ôὸí Åὔñéðïí ὑðὸ ôὸí ὈìåñðáóóÜí. Ôὴí ἐðáýñéïí
ἐðáñïõóéÜóèç ὁ ἐ÷èñὸò åἰò ôὰ ÷áñÜãìáôá ôῆò
Ï ÖáâéÝñïò ãéá ôéò ìÜ÷åò óôï ×áúäÜñé áὐãῆò ìὲ ôñåῖò ÷éëéÜäáò ðåñßðïõ, ἐî ὧí áἱ äýï
÷éëéÜäáé ðåæïὶ […].
Ôçí åðïìÝíç ôçò ìÜ÷çò ï ÊÜñïëïò ÖáâéÝñïò êáé Ôὸ ἑóðÝñáò ôÝëïò äὲí åἴ÷ïìåí ïὔôå ἄñôïí,
ïé Üíäñåò ôïõ áðï÷þñçóáí áðü ôï óôñáôüðåäï ïὔôå íåñüí, ïὔôå óõãêïéíùíßáí. Ὁ äὲ óôñáôçãὸò
ôçò Åëåõóßíáò ÷ùñßò êáìßá ðñïåéäïðïßçóç êáé ÊáñáúóêÜêçò ìὲ åἰäïðïßçóåí ὅôé ôὴí íýêôá ἔìåëëå
ìåôÝâçóáí óôç Óáëáìßíá. Ï ÃÜëëïò óõíôáãìáôÜñ÷çò íὰ ἐðéðÝóç ì’ ὅëïí ôïõ ôὸí óôñáôὸí êáôὰ ôïῦ
Þôáí éäéáßôåñá áðïãïçôåõìÝíïò áðü ôçí Ýêâáóç ἐ÷èñïῦ êáὶ ἐæÞôåé íὰ ìåßíù åἰò ἐöåäñåßáí åἰò ôὸí
ôùí åðé÷åéñÞóåùí óôï ×áúäÜñé áëëÜ êáé áðü ôç ðåñßâïëïí. Ὑðåó÷Ýèç êáὶ ἔìåéíá, êáὶ ìåôὰ äýï
óõìðåñéöïñÜ ôùí áôÜêôùí ðïëåìéóôþí áðÝíáíôé óôï ὥñáò åἶäïí ἐìáõôὸí ì’ ἀðïñßáí ìïõ ìåôáîὺ ôῶí
ôáêôéêü óôñÜôåõìá. Ç áíáöïñÜ, ôï ìåãáëýôåñï ìÝñïò Ôïýñêùí. Äéὰ ôïῦôï ἡ ἀðï÷þñçóßò ìïõ ἔãéíå ðïëὺ
ôçò ïðïßáò ðáñáôßèåôáé ðáñáêÜôù, ìáò åðéôñÝðåé íá ἀêáôáëëÞëùò åἰò óôñÜôåõìá ôáêôéêüí. Åἴìåèá ἡ
êáôáíïÞóïõìå êáëýôåñá ôç óôÜóç ôïõ ÖáâéÝñïõ êáôÜ ὀðéóèïöõëáêὴ ὁìïῦ ìὲ ôïὺò öéëÝëëçíáò, ἐî ὧí
ôéò ìÜ÷åò ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ. Áõôü åßíáé áðüëõôá áíáãêáßï, óõíåëÞöèçóáí äýï. ÔÝëïò äéåëèüíôåò ἀðὸ ìÝñç
êáèþò ï ÖáâéÝñïò Ý÷åé êáôçãïñçèåß áðü ðïëëïýò ðïëὺ äýóâáôá, ἐöèÜóáìåí åἰò ôὴí ðåäéÜäá, ὅðïõ
ïðëáñ÷çãïýò ðïõ Üöçóáí áðïìíçìïíåýìáôá, áëëÜ ἐìÜèïìåí ὅôé ðñὸ äýï ὡñῶí åἶ÷ïí ἀíá÷ùñÞóåé
êáé áðü éóôïñéêïýò, üôé öÝñèçêå ìå áëáæïíåßá, äåí ôὰ ἄôáêôá óôñáôåýìáôá. Ïἱ ἄôáêôïé äéÞñðáóáí
Þôáí éäéáßôåñá óõíåñãÜóéìïò êáé üôé ç åðéèõìßá ôïõ ôὰ óêåýç ôῶí óôñáôéùôῶí ìáò, ἐíῶ ïὖôïé
ãéá ðñïóùðéêÞ äüîá äåí åðÝôñåøå ôçí åõüäùóç ôùí ἀðÞñ÷ïíôï åἰò ôὴí ìÜ÷çí, áἱ äὲ íõêôïöõëáêáὶ
åðé÷åéñÞóåùí óôï ×áúäÜñé. ìáò ἐôïõöÝêéóáí ἐñ÷ïìÝíïõò. Äéὰ ôáῦôá äὲí ἦôï
äõíáôὸí íὰ äéáôçñçè ôὸ íÝïí ôïῦôï ôáêôéêὸí
«Ἀðῆëèïí åἰò ôὴí Êïýëïõñçí ìὲ äýï ôÜãìáôá êáὶ óῶìá åἰò ôὴí Ἐëåõóῖíá ἐí ôῷ ìÝóῳ ôῶí ἀôÜêôùí
ôÝóóáñá ðõñïâüëá êáὶ ἕíá ëü÷ïí ôῶí öéëåëëÞíùí. óôñáôéùôῶí, ïἱ ὁðïῖïé ἤñ÷éóáí íὰ ëéðïôáêôïῦí êáὶ
Ì’ ἐêáêïöáßíåôï ðïëὺ ôὸ ὅôé äὲí åἶ÷ïí ôὸ ἱððéêüí, ἠäýíáíôï íὰ ðáñáóýñïõí êáὶ ôïὺò ôáêôéêïὺò åἰò
äéüôé ôüôå ἤèåëå äéáëõèῆ ἡ ðïëéïñêßá. Ôὴí 3çí ôὴí öõãὴí ôùí.
ἐðÝñáóá åἰò ôὴí Ἐëåõóῖíá. Ἡ ãíþìç ìïõ ἦôï í’ Ὅèåí ἀíå÷þñçóá êáὶ ἦëèïí åἰò ôὰ ἈìðåëÜêéá,
ἀíïßîùìåí äñüìïí ἀðὸ ôὸ ìïíáóôÞñéïí Äáöíὶ ἤ ὅðïõ åὗñïí êáὶ ôὸ ἱððéêὸí ὅëïí ðῦñ, ἀëë’ åἰò
ἀðὸ ôὸí Ðåéñáéᾶ, äéὰ íὰ ἔ÷ùìåí ôὰò ἀðáéôïõìÝíáò ìåãÜëçí ἀôáîßáí. Ὅëç ἡ æçìßá ìáò óõíßóôáôáé
äéὰ ôὸí óôñáôὸí óõãêïéíùíßáò. Ôὴí 6çí äéáâÜíôåò åἰò ἐâäïìÞíôá öïíåõìÝíïõò, ðëçãùìÝíïõò ἢ
ἀðὸ ôὰ ὄñç ἐöèÜóáìåí ôὴí íýêôáí åἰò ôὸí æùãñçìÝíïõò. Ἐê ôῶí öéëåëëÞíùí ὁ Âïëæéìüí,
ðåñßâïëïí ôïῦ ×áúäáñßïõ, èÝóéò, ðåñὶ ôὴí ὁðïßáí Ìðù, Óïõæéὲ óïâáñὰ ἐðëçãþèçóáí, ὁ Ñïõóóὲí
ὑðÜñ÷ïõí ëüöïé. Ôὴí áὐãὴí ìᾶò ðåñéåêýêëùóå ôὸ êáὶ ὁ ÐåêáñÜñá ἠ÷ìáëùôßóèçêáí, ὡò êáὶ ὁ íÝïò
ἱððéêὸí ôïῦ ἐ÷èñïῦ, ὅóôéò ἤñ÷éóå ìåô’ ὀëßãïí íá ἀíäñåῖïò Ñßæïò. Ôïῦ ἐ÷èñïῦ ἡ æçìßá óõíßóôáôáé åἰò
ðõñïâïëåῖ êáè’ ἡìῶí, êáὶ ìᾶò ἔâëáøåí ὁðùóïῦí […]. ÷éëßïõò ἑðôáêïóßïõò»239.
176

Ï éóôïñéêüò Äéïíýóéïò Êüêêéíïò õðïóôçñßæåé üôé


ï éó÷õñéóìüò ôïõ ÖáâéÝñïõ ãéá óõíåííüçóÞ ôïõ
ìå ôïí ÊáñáúóêÜêç, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ãßíåé åðßèåóç
åíáíôßïí ôùí Ôïýñêùí ôéò ðñþôåò ðñùéíÝò þñåò ôçò
9çò Áõãïýóôïõ åßíáé ìÜëëïí ëáíèáóìÝíïò, áöïý
åßíáé âÝâáéïò üôé ï ïðëáñ÷çãüò äåí èá åðé÷åéñïýóå
åðßèåóç óå ðåäéíü Ýäáöïò åíáíôßïí åíüò êáôÜ ðïëý
õðåñÜñéèìïõ áíôéðÜëïõ. Áðü ôçí Üëëç ðëåõñÜ,
áðïêëåßåé ôçí ðéèáíüôçôá íá øåýäåôáé ï ÃÜëëïò êáé
áðïäßäåé ôçí ðáñåîÞãçóç, ðïõ ôáëáéðþñçóå ôüóï
ðïëý ôïõò Üíäñåò ôïõ ôáêôéêïý óôñáôïý, óå êáêÞ
óõíåííüçóç ëüãù áíåðáñêïýò äéåñìçíåßáò 240.
Ï ÄçìÞôñéïò ÁéíéÜí (1800-1881), Ýíáò áðü ôïõò ðéï
ðéóôïýò áãùíéóôÝò êáé ößëïõò ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç, êáé
ï êáôåîï÷Þí âéïãñÜöïò ôïõ ìåãÜëïõ Þñùá, ðéóôåýåé
üôé ç üëç óôÜóç ôïõ ÖáâéÝñïõ êáé ç ðáñáðÜíù
áíáöïñÜ åßíáé áðïôÝëåóìá ôïõ óõíåôáéñéóìïý
ôïõ ÃÜëëïõ óõíôáãìáôÜñ÷ç ìå ôïõò «åí Íáõðëßù
å÷èñïὺò ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç» áëëÜ êáé ôçò åðéèõìßáò
ôïõ íá ãßíåé ãåíéêüò áñ÷çãüò ôçò åêóôñáôåßáò ãéá
ôçí áðåëåõèÝñùóç ôçò ÁèÞíáò áðü ôïí êëïéü ôïõ
Êéïõôá÷Þ241.
Ïé áõóôçñÝò êñßóåéò ôïõ ÁéíéÜíá åßíáé ðñïöáíþò
åðçñåáóìÝíåò áðü ôïí ìåãÜëï èáõìáóìü ðïõ
Ýôñåöå ðñïò ôïí Ãåþñãéï ÊáñáúóêÜêç. Ï ÖáâéÝñïò
Þôáí áíáìößâïëá ãåííáßïò Üíäñáò êáé éêáíüôáôïò
áîéùìáôéêüò, ìå ìåãÜëç ðåßñá óå óôñáôéùôéêÝò
åðé÷åéñÞóåéò. Ôï ðïëåìéêü ôïõ ôáëÝíôï åß÷å áíáäåé÷èåß
óôïõò Íáðïëåüíôåéïõò ðïëÝìïõò. Ôï 1807 áðåóôÜëç
óôçí Êùíóôáíôéíïýðïëç êáé áìÝóùò ìåôÜ óôçí Ðåñóßá,
üðïõ áíáäéïñãÜíùóå ôç óôñáôéùôéêÞ åðéìåëçôåßá.
ÐñïÞ÷èç óôïí âáèìü ôïõ óõíôáãìáôÜñ÷ç ôï 1815. ÊáôÜ
ôçí ðåñßïäï 1822-1823 ðïëÝìçóå óôçí åðáíáóôáôçìÝíç
Éóðáíßá óôï ðëåõñü ôçò öéëåëåýèåñçò ðáñÜôáîçò. Ôï
1825 ôïí êÜëåóå ç åëëçíéêÞ êõâÝñíçóç, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ
íá áíáëÜâåé ôçí áíáóõãêñüôçóç ôïõ ôáêôéêïý
óôñáôéùôéêïý óþìáôïò ôçò ÅëëÜäáò. Ïé ìåãÜëåò

Ç ðñïôïìÞ ôïõ Ãåþñãéïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç


ìðñïóôÜ óôïí ðýñãï ÐáëáôÜêé (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).
177

éêáíüôçôåò ôïõ ÖáâéÝñïõ öÜíçêáí óôçí åðéôõ÷çìÝíç ìïõ ἔðåóáí åἰò ἀèõìßáí êáὶ íÜñêùóéí [á´ ìÜ÷ç
åðé÷åßñçóç åéóüäïõ ìåãÜëïõ ôìÞìáôïò ôïõ ôáêôéêïý ×áúäáñßïõ], ἐðñüöèáóå ἀìÝóùò ὁ äïῦëïò óáò êáὶ
óôñáôïý ìå ðïëëÜ åöüäéá óôçí ðïëéïñêïýìåíç ἐðåðÝóáìåí êáὶ áὖèéò äéὰ ìéᾶò êáôὰ ôïῦ ἐ÷èñïῦ,
Áêñüðïëç óôá ôÝëç Íïåìâñßïõ 1826 242. äçëáäὴ ἤëèïìåí îßöïò ìὲ îßöïò êáὶ äüîá ôῷ Èåῷ
ÐáñÜ ôç ìåãÜëç ôïõ åìðåéñßá, üìùò, ï ÖáâéÝñïò Þôáí ïἱ ãêéáïýñçäåò ἐíéêÞèçêáí êáὶ äéåóêïñðßóèçóáí
ðáíôåëþò áíßäåïò ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôéò ìåèüäïõò êáé ôéò êáὶ ðÜìðïëëïé ἐî áὐôῶí ἐðåñÜóèçóáí ἀðὸ ôὸ
ôå÷íéêÝò ôïõ áíôáñôïðüëåìïõ, ðïõ äéåíåñãïýóáí ïé óðáèὶ ôῶí íéêçôῶí êáὶ ἐæùãñÞèçóáí ôὰ åἰñçìÝíá
¸ëëçíåò ïðëáñ÷çãïß, ìç Ý÷ïíôáò óôç äéÜèåóÞ ôïõò ôÝóóáñá ðõñïâüëá êáὶ äåêáðÝíôå óÜëðéããåò
ïñãáíùìÝíï, åîïðëéóìÝíï êáé ðïëõÜñéèìï óôñáôü, êáὶ óçìáῖáé êáὶ ðïëëὰ ôïõöÝêéá ôῶí ôáêôéêῶí
üðùò ïé Ôïýñêïé. Ïé ãíþóåéò êáé ïé åìðåéñßåò ôïõ êáὶ ïὕôù äéὰ ôῆò Èåßáò âïçèåßáò êáὶ áὐôïὶ ïἱ
ÖáâéÝñïõ äåí áíôáðïêñßíïíôáí óôéò áíÜãêåò êáé ôéò ãêéáïýñçäåò ἐíéêÞèçóáí êáὶ äéåóêïñðßóèçóáí [â´
äõíáôüôçôåò ôïõ åëëçíéêïý áãþíá êé Ýôóé äåí öÜíçêáí ìÜ÷ç ×áúäáñßïõ].
éäéáßôåñá ùöÝëéìåò. »Äüîáí íὰ ἔ÷ῃ ὁ Êýñéïò, åἰò áὐôὰ ôὰ ìÝñç
ἐêôὸò ἑíὸò êáὶ ìüíïí öñïõñßïõ [ôï êÜóôñï ôçò
Áêñüðïëçò], ïὐäåìßá ἄëëç öñïíôὶò ìᾶò ἔìåéíå.
Ï Êéïõôá÷Þò ãéá ôéò ìÜ÷åò óôï ×áúäÜñé Ἐðåéäὴ ä’ ἐìÜèïìåí êáô’ áὐôὰò ὅôé ðïëëïὶ ἐî
áὐôῶí åὑñßóêïíôáé óõíçãìÝíïé åἰò ÷ùñßïí, Ëåõóßíá
ÐáñÜ ôï ãåãïíüò üôé ïé ìÜ÷åò óôï ×áúäÜñé ðñïîÝíçóáí êáëïýìåíïí, ðëçóßïí ôïῦ óôåíïῦ ôïῦ ÌùñÝùò
óçìáíôéêüôáôåò öèïñÝò êáé óôïõò äýï áíôéðÜëïõò, [ÄåñâÝíéá Ìåãáñßäïò], ἐôïéìÜóáò ὀêôὼ ἕùò
ï Êéïõôá÷Þò óå åðéóôïëÞ ôçí ïðïßá áðÝóôåéëå ôçí äÝêá ÷éëéÜäáò óôñÜôåõìá ðñὸò êõñßåõóéí ôïῦ
åðïìÝíç ôçò äåýôåñçò ìÜ÷çò óôïí ÉìðñáÞì, ìéëÜåé ãéá åἰñçìÝíïõ ÷ùñßïõ, óêïðåýù íὰ ôὸ ἀðïóôåßëù ìåôὰ
íßêç ôùí ôïõñêéêþí óôñáôåõìÜôùí. Ç åðéóôïëÞ, ôìÞìá äýï ἡìÝñáò ἀðὸ ôῆò ἡìåñïìçíßáò ôῆò ðáñïýóçò
ôçò ïðïßáò áêïëïõèåß, âñÝèçêå óå áðåóôáëìÝíï ôïõ ἐðéóôïëῆò êáὶ ἐëðßæù ìὲ ôὴ âïÞèåéá ôïῦ Èåïῦ íὰ
Êéïõôá÷Þ, ï ïðïßïò óõíåëÞöèç êáôåõèõíüìåíïò ðñïò êõñéåýóùìåí êáὶ ôὸ ÷ùñßïí ἐêåῖíï.
ôçí Ðåëïðüííçóï áðü ôçí ðåñßðïëï ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ »Ἐôïßìáóá ðñïóÝôé êáὶ ὡò åἴêïóé ÷éëéÜäáò íÝïí
óôçí Åëåõóßíá óôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü. óôñÜôåõìá äéὰ ôὸ óôåíὸí ôïῦ ÌùñÝùò êáὶ èÝëåé
êáôáâëçèåῖ ἡ ἀðáéôïýìåíç öñïíôὶò åἰò ôὸ íὰ
«Ὑøçëüôáôå êáὶ åὐåñãåôéêþôáôå áὐèÝíôá. åὑñåè ὁ ôñüðïò êõñéåýóåùò áὐôïῦ»243.

Êáôὰ ôὸ ἀðáéôïýìåíïí ôῆò äïõëéêῆò ìïõ ὑðçñåóßáò Ðáñüôé ðáñïõóéÜæåé ôïí åáõôü ôïõ õðåñâïëéêÜ
ô 11ῃ ôῆò óåëÞíçò Ìïõ÷áñÝì, ἡìÝñá Ôñßôç, äüîá áéóéüäïîï ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôçí åðéêåßìåíç íßêç ôïõ åíáíôßïí
ôῷ Èåῷ ἐêõñéåýèç ôὸ ðñïÜóôéïí ôῶí Ἀèçíῶí. ôùí ÅëëÞíùí, ï óôñáôéùôéêÜ éêáíüôáôïò Êéïõôá÷Þò
Ïἱ Ãêéáïýñçäåò ôïῦ ÌùñÝùò ἔóôåéëáí ðñὸò åß÷å áíôéëçöèåß ôéò ìåãÜëåò äõóêïëßåò ôïõ áãþíá
âïÞèåéáí áὐôïῦ ôὸí èåïêáôÜñáôïí ÊáñáúóêÜêçí åíáíôßïí ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç êáé ôùí áíäñþí ôïõ.
êáὶ ἑðôὰ ἕùò ὀêôὼ êáðåôÜíïõò ìὲ ἑðôὰ ἕùò ὀêôὼ ×áñáêôçñéóôéêü åßíáé üôé ïé åêóôñáôåßåò åíáíôßïí
÷éëéÜäáò ãêéáïýñçäùí, êáὶ äýï ÷éëéÜäáò ôáêôéêῶí ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ ôçò Åëåõóßíáò êáé ôùí Äåñâåíßùí
êáὶ ìὲ ôÝóóáñá ðõñïâüëá êáὶ ἐëèüíôåò ïὖôïé Ìåãáñßäïò ðïõ áíáöÝñïíôáé óôçí åðéóôïëÞ ïõäÝðïôå
ἐôïðïèåôÞèçóáí ἐðὶ ìéᾶò ὥñáò ἀðüóôáóéí ἀðὸ ôïῦ ðñáãìáôïðïéÞèçêáí.
óôñáôïðÝäïõ ôῶí Ἀèçíῶí [êôÞìá ×áúäáñßïõ]. Ç óùóôÞ åêôßìçóç ôùí ðïëåìéêþí êáé äéðëùìáôéêþí
»Ἅìá ἐëÜâïìåí ôὴí åἴäçóéí áὐôÞí, ôὸ ὑð’ ἐìὲ åîåëßîåùí ïäÞãçóáí ôïí Ôïýñêï áîéùìáôïý÷ï óôï
óôñÜôåõìá ðïëëÜêéò ἐöþñìçóå êáô’ áὐôῶí, ἀëë’ óõìðÝñáóìá üôé ç áíáêáôÜëçøç ôïõ êÜóôñïõ ôùí
ἐðåéäὴ äὲí ἐíåöáíßóèç ἡ óõíÞèçò íéêçôÞñéïò Áèçíþí áðü ôïõò ¸ëëçíåò åß÷å ôåñÜóôéá óçìáóßá ãéá
ὀèùìáíéêὴ ὄøéò êáὶ ἐðåéäὴ ἐê ôïýôïõ ïἱ óôñáôéῶôáé ôï ìÝëëïí ôçò åðáíÜóôáóçò. ÁíôéëÞöèçêå, ëïéðüí, üôé
178

Ýðñåðå íá êñáôÞóåé ôçí ÁèÞíá ìå êÜèå ìÝóï. Åðßóçò, Ç ðáñïõóßá ôùí Ôïýñêùí óôï êáôÜóôñùìá åîçãÞèçêå
Ýíéùèå üôé ï áãþíáò åíáíôßïí ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç èá Þôáí Ýðåéôá áðü ëßãá ëåðôÜ, üôáí óôï ðïëõôåëÝò óáëüíé
áðü ôïõò ðéï äýóêïëïõò ðïõ åß÷å äþóåé. «Äåí öïâÜìáé ôçò ãáëëéêÞò íáõáñ÷ßäáò áíôßêñéóáí ôïí Êéïõôá÷Þ êáé
ôï ÑùìÝéêï ìéëÝôé ôüóï, üóï ôïí ÊáñáúóêÜêç» 244 Ýëåãå ôïí ÏìÝñ ôçò Êáñýóôïõ èñïíéáóìÝíïõò äßðëá óôïí
÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ. ¸ôóé, ï äáéìüíéïò Êéïõôá÷Þò Ýöôáóå, Äåñéãíý. Ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò ÷áéñÝôçóå ìüíï ôïí ôåëåõôáßï.
üðùò èá äïýìå óôçí åðüìåíç åíüôçôá, ìÝ÷ñé íá «Äåí ÷áéñåôÜò, óôñáôçãÝ, ôïõò âåæéñÜäåò; ñùôÜ áõôüò.
ðñïóðáèÞóåé íá äåëåÜóåé ôïí ßäéï ôïí ÊáñáúóêÜêç «Äåí îÝñù ðïéïé åßíáé…», áðáíôÜ ðåñÞöáíá ï ¸ëëçíáò.
ðñïóöÝñïíôÜò ôïõ ôá âéëáÝôéá áðü ôçí ¢ñôá ìÝ÷ñé ôçí «Åßíáé ï Ñïýìåëçò âáëåóß êé ï ÏìÝñ ðáóÜò!»
Åýâïéá. åíçìåñþíåé ï ãñáììáôÝáò ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ, ï ïðïßïò Þôáí
¸ëëçíáò êáôáãüìåíïò áðü ôá Ôñßêáëá.
«Áò åßíáé êáëÜ», ëÝåé ôåëéêÜ ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò êáé
Ï áðüç÷ïò ôùí óõãêñïýóåùí óôï ×áúäÜñé: ÷áéñåôÜ ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò. Ôïí ÷áéñÝôçóáí êáé áõôïß êáé ç
ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò óõæçôÜ ìå ôïí Êéïõôá÷Þ åëëçíéêÞ óõíôñïöéÜ êÜèéóå.
«Ðþò ô’ áðåñíÜò, ÊáñáÀóêï;» ñùôÜ ï «ìåëéóôÜëá÷ôïò»
Ïé óêëçñÝò óõãêñïýóåéò óôï ×áúäÜñé, üðïõ ç Êéïõôá÷Þò óôá áñâáíßôéêá.
éó÷ýò êáé ç åðéìïíÞ ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ öáíåñþèçêáí «ÊáëÜ, ðáóÜ ìïõ!»
ðåñßôñáíá, ðñïâëçìÜôéóáí âáèéÜ ôïí áñ÷éóôñÜôçãï «Äåí Ýëðéæá íá ðÜñåéò ôüóïíå êüóìï óôïí ëáéìü
ôçò Ñïýìåëçò. Ï ßäéïò äéçãÞèçêå óôïí íåáñü ëüãéï óïõ· Ýëåãá ðùò èá ’ñèåéò óôá Ìðéôüëéá íá ìå
Ðáíáãéþôç Óïýôóï, ðïõ ôïí áêïëïõèïýóå óôçí ðñïóêõíÞóåéò».
åêóôñáôåßá ôïõ óôçí ÁèÞíá áðü ôï Íáýðëéï, üôé ôï «Åãþ íá óå ðñïóêõíÞóù; Ñïýìåëçò âáëåóß åóý,
âñÜäõ ðïõ Ýöôáóáí óôçí Åëåõóßíá êáôÜêïðïé áðü Ñïýìåëçò âáëåóß êé åãþ».
ôç óêëçñÞ ìÜ÷ç, áõôüò äåí ìðüñåóå íá êïéìçèåß. «Óïõ äßíù üëá ôá âéëáÝôéá áðü ôïí ¸ãñéðï ùò ôçí
Ðåñðáôþíôáò óôçí áêñïãéáëéÜ ôçò Åëåõóßíáò ¢ñôá», ðñïôåßíåé ï Êéïõôá÷Þò «åêäõèåßò» ãéá áêüìç
óõëëïãéæüôáí ðùò ãéá íá ìçí ðÝóåé ç Ñïýìåëç óôá ìßá öïñÜ «ôçí ëåïíôÞí êáé åíäõèåßò ôçí áëùðåêÞí» 246.
íý÷éá ôùí Ôïýñêùí Ýðñåðå íá áöÞóåé ôçí ÁèÞíá êáé «Ãéáôß, ðáóÜ ìïõ, èÝëåôå ôï Üäéêü ìáò êáé äå
íá åðáíáóôáôÞóåé ôç Ñïýìåëç, áíáêüðôïíôáò Ýôóé ìáò áöÞíåôå íá æÞóïõìå êé åìåßò óôïí ôüðï ðïõ
êáé ôïí áíåöïäéáóìü ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ. ÐñÜãìáôé, ôïí ãåííçèÞêáìå;»
Ïêôþâñéï ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò îåêßíçóå åêóôñáôåßá óôç «ÐÜíôá ìå ôï óðáèß ìáò ôïí åß÷áìå êáé ìå ôï óðáèß
ÓôåñåÜ ÅëëÜäá. ìáò ôïí îáíáðáßñíïõìå!» áðáíôÜ ï Ôïýñêïò Ý÷ïíôáò
Ôï åðüìåíï ðñùß ôçò ìÜ÷çò óôï ×áúäÜñé äÝ÷ôçêå îáíáöïñÝóåé ôç ëåïíôÞ.
ðñüóêëçóç áðü ôïí íáýáñ÷ï Äåñéãíý, ç íáõáñ÷ßäá «Ìáæß óáò ïé ¸ëëçíåò øùìß íá ìáôáöÜíå äåí ãßíåôáé!»,
ôïõ ïðïßïõ Þôáí áãêõñïâïëçìÝíç óôá ÁìðåëÜêéá ôçò äßíåé ðëçñùìÝíç áðÜíôçóç êáé ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò.
Óáëáìßíáò. ¸öôáóå óôï ãáëëéêü ðëïßï óõíïäåõüìåíïò «ÁëëÜ÷ óéâÝñóéí247, ÊáñáÀóêï, ðåò ìïõ ðþò óïõ öÜíçêå
áðü ôïí ãëùóóïìáèÞ ãñáììáôÝá ôïõ ×ñçóôßäç êáé ôïí ï ÷ôåóéíüò ìáò ðüëåìïò; ÔÝôïéïí äåí ìáôÜêáíá!»
Øáñéáíü Ì. Ãéáííßôóç, ðïõ äéÝèåóå ìßá áðü ôéò âÜñêåò «Íá óïõ ðù· ìïõ ’ëåãå ï Ýíáò ðùò Ý÷åéò ðåíÞíôá êé
ôïõ ìðñéêéïý ôïõ ãéá ôç ìåôáöïñÜ ôïõ áñ÷éóôñÜôçãïõ Üëëïõò ïãäüíôá ÷éëéÜäåò áóêÝñé. Ãéá íá äù ðüóïõò
óôá ÁìðåëÜêéá245. Ìüëéò ðÜôçóáí ôï ðüäé ôïõò Ý÷åéò áëçèéíÜ, Þñèá íá óå îåðáôÞóù êáé ôþñá üðïõ
óôï êáôÜóôñùìá ôçò íáõáñ÷ßäáò åßäáí äéÜöïñïõò ó’ Ýìáèá ðáóÜ, êáñôÝñá ìå!»
Ôïýñêïõò óôñáôéþôåò. Ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò âÜæïíôáò ôï ÷Ýñé «ÌáêÜñé! Ôï ’÷ù ìåñÜêé ìáæß óïõ êáèçìåñéíÜ íá
óôï óðáèß ôïõ ñùôÜ ôïí ×ñçóôßäç, ðïõ èá Ýðáéæå ñüëï ðïëåìþ êáé ôï âñÜäõ íá ’ñ÷åóáé óôï ôóáíôßñé ìïõ íá
äéåñìçíÝá: ôñùãïðßíïõìå».
«ÙñÝ ×ñçóôßäç, ìç ìáò êÜíïõí êáìéÜ ìðáìðåóéÜ;» «Äåí ãßíåôáé, âåæßñç ìïõ, áõôü, ãéáôß áí Þîåñå ç
«Äåí ôï ðéóôåýù áñ÷çãÝ», áðáíôÜ åêåßíïò. ÄéïßêçóÞ ìïõ ðùò êÜèïìáé êáé êñÝíù ôþñá ìáæß óïõ,
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Ôï óôñáôüðåäï ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç óôçí ÊáóôÝëá, åëáéïãñáößá ôïõ Èåüäùñïõ ÂñõæÜêç (1855).

ìå êñÝìáãå êé åìÝíá êáé ôéò äåêáðÝíôå ÷éëéÜäåò ïðïý Ïé åîåëßîåéò ìåôÜ ôï ×áúäÜñé êáé ìÝ÷ñé
‘÷ù óôç Ëåøßíá», áðÜíôçóå ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò óå ìéá ôç ìÜ÷ç óôïí ÁíÜëáôï (24 Áðñéëßïõ 1827)
ðñïóðÜèåéá íá ðáñáðëáíÞóåé ôïí Êéïõôá÷Þ, êáèþò
óôï óôñáôüðåäï ôçò Åëåõóßíáò åêåßíç ôç óôéãìÞ äåí ÊáôÜ ôïí Áýãïõóôï êáé ôïí ÓåðôÝìâñéï ôïõ 1826 ï
âñßóêïíôáí ïýôå ðÝíôå ÷éëéÜäåò Üíäñåò. Êéïõôá÷Þò Ýóöéîå ôïí êëïéü ãýñù áðü ôçí Áêñüðïëç
«Êáé ðþò ìðïñåß íá óå êñåìÜóåé;» ñùôÜ ãåìÜôïò êáé ìå áëëåðÜëëçëåò åðéèÝóåéò êáé êáôáóêåõÝò
áðïñßá ï Ôïýñêïò. ïñõãìÜôùí êÜôù áðü áõôÞí ðñïóðáèïýóå íá ôçí
«ÅóÝíá ï óïõëôÜíïò óå êñåìÜåé;» áëþóåé. Ïé ðïëéïñêçìÝíïé êñáôïýóáí óèåíáñÜ ôéò
«Ìå êñåìÜåé, ãéáôß ôïí Ý÷ù âáóéëéÜ ìïõ». èÝóåéò ôïõò ìå áíôåðéèÝóåéò êáé áíáôéíÜîåéò õðïíüìùí.
«Å, êé åìÝíá ìå êñåìÜåé ç êõâÝñíçóÞ ìïõ, ãéáôß ôçí Óå áõôÝò ôéò åðé÷åéñÞóåéò äéáêñßèçêáí
Ý÷ù âáóßëéóóÜ ìïõ». ï ÌáêñõãéÜííçò êáé ï Êþóôáò ×ïñìïâßôçò, ãíùóôüò êáé
Ðñéí äéáëõèåß áõôÞ ç ðåñßåñãç óýíáîç, ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò ùò ËáãïõìéôæÞò ëüãù ôçò èáõìáóôÞò ôïõ éêáíüôçôáò
åßðå ìå áðåéëçôéêü ýöïò óôïí ¸ëëçíá ãñáììáôÝá ôïõ íá óêÜâåé ëáãïýìéá 248. ×áñáêôçñéóôéêü ðåñéóôáôéêü áðü
Êéïõôá÷Þ: ôéò óõãêñïýóåéò ãýñù áðü ôï êÜóôñï ôçò Áêñüðïëçò
«Âüëéá Ý÷ù ãéá ôïí Êéïõôá÷Þ óïõ, âüëéá ìïíÜ÷á!» ðëçñïöïñïýìáóôå áðü ôïí ÌáêñõãéÜííç:
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Ðáñ’ üëá áõôÜ ç èÝóç ôùí ðïëéïñêçìÝíùí Þôáí


åîáéñåôéêÜ äåéíÞ êáèþò ôá áðïèÝìáôá óå ôñüöéìá
êáé ðïëåìïöüäéá ôåëåßùíáí. Ôá ìåóÜíõ÷ôá ôçò 30Þò
Óåðôåìâñßïõ ðñïò ôçí 1ç Ïêôùâñßïõ óêïôþèçêå ï
öñïýñáñ÷ïò ôçò Áêñüðïëçò ÉùÜííçò Ãêïýñáò, åíþ
åðéôçñïýóå ôéò å÷èñéêÝò ãñáììÝò.
Óôéò 12 Ïêôùâñßïõ ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò âïÞèçóå ôïí Íéêüëáï
Êñéåæþôç ìå ôåôñáêüóéïõò ðåíÞíôá Üíäñåò íá óðÜóïõí
ôïí êëïéü ôùí Ôïýñêùí êáé íá áíÝâïõí ìå åöüäéá óôçí
Áêñüðïëç. ¸íáí ìÞíá áñãüôåñá óôçí Áêñüðïëç ôï
ßäéï ðÝôõ÷å êáé ï ÊÜñïëïò ÖáâéÝñïò ìå ðåíôáêüóéïõò
åîÞíôá óôñáôéþôåò ïé ïðïßïé êïõâáëïýóáí óôçí ðëÜôç
ôïõò ìðáñïýôé êáé ôñüöéìá. ¸ôóé ï áíåöïäéáóìüò ôçò
Áêñüðïëçò ãéá ôçí þñá åß÷å åðéôåõ÷èåß 250.
Åí ôù ìåôáîý ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò ìå Ýãêñéóç ôçò
êõâÝñíçóçò åß÷å îåêéíÞóåé ãéá ôç Ñïýìåëç, ìå óôü÷ï
íá ìåôáöÝñåé ôïí ðüëåìï ìáêñéÜ áðü ôçí ÁèÞíá êáé íá
áðïêüøåé ôïí Êéïõôá÷Þ áðü ôéò ðçãÝò áíåöïäéáóìïý
ôïõ, áíáêïõößæïíôáò ôïõò ðïëéïñêçìÝíïõò óôï êÜóôñï
ôçò Áêñüðïëçò. ÅðéðëÝïí, ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò óêüðåõå íá
ðÜñåé ìå ôï ìÝñïò ôïõ ôïõò ðñïóêõíçìÝíïõò êáôïßêïõò
ôùí ÷ùñéþí ôçò ÓôåñåÜò ÅëëÜäáò, íá äéáëýóåé ôéò
Ç åíåðßãñáöç âÜóç ôçò ðñïôïìÞò ôïõ ÃÜëëïõ áîéùìáôéêïý
äéÜöïñåò ôïðéêÝò öñïõñÝò ðïõ åß÷áí åãêáôáóôÞóåé
ÊÜñïëïõ ÖáâéÝñïõ, ðïõ Ýóôçóå ï Íéêüëáïò Èùí ìðñïóôÜ óôçí ïé Ôïýñêïé êáé, âÝâáéá, íá êáôáóôÞóåé óáöÝò óôéò
åßóïäï ôïõ ðýñãïõ ÐáëáôÜêé (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).
ÌåãÜëåò ÄõíÜìåéò üôé ç åðáíÜóôáóç óõíå÷ßæåôáé óôç
Ñïýìåëç. ¸ôóé, óôéò 25 Ïêôùâñßïõ 1826, áíá÷þñçóå
«Ôüôå ìáò ñß÷ôçêáí ïé Ôïýñêïé ìå ôá ìá÷áßñéá êáé ìå êáôåýèõíóç ðñïò ôç Âïéùôßá, áöïý åíßó÷õóå ôéò
ìáò Ýâáëáí ïìðñüò. Êé’ Üñ÷éóáí ôá ëéáíïíôïýöåêá öñïõñÝò óôçí ÁèÞíá êáé ôï óôñáôüðåäï ôçò Åëåõóßíáò.
âñï÷Þ ôùí Ôïýñêùí êáé ïé ìðüìðåò êáé ôá êáíüíéá Óôç Äüìâñáéíá ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò êáé ïé Üíäñåò ôïõ
êáé ïé ãñáíÝôåò. Ëáâþèçêáí êÜìðïóïé áðü ’ìáò óõãêñïýóôçêáí ìå éó÷õñÝò ôïõñêéêÝò äõíÜìåéò
[…]. Ôüôå ôÜ÷áìåí êáêÜ· ìáò öÝñáí ïé Ôïýñêïé (27 Ïêôùâñßïõ – 14 Íïåìâñßïõ). ÓõíÝ÷éóáí ðñïò ôï
ùò áðüîù êáé ìðïñïýóáí íá ìáò âÜëïõí êáé Äßóôïìï, üðïõ êáé óôñáôïðÝäåõóáí óôéò
ìÝóá åéò ôï êÜóôñï. Ôüôå ìå öùôßæåé ï Èåüò 17 Íïåìâñßïõ. Áðü åêåß êéíÞèçêáí ðñïò ôçí ÁñÜ÷ùâá,
êáé ðáßñíù Ýíá äáâëß ìå öùôéÜ åéò ôï ÷Ýñé êáé üðïõ êáôÜöåñáí ìåãÜëç íßêç åíáíôßïí ôïõ å÷èñïý
öùíÜæù· “ÂÜëôå öùôéÜ åéò ôï ôñáíü ëáãïýìé, ôþñá óõíôñßâïíôáò ôïõò Ôïõñêáëâáíïýò ôïõ ÌïõóôáöÜìðåç
üðïõ æýãùóáí ïé Ôïýñêïé, íá ôïõò áöáíßóïõìåí!”. êáé ôéò åíéó÷ýóåéò ðïõ åß÷å áðïóôåßëåé ï Êéïõôá÷Þò
Áêïýíå ïé Ôïýñêïé, âëÝðïõí êáé ôçí öùôéÜ, (19-23 Íïåìâñßïõ). Ç èñéáìâåõôéêÞ ðïñåßá ôùí
ôæáêßæïõí ïðßóïõ êáé ôïõò ðáßñíïõí åéò ôï êïíôü ÅëëÞíùí óõíå÷ßóôçêå ìå ôç íßêç óôï Ôïõñêï÷þñé (7
ïé áèÜíáôïé ¸ëëçíåò· êáé ôñþíå Ýíá óðáèß êáëü. Äåêåìâñßïõ), óôç Íáõðáêôßá, ðåäéíÞ êáé ïñåéíÞ, üðïõ
Ôïõò ÷áëÜóáìåí ðßóïõ ôá ÷áñáêþìáôÜ ôïõò· óõíÝôñéøáí ôéò ôïõñêéêÝò öñïõñÝò (ÄåêÝìâñéïò 1826
ôïõò ðÞñáìåí ôüóá êåöÜëéá êáé ëÜöõñá ðëÞèïò, – ÉáíïõÜñéïò 1927). Óôéò 5 Öåâñïõáñßïõ áðÝêñïõóáí
íôïõöÝêéá, óðáèéÜ, êáðüôåò»249. ôéò äõíÜìåéò ôïõ ÏìÝñ ðáóÜ ôçò Êáñýóôïõ êáé
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ôéò Ýôñåøáí óå öõãÞ. Ç íéêçöüñá ðñïÝëáóç ôïõ óôñÜôåõìá åἰò Êåñáôæßíé, ὅèåí ðñï÷ùñïῦí ὀëßãïí
ÊáñáúóêÜêç óôç Ñïýìåëç åß÷å ïëïêëçñùèåß. êáô’ ὀëßãïí ἀíáëüãùò ôῶí ðñïóôéèÝìåíùí íÝùí
Óôéò áñ÷Ýò ôïõ Öåâñïõáñßïõ ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò äõíÜìåùí, íὰ öèÜóῃ åἰò ôὸí ἐëáéῶíá êáὶ äéὰ
áðïöÜóéóå üôé Þôáí êáéñüò íá åðéóôñÝøåé óôçí ÁôôéêÞ, ôïῦ ἐëáéῶíïò, ἐðåéäὴ äὲí ἤèåëå âëÜðôåóèáé
ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá áíáêïõößóåé ôçí áêüìá õðü ðïëéïñêßá ἀðὸ ôὸ ἐ÷èñéêὸí ἱððéêüí, íὰ ðñï÷ùñÞóåé ἕùò
ôåëïýóá ÁèÞíá. ÅîÜëëïõ ïé óôü÷ïé ðïõ åß÷å èÝóåé åἰò ôὸ öñïýñéïí êáὶ íὰ ἀíïßîç óõãêïéíùíßáí ôῶí
óôï îåêßíçìá ôçò åêóôñáôåßáò ôïõ óôç Ñïýìåëç åß÷áí ðïëéïñêïýìåíùí ìὲ ôὴí èÜëáóóáí. Ὅôáí äὲ
ðñáãìáôïðïéçèåß. ¸ôóé, áöïý ôïðïèÝôçóå éó÷õñÝò ôïῦôï ἤèåëå êáôïñèùèῆ, ὁ ἐ÷èñὸò ἤèåëå êñßíåé
öñïõñÝò óôç Íáõðáêôßá, ôï Ëéäïñßêé êáé ôï Äßóôïìï, ðåñéôôὸí íὰ ἐðéìÝíῃ åἰò ìßáí ἀóöáëὴí ðïëéïñêßáí
ðÞñå óôéò 21 Öåâñïõáñßïõ ôïí äñüìï ôçò åðéóôñïöÞò. êáὶ ἤèåëåí ἀíá÷ùñÞóåé, ἀößíùí ἐëåýèåñïí ἀðὸ
Óå äýï ìÝñåò âñéóêüôáí óôï óôñáôüðåäï ôçò ôïὺò âåâÞëïõò ðüäáò ôïõ ôὸ ἱåñὸí ἔäáöïò ôῶí
Åëåõóßíáò251. Ἀèçíῶí»253.
Ç êáôÜóôáóç óôçí ÁèÞíá äåí Þôáí êáèüëïõ êáëÞ. Ïé
íßêåò ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç óôç Ñïýìåëç ôüíùóáí ôï çèéêü Ç ìåãÜëç êñéóéìüôçôá ôçò êáôÜóôáóçò ðñïêÜëåóå ôç
ôùí ôáëáéðùñçìÝíùí ðïëéïñêïýìåíùí. ÁëëÜ üóï êáéñü óõãêÝíôñùóç ðÜíù áðü äÝêá ÷éëéÜäùí ðïëåìéóôþí,
ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò äçìéïõñãïýóå áíôéðåñéóðáóìü êáé ôáêôéêþí êáé áôÜêôùí, Ýîù áðü ôçí Áêñüðïëç.
ðñïâëÞìáôá áíåöïäéáóìïý óôïí Êéïõôá÷Þ, ç ðïëéïñêßá Ïé ïðëáñ÷çãïß áðü ïëüêëçñç ôçí ÅëëÜäá Ýóôåéëáí
ôçò Áêñüðïëçò áðü ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò óõíå÷éæüôáí. Üíäñåò, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá åíéó÷ýóïõí ôéò äõíÜìåéò ôçò
Ï Êéïõôá÷Þò Þôáí áðïöáóéóìÝíïò íá öÝñåé åéò ðÝñáò ÁôôéêÞò. Ï Èåüäùñïò Êïëïêïôñþíçò Ýóôåéëå ôïí ãéï
ôçí áðïóôïëÞ ôïõ êáôáëáìâÜíïíôáò ôçí Áêñüðïëç êáé ôïõ Ãåííáßï Êïëïêïôñþíç ìáæß ìå 1.480 ÌïñáÀôåò.
Ýìïéáæå áÞôôçôïò. Ðñþôç öïñÜ óôá ÷ñïíéêÜ ôçò ÅëëçíéêÞò ÅðáíÜóôáóçò
ÊáôÜ ôïí ÉáíïõÜñéï ôïõ 1827 ¸ëëçíåò êáé öéëÝëëçíåò óõãêñïôÞèçêå Ýíá ôüóï ìåãÜëï óôñáôüðåäï, ôï
áãùíéóôÝò ðñïóðáèïýóáí íá åíéó÷ýóïõí ôéò åëëçíéêÝò ïðïßï ÷Üñç óôï êýñïò êáé ôéò åîáéñåôéêÝò äéïéêçôéêÝò
èÝóåéò óôïí ÐåéñáéÜ êáé ôï ÖÜëçñï êáé íá åìðïäßóïõí éêáíüôçôåò ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç äéáôçñÞèçêå åíùìÝíï
ìå äéÜöïñïõò ôñüðïõò ôïí áíåöïäéáóìü ôùí êáé óõíåðþò éó÷õñü ìÝ÷ñé ôç ëÞîç ôùí åðé÷åéñÞóåùí
ôïõñêéêþí óôñáôåõìÜôùí. Åí ôù ìåôáîý ïé êëåéóìÝíïé ãýñù áðü ôçí ÁèÞíá. ÌåãÜëåò íßêåò Þôáí áõôÝò óôï
óôçí Áêñüðïëç áãùíéóôÝò áöáíßæïíôáí áðü ôïõò Êåñáôóßíé, üðïõ ïé ¸ëëçíåò áðÝêñïõóáí äõíáìéêÜ ôçí
óõíå÷åßò âïìâáñäéóìïýò, ôéò åðéäçìéêÝò áññþóôéåò êáé åðßèåóç ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ (4 Ìáñôßïõ), êáé óôï ìïíáóôÞñé
ôéò äéÜöïñåò êáêïõ÷ßåò. Ôï çèéêü ôùí ÅëëÞíùí êáé ôùí ôïõ Áãßïõ Óðõñßäùíïò óôïí ÐåéñáéÜ, üðïõ áðÝêëåéóáí
öéëåëëÞíùí ðïõ áíôéìåôþðéæáí ôá óôñáôåýìáôá ôïõ ôñéáêüóéïõò Ôïõñêáëâáíïýò (13-16 Áðñéëßïõ).
Êéïõôá÷Þ êÜìöèçêå óçìáíôéêÜ áðü ôç ìåãÜëç Þôôá ¼ìùò, ðáñÜ ôç èåôéêÞ áôìüóöáéñá ðïõ åðéêñáôïýóå
ðïõ õðÝóôçóáí óôéò 27 Éáíïõáñßïõ 1827 óôï Êáìáôåñü óôçí åëëçíéêÞ ðëåõñÜ, ï êõâåñíçôéêüò äéïñéóìüò ôùí
ïé Üíäñåò ôïõ Êåöáëëïíßôç Äéïíõóßïõ Âïýñâá÷ç. ¢ããëùí öéëåëëÞíùí áîéùìáôéêþí David Church (1787-
Åõôõ÷þò, ç åíôõðùóéáêÞ áðüêñïõóç ìåãÜëçò ôïõñêéêÞò 1873) êáé Thomas Cochrane (1775-1860) óôéò áñ÷Ýò
äýíáìçò óôçí ÊáóôÝëá ôñåéò çìÝñåò áñãüôåñá Ýóùóå Ìáñôßïõ ùò áñ÷çãþí ôïõ åëëçíéêïý óôñáôïý êáé
ôçí êáôÜóôáóç êáé Ýäùóå èÜññïò óôïõò áãùíéóôÝò 252. óôüëïõ áíôßóôïé÷á, ðñïêÜëåóå Ýíôïíç äõóáñÝóêåéá
Åí ôù ìåôáîý åðÝóôñåøå êáé ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò óôçí ìåôáîý ôùí ÅëëÞíùí ðïëåìéóôþí, ç ïðïßá êëüíéóå
ÁôôéêÞ. Ìüëéò Ýöôáóå óôçí Åëåõóßíá, óõãêÝíôñùóå óçìáíôéêÜ ôçí åðé÷åéñçóéáêÞ éêáíüôçôá ôïõ åëëçíéêïý
ôïõò óõíáãùíéóôÝò ôïõ êáé ïñãÜíùóå ôçí áíôåðßèåóÞ óôñáôïðÝäïõ.
ôïõ êéíïýìåíïò ðñïò ôï Êåñáôóßíé, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá Ï Cochrane, ëïéðüí, áíôßèåôá áðü ôïí ÊáñáúóêÜêç ðïõ
åðéôý÷åé ôç óùôçñßá ôçò Áêñüðïëçò. Ï ÁéíéÜí áíáöÝñåé: áêïëïõèïýóå ôáêôéêÞ öèïñÜò ôïõ áíôéðÜëïõ, åêôéìïýóå
üôé Ýðñåðå íá óôáìáôÞóïõí ïé åðé÷åéñÞóåéò óôá
«Ôὸ ó÷Ýäéïí ἦôïí íὰ ôïðïèåôçè ôὸ ἐí Ἐëåõóῖíé ìåôüðéóèåí êáé íá ãßíåé êáôÜ ìÝôùðïí åðßèåóç Üìåóá.
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Ó’ áõôÞ ôç äýóêïëç öÜóç ôùí ìåãÜëùí áðïöÜóåùí, êáôὰ ôïῦ Äáöíéïῦ, äéὰ íὰ äþóῃ íὰ ἐííïÞóïõí
óôéò 21 Áðñéëßïõ 1827, ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò ôñáõìáôßóôçêå ïἱ ἐíôὸò ôïῦ öñïõñßïõ, ὅôé èÝëåé ðñïóðáèÞóåé
óïâáñÜ óå ìéá ìéêñïóõìðëïêÞ óôï ÖÜëçñï. Ï ìåãÜëïò ὀãëÞãïñá íὰ ëýóῃ ôὴí ðïëéïñêßáí êáὶ äéὰ íὰ
ïðëáñ÷çãüò ðÝèáíå äýï çìÝñåò áñãüôåñá, áíÞìåñá ἐìøõ÷ùèïῦí»255.
ôïõ áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ.
ÐáñÜ ôéò ôñáãéêÝò åîåëßîåéò ï Cochrane åðÝìåíå ¸ôóé, ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò îåêßíçóå ìå åêáôüí óáñÜíôá
óèåíáñÜ óôçí áðüöáóÞ ôïõ ãéá ìåôùðéêÞ åðßèåóç, áí éððåßò êáé ìéêñÞ äýíáìç ðåæéêïý ìå åðéêåöáëÞò
êáé ôï óôñÜôåõìá äåí Þôáí Ýôïéìï. ÅðéðëÝïí, ôï çèéêü ôïí Âáóßëåéï Ìðïýóãï. ¼ôáí Ýöôáóå óôï Äáöíß
ôùí ðïëåìéóôþí Þôáí éäéáßôåñá ÷áìçëü åîáéôßáò ôïõ åîáóöÜëéóå ôïõò ðåæïýò ôïðïèåôþíôáò ôïõò
áéöíßäéïõ èáíÜôïõ ôïõ áñ÷çãïý ôïõò. ËáíèáóìÝíïé ìðñïóôÜ óå óôåíü ðÝñáóìá, ðïõ èá ôïõò åðÝôñåðå
êáé âéáóôéêïß ÷åéñéóìïß ïäÞãçóáí ôá åëëçíéêÜ íá ïðéóèï÷ùñÞóïõí áí ÷ñåéáæüôáí. Ôï éððéêü ìðÞêå
óôñáôåýìáôá óå êáôáóôñïöéêÞ Þôôá ìå ôåñÜóôéåò ìå ôïí ÊáñáúóêÜêç óôïí åëáéþíá. ¼ìùò, ï äüëéïò
áðþëåéåò óå Ýìøõ÷ï õëéêü óôïí ÁíÜëáôï (24 Áðñéëßïõ). Êéïõôá÷Þò ìå ôï óôñÜôåõìÜ ôïõ, ðåæéêü êáé éððéêü,
Áêïëïýèçóå ç äéÜëõóç ôïõ åëëçíéêïý óôñáôïðÝäïõ êáé ðåñßìåíáí êñõììÝíïé ðßóù áðü ôïõò ãýñù ëüöïõò.
ç ðáñÜäïóç ôçò öñïõñÜò ôçò Áêñüðïëçò Ýíáí ìÞíá
áñãüôåñá. ¸ôóé, ïëüêëçñç ç ÓôåñåÜ ÅëëÜäá ðåñéÞëèå «Ὁ ÊéïõôÜãéáò ìὲ ἕíá ἀñêåôὸí óῶìá ἱððÝùí
óôïõò Ïèùìáíïýò. Ïé ðáñáðÜíù Þôôåò Þôáí, âÝâáéá, êáὶ ðåæῶí åἶ÷åí ἔëèåé äéὰ íõêôὸò êáὶ ἐíÝäñåõå
ðñïóùñéíÝò. Ïé åðáñ÷ßåò ôçò ÄõôéêÞò êáé ÁíáôïëéêÞò ὄðéóèåí ôῶí ëüöùí ôῶí ὀ÷õñùìÜôùí ôῶí
ÓôåñåÜò ÅëëÜäáò áíáêáôáëÞöèçêáí ìåôÜ ôç íáõìá÷ßá Ôïýñêùí, ὅðïõ ἦôïí ἀðÝíáíôé ôïῦ ὀ÷õñþìáôïò
óôï Íáâáñßíï ôïí Ïêôþâñéï ôïõ 1827, äçëáäÞ êáôÜ ôçí ôïῦ Ìåôï÷ßïõ [ôὸ óôñáôüðåäï ôïῦ Êåñáôóéíßïõ]
ðåñßïäï 1828-1829254. êáὶ öáßíåôáé íὰ åἶ÷å óêïðὸ íὰ ðÝóῃ áἴöíéò åἰò
ôὸ ñçèὲí ὀ÷ýñùìá ôïῦ Ìåôï÷ßïõ ἢ ἀãíïåῖôáé äéὰ
ἄëëçí áἰôßá»256.
Ç ìÜ÷ç óôï Äáöíß (21 Ìáñôßïõ 1827)
Ç ôïõñêéêÞ åðßèåóç Þôáí áéöíéäéáóôéêÞ ôüóï ãéá ôçí
Óôï ðëáßóéï ôùí åðé÷åéñÞóåùí ãýñù áðü ôçí ÁèÞíá éððéêÞ üóï êáé ãéá ôçí ðåæéêÞ äýíáìç ôùí ÅëëÞíùí:
äüèçêå êáé ìßá ìÜ÷ç óôïí åëáéþíá ìðñïóôÜ áðü ôç
ìïíÞ Äáöíßïõ. Ôçí ðñïêÜëåóå ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò êáé «Áßöíçò âëÝðåé ὁ ÊáñáúóêÜêçò êáé ïñìïýí
åðÝëåîå ôï ðáñáðÜíù óçìåßï, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ ç ìÜ÷ç íá ïé êáâåëáñáßïé êáé ðåæïὶ åíáíôßïí ôùí åêáôὸí
åßíáé ïñáôÞ áðü ôçí Áêñüðïëç êáé íá åìøõ÷þóåé ôïõò óáñÜíôá éððÝùí êáé ìÝñïò åíáíôßïí ôïõ
ðïëéïñêçìÝíïõò. óôåíþìáôïò, üðïõ êáôåß÷åí ï Âáóßëåéïò Ìðïýóãïò,
Óôçí åðé÷åßñçóç áõôÞ óõììåôåß÷áí êáé ï Ãåííáßïò üðïõ ôïí Ýôñåøáí åõèὺò åéò öõãὴí êáé Ýëáâáí
Êïëïêïôñþíçò (1805-1868), ï ×ñÞóôïò Óéóßíçò êáé ïé ôçí èÝóéí ïé Ôïýñêïé. ÂëÝðïíôåò ôὸ ðëÞèïò
Üëëïé ïðëáñ÷çãïß ðïõ åß÷å óôåßëåé ï Êïëïêïôñþíçò ôùí Ôïýñêùí êáé ôçí ïñìὴí ïðéóèïäñüìçóáí
áðü ôçí Ðåëïðüííçóï, ãéá íá åíéó÷ýóåé ôï óôñáôüðåäï êáé ç êáâåëáñßá êáôὰ ôï ìÝñïò ôïõ óôåíïý, äéὰ íá
ôçò ÁèÞíáò. Ï Ãåííáßïò èõìÜôáé ðüóï ìåãÜëç Þôáí ç äéÝâïõí ôï ìÝñïò ôïõ Êåñáôæéíßïõ.
áíÜãêç íá äïèåß êïõñÜãéï óå áõôïýò ðïõ âñßóêïíôáí Áëë’ ὡò Üíù åßðïìåí ðéáóìÝíïí ôï óôåíὸí
êëåéóìÝíïé ôüóïõò ìÞíåò óôï êÜóôñï ôùí Áèçíþí: áðὸ ôïõò ðåæïὺò Ôïýñêïõò, êáé áðὸ ôï Üëëï ìÝñïò
ç êáâåëáñßá åíþèçóáí Ôïýñêïé êáé ¸ëëçíåò
«Êáèὼò ἄíù åἴðïìåí, ὅôé ἔãñáöáí êáèçìåñéíῶò êáé äåí äéÝêñéíå ôéò ðïßïò Þôïí Ôïýñêïò êáé ðïßïò
ἀðὸ ôὸ öñïýñéïí, öÝñïíôåò ôὴí ἀðåëðéóßáí, ï ¸ëëçí, ìÜëéóôá ç êáâåëáñßá ôïõ ×áôæὴ Ìé÷Üëç
ἀðåöÜóéóåí ὁ ÊáñáúóêÜêçò íὰ ὑðÜãῃ ìὲ ôὴí üðïõ åöïñïýóáí ó÷åäὸí ïé ðåñéóóüôåñïé ôá ßäéá
êáâåëáñßáí ἕùò ðëçóßïí ôῆò ἀêñïðüëåùò ìå ôá ôùí Ôïýñêùí. ÂëÝðïíôáò áõôὸ
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ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò åöþíáîåí “ü÷é ìå üðëá, ôÞò æÞôçóå íá áíÜøåé öùôéÜ êáé íá ôïõ øÞóåé êáöÝ!
¸ëëçíåò, áëëὰ ìå îßöç”, äéüôé ï ëüãïò ôïõ «Áßöíçò âëÝðïìåí êáé Ýñ÷åôáé ìßá ãõíáßêá
Þôïí ñß÷íïíôáò åéò ôïí Ôïýñêïí Ýðáéñíå Ïèùìáíßäá êáôáãüìåíç áðὸ ôï ÖáíÜñé,
ôïí ¸ëëçíá»257. üðïõ ôçí åß÷å ðÜíôïôå ï ÊáñáúóêÜêçò ìå
åíäýìáôá áíäñéêὰ êáé ìå üðëá, ëÝãïíôáò ôïõ
Ç åëëçíéêÞ äýíáìç âñÝèçêå îáöíéêÜ åíôåëþò ÊáñáúóêÜêç ôé ôïõò öõëÜôå ôïõò Ôïýñêïõò, ï
áðïêïììÝíç áðü ôï óôñáôüðåäï ôïõ Êåñáôóéíßïõ. Ç äå ÊáñáúóêÜêçò ôçí äéÝôáîåí áìÝóùò íá áíÜøç
ìÜ÷ç ðïõ áêïëïýèçóå äüèçêå óþìá ìå óþìá êáé Þôáí öùôéὰí íá øÞóç êáöÝí. ÇèÝëçóå íá äåßîç ìå ôïýôï
éäéáßôåñá óêëçñÞ: üôé åéò ðüëåìïí äåí ôáñÜôåôôáé, áëëὰ øÝíùí êáöὲ
ðßíåé êáé ðïëåìþí»259.
«Åéò ôçí áõôὴí êáôÜóôáóéí åìÜ÷ïíôï êáé
áíôåìÜ÷ïíôï ïé ¸ëëçíåò êáé Ôïýñêïé, þóðïõ Ïé ¸ëëçíåò êáôÜöåñáí íá áðáãêéóôñùèïýí êáé íá
äéÝâçóáí ôï óôåíὸí ïé ¸ëëçíåò êáé ðÜëéí þñìçóáí õðï÷ùñÞóïõí Ýðåéôá áðü ôñåéò þñåò:
åíáíôßïí ôùí Ôïýñêùí, üðïõ Ýöèáóáí êáé âïÞèåéáí
áðὸ ôá ï÷õñþìáôá ôïõ Ìåôï÷ßïõ üóïé äåí «¼ðïõ ìåôὰ ôñéþí ùñþí ó÷åäὸí ðüëåìïí
åß÷áí èÝóåéò, üðïõ ç ìÜ÷ç Ýãéíå ãåíéêùôÝñá êáé å÷ùñßóèçóáí ïé ìåí ¸ëëçíåò äéὰ ôá
åðïëåìïýóáí ïé ¸ëëçíåò êáé Ôïýñêïé ìåôáîὺ åéò ôï zï÷õñþìáôá ôïõò, ïé äå Ôïýñêïé äéὰ ôá ÐáôÞóéá,
óôåíüí, ÷ùñὶò ïýôå ôï Ýíá ìÝñïò íá íéêÞóç ïýôå üðïõ åß÷áí ôï ãåíéêὸí óôñáôüðåäïí. Åéò ôçí áõôὴí
ôï Üëëï, áëë’ åîáêïëïõèïýóåí ìå ìåãÜëïí ðåßóìá ìÜ÷çí åöïíåýèçóáí áñêåôïὶ Ôïýñêïé ðåæïὶ êáὶ
áäéáêüðùò êáé áðὸ ôá äýï ìÝñç ï ðüëåìïò»258. êáâåëáñáßïé, áðὸ äå ôïõò ¸ëëçíáò äåêáåííÝá
óêïôùìÝíïé êáé ëáâùìÝíïé, åéò ôùí ïðïßùí Þôïí ï
¼ôáí ç ìÜ÷ç åß÷å öôÜóåé óôï áðüãåéü ôçò åìöáíßóôçêå ç ôõìðáíéóôὴò Þ ôïõìðåëéóôὴò ôçò êáâåëáñßáò ôïõ
ÔïõñêÜëá ðñïóôáôåõüìåíç ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç. ÌÝóá óôïí ×áôæὴ Ìé÷Üëç êáé äåêáÝîé Üëïãá óêïôùìÝíá êáé
ðïëåìéêü ïñõìáãäü ï ìåñáêëÞò êáé ãåííáßïò óôñáôçãüò ðëçãùìÝíá. ¹ôïí çìÝñá ôùí ÂáÀùí»260.
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Ç ðåñéï÷Þ ôçò ìåãÜëçò ìÜ÷çò ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ Ôá ôáâÜíéá åßíáé êïóìçìÝíá ìå ïñïöïãñáößåò
êáôÜ ôï â´ ìéóü ôïõ 19ïõ áéþíá: åîáéñåôéêÞò ðïéüôçôáò. Ï ìéêñüò áñéèìüò ôùí áéèïõóþí
ðýñãïò ÐáëáôÜêé õðïäåéêíýåé üôé ôï êôÞñéï ÷ñçóéìïðïéïýíôáí ùò åîï÷éêÞ
êáôïéêßá, õðüèåóç ðïõ åíéó÷ýåôáé êáé áðü ôç ó÷åôéêÜ
ÓÞìåñá, óôïí ÷þñï ôçò ìåãÜëçò ìÜ÷çò ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ ìåãÜëç áðüóôáóç ðïõ ÷ùñßæåé ôï ÐáëáôÜêé áðü ôï
âñßóêåôáé ðõñãïåéäÝò êôßóìá, ãíùóôü óôï åõñý êÝíôñï ôùí Áèçíþí.
êïéíü ùò ÐáëáôÜêé. Ôüóï ôï êôÞñéï, üóï êáé ç ãýñù Ôï êõñßùò êôÞñéï ðëáéóéùíüôáí áðü âïçèçôéêÜ
ðåñéï÷Þ Ý÷ïõí áíáêçñõ÷èåß äéáôçñçôÝïò éóôïñéêüò êôßóìáôá, ðïõ ðåñéëÜìâáíáí îåíþíá, óôÜâëïõò
ôüðïò áðü ôï Õðïõñãåßï Ðïëéôéóìïý áðü ôï 1979 261. (áíáøõêôÞñéï «Ôï Éóôïñéêü») êáé åëáéïôñéâåßï. Ôï
Ôï ÐáëáôÜêé áðïôåëåß ôõðéêü äåßãìá áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞò óõãêñüôçìá ôïõ îåíþíá áðïôåëåßôáé áðü ôñåéò
ñïìáíôéêïý éóôïñéóìïý ìå íåïãïôèéêÜ óôïé÷åßá. ÂáóéêÜ ðôÝñõãåò: ç êåíôñéêÞ åßíáé äéþñïöç êáé ðëáéóéþíåôáé
ôïõ ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ åßíáé ï öñïõñéáêüò ÷áñáêôÞñáò áðü äýï ìéêñüôåñåò éóüãåéåò, ïé ïðïßåò ðñüóêåéíôáé
(åðÜëîåéò, ãùíéáêïß ðýñãïé, óôåíÜ ðáñÜèõñá), ïé ðáñáôáêôéêÜ êáé åãêÜñóéá ðñïò áõôü ó÷çìáôßæïíôáò
ñáäéíÝò áíáëïãßåò êáé ôá ãïôèéêßæïíôá äéáêïóìçôéêÜ Ýíá Ã. Óå áíôßèåóç ìå ôï ÐáëáôÜêé, ï îåíþíáò åßíáé
óôïé÷åßá (ðáñÜèõñá åðéóôåöüìåíá áðü ïîõêüñõöá íåïêëáóéêïý ñõèìïý ùò ðñïò ôçí áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ. Ôüóï
ôüîá, åîùôåñéêüò êåñáìïðëáóôéêüò äéÜêïóìïò, ï ðýñãïò üóï êáé ôá ãýñù êôßóìáôá ðëáéóéþíïíôáí
äéáìüñöùóç åðÜëîåùí êáé ãùíéáêþí ðõñãßóêùí). áðü åêôåôáìÝíïõò êÞðïõò ìå áíèþíåò, öïßíéêåò,
Ï ðýñãïò äéáèÝôåé äýï ïñüöïõò, äþìá êáé çìéõðüãåéï, ïðùñïöüñá êáé Üëëá äÝíôñá, þóôå íá äçìéïõñãåßôáé
üðïõ âñßóêïíôáí ôá ìáãåéñåßá êáé ïé âïçèçôéêïß Ýíá åéäõëëéáêü ðåñéâÜëëïí.
÷þñïé. Ïé üñïöïé áðïôåëïýíôáé áðü ìéêñü áñéèìü Ç åîï÷éêÞ Ýðáõëç áíÞêå óå ìåãÜëï êôÞìá Ýêôáóçò
øçëïôÜâáíùí áéèïõóþí, ïé ìåãáëýôåñåò áðü ôéò ïðïßåò Üíù ôùí ôñéÜíôá óôñåììÜôùí ðïõ åêôåéíüôáí ðñïò
÷ñçóéìïðïéïýíôáí ùò ôñáðåæáñßåò êáé ÷þñïé õðïäï÷Þò. ôá âüñåéá êáé áíáôïëéêÜ. Ç ïñéïèÝôçóç áõôïý ôïõ

¢ðïøç ôïõ ðýñãïõ ÐáëáôÜêé áðü ôá äõôéêÜ óå åðéóôïëéêü äåëôÜñéï ôïõ 1901. Äéáêñßíåôáé ï ðåñßâïëïò ôïõ êôÞìáôïò,
êáèþò êáé ç ðëïõóéüôáôç âëÜóôçóç ðïõ ðåñéÝâáëëå ôïí ðýñãï óôéò áñ÷Ýò ôïõ 20ïý áéþíá.

ÁñéóôåñÜ: Ç ðýëç ôïõ êôÞìáôïò ×áúäÜñé óôá äõôéêÜ ôïõ ðýñãïõ ÐáëáôÜêé (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).
186
187

Óýã÷ñïíç Üðïøç ôïõ ðýñãïõ ÐáëáôÜêé óôï ×áúäÜñé áðü ôá


áíáôïëéêÜ. Ï ðýñãïò åßíáé ôõðéêü äåßãìá áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞò
ñïìáíôéêïý éóôïñéóìïý ìå íåïãïôèéêÜ óôïé÷åßá. ÂáóéêÜ ôïõ
÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ åßíáé ï öñïõñéáêüò ÷áñáêôÞñáò, ïé ñáäéíÝò
áíáëïãßåò êáé ôá ãïôèéêßæïíôá äéáêïóìçôéêÜ óôïé÷åßá, üðùò ôá
ðáñÜèõñá ìå ïîõêüñõöá ôüîá, ï åîùôåñéêüò êåñáìïðëáóôéêüò
äéÜêïóìïò, ç äéáìüñöùóç ôùí åðÜëîåùí êáé ôùí ãùíéáêþí
ðõñãßóêùí. Óôçí Ýíèåôç öùôïãñáößá, ëåðôïìÝñåéá ôùí
ãùíéáßùí ðõñãßóêùí ðïëõãùíéêÞò äéáôïìÞò êáé ôùí
äéáêïóìçôéêþí åðÜëîåùí ðïõ åðéóôÝöïõí ôïí ðýñãï. ÊÜôù áðü
ôéò åðÜëîåéò õðÜñ÷åé æþíç áðü êåñáìéêÜ ðëáêßäéá ìå áíÜãëõöç
äéáêüóìçóç ñïäÜêùí (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).
188
189

êôÞìáôïò áíÜãåôáé óôá ÷ñüíéá ôçò Ôïõñêïêñáôßáò.


Ðéèáíüôáôá, ðñþôïò éäéïêôÞôçò ôïõ õðÞñîå ï ×áúäÜñ
ðáóÜò, ï ïðïßïò Ýäùóå êáé ôï üíïìÜ ôïõ óôï êôÞìá
êáé ôçí åõñýôåñç ðåñéï÷Þ262. Óýìöùíá ìå ôç ìáñôõñßá
ôïõ áãùíéóôÞ ×ñÞóôïõ ÂõæÜíôéïõ ðïõ Ýëáâå ìÝñïò
óôéò ìÜ÷åò ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ ôïí Áýãïõóôï ôïõ 1826, ç
ïðïßá ðáñáôßèåôáé ðáñáðÜíù, óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ õðÞñ÷å
ôåé÷éóìÝíï áãñüêôçìá ìå ðýñãï óôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ 263.
ÂÝâáéá, ï ðýñãïò ðïõ áíáöÝñåé ï ÂõæÜíôéïò äåí
åßíáé äõíáôüí íá ôáõôéóôåß ìå ôï ÐáëáôÜêé, êáèþò
ç áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ ìïñöÞ ôïõ äåýôåñïõ äåí åðéôñÝðåé
÷ñïíïëüãçóç íùñßôåñá áðü ôç äåêáåôßá ôïõ 1830,
áí ü÷é áñãüôåñá. Ðñïöáíþò, ï ðýñãïò ðïõ õðÞñ÷å
óôï ×áúäÜñé ôï êáëïêáßñé ôïõ 1826 êáôåäáößóôçêå,
ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ïéêïäïìçèåß ôï ÐáëáôÜêé.
ÓôáìÜôéïò ÊëåÜíèçò (1802-1862).
Ç áêñéâÞò ÷ñïíïëïãßá áíÝãåñóçò ôïõ ðýñãïõ åßíáé
áóáöÞò. Óå ãåíéêÝò ãñáììÝò ôïðïèåôåßôáé óôéò ðñþôåò
ìåôåðáíáóôáôéêÝò äåêáåôßåò, üôáí ï ñïìáíôéêüò åêðñïóþðïõò ôçò ñïìáíôéêÞò áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞò
áñ÷éôåêôïíéêüò ñõèìüò Þôáí áñêåôÜ äçìïöéëÞò 264. óôçí ÅëëÜäá, áí êáé áó÷ïëÞèçêå áñêåôÜ êáé ìå
ÊÜðïéïé åñåõíçôÝò áðïäßäïõí ôïí ó÷åäéáóìü ôïõ ôïí íåïêëáóéêéóìü268. Ìå âÜóç ôç óýíäåóç ôïõ
óôïí ÃÜëëï áñ÷éôÝêôïíá François Boulanger (1807- ÷áúäáñéþôéêïõ ðýñãïõ ìå ôïí ÊëåÜíèç, êáèþò êáé
1875). Ï Boulanger èåùñåßôáé áðü ðïëëïýò êáé ï ôçí åîï÷éêÞ ôïõ èÝóç, Ý÷åé õðïôåèåß üôé ôï ÐáëáôÜêé
áñ÷éôÝêôïíáò ôïõ Ðýñãïõ ôçò Âáóéëßóóçò óôï ºëéïí 265, ÷ôßóôçêå êáôÜ ðáñáããåëßá ôçò Sophie de Marbois
ìå ôïí ïðïßï ôï ÐáëáôÜêé Ý÷åé áñêåôÝò ìïñöïëïãéêÝò (1785-1854), ãíùóôÞò êáé ùò Äïýêéóóáò ôçò Ðëáêåíôßáò
ïìïéüôçôåò. ÁõôÝò åíôïðßæïíôáé êõñßùò óôïí öñïõñéáêü (Duchesse de Plaisence). ÌÜëéóôá, áíáöÝñåôáé
÷áñáêôÞñá, ï ïðïßïò åßíáé éäéáßôåñá åìöáíÞò óôéò êáé èñýëïò, óýìöùíá ìå ôïí ïðïßï ç Äïýêéóóá
åðÜëîåéò ðïõ åðéóôÝöïõí ôï êôÞñéï êáé ôïõò ãùíéáêïýò ÷ñçóéìïðïéïýóå ôï ÐáëáôÜêé ãéá ôéò ìõóôéêÝò
ðýñãïõò. Ôüóï ùò ðñïò ôçí åîùôåñéêÞ ìïñöÞ, üóï óõíáíôÞóåéò ôçò ìå ôïí ëÞóôáñ÷ï ÍôáâÝëç 269. Åðßóçò,
êáé ùò ðñïò ôç äéáìüñöùóç ôùí åóùôåñéêþí ÷þñùí, êÜðïéïé åñåõíçôÝò èåùñïýí üôé ï áñ÷éêüò éäéïêôÞôçò
ç âáóßëéóóá Áìáëßá (1818-1875) æÞôçóå áðü ôïí ôïõ ðýñãïõ Þôáí ï âáóéëéÜò ¼èùíáò Á´ (1815-1867).
áñ÷éôÝêôïíá íá áêïëïõèÞóåé ùò ðñüôõðï ôï áíÜêôïñï Áêïëïýèùò ôï ïßêçìá ðÝñáóå óôçí éäéïêôçóßá ôïõ
Hohenschwangau ôïõ åîáäÝëöïõ ôçò äéáäü÷ïõ öéëüôå÷íïõ ÔÞíéïõ ôñáðåæßôç Íéêüëáïõ ÍÜæïõ (1813-
Ìáîéìéëéáíïý óôï Schwanstein ôçò Âáâáñßáò. Ï Ðýñãïò 1888), üðïõ êáé ðáñÝìåéíå ìÝ÷ñé ôï 1886. Ï ÍÜæïò,
Âáóéëßóóçò åãêáéíéÜóôçêå ôïí Áýãïõóôï ôïõ 1854 266. ðïõ ãéá Ýíá äéÜóôçìá õðÞñîå äéåõèõíôÞò ôïõ Ùäåßïõ
Ìéá Üëëç åêäï÷Þ èÝëåé ùò äçìéïõñãü ôïõ Áèçíþí270, ìåôÝôñåøå ôï ÐáëáôÜêé óå êáëëéôå÷íéêü
÷áúäáñéþôéêïõ ðýñãïõ ôïí áñ÷éôÝêôïíá êáé ðïëåïäüìï êÝíôñï, üðïõ óý÷íáæáí ïé ìåãÜëïé ¸ëëçíåò æùãñÜöïé
ÓôáìÜôéï ÊëåÜíèç (1802-1862), éäéáßôåñá ãíùóôü áðü ôá Íéêçöüñïò Ëýôñáò (1832-1904) êáé Íéêüëáïò Ãýæçò
ãïôèéêßæïíôá ìÝãáñá ôçò Äïõêßóóçò ôçò Ðëáêåíôßáò (1842-1901). ÁäéÜøåõóôá ß÷íç ôçò ðáñïõóßáò ôïõò åêåß
óôçí ÐåíôÝëç êáé ôï êÝíôñï ôçò óçìåñéíÞò ÁèÞíáò 267. áðïôåëïýí ïé ôïé÷ïãñáößåò óôïí îåíþíá, êáèþò
Ï ÊëåÜíèçò èåùñåßôáé Ýíáò áðü ôïõò ðéï óçìáíôéêïýò êáé óôïí ìéêñü íáü ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ, ï ïðïßïò
âñéóêüôáí åíôüò ôùí ïñßùí ôïõ áãñïêôÞìáôïò. Óôç
Ôï ìáñìÜñéíï ôæÜêé óôç ìåãÜëç áßèïõóá óõíÝ÷åéá éäéïêôÞôçò ôïõ ðýñãïõ Ýãéíå ï Ãåþñãéïò Èùí,
ôïõ ðñþôïõ ïñüöïõ ôïõ ðýñãïõ (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò). åðéìåëçôÞò ôùí áíáêôüñùí åðß Ãåùñãßïõ Á´.
190
191

Ï Èùí, ãíùóôüò êõñßùò áðü ôçí ÝðáõëÞ ôïõ óôïõò


Áìðåëüêçðïõò271, åßíáé õðåýèõíïò ãéá ôçí ôïðïèÝôçóç
ôçò ìáñìÜñéíçò óôÞëçò ðñïò ôéìÞí ôïõ ÊÜñïëïõ
ÖáâéÝñïõ ìðñïóôÜ óôçí åßóïäï ôïõ ðýñãïõ. Ç óôÞëç
åðéóôåöüôáí áðü ðñïôïìÞ ôïõ ÃÜëëïõ áîéùìáôéêïý, ç
ïðïßá äåí âñßóêåôáé ðëÝïí óôçí áñ÷éêÞ ôçò èÝóç.
Óôéò áñ÷Ýò ôïõ 20ïý áéþíá ôï ÐáëáôÜêé áíáöÝñåôáé üôé
ðÝñáóå óôçí éäéïêôçóßá ôïõ ×éþôç åöïðëéóôÞ Áíôþíéïõ
Ðáëéïý. Ôüôå ç Ýðáõëç áíáêáéíßóôçêå óõóôçìáôéêÜ.
Ðéèáíüôáôá óå áõôÞ ôç öÜóç èá ðñÝðåé íá áðïäïèïýí
êáé ïé ïñïöïãñáößåò ôïõ êõñßùò êôßóìáôïò, êáèþò êáé
ç åðéãñáöÞ «ÊÑÅÉÓÓÏÍ ÖÈÏÍÏÓ ÏÉÊÔÉÑÌÏÕ » ðïõ êïóìåß
ôïí ÷þñï ðÜíù áðü ôï ôæÜêé ôçò êõñßùò áßèïõóáò ôïõ
ðñþôïõ ïñüöïõ272.
ÊÜðïéåò ðçãÝò ðáñïõóéÜæïõí ùò éäéïêôÞôç ôïõ
÷áúäáñéþôéêïõ ðýñãïõ êáôÜ ôá ôÝëç ôïõ 19ïõ êáé ôéò
ðñþôåò äåêáåôßåò ôïõ 20ïý áéþíá ôïí ìåãáëïêôçìáôßá
Ãåþñãéï Ðá÷ý. Ï ãÜìïò ôïõ Ðá÷ý ìå ôçí Áéìéëßá
ÓêïõæÝ, ãüíï ìåãÜëçò áèçíáúêÞò ïéêïãÝíåéáò
ãáéïêôçìüíùí, óõíÝíùóå ìåãÜëåò åêôÜóåéò ãçò áðü
ôïí ¢ãéï Áíôþíéï ÁìöéÜëçò Ýùò ôç óçìåñéíÞ ëåùöüñï
ÊáâÜëáò, óôï ýøïò üðïõ âñßóêåôáé ôï ÐáëáôÜêé.
Ôï 1894 ç Áéìéëßá äåîéþèçêå ôç âáóßëéóóá ¼ëãá êáé
ïëüêëçñç ôçí áñéóôïêñáôßá ôùí Áèçíþí ìå ìåãÜëç
åðéôõ÷ßá. Ç äåîßùóç Ýëáâå ÷þñá óôïõò áíèéóìÝíïõò
êÞðïõò ôçò Ýðáõëçò êáé ðåñéëÜìâáíå åêëåêôïýò
ìåæÝäåò, Üöèïíç ìðßñá êáé åêëåêôü êñáóß áðü ôá
áìðÝëéá ôçò ðåñéï÷Þò273.
ÊáôÜ ôçí ðåñßïäï 1957-1971 ôï ÐáëáôÜêé óôÝãáóå ôçí
øõ÷éáôñéêÞ êëéíéêÞ «¢ãéïò ÉùÜííçò», ãåãïíüò ðïõ
ðñïêÜëåóå óïâáñüôáôåò æçìéÝò óôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ
êôßóìáôïò. Ôï 1985 ðåñéÞëèå óôçí éäéïêôçóßá ôïõ ÄÞìïõ
×áúäáñßïõ êáé áìÝóùò îåêßíçóáí ïé åñãáóßåò åðéóêåõÞò
êáé áðïêáôÜóôáóçò ôïõ ìíçìåßïõ.
ÓÞìåñá ï ðýñãïò ÐáëáôÜêé óôåãÜæåé ôï Ðíåõìáôéêü
ÊÝíôñï ôïõ ÄÞìïõ ×áúäáñßïõ. ÁíáëõôéêÞ áíáöïñÜ óôéò
åñãáóßåò áíáóôÞëùóçò ôïõ ðýñãïõ áðü ôïí ÄÞìï
×áúäáñßïõ ãßíåôáé óôçí åðüìåíç åíüôçôá.

Óýã÷ñïíç Üðïøç ôïõ ðýñãïõ ÐáëáôÜêé áðü ôá íüôéá.


Ôá óôåíÜ ãïôèéêÜ ðáñÜèõñá êáé ç åðßóôåøç áðü åðÜëîåéò
êáèéóôïýí ôï ïéêïäüìçìá ôõðéêü äåßãìá áèçíáúêÞò ñïìáíôéêÞò
áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞò (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).
192

Ï Íéêçöüñïò Ëýôñáò 1853-1855276. Åí ôù ìåôáîý, ï Ëýôñáò åß÷å ãíùñéóôåß


êáé ï Íéêüëáïò Ãýæçò óôï ×áúäÜñé ìå ôïí åõêáôÜóôáôï óõìðáôñéþôç ôïõ Íéêüëáï ÍÜæï,
ï ïðïßïò áíÝëáâå ôïí ñüëï ÷ïñçãïý ôïõ êáëëéôÝ÷íç.
Ï Íéêçöüñïò Ëýôñáò274 Þñèå áðü ôçí ðáôñßäá ôïõ, ÅðéðëÝïí, ôïõ æÞôçóå íá äéáêïóìÞóåé ôï åêêëçóÜêé ôïõ
ôçí ÔÞíï, óôçí ÁèÞíá óå çëéêßá äåêáïêôþ åôþí, Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ óôï êôÞìá ×áúäÜñé.
ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá óðïõäÜóåé æùãñáöéêÞ óôï Ó÷ïëåßï Ç ôÝ÷íç ôïõ Thiersch, ï ïðïßïò Þôáí ìáèçôÞò ôùí
ôùí Ôå÷íþí. ÄÜóêáëïß ôïõ Þôáí ïé áäåëöïß Ößëéððïò «Íáæáñçíþí»277 Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld (1794-
(1810-1892) êáé Ãåþñãéïò Ìáñãáñßôçò (1814-1884), ï 1892) êáé Heinrich Hess (1798-1855) óôçí Áêáäçìßá
Éôáëüò Rafaello Ceccoli, ï ìïíá÷üò ÁãáèÜããåëïò ôïõ ÌïíÜ÷ïõ, åß÷å èñçóêåõôéêü ÷áñáêôÞñá êáé
Ôñéáíôáöýëëïõ êáé ï Âáâáñüò Ludwig Thiersch (1825- óôü÷ïò ôïõ Þôáí íá áíáìïñöþóåé ôçí áãéïãñáößá
1909). Ç öïßôçóç ôïõ Ëýôñá óôï Ó÷ïëåßï ôùí Ôå÷íþí ìå âÜóç ôïõò êáíüíåò ôçò äõôéêÞò æùãñáöéêÞò.
ôïðïèåôåßôáé ÷ñïíéêÜ óôï äéÜóôçìá 1850-1856. Ôï ÌÜëéóôá, áíáöÝñåôáé üôé Ýíáò áðü ôïõò ëüãïõò
ìåãÜëï ôáëÝíôï ôïõ íåáñïý ÔÞíéïõ åíôõðùóßáóå ôüóï ðïõ ôïí þèçóáí óôçí ÅëëÜäá Þôáí ôï åíäéáöÝñïí
ôïõò äáóêÜëïõò ôïõ 275, þóôå ï Thiersch ôïí åðÝëåîå ôïõ íá ìåëåôÞóåé ôá âõæáíôéíÜ øçöéäùôÜ êáé ôéò
ùò âïçèü óôçí áãéïãñÜöçóç ôçò Óùôåßñáò ËõêïäÞìïõ, ôïé÷ïãñáößåò. Óôéò ðáñáóôÜóåéò ðïõ êïóìïýí ôï
ãíùóôÞò êáé ùò Ñþóéêçò Åêêëçóßáò, êáôÜ ôï äéÜóôçìá åóùôåñéêü ôïõ íáïý ôçò Óùôåßñáò ËõêïäÞìïõ
ìðïñåß êáíåßò íá äåé ôïí óõíäõáóìü óôïé÷åßùí ôçò
âõæáíôéíÞò åéêïíïãñáößáò êáé áéóèçôéêÞò, üðùò ôïõ
÷ñõóïý âÜèïõò êáé ôùí åéêïíïãñáöéêþí ôýðùí ôùí
èñçóêåõôéêþí ðáñáóôÜóåùí, ìå ôéò áñ÷Ýò êáé ôçí
ôå÷íéêÞ ôçò äõôéêÞò æùãñáöéêÞò, üðùò ðñïïðôéêÞ,
öùôïóêßáóç, åëáéï÷ñþìáôá ê.ëð. Ç âáèéÜ åðßäñáóç ðïõ
äÝ÷èçêå ï Ëýôñáò áðü ôïí Thiersch êáôÜ ôç äéÜñêåéá
ôçò óõíåñãáóßáò ôïõò óôç Ñþóéêç Åêêëçóßá, åßíáé
éäéáßôåñá åìöáíÞò óôéò ôïé÷ïãñáößåò ðïõ öéëïôÝ÷íçóå
ï æùãñÜöïò óôïí ìéêñü íáü ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ óôï
×áúäÜñé. Óôçí ðåñáéôÝñù áíÜðôõîç ôçò ôå÷íïôñïðßáò
ðïõ äéäÜ÷èçêå áðü ôïí äÜóêáëü ôïõ óõíÝâáëå êáé
ç åíôáôéêÞ ìåëÝôç ôùí ëáìðñþí øçöéäùôþí óôá
êáèïëéêÜ ôçò ìïíþí ôïõ ¼óéïõ ËïõêÜ óôç Öùêßäá êáé
ôïõ Äáöíßïõ278.

Ï ÔÞíéïò Íéêüëáïò Ãýæçò (1842-1901) óðïýäáóå áñ÷éêÜ óôï Ó÷ïëåßï


ôùí Ôå÷íþí óôçí ÁèÞíá êáé áêïëïýèùò óôç ÂáóéëéêÞ Áêáäçìßá
Êáëþí Ôå÷íþí ôïõ ÌïíÜ÷ïõ. ¸æçóå ôï ìåãáëýôåñï ìÝñïò ôçò
æùÞò ôïõ óôï Ìüíá÷ï, ìå ôç óýæõãü ôïõ ÁñôÝìéäá ÍÜæïõ êáé ôá
ðÝíôå ôïõò ðáéäéÜ. Áðïôåëåß Ýíáí áðü ôïõò óçìáíôéêüôåñïõò
åêðñïóþðïõò óôçí ÅëëÜäá áëëÜ êáé óå åõñùðáúêü åðßðåäï ôïõ
áêáäçìáúêïý ñåáëéóìïý ôïõ ýóôåñïõ 19ïõ áéþíá, êáé óõãêåêñéìÝíá
ôïõ åéêáóôéêïý êéíÞìáôïò ðïõ åßíáé ãíùóôü ùò Ó÷ïëÞ ôïõ ÌïíÜ÷ïõ.
Áðü ôï 1870 Ýùò ôï 1900 óõììåôåß÷å êáé âñáâåýôçêå óå ðïëëÝò
åëëçíéêÝò êáé åõñùðáúêÝò åêèÝóåéò. Ôï 1880 áíáêçñý÷èçêå åðßôéìï
ìÝëïò ôçò Áêáäçìßáò Êáëþí Ôå÷íþí ôïõ ÌïíÜ÷ïõ êáé ôï 1888
åîåëÝãç ôáêôéêüò êáèçãçôÞò óôï ßäéï ßäñõìá. ÐÝèáíå óôï Ìüíá÷ï
ôï 1901 áðü ëåõ÷áéìßá.
193

Ç ðáñÜóôáóç ôçò ÐëáôõôÝñáò óôçí áøßäá ôïõ éåñïý ôïõ íáïý ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).

Ïé ôïé÷ïãñáößåò ïé ðáñáóôÜóåéò ôïõ Áðïêåöáëéóìïý ôïõ ÉùÜííïõ ôïõ


óôïí íáü ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ Ðñïäñüìïõ (ýøïò: 1,2 ì. êáé ðëÜôïò 0,9 ì.) êáé ôïõ
¸öéððïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ íá óêïôþíåé ôïí äñÜêïíôá
Ç ßäñõóç ôïõ íáÀóêïõ ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ áíÜãåôáé (ýøïò: 1,18 ì. êáé ðëÜôïò 0,92 ì.). Ïé äýï ðáñáóôÜóåéò
óôá ìåôáâõæáíôéíÜ ÷ñüíéá, üðùò ìáñôõñåß âñßóêïíôáé óôïí íüôéï êáé ôïí âüñåéï ôïß÷ï ôçò
ôïé÷ïãñáößá ôïõ 17ïõ áéþíá ðïõ åíôïðßóôçêå óôçí åêêëçóßáò áíôéóôïß÷ùò óå åîáéñåôéêÜ áðïóðáóìáôéêÞ
êüã÷ç ôçò ðñüèåóçò279. ÐïëëáðëÜ ìÝñç ôïõ íáïý êáôÜóôáóç åîáéôßáò ôùí ðïëëáðëþí åðé÷ñùìáôéóìþí
ôïé÷ïãñáöÞèçêáí êáôÜ ôï â´ Þìéóõ ôçò äåêáåôßáò ôïõ êáé ôçò öèïñÜò ôïõ ÷ñüíïõ. Óôçí ðáñÜóôáóç ôïõ
19ïõ áéþíá. Óôïí Ëýôñá áðïäßäïíôáé ìå âåâáéüôçôá Áðïêåöáëéóìïý äéáêñßíåôáé ìéá êáëÜ éóïññïðçìÝíç
194

Ç ìïñöÞ ôïõ ÉùÜííç ôïõ ÂáðôéóôÞ áðü ôçí ðáñÜóôáóç ôïõ Áðïêåöáëéóìïý ôïõ ÉùÜííç óôïí íáü ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ
Ç ôïé÷ïãñáößá Ý÷åé öéëïôå÷íçèåß áðü ôïí Íéêçöüñï Ëýôñá (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).
195

Ç ìïñöÞ ôïõ Ýöéððïõ áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ áðü ôçí ðáñÜóôáóç ôïõ áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ ðïõ óêïôþíåé
ôïí äñÜêï óôïí íáü ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ. Ç ôïé÷ïãñáößá Ý÷åé öéëïôå÷íçèåß áðü ôïí
Íéêçöüñï Ëýôñá (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).

óýíèåóç ìå ôïí ÉùÜííç íá ãïíáôßæåé óôï êÝíôñï êáé Ðýëçò, õðÜñ÷ïõí ïé ðáñáóôÜóåéò ôïõ ×ñéóôïý (ýøïò:
ôïí Ñùìáßï äÞìéï íá óôÝêåôáé óôá äåîéÜ. Ç óýíèåóç 1,18 ì. êáé ðëÜôïò 0,4 ì.) ôçò Èåïôüêïõ ìå ôï Èåßï
óõìðëçñþíåôáé óôá áñéóôåñÜ áðü äýï ãõíáéêåßåò ÂñÝöïò (ýøïò: 1,2 ì. êáé ðëÜôïò 0,4 ì.) êáé ôçò áãßáò
ìïñöÝò, ôç Óáëþìç êáé ìßá èåñáðáéíßäá ôçò. Ïé ìïñöÝò ÐáñáóêåõÞò (ýøïò: 1,2 ì. êáé ðëÜôïò 0,42 ì.). Êáé ïé
åßíáé ðëáóìÝíåò äõíáôÜ êáé ôá ÷ñþìáôá ðëïýóéá êáé ôñåéò ìïñöÝò åéêïíßæïíôáé éóôÜìåíåò. Ç éäéáßôåñá êáêÞ
æåóôÜ. Óþæïíôáé ß÷íç êüêêéíùí, ù÷ñþí êáé êáöåôéþí 280. äéáôÞñçóÞ ôïõò åìðïäßæåé ôç ëåðôïìåñÞ ðåñéãñáöÞ
ÁíÜëïãá åßíáé ôá ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ ôçò ðáñÜóôáóçò ôïõò, êáèþò êáé ôçí ôáýôéóç ôïõ êáëëéôÝ÷íç ðïõ ôéò
ôïõ áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ, ðïõ óþæåôáé åëÜ÷éóôá. öéëïôÝ÷íçóå. Ç ðéï êáëïäéáôçñçìÝíç ìïñöÞ åßíáé
Ç äõíáìéêÞ êßíçóç ôïõ áãßïõ, ðïõ êáôáôñïðþíåé ôïí áõôÞ ôçò áãßáò ÐáñáóêåõÞò, ðïõ âñßóêåôáé óôá
äñÜêïíôá óôï êÜôù ìÝñïò ôçò óêçíÞò, õðïãñáììßæåôáé íüôéá ôçò Ùñáßáò Ðýëçò, óôá äåîéÜ ôçò åéêüíáò ôïõ
áðü ôïí ðïñöõñü ìáíäýá ðïõ áíåìßæåé ðßóù ôïõ, ×ñéóôïý. Åßíáé ðéèáíü üôé êáé ïé ôïé÷ïãñáößåò ôïõ
áé÷ìáëùôßæïíôáò ôï âëÝììá ôïõ èåáôÞ. ôÝìðëïõ æùãñáößóôçêáí áðü ôïí Íéêçöüñï Ëýôñá.
Óôï êôéóôü ôÝìðëï ôïõ íáïý, åêáôÝñùèåí ôçò Ùñáßáò Åðßóçò, Ý÷åé ðñïôáèåß üôé ïé ôïé÷ïãñáößåò áõôÝò
196

Ðáíáãßá ìå âñÝöïò, ôïé÷ïãñáößá áðü ôï ôÝìðëï ôïõ íáïý ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ
(öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).
197

Ç áãßá ÐáñáóêåõÞ, ôïé÷ïãñáößá áðü ôï ôÝìðëï ôïõ íáïý ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ
(öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).

åßíáé ðñïúüí óõíåñãáóßáò ôïõ Ëýôñá ìå ôïí ÔÞíéï äéáèÝôïõí óùìáôéêÞ ïõóßá êáé ðëáóôéêüôçôá, åíþ ôá
æùãñÜöï Íéêüëáï Ãýæç, ãéá ôïí ïðïßï èá ìéëÞóïõìå êáëïðëáóìÝíá ðñüóùðá ôçò Ðáíáãßáò êáé ôïõ ×ñéóôïý
áíáëõôéêÜ ðáñáêÜôù. ÐÜíôùò, ç óõììåôï÷Þ ôïõ Ãýæç áðïðíÝïõí Þñåìç áõóôçñüôçôá.
óôçí áãéïãñÜöçóç ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ ðñïêýðôåé áðü Êëåßíïíôáò ôçí ðåñéãñáöÞ ôùí ôïé÷ïãñáöéþí ôïõ Áãßïõ
áíáöïñÝò ôïõ æùãñÜöïõ óôçí áëëçëïãñáößá ôïõ êáé Ãåùñãßïõ áíáöÝñïõìå êåöáëÞ ìéêñïý áããÝëïõ óå
Üëëåò öéëïëïãéêÝò ðçãÝò 281. Óôïõò Ëýôñá êáé Ãýæç èá çìéêõêëéêü ôüîï ðïõ åðéóôÝöåé ôï ôÝìðëï. Êáé åäþ ï
ðñÝðåé ðéèáíüí íá áðïäïèåß êáé ç ðáñÜóôáóç ôçò êáëëéôÝ÷íçò äåí Ý÷åé ôáõôéóôåß. ÂÝâáéá, ç ôå÷íïôñïðéêÞ
ÐëáôõôÝñáò ðïõ êïóìåß ôçí êüã÷ç ôïõ éåñïý (ìÝãéóôï ïìïéüôçôá ðïõ ðáñïõóéÜæåé ìå ôéò õðüëïéðåò åéêüíåò
ðëÜôïò: 1,6 ì. êáé ýøïò: 1,25 ì.). Ðñüêåéôáé ãéá ôçí ðëÝïí ôïõ ôÝìðëïõ ìÜò ïäçãåß óôçí õðüèåóç üôé êáé áõôÞ
êáëïäéáôçñçìÝíç áðü ôéò ôïé÷ïãñáößåò. Ç Ðáíáãßá öéëïôå÷íÞèçêå áðü ôïõò Ãýæç êáé Ëýôñá. Ï Ãåþñãéïò
åéêïíßæåôáé ìå ôïí ìéêñü ×ñéóôü êáèéóìÝíï óôá ðüäéá Äñïóßíçò áíáöÝñåé üôé óôï åêêëçóÜêé õðÞñ÷áí êáé ïé
ôçò êáé ôá ÷Ýñéá áíïéêôÜ, óå ÷åéñïíïìßá äÝçóçò. ÖïñÜ äýï Üããåëïé ôçò Ðáíáãßáò Óéîôßíáò ôïõ ÑáöáÞë ìå ôá
ðïñöõñü ìáíäýá ìå ðëïýóéåò ðôõ÷þóåéò. Ïé ìïñöÝò ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ ôùí äýï ðáéäéþí ôïõ Íéêüëáïõ ÍÜæïõ 282.
198

Ï Íéêüëáïò Ãýæçò êáé ïé ôïé÷ïãñáößåò êáèþò ï ÍÜæïò äÝ÷ôçêå ôïí íåáñü æùãñÜöï óôçí
óôïí îåíþíá ôçò Ýðáõëçò ÐáëáôÜêé ïéêïãÝíåéÜ ôïõ óáí íá Þôáí ðñáãìáôéêüò ôïõ ãéïò. Ï
(íåïêëáóéêü êôÞñéï) äñáóôÞñéïò ôñáðåæßôçò öñüíôéóå, þóôå íá ÷ïñçãçèåß
óôïí Ãýæç ç õðïôñïößá ôïõ Åõáãïýò Éäñýìáôïò ôçò
Ï ÔÞíéïò Íéêüëáïò Ãýæçò 283 îåêßíçóå ôéò óðïõäÝò Åõáããåëéóôñßáò ôçò ÔÞíïõ, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá óõíå÷ßóåé
ôïõ óôï Ó÷ïëåßï ôùí Ôå÷íþí ôï 1854, äçëáäÞ ôéò óðïõäÝò ôïõ óôï Ìüíá÷ï 286. Áêïëïõèþíôáò ôá
ôÝóóåñá ÷ñüíéá áñãüôåñá áðü ôïí óõìðáôñéþôç ôïõ âÞìáôá ôïõ Ëýôñá, ï ïðïßïò âñéóêüôáí óôï Ìüíá÷ï
Íéêçöüñï Ëýôñá, êáé óå çëéêßá ìüëéò äþäåêá åôþí 284. öïéôþíôáò óôï åñãáóôÞñé ôïõ ìåãÜëïõ Ãåñìáíïý
Ï ôåëåõôáßïò åßäå ôï ìåãÜëï ôáëÝíôï ôïõ íåáñïý æùãñÜöïõ Karl von Piloty (1826-1886) áðü ôï 1860 287,
êáé ôïí ðÞñå õðü ôçí ðñïóôáóßá êáé ôçí êáèïäÞãçóÞ ï Íéêüëáïò Ãýæçò Ýöõãå ãéá ôç Ãåñìáíßá ôï 1865.
ôïõ. Ç öéëßá ôïõò, ðïõ åíäõíáìþèçêå êáôÜ ôá ÷ñüíéá Ôñßá ÷ñüíéá áñãüôåñá, Ýãéíå äåêôüò óôçí ôÜîç ôïõ
ðïõ Ýæçóáí êáé äçìéïýñãçóáí ìáæß óôï Ìüíá÷ï êáé Piloty288. Ç ìáèçôåßá ôùí äýï ÔÞíéùí êáëëéôå÷íþí óôï
ôá ðïëõÜñéèìá ôáîßäéá ôïõò óôç ÌéêñÜ Áóßá êáé ôçí åñãáóôÞñé ôïõ âáóéêüôåñïõ åêðñüóùðïõ ôçò éóôïñéêÞò
Åõñþðç, êñÜôçóå ìÝ÷ñé ôïí èÜíáôï ôïõ Ãýæç ôï 1901 285. ñåáëéóôéêÞò ó÷ïëÞò óôç Ãåñìáíßá, ÷Üñéóå óôç
ÐñïêåéìÝíïõ íá âïçèÞóåé ôïí ößëï ôïõ, ï Ëýôñáò íåïåëëçíéêÞ ôÝ÷íç ôïõò ðñùôáñ÷éêïýò èåìåëéùôÝò ôçò
óýóôçóå ôïí Ãýæç óôïí óõìðáôñéþôç ôïõò Íéêüëáï Ó÷ïëÞò ôïõ ÌïíÜ÷ïõ 289.
ÍÜæï. Ç ãíùñéìßá áõôÞ åîåëß÷èçêå óå åãêÜñäéá öéëßá, ÊáôÜ ôï 1864, äçëáäÞ Ýíá Ýôïò ðñéí ï Ãýæçò

ÁñéóôåñÜ ï Íéêçöüñïò Ëýôñáò íôõìÝíïò Ôïýñêïò.


ÄåîéÜ ï Íéêçöüñïò Ëýôñáò êá ï Íéêüëáïò Ãýæçò íôõìÝíïé Ôïýñêïé.
199

Tï Öèéíüðùñï, ëåðôïìÝñåéá áðü ôçí ôïé÷ïãñáößá ôùí ÔåóóÜñùí Åðï÷þí (íüôéïò ôïß÷ïò),
ðïõ öéëïôÝ÷íçóå ï Íéêüëáïò Ãýæçò óôïí îåíþíá ôçò Ýðáõëçò ÐáëáôÜêé (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).
200

áíá÷ùñÞóåé ãéá ôï åîùôåñéêü, ï Íéêüëáïò ÍÜæïò ôïý ðïὺ ÷ñüíéá êáôüðé, èὰ ìᾶò ἀðïêáëýøåé øõ÷ὲò
áíÝèåóå íá äéáêïóìÞóåé ôçí ôñáðåæáñßá ôïõ îåíþíá ìïíáäéêÝò, ἕíáí êüóìï öáíôáóôéêῆò ἐìïñöéᾶò.
ôçò Ýðáõëçò ÐáëáôÜêé óôï ×áúäÜñé. Ï åéêïóéäõÜ÷ñïíïò »ÓâõóìÝíç ἡ ÷Üñç ôïῦ ÷ñþìáôïò óôὶò ôñåῖò
ôüôå æùãñÜöïò êÜëõøå ôïõò ôïß÷ïõò êáé ôçí ïñïöÞ ôïé÷ïãñáößåò. Ôὸ ἔãëõøå ὁ ÷ñüíïò êáὶ ἡ ὑãñáóßá,
ôçò áßèïõóáò ìå ôçí ðáñÜóôáóç ôùí ÔåóóÜñùí êáὶ ἀðïôåëåßùóå ôὸ ἄðïíï ἒñãï ôὸ ÷Ýñé ôῶí
Åðï÷þí. Ç ôïé÷ïãñáößá ìÝóù ïöèáëìáðÜôçò ἀíèñþðùí, Ìὰ ãýñù óôὴ æùãñáöéὰ öÝããåé ἀêüìá ἡ
äçìéïõñãåß ôçí áßóèçóç óôïõò åðéóêÝðôåò üôé ãñáììÞ, áὐôÞ ðïὺ ðÝñáóå ἄûëç ìðñïóôὰ óôὰ ìÜôéá
âñßóêïíôáé óå õðáßèñéï ÷þñï êáé ðåñéâÜëëïíôáé ôïῦ ôå÷íßôç. Êáὶ èñõììáôéóìÝíç óὲ ÷ßëéá êïììÜôéá,
áðü óéäåñÝíéá óêéÜäá óôåãáóìÝíç ìå ãõáëß. Óôçí êáὶ ôüôå èὰ äåß÷íåé ôὴí ὓðáñîὴ ìáò, ãéáôὶ äὲí
ïñïöÞ êáé ôïõò ôïß÷ïõò Ý÷ïõí áðåéêïíéóôåß ðåñßôå÷íá ἐâãῆêå ἀðὸ ôὸ ðéíÝëï, ìὰ îåðÞäçóå ἀðὸ ìßá øõ÷Þ.
êéãêëéäþìáôá ðëáéóéùìÝíá áðü áíáññé÷þìåíá öõôÜ, Óôὴí ἀñ÷ὴ ëéãþôåñï, êáôüðé ìïíáäéêὸ ãíþñéóìá
Üíèç êáé ðïõëéÜ ðïõ êåëáçäïýí. Óôï êÝíôñï êÜèå ôῆò ôÝ÷íçò ôïõ. Ἔôóé ôὸ öῶò ÷ýíåôáé ἀðὸ ôὰ ÷ßëéá
ôïß÷ïõ ï Ãýæçò öéëïôÝ÷íçóå áðü ìßá ìïñöÞ íåáñÞò êïììáôÜêéá óðáóìÝíïõ êáèñÝöôç»290.
ãõíáßêáò. ÁõôÝò ïé ôÝóóåñéò êïðÝëåò óõìâïëßæïõí ôéò
ôÝóóåñéò åðï÷Ýò ôïõ ÷ñüíïõ. Ôï ôïðßï ðïõ ðåñéâÜëëåé Ôá ôåëåõôáßá ÷ñüíéá ï ÄÞìïò ×áúäáñßïõ ðñï÷þñçóå
ôç óêéÜäá, æùãñáöéóìÝíï ìå áíïéêôÜ ãáëÜæéá êáé óôçí áðïêÜëõøç, óôåñÝùóç êáé áðïêáôÜóôáóç
ðñÜóéíá ÷ñþìáôá, åßíáé åéäõëëéáêü, ìå ÷áìçëïýò ôçò ôïé÷ïãñáößáò ôùí ÔåóóÜñùí Åðï÷þí, óå
ëüöïõò, êïêïöïßíéêåò êáé áíèþíåò. Óå äéÜöïñá óçìåßá, óõíäõáóìü ìå ôç óõíïëéêÞ áíáóôÞëùóç ôïõ
ìðïñåß íá äåé êáíåßò áñ÷áéïðñåðÞ áããåßá, ôá ïðïßá ïéêïäïìéêïý óõãêñïôÞìáôïò ôïõ îåíþíá. Ôï Ýñãï
ï æùãñÜöïò ÷ñçóéìïðïßçóå ùò áðëÜ äéáêïóìçôéêÜ ðáñáêïëïýèçóå ç Åöïñßá Íåþôåñùí Ìíçìåßùí. ÓÞìåñá,
èÝìáôá. ç ôïé÷ïãñáöçìÝíç áßèïõóá åßíáé åðéóêÝøéìç áðü ôï
Ï ëüãéïò Êßìùí Ìé÷áçëßäçò (1906-1952) ìáò Üöçóå ìéá êïéíü, åíþ ôï õðüëïéðï êôÞñéï óôåãÜæåé ôç ÄçìïôéêÞ
ãëáöõñÞ ðåñéãñáöÞ ôçò ôïé÷ïãñáößáò ôùí ÔåóóÜñùí ÂéâëéïèÞêç. ÁíáëõôéêÞ áíáöïñÜ óôéò åñãáóßåò
Åðï÷þí óå Üñèñï ðïõ äçìïóßåõóå óôï ðåñéïäéêü áðïêáôÜóôáóçò ôùí ôïé÷ïãñáöéþí êáé ôïõ êôçñßïõ ôïõ
ÐáíáèÞíáéá, Ýíôåêá ÷ñüíéá ìåôÜ ôïí èÜíáôï ôïõ îåíþíá ãßíåôáé óôçí åðüìåíç åíüôçôá.
ìåãÜëïõ æùãñÜöïõ: ÌåôÜ ôçí ïëïêëÞñùóç ôçò ôïé÷ïãñáößáò ôùí
ÔåóóÜñùí Åðï÷þí, ï Íéêüëáïò Ãýæçò Ýöõãå ãéá ôï
«Ôὸ ×áúäÜñé ãíþñéóå ἕíá ἀðὸ ôὰ ðñῶôá ἔñãá Ìüíá÷ï. Óôï ×áúäÜñé, üìùò, îáíáÞñèå ðïëëÝò öïñÝò,
ôïῦ æùãñÜöïõ. ÐÜíù óôïὺò ôïß÷ïõò ìéᾶò êáìÜñáò áöïý Þôáí ïõóéáóôéêü ìÝëïò ôçò ïéêïãÝíåéáò ÍÜæïõ.
ἰóïãåßáò åἶíáé ἀêüìá, ìéóï÷áëáóìÝíåò ἀðὸ ôὸí Ï äåóìüò áõôüò åðéêõñþèçêå ìå ôïí ãÜìï ôïõ
êáéñὸ êáὶ ôὴí êáêïìåôá÷åßñéóé, ôñåῖò åἰêüíåò: êáëëéôÝ÷íç ìå ôçí êüñç ôïõ Íéêüëáïõ ÍÜæïõ, ÁñôÝìéäá,
ἡ Ἄíïéîῃ, ôὸ Êáëïêáßñé êáὶ ôὸ Öèéíüðùñï. Ôὴí óôéò 24 Áðñéëßïõ 1877. Ï ãÜìïò ðñáãìáôïðïéÞèçêå
ôÝôáñôç, ôὸí ×åéìῶíá, ôὴí ἔèáøå ôῶí ἀíèñþðùí óôï åêêëçóÜêé ôïõ Áãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ 291. ÁìÝóùò ìåôÜ, ôï
ἡ ἀðïíéÜ. Óôὴ èÝóç ôçò ἓíáò öåããßôçò, ìὲ ἀðïñßá æåõãÜñé åãêáôáóôÜèçêå óôï Ìüíá÷ï. Ðáñ’ üëá áõôÜ, ôï
ἀíïßãåé ðåëþñéï ìÜôé ìðñïóôὰ óôὴí ἀóÝâåéá. äÝóéìï ôïõ ìåãÜëïõ êáëëéôÝ÷íç ìå ôçí ðåñéï÷Þ Þôáí
Ὁëüêëçñç ἡ óýíèåóéò åἶíáé ìßá êáãêåëùôὴ óêéÜäá. éó÷õñü. Áõôü ãßíåôáé ðñïöáíÝò óôçí áëëçëïãñáößá
Óôὶò êïëῶíåò óêáñöáëþíïõí ἀãñéïôñéáíôáöõëëéÝò, ôïõ ìå ôç óýæõãü ôïõ êáé ôá ìÝëç ôçò ïéêïãÝíåéÜò ôçò.
ἁðëþíåé ôὸ ἁãéüêëéìá, ἀêïõìðïῦí ëïõëïýäéá. ×áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ åßíáé ôá üóá ãñÜöåé óôçí ÁñôÝìéäá
ÐÜíù óôïὺò êëþíïõò ôñáãïõäïῦí ðïõëéÜ, ôï öèéíüðùñï ôïõ 1895, üôáí åß÷å åðéóêåöôåß ôçí
ðáßæïõí ðåôáëïῦäåò. Ἡ ἴäéá ëåðôὴ áἴóèçóéò, ἡ ἴäéá ÅëëÜäá ãéá äýï ìÞíåò ðåñßðïõ, åíþ åêåßíç åß÷å ìåßíåé
åὐãåíéêὴ ãñáììÞ. Áὐôὴ ðïὺ ἀñãüôåñá èὰ ìáò ðῆ ìå ôá ðáéäéÜ ôïõò óôï Ìüíá÷ï 292. Ç íïóôáëãßá ðïõ
ôὶò ἱóôïñßåò ðïὺ èüëùóáí ôὰ ðáéäéêὰ ìáò ìÜôéá áðïðíÝïõí ïé åðéóôïëÝò áõôÝò, áðïóðÜóìáôá ôùí
ὅôáí ôὶò ἀêïýáìå ἀðὸ ôὰ ÷åßëç ôïῦ ðáððïῦ. ÁὐôÞ ïðïßùí ðáñáôßèåíôáé ðáñáêÜôù, ïöåßëåôáé óå ìåãÜëï
201

ÄåîéÜ ôï Êáëïêáßñé (äõôéêüò ôïß÷ïò) êáé áñéóôåñÜ ç ¢íïéîç (áíáôïëéêüò ôïß÷ïò), ëåðôïìÝñåéåò áðü ôçí ôïé÷ïãñáößá ôùí ÔåóóÜñùí Åðï÷þí,
ðïõ öéëïôÝ÷íçóå ï Íéêüëáïò Ãýæçò óôïí îåíþíá ôçò Ýðáõëçò ÐáëáôÜêé (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).

âáèìü óôï üôé ï Íéêüëáïò ÍÜæïò åß÷å ðåèÜíåé áðü ôï ἐñçìùìÝíá. Ìáôáéüôçò. Ἔöõãá óõãêéíçìÝíïò êáὶ
1888. ÅðéðëÝïí, ôï êôÞìá ×áúäÜñé äåí áíÞêå ðëÝïí óôçí ἐöèÜóáìåí åἰò Äáöíß. Åἴäáìåí ôὰ ἐðéóêåõáæüìåíá
ïéêïãÝíåéá ÍÜæïõ êáé åß÷å õðïóôåß óçìáíôéêÞ öèïñÜ. ìùóáúêὰ åἰò ôὴí ἐêêëçóßá êáὶ ìåô’ ὀëßãïí
ἀíá÷ùñÞóáìåí äéὰ ôὴí èÜëáóóáí ôῆò Ἐëåõóῖíïò»
«Ὅóïí ἐðëçóéÜæáìåí ðñὸò ôὸ ×áúäÜñé, ôüóïí êáὶ (ÓåðôÝìâñéïò 1895)293.
ἔóôáæå ἡ êáñäßá ìïõ, ὡò ἐðὶ ôÝëïõò ἐðëçììýñéóáí
ôὰ äÜêñõá, ἐöèÜóáìåí, ἔâëåðá ðáíôïῦ ôὸí ÍÜæïí «Ἐðáíåßäáìåí ôὰ ἱåñὰ áὐôὰ ìÝñç ôïῦ
ἐìðñüò, ðëçóßïí ìïõ, ἔâëåðá ôïὺò ãïíåῖò ìïõ ×áúäáñßïõ. ἘðÞãáìåí åἰò ôὸí Ἅãéïí Ãåþñãéïí.
ἱóôáìÝíïõò ἔîùèåí ôïῦ êÞðïõ ôὴí ὥñá ὅôáí ἐãὼ Ἐäῶ ἐóõãêéíÞèçí ἐê íÝïõ. Ôὰ ðÜíôá åἶíáé
íõìößïò ôïὺò ἀðï÷áéñÝôçóá äéὰ ðáíôüò. Äὲí ἐãêáôáëåëåéììÝíá. Ôὸ ìéêñὸ êëáäß, ὡò êáὶ ôὸ
ãñÜöïíôáé ôὶ ἠóèÜíèçí óõëëïãéæüìåíïò ôὰ ὄíåéñá ìéêñὸ óôåöÜíé, ἐê ôῶí ἀìáñÜíôùí, ôὸ ὁðïῖïí ἡ
ἐêåῖíá êáὶ ôὴí ôý÷çí ὅëùí ἡìῶí êáὶ ôὴí ôïῦ Ἄñôåìßò ìïõ ἔðëåîå êáὶ ἐêñÝìáóå äéὰ ìéᾶò ìáâéᾶò
êôÞìáôïò. Ὡñáßá, ὡñáéïôÜôç ἡ öýóéò, ãëõêÞôáôïí ôáéíßáò åὑñßóêåôáé, ìåôὰ ðáñÝëåõóéí äåêáïêôὼí
ôὸ ìÝñïò áὐôü. ἘðåóêÝöèçìåí ôὸ êôῆìá, åἶäá ôὴí ÷ñüíùí, ἐðὶ ôῆò åἰêüíáò ôïῦ Ἁãßïõ Ãåùñãßïõ,
ìåãÜëçí ἀêáêßáí, ôὴí ὁðïßá åἰò ôὸí ãÜìïí ìáò ὅðùò ἐôïðïèåôÞèç ðáñ’ áὐôῆò ôὴí ðáñáìïíὴí ôῶí
ἐöõôåýóáìåí, åἶäá ὅëá, ἄëëá ìåãáëýôåñá, ἄëëá ãÜìùí ìáò» (ÍïÝìâñéïò 1895)294.
203

Ç áðïêáôÜóôáóç ôïõ ðýñãïõ ÐáëáôÜêé


êáé ôïõ êôçñßïõ «Í. Ãýæçò»

H
Ýêôáóç üðïõ óÞìåñá âñßóêåôáé ï ðýñãïò
ÐáëáôÜêé êáé ôï êôÞñéï «Í. Ãýæçò» åßíáé
éóôïñéêüò ôüðïò, ðïôéóìÝíïò ìå ôï áßìá ôùí
Áãùíéóôþí ôïõ ’21 êáé Üññçêôá óõíäåäåìÝíïò ìå ôçí
êïñõöáßá ìïñöÞ ôïõ áñ÷éóôñÜôçãïõ Ã. ÊáñáúóêÜêç
êáèþò êáé ôïõ öéëÝëëçíá áîéùìáôéêïý ÊÜñïëïõ
ÖáâéÝñïõ.
Óôç ÌÜ÷ç ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ áíáäåß÷èçêáí ôá äýï
ìåãÜëá ðñïôåñÞìáôá ôçò ðñïóùðéêüôçôáò ôïõ
ÊáñáúóêÜêç. Áöåíüò ç óôñáôçãéêÞ éäéïöõÀá ðïõ ôïõ
åðÝôñåðå, åðéêåöáëÞò ôùí áôÜêôùí ðïëåìéóôþí ôïõ,
Ôï íåïêëáóéêü êôÞñéï «Í. Ãýæçò» ðñéí áðü ôéò åñãáóßåò
íá áíôéìåôùðßæåé êáé íá êáôáíéêÜ éó÷õñïýò ôáêôéêïýò áðïêáôÜóôáóçò êáé äéáìüñöùóçò ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò ÷þñïõ.
óôñáôïýò· áöåôÝñïõ ôï áêáôÜâëçôï èÜññïò ôïõ çãÝôç
ðïõ åìøý÷ùíå ìå ôï ðáñÜäåéãìÜ ôïõ ôïõò áãùíéóôÝò íá õðÜñîåé ç åêäÞëùóç ôïõ áíôßóôïé÷ïõ åíäéáöÝñïíôïò
êáé ôïõò ÷áëýâäùíå ìÝóá óôç öùôéÜ ôçò ìÜ÷çò. ãéá ôç äéÜóùóç êáé ôçí áíÜäåéîÞ ôïõ.
ÐëÜé óôïí ÊáñáúóêÜêç êáé üëïõò ôïõò ãåííáßïõò Ìüëéò ôï 1955 Ýãéíå ç ðñþôç åíÝñãåéá ìå ôïí
ïðëáñ÷çãïýò åðÜîéá óôÝêåôáé ï öéëÝëëçíáò ÃÜëëïò ÷áñáêôçñéóìü ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò ÷þñïõ ôùí ðÝíôå
áîéùìáôéêüò ÊÜñïëïò ÖáâéÝñïò. ÐáñÜ ôç äéáöïñåôéêÞ óôñåììÜôùí åíôüò ôïõ ïðïßïõ âñßóêåôáé ôï ÐáëáôÜêé
óôñáôéùôéêÞ åêðáßäåõóç êáé ôéò åìðåéñßåò, óõíôüíéóå ùò êïéíü÷ñçóôïõ ÷þñïõ ðñáóßíïõ, åíþ ôá åðüìåíá
åðéôõ÷þò ôïí áãþíá ôïõ ì’ áõôüí ôïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç êáé ÷ñüíéá ìåãÜëï ìÝñïò ôçò õðüëïéðçò Ýêôáóçò
ðéóôþíåôáé óçìáíôéêü ìåñßäéï ôçò çñùéêÞò áíôßóôáóçò ïéêïðåäïðïéÞèçêå êáé ïéêïäïìÞèçêå.
ðïõ ðñüâáëáí ïé ¸ëëçíåò óôçí õðåñïðëßá ôïõ Êéïõôá÷Þ. Éäéáßôåñç åõáéóèçóßá ãéá ôç äéÜóùóç ôïõ ÷þñïõ
Ç ìíÞìç ôùí äýï áãùíéóôþí ôéìÜôáé êÜèå ÷ñüíï óå Ýäåéîáí ï äÞìáñ÷ïò ÄçìÞôñçò Ãéá÷íÞò, ìå
åéäéêÞ åêäÞëùóç ãéá ôç ÌÜ÷ç ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ, ðïõ ðñùôïâïõëßá ôïõ ïðïßïõ ï ÷áñáêôçñéóìüò ôïõ
ïñãáíþíåôáé óôïí áýëåéï ÷þñï ôïõ ðýñãïõ ÐáëáôÜêé éóôïñéêïý ôüðïõ åðåêôÜèçêå êáé óôçí õðüëïéðç Ýêôáóç,
áðü ôïí ÄÞìï ×áúäáñßïõ. êáé åí óõíå÷åßá ï äÞìáñ÷ïò ÄçìÞôñçò ÓêáìðÜò,
Ï éóôïñéêüò áõôüò ôüðïò, üðùò ðñïáíáöÝñèçêå, ï ïðïßïò ðñïþèçóå ôç äÝóìåõóç ôçò Ýêôáóçò ùò
áíáäåß÷èçêå êáé áéóèçôéêÜ ôï äåýôåñï Þìéóõ ôïõ êïéíü÷ñçóôïõ ÷þñïõ ðñáóßíïõ. Óôç óõíÝ÷åéá, åðß
19ïõ áéþíá ìå ôçí áíÝãåñóç ôïõ ðýñãïõ ÐáëáôÜêé äçìáñ÷ßáò ÊõñéÜêïõ Íôçíéáêïý, Ýãéíå ç áðüêôçóç
êáé ôïõ íåïêëáóéêïý êôçñßïõ ìå ôéò ôïé÷ïãñáößåò ôïõ ôïõ ðýñãïõ êáé ôïõ íåïêëáóéêïý, êáèþò êáé ç
Íéêüëáïõ Ãýæç áëëÜ êáé ôï ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêü ðñÜóéíï áðïêáôÜóôáóç êáé ç ëåéôïõñãéêÞ áîéïðïßçóç ôùí
óôïí ðåñéâÜëëïíôá ÷þñï. ¼ìùò óôç óõíÝ÷åéá Üñãçóå éóôïñéêþí êôçñßùí. Åéäéêüôåñá:

Ï ðýñãïò ÐáëáôÜêé áðïêáôáóôÜèçêå åîùôåñéêÜ óôçí áñ÷éêÞ ôïõ ìïñöÞ


ìå ôç ëáîåõôÞ ðÝôñá êáé ôéò ðïëåìßóôñåò. (öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).
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205

Ï áíáóôçëùìÝíïò íåïêëáóéêïý ñõèìïý îåíþíáò


ôçò Ýðáõëçò ÐáëáôÜêé êáé ï ðåñéâÜëëùí ÷þñïò
(êôÞñéï «Í. Ãýæç»).
Óôç ìéêñÞ öùôïãñáößá ç åßóïäïò ôïõ êôçñßïõ
(öùô. Óð. Ðáíáãéùôüðïõëïò).
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Ðíåõìáôéêïý ÊÝíôñïõ ôïõ ÄÞìïõ ×áúäáñßïõ êáé


ðáñÜëëçëá ÷ñçóéìïðïéåßôáé ùò åêèåóéáêüò ÷þñïò êáé
ãéá åðßóçìåò åêäçëþóåéò.

Ïé åñãáóßåò áðïêáôÜóôáóçò óôï ÐáëáôÜêé

Ç Ìåëßíá Ìåñêïýñç áðü ôç èÝóç ôçò ùò õðïõñãïý


Ðïëéôéóìïý Ýäåéîå éäéáßôåñï åíäéáöÝñïí ãéá ôï
ÐáëáôÜêé. ÐÝíôå ïëüêëçñá ÷ñüíéá åéäéêåõìÝíá
óõíåñãåßá ôïõ Õðïõñãåßïõ Ðïëéôéóìïý åñãÜóôçêáí ìå
ìåñÜêé, åðéìïíÞ êáé öáíôáóßá, ãéá íá áíôéìåôùðßóïõí
ôéò öèïñÝò êáé íá åðáíáöÝñïõí ôï ÐáëáôÜêé óôçí
ðáëéÜ ôïõ ìïñöÞ.
Ìå ôç öñïíôßäá ôùí óõíôçñçôþí, ôá ôæÜêéá áðü
óêáëéóôü ìÜñìáñï áðïêáôáóôÜèçêáí óôçí ðáëéÜ ôïõò
Ãéá ôç äéÜóùóç ôçò Ýêôáóçò ðïõ êáôáëáìâÜíåé óÞìåñá ôï íÝï ìïñöÞ, áöïý Ýðåéôá áðü ðñïóðÜèåéåò âñÝèçêå ôï ßäéï
äçìáñ÷åßï Ýãéíå ôï 1983 áãþíáò ôïõ ÄÞìïõ êáé ôùí êáôïßêùí ìå
êáôÜëçøç ôïõ ÷þñïõ, äéÜñêåéáò 45 çìåñþí.
åßäïò ìáñìÜñïõ. Îýëï, óéäåñÝíéá êáñöéÜ, ìÜñìáñï êáé
ôïýâëá ðïõ áíáæçôÞèçêáí ôüóï óôçí ÅëëÜäá üóï êáé
Ôï 1976 ï ðýñãïò ÐáëáôÜêé ÷áñáêôçñßóôçêå «ïßêçìá óôï åîùôåñéêü, ôïðïèåôÞèçêáí êáé ðÜëé óôçí áñ÷éêÞ
÷ñÞæïí åéäéêÞò êñáôéêÞò ðñïóôáóßáò» ìå áðüöáóç ôïõ ôïõò èÝóç ìå ôéò ðáëéÝò ìåèüäïõò. ÊåñáìéêÜ öèáñìÝíá
Õðïõñãåßïõ Ðïëéôéóìïý. áíôéêáôáóôÜèçêáí ìå ðáíïìïéüôõðá. Ôá õëéêÜ ôçò
Ôï 1979 ï ðåñéâÜëëùí ôïí ðýñãï ÷þñïò êçñý÷èçêå áðïêáôÜóôáóçò äåí äéáöÝñïõí áðü åêåßíá ðïõ
«äéáôçñçôÝïò éóôïñéêüò ôüðïò». ÷ñçóéìïðïéÞèçêáí áðü ôïõò ðñþôïõò ôå÷íßôåò.
Ôï 1984 Ýðåéôá áðü áßôçìá ôïõ ÄÞìïõ ×áúäáñßïõ Ç áöáßñåóç ôùí êáôÜ êáéñïýò ÷ñçóéìïðïéïýìåíùí
ðÜñèçêå ïìüöùíç áðüöáóç ôïõ Íïìáñ÷éáêïý åðé÷ñéóìÜôùí áðïêÜëõøå Ýíáí ìéêñü èçóáõñü óôïõò
Óõìâïõëßïõ ÁôôéêÞò ãéá ôçí áíÜãêç áðüêôçóçò ôïõ ôïß÷ïõò êáé ôçí ïñïöÞ ôïõ êôçñßïõ. Ïé ïñïöïãñáößåò,
÷þñïõ. ïñéóìÝíåò áðü ôéò ïðïßåò Þôáí ó÷åäüí áíÝðáöåò, åíþ
Ôï 1985 ìå ôçí ïéêïíïìéêÞ óõìâïëÞ ôïõ ÅÏÔ êáé ôïõ Üëëåò Ý÷ïõí õðïóôåß óïâáñÝò êáôáóôñïöÝò, åßíáé Ýíá
Õðïõñãåßïõ Ðïëéôéóìïý ï ðýñãïò êáé ï ðåñéâÜëëùí ðñáãìáôéêü êïìøïôÝ÷íçìá.
÷þñïò ðåñéÞëèáí óôçí éäéïêôçóßá ôïõ ÄÞìïõ ÅéäéêÜ óõíåñãåßá ìå ìïíáäéêÞ åìðåéñßá ãéá ôá åëëçíéêÜ
×áúäáñßïõ. Ôçí ßäéá ÷ñïíéÜ äéáìïñöþèçêå êáé ï äåäïìÝíá, êáèþò êáé åîåéäéêåõìÝíïé óõíôçñçôÝò
ðåñéâÜëëùí ÷þñïò áðü ôïí ÄÞìï ×áúäáñßïõ. åéêáóôéêþí Ýñãùí äïýëåøáí ðñïóåêôéêÜ ãéá ôçí
Ç äéáìüñöùóç Ýãéíå óýìöùíá ìå ìåëÝôç ôïõ áðïêáôÜóôáóç ôùí öèáñìÝíùí óçìåßùí êáé ôçí
äçìïôéêïý óõìâïýëïõ, áñ÷éôÝêôïíá ÃéÜííç ÉããëÝóç. åðáíåìöÜíéóç óôá áñ÷éêÜ ÷ñþìáôá ôùí ó÷åäßùí êáé
Ôï 1987 Üñ÷éóáí ïé åñãáóßåò óõíôÞñçóçò êáé ôùí ìïôßâùí ðïõ âñßóêïíôáí èáììÝíá êÜôù áðü ôïõò
áðïêáôÜóôáóçò ôïõ êôçñßïõ áðü ôïí ÄÞìï ×áúäáñßïõ êáé áëëåðÜëëçëïõò óïâÜäåò. Ôá «âáâáñéêÜ» ðñùôüôõðá
ôï Õðïõñãåßï Ðïëéôéóìïý, ðïõ ïëïêëçñþèçêáí ôï 1993. ÷ñþìáôá åìöáíßóôçêáí óéãÜ-óéãÜ óôïõò ôïß÷ïõò êáé
ÐáñÜëëçëá ôï 1993 õëïðïéÞèçêå ç ìåëÝôç åîïðëéóìïý- îáíÜäùóáí óôïí ðýñãï ôï ðáëéü ôïõ ýöïò.
åðßðëùóçò-äéáêüóìçóçò ôïõ ðýñãïõ ðïõ åßíáé Ýñãï ÁëëÜ êáé åîùôåñéêÜ ôï êôÞñéï áðïäüèçêå óôçí
ôïõ áñ÷éôÝêôïíá Èåì. ÂáñÜãêç, êáé ôåëéêÜ ôïí Éïýíéï áñ÷éêÞ ôïõ ìïñöÞ, ìå ôç ëáîåõôÞ ðÝôñá êáé ôéò
ôïõ 1993 Ýãéíáí ôá åãêáßíéá ôïõ êôçñßïõ. ðïëåìßóôñåò, öôéáãìÝíåò áðü åéäéêÜ ôïýâëá ðïõ
ÓÞìåñá óôï ÐáëáôÜêé óôåãÜæåôáé ç Äéïßêçóç ôïõ ÷ñåéÜóôçêå íá Ýëèïõí áðü ôï åîùôåñéêü, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ
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íá ÷ñçóéìïðïéçèïýí ôá ðñùôüôõðá õëéêÜ óôéò óùóôÝò ôïõ Í. Ãýæç ìå èÝìá ôéò ÔÝóóåñéò Åðï÷Ýò, ïé ïðïßåò
ôïõò äéáóôÜóåéò. Þôáí êñõììÝíåò êÜôù áðü íåüôåñïõò åðé÷ñùìáôéóìïýò.
ÁõôÞ ç êÜëõøç ôùí ôïé÷ïãñáöéþí åðß ðïëëÜ ÷ñüíéá
äéáöýëáîå ôá Ýñãá äéüôé Ýôóé ðñïóôáôåýôçêáí áðü ôçí
Ôï íåïêëáóéêü êôÞñéï «Í. Ãýæçò» êáôáóôñïöÞ ôçí ðåñßïäï ðïõ ôï íåïêëáóéêü êôÞñéï
÷ñçóéìïðïéÞèçêå áêüìç êáé ùò åñãáóôÞñéï.
Äßðëá óôïí ðýñãï ÐáëáôÜêé õðÜñ÷åé óÞìåñá ìåôÜ Ôïí Áýãïõóôï ôïõ 2002 õðïãñÜöçêå ðñïãñáììáôéêÞ
ôçí áðïêáôÜóôáóÞ ôïõ ôï êôÞñéï «Í. Ãýæçò», ôï ïðïßï óýìâáóç áíÜìåóá óôï Õðïõñãåßï Ðïëéôéóìïý êáé
äéáèÝôåé ðåñéâÜëëïíôá ÷þñï 8,5 óôñåììÜôùí. ôïí ÄÞìï ×áúäáñßïõ ãéá ôçí åêôÝëåóç ôïõ Ýñãïõ ìå
Ôï íåïêëáóéêü áõôü áñ÷éôåêôüíçìá, üðùò ÷ñçìáôïäüôçóç 1.650.000 åõñþ áðü ôï Õðïõñãåßï
ðñïáíáöÝñèçêå, áðïôåëïýóå óõìðëçñùìáôéêü êôÞñéï Ðïëéôéóìïý/ÃåíéêÞ Ãñáììáôåßá Ïëõìðéáêþí ¸ñãùí.
ôïõ êåíôñéêïý ðýñãïõ êáé å÷ñçóéìïðïéåßôï ãéá ôç Ôï üëï Ýñãï ðáñáêïëïýèçóå ç Åöïñßá ÍåùôÝñùí
öéëïîåíßá ôùí åðéóêåðôþí. Ï ðåñéâÜëëùí ÷þñïò –Ýíáò Ìíçìåßùí óýìöùíá ìå ôéò âáóéêÝò êáôåõèýíóåéò ðïõ
êÞðïò ìå ïðùñïöüñá äÝíôñá, áíèþíá êáé õøçëïýò Ýäùóå ôï Êåíôñéêü Óõìâïýëéï ÍåùôÝñùí Ìíçìåßùí.
öïßíéêåò– Þôáí åíéáßïò ìå ôï ÐáëáôÜêé. Ôï Ýñãï ïëïêëçñþèçêå ôïí Éïýëéï ôïõ 2006 êáé ìå
Ìå ôï ðÝñáóìá ôïõ ÷ñüíïõ ôï êôÞñéï ðáñáìåëÞèçêå, áðüöáóç ôïõ äçìïôéêïý óõìâïõëßïõ ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ ôï
ôá êôßóìáôá ÷ñçóéìïðïéÞèçêáí êáé áõôÜ ùò øõ÷éáôñéêÞ íåïêëáóéêü êôÞñéï ïíïìÜóôçêå êôÞñéï «Í. Ãýæçò». Óå
êëéíéêÞ êáé ôåëåõôáßá, ôç äåêáåôßá ôïõ ‘90 ìÝ÷ñé ôéò ìéá ëéôÞ êáé áðÝñéôôç ôåëåôÞ óôéò 26 Éïõëßïõ Ýãéíáí
áñ÷Ýò ôïõ 2000, ãéá âéïôå÷íéêÞ ÷ñÞóç. ÌåãÜëï ôìÞìá ôá åãêáßíéá ôïõ êôçñßïõ êáé ôïõ ãýñù êáôáðñÜóéíïõ
ôçò Ýêôáóçò åß÷å ïéêïðåäïðïéçèåß êáé ÷ôßóôçêáí óå ÷þñïõ áðü ôïí äÞìáñ÷ï ÊõñéÜêï Íôçíéáêü.
áõôü ðïëõêáôïéêßåò. Ç áßèïõóá ìå ôéò ÔÝóóåñéò Åðï÷Ýò åßíáé áöéåñùìÝíç
ÌåôÜ ôçí áðüêôçóç ôï Ýôïò 1985 êáé ôçí áðïêáôÜóôáóç áðïêëåéóôéêÜ óôçí áíÜäåéîç ôùí ôïé÷ïãñáöéþí ôïõ
ôïõ êåíôñéêïý ðýñãïõ ìå ôïí ðåñéâÜëëïíôá ÷þñï ôùí Íéêüëáïõ Ãýæç, åíþ óôïõò õðüëïéðïõò ÷þñïõò ôïõ
åðôÜ óôñåììÜôùí, ï ÄÞìïò ×áúäáñßïõ Ýèåóå óôü÷ï êôçñßïõ óôåãÜæåôáé ç ÂéâëéïèÞêç ôïõ ÄÞìïõ ×áúäáñßïõ.
ôçí áðüêôçóç êáé ôçò óõíå÷üìåíçò õðüëïéðçò Ýêôáóçò Ìå ôçí áðüêôçóç áðü ôïí ÄÞìï ×áúäáñßïõ ó÷åäüí
ìå ôï íåïêëáóéêü êôÞñéï êáé ôïõò õðåñáéùíüâéïõò üëçò ôçò Ýêôáóçò ìå ôïí ðýñãï êáé ôá íåïêëáóéêÜ
öïßíéêåò. ¸ôóé ôï 2000 ï ÄÞìïò áðÝêôçóå Ýêôáóç 2,5 êôÞñéá, ç ðïëéôéóôéêÞ êëçñïíïìéÜ êáé ç éóôïñßá ôçò
óôñåììÜôùí ìå äéêÝò ôïõ äáðÜíåò êáé ôïí ÄåêÝìâñéï ðüëçò ìáò áðïôõðþíïíôáé áõèåíôéêÜ óôï õðïâëçôéêü
ôïõ 2001 Ýêôáóç ðÝíôå óôñåììÜôùí ìå äáðÜíåò ôïõ áõôü ôïðßï, ðïõ óõíäõÜæåé ôçí õøçëÞ áéóèçôéêÞ ìå ôç
Õðïõñãåßïõ Ðïëéôéóìïý. ÓõíïëéêÜ ðëçñþèçêáí ðÜíù óýã÷ñïíç ëåéôïõñãéêüôçôá. Äéüôé óõìðßðôåé ðëÝïí óôïí
áðü 800 åêáôïììýñéá äñá÷ìÝò ãéá ôçí áðüêôçóç ôçò éóôïñéêü áõôü ôüðï üðïõ Ýãéíå ç ÌÜ÷ç ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ
Ýêôáóçò êáé ôïõ êôçñßïõ. ÁðïìÝíåé ãéá áðüêôçóç ìéá íá õðÜñ÷ïõí ôá êáëáßóèçôá íåïêëáóéêÜ êôÞñéá êáé
Ýêôáóç 1.035 ô.ì., ãéá íá ïëïêëçñùèåß ï ÷þñïò. ôáõôü÷ñïíá ôá åéêáóôéêÜ Ýñãá ôïõ Í. Ãýæç.
Ìå öñïíôßäá ôïõ ÄÞìïõ êáé óå óõíåñãáóßá ìå ôï
Õðïõñãåßï Ðïëéôéóìïý ôï 2002 åêðïíÞèçêå ç ìåëÝôç
áðïêáôÜóôáóçò ôïõ êôçñßïõ êáé äéáìüñöùóçò Ôï íÝï äçìáñ÷åßï ôçò ðüëçò
ôïõ ðåñéâÜëëïíôïò ÷þñïõ. Åéäéêüôåñá ôç ìåëÝôç
áðïêáôÜóôáóçò ôïõ êôçñßïõ Ý÷åé åêðïíÞóåé ï ÁðÝíáíôé áðü ôï ÐáëáôÜêé âñßóêåôáé óÞìåñá óôï
áñ÷éôÝêôïíáò-ãëýðôçò Ãñçãüñçò Ñéæüðïõëïò ìå ôç óôÜäéï ôçò áðïðåñÜôùóçò ôï íÝï äçìáñ÷åßï
óõíåñãáóßá ôçò Ôå÷íéêÞò Õðçñåóßáò ôïõ ÄÞìïõ êáé ôçò ðüëçò. Ç Ýêôáóç ôùí åðôÜ óôñåììÜôùí ðïõ
ôçí Ýãêñéóç ôçò Åöïñßáò ÍåùôÝñùí Ìíçìåßùí êáé ôïõ êáôáëáìâÜíåé ôï íÝï äçìáñ÷åßï êáé ç ðëáôåßá åìðñüò
Êåíôñéêïý Áñ÷áéïëïãéêïý Óõìâïõëßïõ. ôïõ ðåñéÞëèáí óôçí éäéïêôçóßá ôïõ ÄÞìïõ ×áúäáñßïõ
Ôïí ÌÜéï ôïõ 2002 áíáêáëýöèçêáí ïé ôïé÷ïãñáößåò äéáäï÷éêÜ ôá Ýôç 1992 êáé 2002, áöïý ðñïçãÞèçêå
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áðü ôï 1983 áãþíáò ôïõ ÄÞìïõ êáé ôùí êáôïßêùí ìå åðß äçìÜñ÷ïõ ÄçìÞôñç ÓêáìðÜ êáé ïëïêëçñþèçêå
ôçí êáôÜëçøç ôïõ ÷þñïõ, äéÜñêåéáò 45 çìåñþí ãéá åðß äçìÜñ÷ïõ ÊõñéÜêïõ Íôçíéáêïý. Ôï 1997-98, åðß
ôçí áðïôñïðÞ åãêáôÜóôáóçò åêåß ÷ñÞóåùí ðïõ èá äçìÜñ÷ïõ Êþóôá Óðçëéüðïõëïõ, ðñï÷þñçóå ç
õðïâÜèìéæáí ôçí ðåñéï÷Þ êáé ãåíéêüôåñá ôçí ðüëç. óõíïëéêÞ áéóèçôéêÞ êáé ëåéôïõñãéêÞ áíáâÜèìéóç ôïõ
äñüìïõ, óôï ðëáßóéï ôçò ïðïßáò Ýãéíáí ðëáêïóôñþóåéò
êáé áíáêáôáóêåõÞ ðåñéðôÝñùí, ôïðïèåôÞèçêáí
Ï éóôïñéêüò ðåæüäñïìïò ôçò ïäïý ðáãêÜêéá êáé ðÝñãêïëåò êáé âåëôéþèçêå ï
ÓôñáôÜñ÷ïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç çëåêôñïöùôéóìüò ôçò ïäïý.
Óå ðåñßïðôç èÝóç ðÜíù óôïí ðåæüäñïìï ðñïâÜëëåé
Ôéò äýï éóôïñéêÝò ðåñéüäïõò ðïõ óõìâïëßæïõí ç ÉåñÜ ç ðñïôïìÞ ôïõ Èåüäùñïõ Êïëïêïôñþíç ðïõ Ýãéíå ôï
Ïäüò ãéá ôçí êëáóéêÞ áñ÷áéüôçôá êáé ôï ÐáëáôÜêé ãéá Ýôïò 1991 óå óõíåñãáóßá ôïõ ÄÞìïõ ×áúäáñßïõ ìå ôïí
ôï ‘21 óõíäÝåé Ýíáò õðïâëçôéêüò äñüìïò ìå äýï óåéñÝò Óýëëïãï Ðåëïðïííçóßùí ×áúäáñßïõ «Ï ÌùñçÜò». Åðß
ðåýêùí, ç óçìåñéíÞ ïäüò ÓôñáôÜñ÷ïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç. ôçò ïäïý ÓôñáôÜñ÷ïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç âñßóêåôáé ç ðëáôåßá
Áðü ôïí 19ï áéþíá ç ïäüò ÓôñáôÜñ÷ïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç Çñþùí, üðïõ ëáìâÜíïõí ÷þñá üëïé ïé åðßóçìïé
ðåñéëÜìâáíå ðÜíôá äýï åðßðåäá, ôï Ýíá åê ôùí ïðïßùí åïñôáóìïß ôçò ðüëçò. Óôï êÝíôñï ôçò ðëáôåßáò õðÜñ÷åé
åßíáé áóöáëôïóôñùìÝíïò äñüìïò ãéá ôçí êßíçóç ãëõðôü ðïõ áíáðáñéóôÜ Ýíïðëï óôñáôéþôç óå ðïñåßá.
ï÷çìÜôùí êáé ôï äåýôåñï ðåæïäñïìçìÝíï ðåõêüöõôï Ôï Üãáëìá áõôü åßíáé ôï çñþï ôçò ðüëçò.
ôìÞìá ðïõ âñßóêåôáé óå õøçëüôåñï åðßðåäï êáé Ëßãï ðéï ðÝñá óõíáíôÜìå ôçí ðñïôïìÞ ôïõ ÅëåõèÝñéïõ
áðïôåëåß äñüìï ðåñéðÜôïõ. ÂåíéæÝëïõ, ðïõ Ýãéíå ôï Ýôïò 1983 áðü ôïí ÄÞìï
Ï éóôïñéêüò äñüìïò ôçò ïäïý ÊáñáúóêÜêç ïìüöùíá, ×áúäáñßïõ óå óõíåñãáóßá ìå ôçí Åóôßá Êñçôþí ×áúäáñßïõ,
ìå ôéò áðïöÜóåéò ôïõ äçìïôéêïý óõìâïõëßïõ 309/75 ç ïðïßá áíáðôýóóåé óçìáíôéêÞ äñáóôçñéüôçôá óôçí ðüëç.
êáé 656/99, Ý÷åé ÷áñáêôçñéóôåß ðåæüäñïìïò êáé Óôç óõìâïëÞ ôçò ïäïý ÓôñáôÜñ÷ïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç ìå ôçí
Ý÷åé êçñõ÷èåß äéáôçñçôÝï ìíçìåßï ôçò ðüëçò. Ç ïäü ÓÜìïõ âñßóêåôáé ç ìéêñÞ Ýðáõëç ôïõ áñ÷éôÝêôïíá
áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ äéáìüñöùóç ôïõ ðåæüäñïìïõ îåêßíçóå ÅõÜããåëïõ Êáëïýìåíïõ, Ýíá éäéáßôåñá áîéüëïãï
ôï 1977 åðß äçìÜñ÷ïõ ÄçìÞôñç Ãéá÷íÞ, óõíå÷ßóôçêå áñ÷éôåêôüíçìá ðïõ ìå áðüöáóç ôïõ äçìïôéêïý
óõìâïýëéïõ êáé ôïõ Õðïõñãåßïõ Ðïëéôéóìïý Ý÷åé
êçñõ÷èåß äéáôçñçôÝï.
Óôç äéáäñïìÞ êïíôÜ óôïí ðåæüäñïìï óõíáíôÜìå ôçí
ðëáôåßá Äçìïêñáôßáò, Ýíá áðü ôá ðéï êáëáßóèçôá
óçìåßá ôçò ðüëçò. Åêåß õðÜñ÷åé ôï ãëõðôü ìíçìåßï
ãéá ôïí ðïíôéáêü åëëçíéóìü. Ôï Ýñãï Ýãéíå ôï 1987
óå óõíåñãáóßá ôïõ ÄÞìïõ ×áúäáñßïõ ìå ôïí Óýëëïãï
Ðïíôßùí ×áúäáñßïõ.
ÓÞìåñá ç ïäüò ÓôñáôÜñ÷ïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç åßíáé ôï
åðßêåíôñï ôçò ïéêïíïìéêÞò êáé åìðïñéêÞò æùÞò ôçò
ðüëçò êáé ðáñÜëëçëá õðåñôïðéêüò ðüëïò áíáøõ÷Þò
ðïõ óõãêåíôñþíåé åðéóêÝðôåò áðü ïëüêëçñç ôçí
ÁèÞíá.

Ç ðñïôïìÞ ôïõ ÅëåõèÝñéïõ ÂåíéæÝëïõ óôçí ïäü ÊáñáúóêÜêç


ôïðïèåôÞèçêå ôï 1983 áðü ôïí ÄÞìï êáé ôçí Åóôßá Êñçôþí.

ÄåîéÜ: Ï éóôïñéêüò ðåæüäñïìïò ôçò ïäïý ÓôñáôÜñ÷ïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç,


ðïõ Ý÷åé êçñõ÷èåß äéáôçñçôÝï ìíçìåßï ôçò ðüëçò.
209
211

Modern period:
Chaidari and the 1821 Struggle – The Palataki villa

T
here are special historical links between Chaidari
and the 1821 Revolution, since critical battles (6
and 8 August 1826) took place in Chaidari, while
a minor battle happened in Daphni (21 March 1827), a
few weeks before the sore Greek defeat at Analatos.
G. Karaiskakis and C. Faviere were the protagonists of
the Chaidari and Daphni battles, as leaders of the Greek
forces and a Philhellene battalion, which attempted to
relieve the Akropolis from the siege of general Kutahiye.
The Chaidari battles took place in Elaionas, in the area
of the Palataki tower, then an estate known as Acherdari
(hence Chaidari), after its owner Chaidar Pasha. The
Greeks fortified in the neighbouring hills, which were View of Athens from Elaionas. Engraving by Ferdinand Stademann (1835).
suitable for their guerilla tactics. A commemorative stela
today reminds of the events. The early 19th century goal: Athens. In 28 June 1826 Kutahiye and Homer Pasha
Chaidari had very few pastoralist residents. It was moved into Attica. Many locals joined them in protest
marked by G. Flaubert’s passage, the sacking of Homer to heavy Greek taxation, but the majority transferred to
Vrioni in 1821 and the Greek guerilla camps during the Aigina. About 1130 fighters fortified in the town wall, which
Revolution. had been carelessly built in 1778 around the Akropolis hill.
Kutahiye set camp on the 3 July and entered the Athens
wall a month later. Akropolis fell after ten more months
After the fall of Mesolongi: of siege.
Kutahiye in Athens
Karaiskakis as commander-in-chief
1821-1827 saw the establishment of the Revolution with of Roumeli
a series of fierce battles in the southern mainland.
Nonetheless, since 1824 revolutionary pouches lessened The fall of Mesolongi brought the Greeks into dismay. A
and, finally, Mesolongi, the last stonghold of the area new government was elected in order to confront and
fell to the forces of Ibrahim and Kutahiye (10 April 1826). stop the Turks and the Egyptians with Kolokotronis as
Ibrahim moved to Morias and Kutahiye to the rest of the new commander-in-chief of Morias.
Roumeli. Most guerilla captains gave in and Kutahiye The atmosphere in Nauplio was tense. Karaiskakis was
kept a flexible position in order to reach his ultimate granted the command and administration of Roumeli,

View of the Palataki tower from the west in a postal card of 1901 (detail). The estate wall and the rich vegeta-
tion around the tower in the early 20th century are distinguished.
212

as well as full power to appoint officers. However, retreating Turks, Homer Pasha arrived with three thousand
his efforts to unite different guerilla groups failed and men and Kutahiye decided to move against Chaidari and
headed for Athens with about six hundred and fifty men. crash the Greek camp.
Karaiskakis arrived at Eleusina after a meeting with
Krieziotis and Maurovouniotis in Salamina. The two had The battle of the 8th of August 1826. The
already set their camp in Eleusina since 1825. Other Greeks prepared for the battle against eight thousand
captains started to arrive and the troops became four soldiers and two thousand cavalry. Karaiskakis, in view
thousand, plus twelve hundred Philhellenes under C. of the enemy numbers, tried to encourage his soldiers.
Faviere, who was allowed to act autonomously. Faviere started fighting on his own against the Turkish
cavalry. A Turkish attack disorganised them but he and
the guerillas repelled the Turks. Kutahiye ordered a full
The battles of Chaidari in August 1826. attack against the guerillas. A few successful shots at
the Turkish commanders disorganized the Turks and
The battles of Chaidari are described by guerilla captain Perraivos suggested counter attack. In the meantime,
C. Perraivos in his memoirs and by C. Vyzantios, captain the Turks fortified and started bombing the Greeks with
of the tactical army under C. Faviere. The two descriptions their canons. Their cavalry tried to flank the Greeks, but
reveal different aspects of the historical facts including the was repelled by the Philhellenes. The battle lasted until
arguments between the two armies, tactical and guerilla. the evening with the Greeks holding tight. Karaiskakis
As soon as they arrived in Eleusina, Faviere suggested to secretely took his troops out to Eleusina, fearing Turkish
wait for the cavalry to arrive, whereas Karaiskakis wanted reinforcements. However, the tactical army was not
them to attack, so that the guerillas do not disband. informed. They had to fight through enemy lines in the
night and thus left twenty wounded behind. This second
The battle of the 6th of August 1826. On the battle was more fierce than the first. There were four
midnight of the 5th of August both Greek armies camped hundred Turkish casualties and over seventy dead Greek
in the Chaidari garden, between Korydallos and Elaionas soldiers. The Chaidari battles had no winner. The Greeks
and close to Palataki. The guerillas notified both besieged did not manage to relieve the Akropolis and understood
Greeks and Turks of their arrival with gunfires and then that they should avoid open confrontation with the Turks.
fortified in the garden. Faviere was stationed out in the
open field. The following sunrise a Turkish cavalry unit
was repelled by the Greek guerillas with the help of the Faviere on the Chaidari battles
Philhellenes. An hour later a complete Turkish corps with
infantry, cavalry and artillery units attacked in vain and The day following the battle Faviere retreated to
retreated. Faviere wanted to pursue them, but Karaiskakis Salamina in disappointment. The French colonel reported
was afraid of the open field between Chaidari and Athens that the guerillas had not informed him of their plans,
and no attack was attempted. Thus, the first battle lasted while they stole most of their equipment. This does not
eight hours and left many wounded, ten dead guerillas seem possible. There seems to have been a translation
and twenty soldiers. The Philhellenes and the band of problem between the two commanders, while the part
Kriezotis played a distinguished role in the battle. of Karaiskakis accuses Faviere for sympathising with
The officers’ evening meeting had to decide on the next Karaiskakis’ political enemies and aiming to becoming
step. Karaiskakis wanted to proceed to Piraeus, because the commander-in-chief of the liberation of Athens. On
he did not feel safe in Chaidari. Faviere disagreed and as the other hand, Faviere was a brave and capable officer,
they decided to stay, they received news that Kutahiye with experience in the Napoleonic wars, the Turkish army
was leaving Athens. As the Greeks prepared to hit the and the 1822-1823 Spanish revolution. He successfully
213

The Sacred Way near the Daphni Monastery, mid-19th century engraving.

broke the siege of Athens to supply the Athenians in The reverberations of the Chaidari clashes:
1826, but was completely ignorant of guerilla tactics and Karaiskakis talks with Kutahiye
was not able to contribute much to the Greek fighting.
The Greek commander-in-chief was deeply concerned
about Roumeli falling to the Turks and thought of leaving
Kutahiye on the Chaidari battles Athens. Indeed, Karaiskakis campaigned in Roumeli
the following October. Meanwhile, and the day
Despite the important losses on both sides, Kutayiye’s following the Chaidari battle, the French admiral Derigny
letter to Ibrahim refers to a Turkish victory. The letter was invited Karaiskakis to his ship, which had anchored at
intercepted by a Greek patrol and mentions the general’s Ampelakia, Salamina. Karaiskakis was surprised
plans to organise new troops and crash the rebels in to find Kutahiye on board, along with Homer Pasha
Eleusina and Morias. However, Kutahiye had understood and Homer of Karystos. Kutahiye attempted to bribe
the difficulties of his fight. His campaigns never took place Karaiskakis. However, the Greek general proudly refused
and he realised that the re-occupation of Athens was of to betray his government and the fight of his Nation.
capital importance for the future of the Revolution. On the He marked that he only had guns and bullets for the
other hand, he attempted to bribe Karaiskakis with fiefs Turks and reinforced his decision to continue the
from Arta to Euvoia so as to join the Ottomans. struggle.
214

The developments until the battle of the day. Karaiskakis’ return to Attica and the critical
Analatos (24 April 1827) conditions of the fight resulted in a great gathering of
forces. Kolokotronis sent 1480 Peloponnesians with
In August and September 1827 the Akropolis siege his son, Gennaios. It was the largest Greek force ever.
became tighter, with constant wall undermining Greeks won the battles at Keratsini (4 March) and Agios
operations, but the besieged held tight. Makrygiannis Spyridonas in Piraeus (13-16 April).
and Chormovitis were among the distinguished captains. However, the government appointed English Philhellene
Nonetheless, the situation of the besieged worsened as commanders, D. Church and T. Cochrane, a fact that
gun and food supplies ran short. The castle commander, brought discontent and reduced the Greek fighting
I. Gkouras was killed on the midnight of the 30th strength. Cochrane, unlike the guerilla tactics of
of September. On the 12th of October Karaiskakis Karaiskakis, wanted to attempt a full frontal attack.
and Krieziotis broke the enemy lines and supplied During a phase of decision making and in a minor
the Akropolis. The same was achieved by Faviere fighting episode, Karaiskakis was fatally wounded at
a month later. Phaliro, on the 21 April 1827. He died two days later.
Meanwhile the government had granted Karaiskakis his Despite the tragic developments, Cochrane insisted
Roumeli campaign in order to cut Kutahiye’s supply line, and led the Greek army to a catastrophic defeat. The
stir again the Revolution and send the Great Forces a Greek camp was disbanded and Akropolis surrendered a
message. He set out into Boiotia on the 25th of October month later. The whole of Roumeli then belonged to the
1826 and by the 5th of February he had triumphed in Ottomans, and was recovered only after the naval battle
several battles through Roumeli. Two days later he was at Navarino (October 1827).
back to Athens, were the situation was not good, as
Kutahiye was determined to win and seemed invincible.
In January 1827 Greeks and Philhellenes tried to reinforce The battle of Daphni (21 March 1827)
Greek positions in Piraeus and Phaliro. Despite a defeat
at Kamatero, the repeling of a strong Turkish force saved During the battles for Athens a battle took place in
the olive grove in front of the Daphni Monastery. It
was initiated by Karaiskakis, who meant to encourage
the besieged that watched it from the Akropolis. G.
Kolokotronis, C. Sisinis and other Peloponnesian captains
took part in it. Karaiskakis entered the olive grove with
one hundred and fourty cavalry and a small infantry
force. General Kutahiye was cunning enough to leave
his troops hidden on the surrounding hiils and unleash a
surprise attack. The Greeks were trapped as they were
cut off from their reinforcements in the Keratsini camp.
The battle became a fierce and close fight with swords.
None of the two armies was able to win. At this point,
Karaiskakis ordered his Turkish protegee to make him
coffee in order to show that he remained calm! Three
hours later the Greeks managed to withdraw.

Georgios Karaiskakis (1780-1827).


215

The area of the great battle of Chaidari of architectural romanticism in Greece. This hypothesis
during the 2nd half of the 19th century: further assumes that the Palataki was also commissioned
The Palataki tower by Sophie de Marbois (1785-1854), Duchesse de Plaisence.
A legend says that the Duchess used it for her meetings
The area of the battle of Chaidari is today occupied by with the infamous bandit Ntavelis. A final hypothesis
a castle-like edifice, known as Palataki, which is, along supports that the first owner of the tower was king Otto I.
with its surrounding area, a listed historical place since The edifice then passed to N. Nazos, banker from Tenos,
1979. Palataki is an example of romantic historism with director of the Athens Odeon and art lover. N. Lytras
neogothic elements. Its basic features are its castle- and N. Gyzis, famous painters, frequented the place.
like character, slim analogies and the gothic decorative They painted the guest quarters and the small church of
elements (high-arched windows, terracotta decoration, Agios Georgios. Georgios Thon, palace steward during
embrasures and turrets). It has two stories, a main story Georgios I was the next owner. He was mainly known
and a semi-underground cooking and auxiliary area. The for his villa in Ampelokepoi and placed a marble stela in
largest rooms are dining and reception areas. Ceilings honour of Faviere in the Palataki entrance.
are painted. The small number of rooms indicates a Early in the 20th century Palataki passed to the Chiot
country house, a hypothesis corroborated by its long ship owner A. Palios and was systematically renovated.
distance from Athens. The ceiling paintings date to this period. According to
The main building was flanked by auxiliary buildings, several historical sources, it was G. Pachys who owned
such as stables, guest quarters and olive press. The Palataki in the late 19th – early 20th century. He married to
central complex of the guest quarters is two-storied. It is E. Skouze, daughter of a high standing family and bought
flanked on one side by two single-storied annexes, that extensive estates from Amphiali to Palataki. His wife is
give the whole complex an L shape. The guest quarters assumed to have given a reception in Palataki for queen
is in neoclassical architectural style. The flower gardens, Olga in 1894. In 1957-1971 Palataki hosted a phsychiatric
palm, fruit and other trees created an idyllic environment. clinic, and suffered extensive damages. Today it hosts the
The villa was part of an estate, the first owner of which Cultural Centre of the Chaidari Municipality.
was Chaidar Pasha. C. Vyzantios, fighter in the Chaidari
battles, mentions a fortified estate with a tower, probably
a forerunner of the existing building. The exact date of
the latter but may be placed in the first decades after
the Revolution. Some believe that the French architect
François Boulanger (1807-1875) designed it together with the
Queen’s Tower at Ilion. Both buildings are castle-like and
have corner turrets. Queen Amalia had asked the architect
to follow the Hohenschwangau palace as a prototype,
which belonged to her cousin Maximilian in Schwanstein of
Bavaria. The Queen’s Tower opened in August 1854.
It is also possible that the Chaidari tower was designed
by S. Kleanthis (1802-1862), known from his gothicising
mansions in Athens and Penteli for the Duchesse de
Plaisence and one of the most important representatives

Charles Faviere (1872-1855).


216

The east wall of N. Gyzis’ painting in the guest quarters at Palataki. The figure of the young woman in the middle represents spring.
She is surrounded by rich vegetation and the iron work of the shade kiosk. The fireplace of the room is to the left (photo Sp. Panagiotopoulos).
217

Nikephoros Lytras and Nikolaos Gyzis the Child, in purple dress and austere calm expression.
in Chaidari Finally, the two painters may have painted an angel
on the arch over the screen. G. Drosinis mentions two
Nikephoros Lytras left Tenos to study in the School of angels, copies of the Sistine Chapel with the features of
Arts in Athens. His teachers were Ph. and G. Margaritis, Nazos’ children.
R. Ceccoli, the monk A. Triantafyllou and L. Thiersch,
who chose him as his apprentice in Soteira Lykodemou,
namely the Russian Church. Lytras had already been Nikolaos Gyzis and the paintings of
acquainted with his compatriot, N. Nazos, who asked the guest quarters of the Palataki villa
him to paint Agios Georgios in Chaidari. Thiersch’s art, (neoclassical building)
following the «Nazarenes» Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld
(1794-1892) and Heinrich Hess (1798-1855) in the Munich In 1854, twelve-year old Nikolaos Gyzis from Tenos
Academy, had a religious character and aimed to started studying in the School of Arts, four years after
reform church painting according to Western Art. Soteira Lytras, who became his mentor. Their friendship lasted
Lykodemou combines Byzantine attributes, such as through studying in Munich, their travels in Asia Minor
golden background and iconographic types, with Western and until Gyzis’ death in 1901. Lytras introduced Gyzis to
painting, such as the principles of perspective, shadows, Nazos. The latter took care so that Gyzis was granted
oil colours etc. Thiersch’s influence on Lytras is evident a scholarship by the Foundation of Evangelistria (Virgin
in Agios Georgios, although Lytras further studied the in Anunciation) in Tenos and study at Munich. Gyzis
mosaics of Hosios Lukas and the Daphni Monastery. became a student of Karl von Piloty (1826-1886), the
basic representative of realism in Germany.
In 1864, one year before Gyzis’ depart, Nazos
The paintings in Agios Georgios commissioned him the paintings of the dining room of
the guest quarters in Palataki. The young artist painted
The church is a post-Byzantine construction, according the Four Seasons. Visual illusions give the visitor the
to its 16th century inscription. Many parts of the church impression of being in an open-air place, with singing
were painted in the second half of the 19th century. Lytras birds and plants and trees. Four girls symbolize the
may be securely attributed the Beheading of St John the seasons placed in an idyllic landscape.
Baptist and St George killing the dragon on the south Recently, the Chaidari Municipality restored the Four
and north wall respectively. They are both in extremely Seasons. The area is open to the public today, while the
fragmentary condition. The Beheading is a balanced rest of the building hosts the Municipal Library. Gyzis
composition with the executioner on the right of St John left for Munich after the Four Seasons but came back
and two female figures on his left, Salome and a servant. several times and finally got married to Artemis, daughter
Figures are robust and colours are warm. Similarly, St of N. Nazos on the 24th of April 1877, in the church of
George demonstrates a dynamic movement underlined by Agios Georgios. They then both left for Munich but kept
his flowing purple cape. The built Screen features Christ, their bonds with the place, as their letters illustrate. The
the Virgin with Child and S. Paraskevi. Their bad condition nostalgia of the 1895 letters is notable, and probably due
makes the artist recognition impossible. They were either to the death of N. Nazos in 1888. Furthermore, the estate
done by Lytras alone or with Gyzis. Their co-operation did not belong to the Nazos family anymore and needed
probably resulted in the Virgin of the apse, depicted with many repairs.
219

The restoration and promotion of the Palataki tower


and the «N. Gyzis» building

T
he Battle of Chaidari in the area of Palataki Ministry of Culture. G. Rizopoulos, sculptor and architect
brought about the strategic ingenuity and bravery did the study. The area was formally opened by mayor
of general G. Karaiskakis, and the value of the K. Nteniakos on 26 July 2006. The Four Seasons room is
Philhellene officer C. Faviere. Both are annually honoured devoted to N. Gyzis only. The rest of the building houses
in Palataki by the Chaidari Municipality. the Municipal Library. With the acquisition of the Palataki
Active interest for the rescue of Palataki started only area the Chaidari Municipality has combined cultural
in 1955. Mayors D. Giachnis and D. Skampas acted to heritage and local history upon the same landscape.
rescue the park and K. Nteniakos bought the buildings
for the Municipality and attended their restoration. In The new Town Hall
1976, Palataki became a listed building. In 1985 the area
passed on to the Chaidari Municipality. The architect Y. The new Town Hall is being built opposite Palataki.
Igglesis did the enhancement study.Works took place The area was bought by the Municipality in 1992 and
in 1987-1993. Th. Varagkis provided the furnishing and 2002 after public re-action to plans that would harm the
equipment for the tower. Palataki today houses the quality of life.
administration of the Municipal Cultural Centre and hosts
public events. The historical pedestrian way of Stratarchou
Karaiskaki Street
Restoration works at Palataki
Stratarchou (Marshal) Karaiskaki Street connects the
The restoration teams worked for five years with special Sacred Way and Palataki. It has two levels since the
care and devotion. Necessary materials, such as marble, 19th century, one surfaced for vehicles and one with
iron nails etc., were particularly selected, so as to match pine trees for pedestrians. The Municipal Council has
the originals. The ceiling paintings were uncovered declared the road a listed monument. Its architectural
and restored to their original vividness. The same enhancement was attended by mayors D. Giachnis, D.
process was followed for the exterior stone walls and Skampas, K. Nteniakos and K. Speliopoulos, in 1977-1998.
embrasures. The street features the busts of Th. Kolokotronis and
E. Venizelos, Iroon Square, which is the place for all
The «N. Gyzis» neoclassical building official celebrations, the listed villa of E. Kaloumenos, and
Demokratias Square with a sculpture to Pontic Greeks by
In 1985-2001 the Municipality bought the neoclassical Kapantais. Today Str. Karaiskaki Street is the economic
building and a surrounding area of 5000 sq.m. Its and commercial centre of the town and also a regional
restoration was carried out in co-operation with the recreation node.

The «N. Gyzis» neoclassical building and the surrounding area after their restoration
and enhancement by the Municipality of Chaidari.
ÊåöÜëáéï IV
Óýã÷ñïíç ðåñßïäïò
223

Êáôï÷Þ - ÅèíéêÞ Áíôßóôáóç


Óôñáôüðåäï ×áúäáñßïõ

Ó
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ó÷çìáôéóìïý åíüò õðïôõðþäïõò ïéêéóìïý ìå ðëçèõóìü ïé ïðïßïé óôç óõíÝ÷åéá óõãêñüôçóáí åèíéêïôïðéêÞ
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ðåñéï÷Þ ðåíÞíôá ôÝóóåñéò ïéêïãÝíåéåò ðñïóöýãùí ëåéôïõñãåß ìÝ÷ñé óÞìåñá. Åßíáé ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêü üôé ôï
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áðü ôï åëëçíéêü êñÜôïò, ßäñõóáí ôïí óõíïéêéóìü êáôïßêïõò300.
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ðñïóöõãéêïý óõíïéêéóìïý åíôïðßæåôáé ìåôáîý ôùí ïäþí ôç óçìáíôéêÞ áýîçóç ôïõ ðëçèõóìïý ôùí ×áúäáñéùôþí.
ÓôñáôÜñ÷ïõ ÊáñáúóêÜêç, Í. ÐëáóôÞñá, ÄùäåêáíÞóïõ Ç áýîçóç áõôÞ, ìå ôç óåéñÜ ôçò, ðñïêÜëåóå ôçí
êáé Ç. ÂåíÝæç. Ç ïíïìáóßá ôïõ ïéêéóìïý äüèçêå áðüóðáóç ôçò ðåñéï÷Þò áðü ôçí Êïéíüôçôá ÁéãÜëåù
ðñïò áíÜìíçóéí ôçò ÍÝáò Öþêáéáò óôç ÌéêñÜ Áóßá, êáé ôçí áíáãüñåõóÞ ôçò óå áõôüíïìç êïéíüôçôá.
ôüðï ðñïÝëåõóçò ðïëëþí áðü ôïõò ðñüóöõãåò ðïõ Ôï âáóéëéêü äéÜôáãìá ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôçí ßäñõóç ôçò
êáôÝöõãáí óôï ×áúäÜñé. Åðßóçò, ïñéóìÝíïé Þôáí áðü ôï Êïéíüôçôáò ×áúäáñßïõ åêäüèçêå óôéò 2 Áðñéëßïõ 1935.
Ôóáêìáêëß, åíþ õðÞñ÷áí êáé ìåñéêïß áðü ôï ÓåñÝêéïú, Ðñþôïò êïéíïôÜñ÷çò ïñßóôçêå ï Ð. Ëõ÷íáñüðïõëïò 301.
ôç ÌÜêñç êáé ôï ÁëÞ ÁãÜ Þ ¢ëáãá. Ôï ×áúäÜñé óõíÝ÷éóå íá áíáðôýóóåôáé ôá÷ýôáôá Ýùò
Ï óõíïéêéóìüò Üñ÷éóå óôáäéáêÜ íá áíáðôýóóåôáé 297. ôçí Ýíáñîç ôïõ ´ Ðáãêïóìßïõ ÐïëÝìïõ. Ç ðåñßïäïò
Ôï 1926 ïé Íåïöùêáåßò ßäñõóáí íáü áöéåñùìÝíï óôçí ôçò ãåñìáíéêÞò êáôï÷Þò ôçò ðüëçò ôùí Áèçíþí
Êïßìçóç ôçò Èåïôüêïõ, êáèþò êáé äçìïôéêü ó÷ïëåßï 298. ó÷åôßæåôáé Üìåóá ìå ôï ×áúäÜñé, êáèþò åäþ âñéóêüôáí
ÐáñÜëëçëá, äçìéïõñãÞèçêå ç ÁãñïôéêÞ ÐñïóöõãéêÞ ôï ðéï ìåãÜëï íáæéóôéêü óôñáôüðåäï óõãêÝíôñùóçò
ÏìÜäá ÍÝùí Öùêþí ìå óôü÷ï ôçí ðñïþèçóç óôçí ÅëëÜäá302. Ôï óôñáôüðåäï ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ Þôáí
êáé ôçí åðßëõóç ôùí ðïéêßëùí ðñïâëçìÜôùí ôùí óôñáôçãéêÞò óçìáóßáò ãéá ôïõò S.S., êáèþò äåí Þôáí
ðñïóöýãùí ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ 299, êáèþò êáé ï Óýíäåóìïò áðëþò Ýíáò ÷þñïò üðïõ êñáôïýíôáí, âáóáíßæïíôáí

ÂáóáíéóôÞñéo, îõëïãñáößá ôçò ÂÜóùò ÊáôñÜêç (ëåðôïìÝñåéá).


224

êáé åêôåëïýíôáí ïé áíôéóôåêüìåíïé áíôéöñïíïýíôåò. ãïíéìüôçôÜ ôçò ôï óõìðëÞñùíå, ôï ôåëåéïðïéïýóå,


Ïé äéáäüóåéò ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôá âáóáíéóôÞñéá êáé ôá êáé áõôüìáôá ç äýíáìç áõôÞ Ýìðáéíå óôçí
åãêëÞìáôá ðïõ ãßíïíôáí óôï ×áúäÜñé áðïôåëïýóáí Ýíá õðçñåóßá ôïõ å÷èñïý.
áðü ôá âáóéêüôåñá ìÝóá ôñïìïêñáôßáò ôïõ ëáïý êáé »Ôï ×áúäÜñé éäñýèçêå ðåñéóóüôåñï ãéá
óõíáêüëïõèçò êáôáóôïëÞò ôùí åîåãÝñóåùí êáé ôçò ôïõò Ýîù êáé ëéãüôåñï ãéá ôïõò ßäéïõò ôïõò
ïðïéáóäÞðïôå áíôéóôáóéáêÞò äñÜóçò. Ðñùôáñ÷éêüò, êñáôïýìåíïõò»304.
ëïéðüí, óêïðüò ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ Þôáí íá ìåôáôñáðåß
óå «öüâçôñï»303, óå Ýíáí ôñïìáêôéêü èñýëï. Ï ÈÝìïò Ôï óôñáôüðåäï êáôáëÜìâáíå Ýêôáóç 500 óôñåììÜôùí
ÊïñíÜñïò, Ýíáò áðü ôïõò ÷éëéÜäåò êñáôïõìÝíïõò óôï ðïõ åêôåßíïíôáé âüñåéá ôçò ëåùöüñïõ ÊáâÜëáò, óôïõò
×áúäÜñé, ôïíßæåé: ðñüðïäåò ôïõ üñïõò Ðïéêßëïõ (üñïò ÊáóêáíôÜí) 305.
Ï ÷þñïò áõôüò åíôïðßæåôáé ìåôáîý ôùí ïéêéóôéêþí
«Ç äéáìïíÞ óôï ×áúäÜñé Ýðñåðå íá Ý÷åé êÜôé ôï éóôþí ôùí äÞìùí Ðåñéóôåñßïõ, ×áúäáñßïõ êáé
áâÝâáéï, ôï áüñéóôï, ôï äéáñêþò åðéêßíäõíï. Íá Ðåôñïýðïëçò. ÓÞìåñá óôåãÜæåé ôá óôñáôüðåäá
ãßíåé ï ìðáìðïýëáò, öüâçôñï, óõíþíõìï ìå ôï åêðáßäåõóçò ÊÅÂÏÐ êáé ÊÅÄÂ êáé áðïôåëåß, ëüãù
×Üñï êáé íá ðáñáäïèåß Ýôóé óôç öáíôáóßá ôïõ ôçò ðõêíÞò âëÜóôçóçò, äáóéêÞ ðåñéï÷Þ.
åõáßóèçôïõ Ëáïý ìáò, ðïõ ìå ôç äýíáìç êáé ôç Óôéò áêüëïõèåò åíüôçôåò èá îåäéðëþóïõìå ôéò
225

ìáôùìÝíåò óåëßäåò ôçò åðïðïéÀáò ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ.


Ç äéÞãçóÞ ìáò èá âáóéóôåß ó÷åäüí åî ïëïêëÞñïõ
óå ðñáãìáôéêÝò ìáñôõñßåò êñáôïõìÝíùí ïé ïðïßïé
êáôÜöåñáí íá åðéâéþóïõí óôï íáæéóôéêü êïëáóôÞñéï 306.
Óôü÷ïò ìáò åßíáé ï óõíäõáóìüò ôçò ïëïêëçñùìÝíçò
êáôáãñáöÞò ôùí éóôïñéêþí ãåãïíüôùí ìå ôçí
áíÜãëõöç áðüäïóç ôçò áãùíéþäïõò êáé öñéêéáóôéêÞò
áôìüóöáéñáò ðïõ åðéêñáôïýóå óôï óôñáôüðåäï.

ÃåñìáíéêÞ êáôï÷Þ óôï ×áúäÜñé

Ç ÅëëÜäá åéóÞëèå åðßóçìá óôïí ´ Ðáãêüóìéï Ðüëåìï


ôéò ðñþôåò þñåò ôçò 28çò Ïêôùâñßïõ 1940, üôáí
ï Éôáëüò ðñÝóâçò åðÝäùóå óôïí ðñüåäñï ôçò
åëëçíéêÞò êõâÝñíçóçò ÉùÜííç ÌåôáîÜ ôï ôåëåóßãñáöï
ôïõ Ìïõóïëßíé, ðïõ æçôïýóå åëåýèåñç åßóïäï ôùí
éôáëéêþí óôñáôåõìÜôùí óôçí ÅëëÜäá, óôï ðëáßóéï ôïõ
ðïëÝìïõ åíáíôßïí ôçò ÌåãÜëçò Âñåôáíßáò. Ç Üñíçóç
ôïõ ÌåôáîÜ ôïðïèÝôçóå ôçí ÅëëÜäá óôï áíôßèåôï
óôñáôüðåäï áðü áõôü ôùí äõíÜìåùí ôïõ ¢îïíá 307.
Ç Ýíáñîç ôïõ åëëçíïúôáëéêïý ðïëÝìïõ óõíÝðåóå
ìå ôçí ïëïêëÞñùóç ôùí åñãáóéþí êáôáóêåõÞò ôïõ
Ôï áñ÷çãåßï ôùí S.S. óôçí ïäü ÌÝñëéí, óôï êÝíôñï ôçò ÁèÞíáò.
óôñáôïðÝäïõ óôï ×áúäÜñé, ðïõ ç êõâÝñíçóç ÌåôáîÜ
åß÷å îåêéíÞóåé áðü ôï 1937 308. ÊáôÜ ôïõò ðñþôïõò
ìÞíåò ôïõ 1941 óôï óôñáôüðåäï óôåãÜóôçêáí Âñåôáíïß Áðñéëßïõ ôá ãåñìáíéêÜ óôñáôåýìáôá åéóÞëèáí óôçí
óôñáôéþôåò, ïé ïðïßïé áðïôÝëåóáí ìÝñïò ôçò ìéêñÞò ðüëç ôùí Áèçíþí, ôçí ïðïßá êáé êáôÝëáâáí ÷ùñßò
äýíáìçò ðïõ áðÝóôåéëå ç ÌåãÜëç Âñåôáíßá óôçí íá óõíáíôÞóïõí êáìßá áíôßóôáóç. Ç áíÜñôçóç ôçò
ÅëëÜäá óôá ôÝëç ôïõ 1940309. íáæéóôéêÞò óçìáßáò ìå ôç óâÜóôéêá óôçí Áêñüðïëç
Óôéò áñ÷Ýò Áðñéëßïõ 1941 îåêßíçóå ç ãåñìáíéêÞ óÞìáíå ôçí Ýíáñîç ôçò ïäõíçñÞò ðåñéüäïõ ôçò
åðßèåóç åíáíôßïí ôçò ÅëëÜäáò, ç Üãñéá Ýíôáóç ôçò Êáôï÷Þò óôçí ÁèÞíá312.
ïðïßáò Þôáí êÜôé ðñùôüãíùñï ãéá ôïõò ¸ëëçíåò. Ôá âáóéêÜ ÷áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ ôçò Êáôï÷Þò Þôáí ç
×áñáêôçñéóôéêü ðáñÜäåéãìá ôçò Ýíôáóçò áõôÞò êáôáóðáôÜëçóç ôùí áðïèåìÜôùí êáé ç êáôáóôñïöÞ
õðÞñîå ï âïìâáñäéóìüò ôïõ ÐåéñáéÜ óôéò 6 Áðñéëßïõ, ôùí õðïäïìþí üëùí ôùí åéäþí áðü ôïõò Ãåñìáíïýò.
ï ïðïßïò ðñïêÜëåóå ôåñÜóôéåò æçìéÝò 310. Óôï ðëáßóéï Ïé íÝåò óõíèÞêåò ðñïêÜëåóáí ôç ñáãäáßá êáôÜðôùóç
åðé÷åßñçóçò íáñêïèÝôçóçò ôïõ ëéìáíéïý ôïõ ÐåéñáéÜ, ôçò ïéêïíïìßáò, ç ïðïßá ïäÞãçóå óôçí Ýëëåéøç
ãåñìáíéêü áåñïðëÜíï Ýñéîå íÜñêåò êáé óôçí ðåñéï÷Þ ôñïößìùí êáé áãáèþí. Åêôüò áðü ôçí ðåßíá êáé ôéò
ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ, ìå áðïôÝëåóìá íá áíáôéíá÷èåß ôï óðßôé áóèÝíåéåò, ï åëëçíéêüò ëáüò Þôáí õðï÷ñåùìÝíïò
ôïõ ôüôå äéåõèõíôÞ ôïõ ÄñïìïêáÀôåéïõ Èåñáðåõôçñßïõ íá õðïìÝíåé ôçí êáôáóôñïöÞ ôçò ðåñéïõóßáò ôïõ
Ìé÷áÞë Ãéáííßñç êïíôÜ óôçí ÉåñÜ Ïäü 311. Óôéò 27 êáé ôçí áðüëõôç êáôáóôñáôÞãçóç ôùí äéêáéùìÜôùí
êáé ôùí åëåõèåñéþí ôïõ, êáèþò êáé íá õðïöÝñåé
äéùãìïýò êáé öõëáêßóåéò, åêôåëÝóåéò, áðåëÜóåéò êáé
ÐáñÝëáóç ôùí åðßëåêôùí äõíÜìåùí ôçò ÂÝñìá÷ô ìðñïóôÜ
áðü ôï ìíçìåßï ôïõ Áãíþóôïõ Óôñáôéþôç óôéò 3 Ìáΐïõ 1941. ðïéêßëåò ôñïìïêñáôéêÝò åíÝñãåéåò 313. ÖõóéêÜ, üëá áõôÜ
226

ðñïêÜëåóáí ôçí åíåñãçôéêÞ áíôßóôáóç ôùí ÅëëÞíùí, ç Ýëåã÷áí ôéò öõëáêÝò-óôñáôüðåäá óôç íüôéá ÅëëÜäá,
ïðïßá ãñÞãïñá ðÞñå ôç ìïñöÞ ïñãáíùìÝíçò äñÜóçò 314. áðïöÜóéóáí íá äéáëýóïõí åêåßíá ðïõ âñßóêïíôáí óå
Óôï ×áúäÜñé, ïé Ãåñìáíïß åðßôáîáí ôï óðßôé ôïõ åðéóöáëåßò èÝóåéò. Ïé êñáôïýìåíïé óôçí Áêñïíáõðëßá
Óêïõëéêßäç, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá óôåãÜóïõí ôï áñ÷çãåßï êáé ôá Ôñßêáëá ìåôáöÝñèçêáí óôç ËÜñéóá ôïí ÌÜéï
ôïõò. Ïé ×áúäáñéþôåò, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá áíôéìåôùðßóïõí ôïõ 1943. Ðáñ’ üëá áõôÜ, ôï êëßìá áíáóöÜëåéáò óôï
ôçí ðåßíá êáé ôéò Üëëåò áíôéîïüôçôåò ôçò Êáôï÷Þò, éôáëéêü óôñáôüðåäï åîáéôßáò ôùí ðïëåìéêþí åîåëßîåùí,
ïñãÜíùíáí óõóóßôéá êáé åñÜíïõò 315. êáèþò êáé ôçò äéáôÜñáîçò ôùí ó÷Ýóåùí Ãåñìáíßáò
êáé Éôáëßáò, åðÝâáëå ôç ìåôáöïñÜ ìåãÜëïõ áñéèìïý
êñáôïõìÝíùí áðü ôç ËÜñéóá óôçí ÁèÞíá. Åêåß ç
ºäñõóç ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ äýíáìç ôùí êáôáêôçôþí Þôáí óáöþò ìåãáëýôåñç êáé ç
áíôéóôáóéáêÞ äñÜóç ðïëý ðéï åëåã÷üìåíç.
ÁìÝóùò ìåôÜ ôçí êáôÜëçøç ôçò ÁèÞíáò áðü ôïõò Óôéò 29 Áõãïýóôïõ 1943 ïé Éôáëïß äéïéêçôÝò ôùí
Ãåñìáíïýò, ôï Âñåôáíéêü Åêóôñáôåõôéêü Óþìá öõëáêþí ôçò ËÜñéóáò åðÝëåîáí ðÜíù áðü åîáêüóéïõò
áíáãêÜóôçêå íá áðï÷ùñÞóåé áðü ôç ÷åñóáßá êñáôïõìÝíïõò êáé ôïõò áðÝóôåéëáí óéäçñïäñïìéêþò
ÅëëÜäá316. ¸ôóé, ïé Âñåôáíïß áðïóýñèçêáí áðü ôï óôçí ÁèÞíá318. Ìåôáîý áõôþí õðÞñ÷áí 243
óôñáôüðåäï ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ, ôï ïðïßï êáôÜ ôçí ðåñßïäï êïììïõíéóôÝò ðïõ êñáôïýíôáí óôçí Áêñïíáõðëßá áðü
áõôÞ ëåçëáôÞèçêå317. Ôï óôñáôüðåäï ðáñÝìåéíå Ýñçìï ôçí åðï÷Þ ôïõ ÌåôáîÜ, åßêïóé Áíáöéþôåò, ïé ïðïßïé
Ýùò ôéò áñ÷Ýò Óåðôåìâñßïõ ôïõ 1943, üôáí Ýöôáóáí åß÷áí ìåôáöåñèåß áðü ôéò öõëáêÝò ÁâÝñùö óôç
áðü ôç ËÜñéóá ïé ðñþôïé êñáôïýìåíïé. ËÜñéóá, êáé 327 êñáôïýìåíïé ôùí Éôáëþí. Ìåôáîý ôùí
Ðáñáôçñþíôáò ôçí Ýíôáóç êáé ôç óõóôçìáôéêüôçôá ôïõ ôåëåõôáßùí õðÞñ÷áí êáé ôÝóóåñéò ãõíáßêåò 319.
êéíÞìáôïò ôçò ÅèíéêÞò Áíôßóôáóçò, ïé Éôáëïß, ïé ïðïßïé Ï ãéáôñüò Áíôþíçò Öëïýíôæçò, ï ïðïßïò Þôáí ìåôáîý

ÓðÜíéï íôïêïõìÝíôï ðïõ áðåéêïíßæåé ôïß÷ï êñáôçôçñßïõ óôï êôÞñéï ôçò ïäïý ÌÝñëéí.
Áðïêáëýöèçêå ôõ÷áßá óôá ìÝóá ôçò äåêáåôßáò ôïõ 1980, üôáí ãêñåìßóôçêå ìåóïôïé÷ßá
ìå ôá ðáñáêåßìåíá ãñáöåßá ôçò ÄÅÇ (öùô. áñ÷åßï Ä. Ëïýêá).
227

Ðïñåßá ðñïò ôï ×áúäÜñé, îõëïãñáößá ôçò äåêáåôßáò ôïõ 1950.

ôùí êñáôïõìÝíùí, ðåñéãñÜöåé ôçí ÜöéîÞ ôïõò óôçí êáé íá âáóáíéóôïýí. Óôç ÌÝñëéí óõíôÜóóïíôáí ôá
ÁèÞíá óôéò 3 Óåðôåìâñßïõ êáé ôçí Üìåóç ìåôáöïñÜ öõëáêéóôÞñéá ãéá ôï ×áúäÜñé, êáèþò êáé ïé êáôáóôÜóåéò
ôïõò óôï ×áúäÜñé: ôùí åêôåëÝóåùí321.
Ãýñù óôá ôÝëç ôïõ 1943 ïé êñáôïýìåíïé Ýöôáóáí
«Óôçí ÁèÞíá ðñÝðåé íá öèÜóáìå ôï ìåóçìÝñé ôïõò ÷ßëéïõò äéáêüóéïõò. Ï ìåãáëýôåñïò áñéèìüò
óôéò 3 ôïõ ÓåðôÝìâñç. Ìáò êáôÝâáóáí óôï Óôáèìü êñáôïõìÝíùí óçìåéþèçêå ôïí Áýãïõóôï ôïõ 1944
Ëáñßóçò, ìáò öüñôùóáí óå óôñáôéùôéêÜ êáìéüíéá åîáéôßáò ôùí ðïëëáðëþí ìðëüêùí êáé ôùí ìáæéêþí
êáé ìáò ìåôÝöåñáí óôï ×áúäÜñé. Ç äéáäéêáóßá óõëëÞøåùí ðïõ äéåíåñãïýóáí êáôÜ ôçí ðåñßïäï
áõôÞ êñÜôçóå áñêåôÝò þñåò. Åäþ, äåí åðÝôñåðáí áõôÞ ïé S.S. Ôï óôñáôüðåäï ëåéôïýñãçóå Ýùò ôá ôÝëç
íá ðëçóéÜóåé ï êüóìïò, êé Ýôóé äåí åß÷áìå ôéò Óåðôåìâñßïõ ôïõ 1944, üôáí ïé Ãåñìáíïß Üñ÷éóáí íá
åêäçëþóåéò ôçò ËÜñéóáò. ¸ãéíå, üìùò, êÜôé áðïóýñïíôáé áðü ôá åëëçíéêÜ åäÜöç. Õðïëïãßæåôáé
Üëëï, ðïõ åß÷å ôçí ßäéá óçìáóßá êáé áîßá, áí ü÷é üôé áðü áõôü ðÝñáóáí óõíïëéêÜ ðÜíù áðü 21.000
ìåãáëýôåñç. ¼óïé áðü ìáò åß÷áí óõããåíåßò óôçí êñáôïýìåíïé. Óôïí áñéèìü áõôü óõìðåñéëáìâÜíïíôáé
ðåñéöÝñåéá ôçò ðñùôåýïõóáò, Ýñéîáí óôï äñüìï êáé ïé Åâñáßïé, ç óõíôñéðôéêÞ ðëåéïíüôçôá ôùí ïðïßùí
óçìåéþìáôá ìå ôç äéåýèõíóÞ ôïõò êáé ëßãá ëüãéá. ìåôáöÝñèçêå óå óôñáôüðåäá óõãêÝíôñùóçò óôç
Áðü ôá óçìåéþìáôá áõôÜ äå ÷Üèçêå êáíÝíá. Ãåñìáíßá322.
Êáé ü÷é ìüíïí áõôü. ÐÞãáí áìÝóùò üëá óôïí
ðñïïñéóìü ôïõò, ðáñÜ ôçí Üèëéá óõãêïéíùíßá ôçò
åðï÷Þò, þóôå ðñéí íõ÷ôþóåé ìáò ðñüöôáóáí óôï ÐåñéãñáöÞ ôùí êôçñéáêþí åãêáôáóôÜóåùí
×áúäÜñé ïé ðñþôïé åðéóêÝðôåò ìå äÝìáôá»320. ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ

Áðü ôïí Ïêôþâñéï ôïõ 1943 êáé åîÞò óôï óôñáôüðåäï Ôï óôñáôüðåäï323 åß÷å ïñèïãþíéï ó÷Þìá êáé
×áúäáñßïõ ïäçãïýíôáí ïëïÝíá êáé ðåñéóóüôåñïé ðåñéâáëëüôáí áðü øçëü ìáíôñüôïé÷ï, ôñéðëÞ óåéñÜ
êñáôïýìåíïé, óõëëçöèÝíôåò åßôå óå ìðëüêá åßôå áðü óõñìáôïðëÝãìáôïò óôçí åîùôåñéêÞ ðëåõñÜ êáé
ôçí ÃêåóôÜðï. Ïé ôåëåõôáßïé áñ÷éêÜ ïäçãïýíôáí óôï ðõêíüôáôï óõñìáôüðëåãìá óôçí åóùôåñéêÞ ðëåõñÜ ôïõ
áñ÷çãåßï ôùí S.S. óôçí ÁèÞíá, ôï äéáâüçôï êôÞñéï ðåñéâüëïõ. ÊÜèå 200 ì. õðÞñ÷áí éó÷õñÜ ï÷õñùìÝíá
ôçò ïäïý ÌÝñëéí, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá áíáêñéèïýí Þ öõëÜêéá ãéá óêïðéÝò. Ç åßóïäïò âñéóêüôáí óôç äõôéêÞ
228

ÊÜôïøç ôùí äýï ïñüöùí ôïõ Ìðëïê 15 êáé ôùí ëïõôñþí ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ.
Ó÷Ýäéo ôïõ êñáôïõìÝíïõ Áíôþíç Öëïýíôæç
(áíáôýðùóç áðü ôï ×áúäÜñé, êÜóôñï êáé âùìüò ôçò ÅèíéêÞò Áíôßóôáóçò, óåë. 29).
229

ðëåõñÜ êáé Þôáí äéðëÞ. ÅêáôÝñùèåí ôçò ðýëçò íá âëÝðïõí ôï ãýñù ôïðßï êáé ôçí ÁèÞíá óôï âÜèïò,
õðÞñ÷áí öõëÜêéá ãéá ôçí ðñïóôáóßá ôçò åéóüäïõ ôüóï êïíôÜ êáé ôáõôü÷ñïíá ôüóï ìáêñéÜ ôïõò.
ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ. Óôá íïôéïáíáôïëéêÜ ôçò åéóüäïõ ×áñáêôçñéóôéêÞ åßíáé ç áöÞãçóç ôïõ ÊïñíÜñïõ ó÷åôéêÜ
âñéóêüôáí ôï êôÞñéï êáé ôá ìáãåéñåßá ôçò åîùôåñéêÞò ìå ôç èÝá ðïõ áíôßêñéóå, üôáí êïßôáîå ãéá ðñþôç öïñÜ
öñïõñÜò, åíþ óôá âïñåéïáíáôïëéêÜ ôá ìáãåéñåßá êáé ïé áðü ôï ðáñÜèõñï ôïõ èáëÜìïõ ôïõ:
áðïèÞêåò ôñïößìùí ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ.
Ôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ ï÷õñùìÝíïõ ðåñéâüëïõ åß÷å «Ðñùôáíôéêñýæù ôï ôïðßï. ¸íá ðÝôáëï, êëåéóôü
áðïøéëùèåß êáé äåí õðÞñ÷å ïýôå Ýíá äÝíôñï. áðü ôá äõôéêÜ êáé ôï âïñéÜ. ÃäõìíÜ âïõíÜ
ÐïëëáðëÜ êôçñéáêÜ óõãêñïôÞìáôá (Ìðëïê) õøþíïíôáí õøþíïíôáé áðüôïìá. ÊÜðïõ-êÜðïõ îå÷ùñßæåéò ìéá
óôïí äõôéêü ôïìÝá ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ. Ï ÁëÝîáíäñïò ëéáíïóôñáôïýëá íá óå ðñïóêáëåß, ðïéïò îÝñåé óå
ÆÞóçò, êñáôïýìåíïò óôï óôñáôüðåäï áðü ôïí ðïéåò åéñçíéêÝò óôÜíåò. Óôçí áíáôïëÞ êáé ôï íïôéÜ
ÄåêÝìâñéï ôïõ 1943 Ýùò ôïí ÌÜéï ôïõ 1944, ðåñéãñÜöåé: ç ÁôôéêÞ, ôá ÖÜëçñá êáé ôá ìáâéÜ íçóÜêéá ôïõ
Óáñùíéêïý.
«ÔñéðëÞ óåéñÜ áðü óõñìáôïðëÝãìáôá, êé Ýíáò »Ôßðïôá äå óïõ êÜíåé ôçí åíôýðùóç ðùò åäþ
øçëüò ôïß÷ïò ðåñéêëåßíïõí ôï óôïé÷åéùìÝíï ìÝóá õðÜñ÷åé ôüóç áãùíßá. Îå÷íéÝóáé ìðñïò
×áúäÜñé. Ôï óôñáôüðåäï êáé öõëáêÝò ôùí Åò- óôçí çìåñüôçôá ôïõ ôïðßïõ. Ç ÁèÞíá áðëþíåôáé
Åò, ôç Âáóôßëç ôïõ 20ïý áéþíá. Óôñáôéþôåò ìå áðÝñáíôç ìðñïò óôá ìÜôéá óïõ, êé’ åßíáé óá íá
áõôüìáôá öñïõñïýí åðÜíù óôá âáñéÜ ïðëéóìÝíá óôñÜöçêå îåðßôçäåò, ïëüóùìç ðñïò ôï ìÝñïò ôïõ
Blokhaus, áðåéëþíôáò ìå Üìåóï èÜíáôï åêåßíïí ×áúäáñéïý, ãéá íá ìðïñåß ï êáôÜäéêïò íá îå÷ùñßæåé
ðïõ è’ áðïôïëìïýóå êÜèå ðñïóÝããéóç. Êáé ìüíï êÜèå ãåéôïíéÜ êáé äñüìï. Ðïëëïß óïõ äåß÷íïõíå ôï
Ýíáò äñüìïò, ðïõ âñßóêåôáé êÜôù áðü ôá ðõñÜ
êáôÜëëçëá ôïðïèåôçìÝíùí ìõäñáëëéïâüëùí,
êáôáëÞãåé óôç ìïíáäéêÞ åßóïäï ôïõ óôñáôüðåäïõ,
ôç óôïëéóìÝíç ìå ôïí áãêõëùôü óôáõñü êáé ôá
óÞìáôá ôùí Åò-Åò... ÄéðëÝò âáñéÝò óéäåñÝíéåò
ðüñôåò áíïßãïõí, ãéá íá åðéôñÝøïõí ôçí åßóïäï
óôçí êïëáóìÝíç ðïëéôåßá»324.

ÔÝóóåñá áðü ôá êôÞñéá ðïõ áíáöÝñáìå ðáñáðÜíù,


åß÷áí ÷ôéóôåß êëéìáêùôÜ, áðü ôçí êåíôñéêÞ åßóïäï
ðñïò ôá áíáôïëéêÜ (Ìðëïê 1-4). Ôï êáèÝíá áðü áõôÜ
Þôáí ÷ùñéóìÝíï óå äýï éóïìåãÝèç, åíôåëþò áõôüíïìá
ôìÞìáôá ìå îå÷ùñéóôÞ åßóïäï. Åäþ Ýìåíáí ïé
Üíäñåò êñáôïýìåíïé. Óôï Ìðëïê 3 õðÞñ÷å éáôñåßï êáé
áíáññùôÞñéï. Ï áñ÷éêüò ðñïïñéóìüò ôùí êôçñßùí Þôáí
íá óôåãÜóïõí óôñáôþíåò. ÄéÝèåôáí äýï ïñüöïõò êáé
çìéõðüãåéï êáé ðïëëÜ ìåãÜëá ðáñÜèõñá óå üëåò ôéò
ðëåõñÝò. Ôá ðáñÜèõñá åðÝôñåðáí óôïõò êñáôïõìÝíïõò

ÊÜôïøç ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ, üðùò äéáìïñöþèçêå


êáôÜ ôç äéÜñêåéá ôçò Êáôï÷Þò. Ó÷Ýäéï ôïõ êñáôïõìÝíïõ Áíôþíç
Öëïýíôæç (áíáôýðùóç áðü ôï ×áúäÜñé, êÜóôñï êáé âùìüò ôçò
ÅèíéêÞò Áíôßóôáóçò, óåë. 26).
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óðßôé ôïõò. Ôá ðáñáèýñéá ôïõò! Êé üìùò ðïôÝ äåí ÂëÝðåéò êñåìáóìÝíá óôç óåéñÜ ðáëôÜ, âáëßôóåò,
âñÝèçêáí ðéï ìáêñéÜ áð’ ôçí ÁèÞíá ìáò...»325. ïìðñÝëåò, êáìðáñíôßíåò, äß÷ôõá ìå êñåììýäéá,
ôóÜíôåò ìáèçôéêÝò, ôóÜíôåò ì’ åñãáôéêÜ óýíåñãá,
ÂïñåéïáíáôïëéêÜ ôùí áðïèçêþí ôñïößìùí âñßóêïíôáí ü,ôé ìðïñåß íá âÜëåé ï íïõò óïõ. Êáé ó’ Ýíá
ôá ëïõôñÜ (Ìðëïê 16), üðïõ ïé S.S. åß÷áí äçìéïõñãÞóåé éäéáßôåñï ÷þñéóìá êñÝìïíôáé ÷éëéÜäåò ìéêñÜ
åéäéêü ÷þñï ãéá ôçí áðïìüíùóç ôùí ãõíáéêþí. óáêïõëÜêéá ìå ïíüìáôá ðÜíù.
ÁíáôïëéêÜ ôùí áðïèçêþí õðÞñ÷å ôï Ìðëïê 21 êáé »Åßíáé ôï óðßôé ôùí áíáìíÞóåùí êáé ôùí åëðßäùí.
áêüìá ðéï áíáôïëéêÜ ôï ÄéïéêçôÞñéï (Ìðëïê 20). Óôï ÐïôÝ óðßôé äåí áãáðÞèçêå ôüóï ðïëý. [...]
Ìðëïê 21 óôåãÜæïíôáí ôá äéÜöïñá óõíåñãåßá, üðùò ôá »ÊÜèå ðïõ èá öùíÜîïõí ïíüìáôá ãéá äéÜöïñåò
êïõñåßá, ôá ñáöåßá, ôá õðïäçìáôïðïéåßá, ôá óéäåñÜäéêá äïõëåéÝò, Þ ãéá ïðïéáäÞðïôå áöïñìÞ, êáíÝíáò
ê.ï.ê., üëá åðáíäñùìÝíá áðü êñáôïõìÝíïõò, ïé ïðïßïé äåí îÝñåé ðïý ðçãáßíïõí. Áí üìùò ôïõò ðÜíå óôï
áóêïýóáí ôá ó÷åôéêÜ åðáããÝëìáôá óôçí êáíïíéêÞ ôïõò “21”, ìðñïóôÜ óôï ðáëéáôæßäéêï, èá ðåé áðüëõóç.
æùÞ326. ÅðéðëÝïí, ôï Ìðëïê 21 åß÷å éäéáßôåñç óçìáóßá ÐáñáëáâÞ ôùí ðñáãìÜôùí ôïõò, áõôü èá ðåé. Óôçí
ãéá ôïõò êñáôïõìÝíïõò, êáèþò åäþ Üöçíáí üëá ôá ÷åéñüôåñç ðåñßðôùóç èá åßíáé áðïóôïëÞ ãéá ôç
ðñïóùðéêÜ ôïõò åßäç, áìÝóùò ìüëéò Ýöôáíáí óôï Ãåñìáíßá Þ ìåôÜèåóç ó’ Üëëåò öõëáêÝò. Ìá ðïôÝ
óôñáôüðåäï327. Ìáæß ìå áõôÜ, Üöçíáí ôéò áíáìíÞóåéò èÜíáôïò»328.
êáé ôéò åëðßäåò ôïõò:
ÁíáôïëéêÜ ôùí ëïõôñþí õøùíüôáí ôï äéáâüçôï Ìðëïê
«ÌðñïóôÜ ìðñïóôÜ, Ý÷åé Ýíá ìáêñüóôåíï 15 ðïõ óôÝãáæå ôçí ôñïìåñÞ áðïìüíùóç ôùí S.S. Ôï
äéáìÝñéóìá, ðïõ, üôáí ç ðüñôá ôïõ åéí’ áíïé÷ôÞ, Ìðëïê 15, ðïõ åîáñ÷Þò ðñïïñéæüôáí ãéá óôñáôéùôéêÞ
óïõ êÜíåé ôçí åíôýðùóç ðëïýóéïõ ðáëéáôæßäéêïõ. öõëáêÞ Þ ðåéèáñ÷åßï, äéÝèåôå ìéêñüôáôá óéäçñüöñá÷ôá

Åðßèåóç êáôÜ ôùí íïóïêïìåßùí êáé åêôÝëåóç áíáðÞñùí áðü ôáãìáôáóöáëßôåò,


÷áñáêôéêü ôïõ ÔÜóóïõ.
231

ðáñÜèõñá êáé éäéáßôåñá áðåñéðïßçôï åîùôåñéêü. Ï ìÝôñá ìáò ÷ùñßæïõí. Îå÷ùñßæïõìå ôéò óéëïõÝôåò
ÁëÝîáíäñïò ÆÞóçò Ýæçóå óôï Ìðëïê 15 åêáôüí åßêïóé ôùí êáôÜäéêùí ãõíáéêþí, ìá åéí’ áäýíáôï íá
ïêôþ çìÝñåò óå áõóôçñÞ áðïìüíùóç: îå÷ùñßóïõìå ðñüóùðá. Ìüíï áðü ôï íôýóéìï,
ôï ÷ñùìáôéóìü ôïõ ñïý÷ïõ Þ ôçí ðïñðáôçóéÜ,
«Óôï 15 –ôç öõëáêÞ– ç æùÞ åßíáé êüëáóç. Ôï ìðïñåßò íá îåäéáêñßíåéò ôç ãõíáßêá Þ ôç ÌÜíá óïõ.
êôßñéï óôï âÜèïò ôïõ óôñáôüðåäïõ 300 ìÝôñá Îå÷ùñßæåéò áêüìá ðùò õðÜñ÷ïõíå ðáéäéÜ ìùñÜ
ìáêñõÜ, áðïìïíùìÝíï ïëüôåëá ìå óåéñÝò áðü ðïõ âõæáßíïõí áêüìá, Þ ðéï ìåãÜëá,
óõñìáôïðëÝãìáôá, ôñéãõñéóìÝíï áðü ðýñãïõò ùò Ýîç ÷ñïíþ»331.
–óêïðéÝò- ìå Éôáëïýò êáé Áõóôñéáêïýò öñïõñïýò
áðÜíù êáé ðïëõâüëá óôñáììÝíá ðñïò áõôü, ìå Óôï õðüãåéï äéÝìåíáí ïé Åâñáßåò êáé óôïí ðñþôï
ðñïâïëåßò ðïõ ôï öùôßæïõíå ôç íý÷ôá, åßíáé êôßñéï- üñïöï ïé ÷ñéóôéáíÝò. Óôïí äåýôåñï üñïöï õðÞñ÷å
ìíÞìá. Ôï 15 öÝñíåé ñßãç öñßêçò êáé áðåëðéóßáò éáôñåßï êáé áíáññùôÞñéï, ïñãáíùìÝíá áðü ôïí
êáé ó’ áõôïýò ôïõò êñáôïýìåíïõò óôï åëåýèåñï êñáôïýìåíï éáôñü Áíôþíç Öëïýíôæç.
óôñáôüðåäï, ðïõ ìüíï áðü ðïëý ìáêñéÜ ì’ Óôï êÝíôñï, ðåñßðïõ, ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ õøùíüôáí
áíáôñé÷ßëá ôï êõôôÜæïõí. Ãéáôß óôá 500 ìÝôñá êÜèå ìßá éäéáßôåñá øçëÞ óêïðéÜ, ïé óêïðïß ôçò ïðïßáò äåí
ðñïóÝããéóç áðáãïñåýåôáé óôïí êáèÝíá ì’ áðåéëÞ åðÝôñåðáí óôïõò Üíäñåò êñáôïõìÝíïõò íá ðëçóéÜóïõí
Üìåóçò åêôÝëåóçò, êáé ìüíïí ï ÄéïéêçôÞò êáé áð’ ôï óõñìáôüðëåãìá ôçò ãõíáéêåßáò ðôÝñõãáò. Ïé ÷þñïé
ôïõò Üëëïõò áîéùìáôéêïýò ïé åíôåôáëìÝíïé ãéá üðïõ ìðïñïýóáí íá ðñïáõëéóôïýí ïé êñáôïýìåíïé
õðçñåóßá, ïé âÜñäéåò ôùí äåóìïöõëÜêùí êáé ôá Þôáí óôïí áíïéêôü ÷þñï óôá íüôéá ôùí Ìðëïê 3 êáé
óõíåñãåßá ôùí ìáãåßñùí ðïõ öÝñíïõí ôá êáæÜíéá 4 Ýùò ôá ìáãåéñåßá. Óôïõò õðüëïéðïõò ÷þñïõò ôïõ
ôïõ öáãçôïý êáé ôï øùìß åðéôñÝðåôáé íá ðåñÜóïõí óôñáôïðÝäïõ ðñüóâáóç åß÷áí ìüíïí üóïé åñãÜæïíôáí
ôïí ðåñßâïëü ôïõ»329. óôá óõíåñãåßá Þ óå áããáñåßåò.

Óôá áíáôïëéêÜ ôïõ Ìðëïê 15 õðÞñ÷áí ïé êïéôþíåò


ôçò åóùôåñéêÞò öñïõñÜò êáé ôï ìáãåéñåßï ôçò. Ôï óôñáôüðåäï ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ
Óôá íüôéá ôïõ êôçñßïõ ôçò åóùôåñéêÞò öñïõñÜò ðñéí áðü ôïõò S.S.
âñéóêüôáí ìåãÜëï éóüãåéï ïéêïäüìçìá (Ìðëïê 14),
üðïõ ïé êáôáêôçôÝò áðïèÞêåõáí áíôéêåßìåíá ðïõ Ôï óôñáôüðåäï ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ ëåéôïýñãçóå õðü éôáëéêÞ
áðïóðïýóáí áðü áèçíáúêÜ óðßôéá. Ôüóá ðïëëÜ Þôáí ôá äéïßêçóç ãéá ëßãåò ìüíï çìÝñåò. ÄéïéêçôÞò åß÷å ïñéóôåß
ãõÜëéíá áíôéêåßìåíá åêåß ìÝóá, þóôå ïé êñáôïýìåíïé ï ëï÷áãüò Roata, ï ïðïßïò äåí Þôáí ðïëý óêëçñüò
áðïêáëïýóáí ôï Ìðëïê 14 «ÃõáëÜäéêï» 330. Óôá ìå ôïõò êñáôïõìÝíïõò. Åðéôñåðüôáí ôï åðéóêåðôÞñéï,
íïôéïáíáôïëéêÜ ôùí Ìðëïê 13 êáé 14 êáé óå ó÷åôéêÜ ôá ãñÜììáôá êáé ôá äÝìáôá, åíþ ïé êñáôïýìåíïé
ìåãÜëç áðüóôáóç áðü áõôÜ, ïõóéáóôéêÜ óôïí ìðïñïýóáí íá ãõñßæïõí Ýîù áðü ôïõò èáëÜìïõò üëåò
áíáôïëéêü ôïìÝá ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ, õðÞñ÷å ç ðôÝñõãá ôéò þñåò ôçò çìÝñáò êáé äåí Þôáí õðï÷ñåùìÝíïé íá
êñÜôçóçò ôùí ãõíáéêþí (Ìðëïê 6) êáé ôá ðëõíôÞñéá. êÜíïõí áããáñåßåò332.
Êáé ôá äýï êôÞñéá ÷ùñßæïíôáí áðü ôï äõôéêü ôìÞìá ÁìÝóùò ìåôÜ ôçí áíáêïßíùóç ôçò óõíèçêïëüãçóçò
ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ ìå óõñìáôüðëåãìá. Óôï Ìðëïê 6 ôçò éôáëéêÞò êõâÝñíçóçò ìå ôéò óõììá÷éêÝò äõíÜìåéò
êñáôïýíôáí êáé ðáéäéÜ çëéêßáò Ýùò Ýîé åôþí: óôéò 8 Óåðôåìâñßïõ 1943, ïé Éôáëïß áðïóýñèçêáí áðü
ôï ×áúäÜñé333. Óôéò 10 Óåðôåìâñßïõ ôï óôñáôüðåäï
«¼îù áðü ôï êýñéï êôéñéáêü óõãêñüôçìá, ðñïò ðÝñáóå óôá ÷Ýñéá ôùí Ãåñìáíþí, ïé ïðïßïé áñ÷éêÜ
ô’ áíáôïëéêÜ, õøþíåôáé ìßá Üëëç üìïéá óôñáôþíá. ôï ÷ñçóéìïðïßçóáí ùò ðáñÜñôçìá ôùí öõëáêþí
×ùñßæåôáé áðü ìáò ìå óõñìáôïðëÝãìáôá. Åêåß ÁâÝñùö, ìå äéïéêçôÞ ôïí åðéëï÷ßá Roudi Trepte. Óôï íÝï
áðáãïñåýåôáé íá ðëçóéÜóïõìå. Ôï ðïëý 600-700 êáèåóôþò ïé óõíèÞêåò äéáâßùóçò Ýãéíáí ðïëý óêëçñÝò.
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óôñáôþíåò ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ. Ìðáßíïíôáò ìÝóá ìáò


ðáñáëáâáßíåé Ýíáò Ãåñìáíüò äåêáíÝáò, ðïõ áí
êáé öþíáæå êÜèå ôüóï êáé Ýëåãå, êáé îáíÜëåãå, ôï:
-ÓéíÝë, ÓéíÝë, óáêñáìÝíôï, äå öáéíüôáíå ãéá êáêüò
Üíèñùðïò. Åß÷å ãéá âïçèïýò äýï êñáôïýìåíïõò
ðïõ ìáò ðáñáëÜâáéíáí êáé ìáò ôïðïèåôïýóáí óôï
Ìðëïê (Ìðëïê ëÝíå ïé Ãåñìáíïß ôá ÷ôßñéá êáé óå
êÜèå Ýíá Ý÷ïõí ãñÜøåé êáé êÜðïéï áñéèìü). Ôï äéêü
ìáò Þôáí ôï Ìðëïê 4. [...]
»Ôï âñÜäõ óõíôá÷èÞêáìå êáôÜ Ìðëïê óå
ðåíôÜäåò ìðñïóôÜ óôï ÷ôßñéü ìáò. Áðü êåé
ðçãáßíáìå óôï óõóóßôéï êÜèå ïìÜäá îå÷ùñéóôÜ.
¼ôáí ôåëåßùíå ç ìßá ïìÜäá ðÞãáéíå ç Üëëç.
ÓõæÞôçóç êáé ëüãéá áðáãïñåýïíôáí áõóôçñÜ.
»¾óôåñá áðü ôï óõóóßôéï âãáßíïõìå ðÜëé óå
óýíôáîç ãéá ðñïóêëçôÞñéï êÜèå ïìÜäá îå÷ùñéóôÜ
óôï ÷ôßñéü ôçò. ÄåîéÜ áðü ôï äéêü ìáò Ìðëïê 4,
åßíáé ïé Áêñïíáõðëéþôåò, ç ïìÜäá ôçò ÁíÜöçò êáé
ç ïìÜäá ôùí öõìáôéêþí. ¼ëïé ôïõò ìáæß åßíáé ùò
ôñéáêüóéïé ðåíÞíôá íïìáôáßïé. Ï èáëáìÜñ÷çò ðïõ
¸íá áðü ôá åëÜ÷éóôá áíôßôõðá ðáñÜíïìçò åðïíßôéêçò áößóáò
ðïõ Ý÷ïõí äéáóùèåß. Öéëïôå÷íÞèçêå áðü ôïí êáëëéôÝ÷íç ÖÝñôç
åßíáé äéêüò ìáò êñáôïýìåíïò, ìáæß ìå ôï óôñáôéþôç
(áñ÷åßï Ìïõóåßïõ ÅèíéêÞò Áíôßóôáóçò Ïäïý Ìðéæáíßïõ). ðïõ öñïõñåß ôï Ìðëïê, ìáò ìåôñïýí ðñïóåêôéêÜ
êáé äßíïõí áíáöïñÜ óôï ëï÷ßá óôñáôïðåäÜñ÷ç,
Ïé êñáôïýìåíïé ðáñÝìåíáí ó÷åäüí ïëüêëçñç ôçí Ýíáí êïíôü÷ïíôñï Ãåñìáíü, ðïõ íïìßæåé ðùò äåí
çìÝñá óôïõò èáëÜìïõò ôïõò, üðïõ Ýðñåðå íá åðéêñáôåß ðáôåß óôç ãç. [...] Óáí ôåëåßùíå áõôÞ ç ðáñÜóôáóç
êáèáñéüôçôá êáé áðüëõôç ôÜîç. Åêôüò èáëÜìïõ ìáò Ýëåãå åëëçíéêÜ Ýíá “Êáëçíý÷ôá” êáé ìåéò
Ýâãáéíáí ôéò þñåò ôïõ óõóóéôßïõ, ôïõ ðñïóêëçôçñßïõ, öùíÜæáìå Ýíá äõíáôü “Ïýñá” êáé êëåßóéìï óôïõò
ôçò ãõìíáóôéêÞò êáé ôùí áããáñåéþí. Ôï åðéóêåðôÞñéï èáëÜìïõò.
ãéíüôáí ìüíï ìßá öïñÜ ôïí ìÞíá 334. »Ôï ðñùß óçêùíüìáóôå óôéò åöôÜ êáé âãÜæáìå
ÓôáäéáêÜ ï áñéèìüò ôùí êñáôïõìÝíùí áõîáíüôáí. ôá ñïý÷á ìáò ãéá ôßíáãìá êáé óôéò ï÷ôþ êÜíáìå
Ôïí Ïêôþâñéï Ýöôáóáí ôñéáêüóéá Üôïìá áðü ôçí ðñïóêëçôÞñéï. ÌåôÜ ôçí áíáöïñÜ ãéíüìáóôå äýï
ÊáëáìÜôá, ðïõ åß÷áí óõëëçöèåß óå ìðëüêá óôá ïìÜäåò. Ç ìßá áðü çëéêéùìÝíïõò óå öÜëáããá êáôÜ
÷ùñéÜ ôïõò. Óôï ×áúäÜñé ïé Ãåñìáíïß ôïýò åðÝâáëáí ðåíôÜäåò êÜíåé âçìáôéóìü áñãü, üðùò ôáéñéÜæåé
óõíèÞêåò áðüëõôçò áðïìüíùóçò 335. ÅðéðëÝïí, óôéò óå ãåñïíôÜêéá. Ç Üëëç ïìÜäá áðü íÝïõò êÜíåé
áñ÷Ýò Íïåìâñßïõ ôåôñáêüóéïé éôáëïêñáôïýìåíïé áðü ôñï÷Üäçí, óïõçäéêÞ ãõìíáóôéêÞ êáé ðáé÷íßäéá.
ôéò öõëáêÝò ÁâÝñùö ìåôáöÝñèçêáí óôï ×áúäÜñé. [...] Ìéá Üëëç ïìÜäá ðÞãáéíå óôá ìáãåéñßá êáé
Ìåôáîý áõôþí Þôáí êáé ï ÄçìÞôñéïò ÐáõëÜêçò, ï êáèÜñéæå ôá üóðñéá ôïõ óõóóéôßïõ ìáò. Ç Ýîïäïò
ïðïßïò êáôáãñÜöåé ìå ëåðôïìÝñåéá ôéò ðñþôåò ôïõ áðü ôïõò èáëÜìïõò ìáò Þôáíå ìßá þñá ôï ðñùß
åíôõðþóåéò óôï óôñáôüðåäï: êáé ìßá þñá ôï âñÜäõ. Ôï ôóéãÜñï áðáãïñåõüôáí
óôï ðñïáýëéï. Óôï èÜëáìï üìùò ìðïñïýóáìå íá
«ÔñÝ÷ïõí ô’ áõôïêßíçôá óôïí áóöáëôùìÝíï äñüìï. êáðíßóïõìå, üôáí åß÷áìå ôóéãÜñá. Êáé åðéóêåðôÞñéï
Ðåñíïýìå áðü ôï Äáöíß êáé ðñï÷ùñïýìå óôçí èá ìáò Ýäéíå ï äéïéêçôÞò ìéá öïñÜ óôïí êáèÝíá
ÉåñÜ ïäü. ÄåîéÜ óôï ñéæü ôïõ âïõíïý åßíáé ïé ìáò óôï ìÞíá»336.
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Ëüãù ôçò óõíÞèåéáò ôïõ Trepte íá êáëçíõ÷ôßæåé áíáëáìâÜíù ôç äéïßêçóç ôïõ óôñáôüðåäïõ.
ôïõò êñáôïõìÝíïõò óôá åëëçíéêÜ, ôïí áðïêáëïýóáí ÈÝëù áðüëõôç ôÜîç, ðåéèáñ÷ßá êáé çóõ÷ßá. ÊÜèå
«Êáëçíý÷ôá». Ç åóùôåñéêÞ öñïõñÜ ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ ðáñÜâáóç, êÜèå áôáîßá èá ôéìùñåßôáé áìåßëéêôá,
åðß «Êáëçíý÷ôá» áðïôåëïýíôáí áðü ïêôþ Üíäñåò 337. áêüìá êáé ìå ôá üðëá. ÊÜèå äéáôáãÞ ìïõ èá
Ùò äéåñìçíåßò üñéóå ôïõò êñáôïõìÝíïõò Ðáíáãéþôç åêôåëåßôáé áìÝóùò êáé ìå áêñßâåéá êáé ÷ùñßò êáìßá
ÌáõñïìÜôç êáé ÍáðïëÝïíôá Óïõêáôæßäç. áíôéëïãßá. Áðü ôþñá êáé ðÝñá ôï óôñáôüðåäï
Óôéò 21 Íïåìâñßïõ 1943 ç ÃêåóôÜðï óõíÝëáâå ôïõò èá åßíáé ôüðïò åñãáóßáò. ÅñãÜóéìåò þñåò ïñßæù
Trepte, ÌáõñïìÜôç êáé Óïõêáôæßäç êáé ôïõò öõëÜêéóå áðü ôéò 8 ùò ôéò 12 ôï ðñùß êáé áðü ôç 1 ùò ôéò 5
óôéò öõëáêÝò ÁâÝñùö. Ï ëüãïò ôçò óýëëçøçò áõôÞò ôï áðüãåõìá êÜèå ìÝñá. Ôéò ÊõñéáêÝò èá ãßíåôáé
ðáñáìÝíåé áäéåõêñßíéóôïò· ðéèáíüí ó÷åôßæåôáé ìå êáèáñéüôçôá óôïõò èáëÜìïõò êáé øõ÷áãùãßá óôï
êÜðïéá êáôÜ÷ñçóç ðïõ Ýêáíå ï Ãåñìáíüò äéïéêçôÞò 338. ðñïáýëéï»341.
Áðü ôéò 23 Ýùò ôéò 28 Íïåìâñßïõ ôç äéïßêçóç ôïõ
óôñáôïðÝäïõ áíÝëáâå êÜðïéïò ëï÷ßáò, ï ïðïßïò Ïé êñáôïýìåíïé ÷ùñßóôçêáí óå ïìÜäåò ôùí åêáôü
÷ñçóéìïðïßçóå ùò äéåñìçíÝá ôïí ÄçìÞôñç Ôïõëïýðá. áôüìùí, ôéò åêáôïíôáñ÷ßåò ìå åðéêåöáëÞò ôïí
Óôéò 29 Íïåìâñßïõ ç äéïßêçóç ðÝñáóå óôá ÷Ýñéá ôùí åêáôüíôáñ÷ï. Ïé åêáôïíôáñ÷ßåò ìïéñÜóôçêáí, ìå ôç
S.S. êáé ôïõ äéáâüçôïõ ôáãìáôÜñ÷ç Paul Radomski 339. óåéñÜ ôïõò, óå ïìÜäåò ôùí äåêáðÝíôå áôüìùí ìå
Ç áíÜëçøç ôçò äéïßêçóçò ôïõ ÷áúäáñéþôéêïõ åðéêåöáëÞò ôïí äåêáðÝíôáñ÷ï. Ïé åêáôüíôáñ÷ïé êáé
óôñáôüðåäïõ áðü ôéò äõíÜìåéò ôùí S.S. ïñãáíþèçêå ïé äåêáðÝíôáñ÷ïé, êñáôïýìåíïé êáé áõôïß, Ýðñåðå íá
áðü ôïí óôñáôçãü Stroop, ï ïðïßïò åðéóêÝöôçêå êáôáãñÜøïõí ôïõò Üíäñåò ôïõò êáé íá åßíáé õðåýèõíïé
ôçí ÁèÞíá ôïí ÓåðôÝìâñç ôïõ 1943 êáé ðáñÝìåéíå ãé’ áõôïýò342.
ãéá ëßãåò ìüíï åâäïìÜäåò. Óôü÷ïò ôïõ Þôáí ç Ïé áããáñåßåò, ôéò ïðïßåò Þôáí õðï÷ñåùìÝíïé íá
êáôáãñáöÞ, ç óýëëçøç êáé ç áðïóôïëÞ óôçí Ðïëùíßá êÜíïõí óå êáèçìåñéíÞ ðëÝïí âÜóç ïé êñáôïýìåíïé
üëùí ôùí ÅëëÞíùí Åâñáßùí. Åðßóçò, ï Stroop
ïñãÜíùóå óôçí ÁèÞíá ôçí áóôõíïìßá ôùí S.S. ìå
ôá åéäéêÜ äùìÜôéá ôùí âáóáíéóôçñßùí êáé ôá öñéêôÜ
áðïìïíùôÞñéá340.

Ôï ×áúäÜñé óôñáôüðåäï ôùí S.S.


O ôáãìáôÜñ÷çò Paul Radomski

Ìå ôç äéïßêçóç óôá ÷Ýñéá ôùí S.S., ìéá íÝá, óáöþò


óêëçñüôåñç öÜóç îåêéíïýóå ãéá ôïõò êñáôïõìÝíïõò
óôï óôñáôüðåäï ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ. ×áñáêôçñéóôéêÜ åßíáé
ôá ëüãéá ðïõ ï íÝïò óôñáôïðåäÜñ÷çò áðçýèõíå óôïõò
êñáôïõìÝíïõò óôï ðñþôï ôïõ ðñïóêëçôÞñéï ìå ôç
âïÞèåéá ôïõ äéåñìçíÝá ÄçìÞôñç Ôïõëïýðá:

«Åßìáé ï ôáãìáôÜñ÷çò Radomski. Áðü óÞìåñá

Áößóá ðïõ êõêëïöüñçóå óôï Ìüíá÷ï ãéá ôç óôñáôïëüãçóç


ôùí íÝùí óôá S.S.
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ÅêóêáöÞ ïìáäéêïý ôÜöïõ èõìÜôùí ôçò Êáôï÷Þò.

óôï ×áúäÜñé, óôáäéáêÜ áõîÜíïíôáí êáé ãßíïíôáí ðéï Þ íá ó÷çìáôßæïõí óùñïýò áðü ìðÜæá êáé Ýðåéôá íá ôá
óêëçñÝò. Ôáõôü÷ñïíá, áõîáíüôáí êáé ç áãñéüôçôá ôïõ îáíáóêïñðßæïõí. Ï êñáôïýìåíïò äçìïóéïãñÜöïò Íßêïò
äéïéêçôÞ êáé ôùí öáíôÜñùí ðïõ ðáñáêïëïõèïýóáí ôçí ÑáíôáìÜíçò áíáöÝñåé:
åîÝëéîç ôùí åñãáóéþí. Ïé åñãáóßåò ó÷åôßæïíôáí ìå
åðéóêåõÝò, êáèáñéóìïýò êáé êáëëùðéóìü ôùí êôçñßùí «Ï óêïðüò ôïõ Radomski äåí Þôáí íá
ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ. ÂÝâáéá, ëßãåò öïñÝò ïé áããáñåßåò åîùñáÀóïõìå ôï åóùôåñéêü ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ, áëëÜ
åß÷áí ëïãéêïöáíÞ óêïðü. Ï Radomski êáé ïé Üíäñåò íá ðáéäåõüìáóôå Üóêïðá ãéá íá éêáíïðïéïýìå ôïí
ôïõ õðï÷ñÝùíáí ôïõò êñáôïõìÝíïõò íá óêÜâïõí óáäéóìü ôïõ. “ÑÜâå, îÞëùíå, äïõëåéÜ íá ìç óïõ
ëÜêêïõò ìå ôá ÷Ýñéá êáé Ýðåéôá íá ôïõò îáíáãåìßæïõí ëåßðåé”. Ð.÷. ôïí ðåëþñéï ëÜêêï ðïõ ãåìßóáìå ìå
235

ôá íý÷éá ìáò, ôïí îáíáäåéÜóáìå êáé îáíáãåìßóáìå áðïäõíÜìùóç êáé ôçí áóèÝíåéá 347.
ôñåéò öïñÝò. ¸íá Üëëï âïõíü áðü ðÝôñåò, ðïõ Ï Radomski348 Þôáí ãýñù óôá ðåíÞíôá. Êáôáãüôáí áðü
Ýöôáíáí íá ÷ôßóåéò äýï ðïëõêáôïéêßåò, ôéò ôçí Ðñùóßá êáé åß÷å Ýñèåé óôçí ÁèÞíá êáôåõèåßáí áðü
ìåôáöÝñáìå êÜðïõ äÝêá öïñÝò áðü óçìåßï óå ôï ìÝôùðï ôïõ ÊéÝâïõ.
óçìåßï. Óôßâåò áðü Üììï ôéò êïõâáëïýóáìå ìå ôéò
÷ïýöôåò ðüôå åäþ êáé ðüôå åêåß. ÊÜôé ðåæïýëéá, «Åß÷å ãåñÞ êïñìïóôáóéÜ, ìá ôï ðñüóùðü ôïõ
ðïõ ÷ôßóáìå áðü ôçí êåíôñéêÞ åßóïäï ùò ôï 15, ôç Ýäåé÷íå Üíèñùðï óêëçñü. Ôá ìÜôéá ôïõ åß÷áí Ýíá
ìßá ìÝñá ôá öôéÜ÷íáìå, ôçí Üëëç ôá ãêñåìßæáìå ìïõíôü ãêñßæï ÷ñþìá, óáí ôïí êëáøéÜñéêï ïõñáíü,
ìå äéáôáãÞ ôïõ Radomski. Ï õðïêüðáíïò ôùí ðïõ åßíáé Ýôïéìïò íá îåóðÜóåé óå ìðüñá. Åß÷å
öñïõñþí êáé ç íçóôåßá îåèýìáéíáí óôéò ðëÜôåò êáé ìõùðßá óå ìåãÜëï âáèìü êáé ãé’ áõôü öïñïýóå
ôá óôïìÜ÷éá ìáò»343. ÷ïíôñÜ ãõáëéÜ óáí ôïõò öáêïýò. Ìå ôï âïýñäïõëá
óôï ÷Ýñé ãýñéæå üëï ôï óôñáôüðåäï êáé ïýñëéáæå
Ôï ðáñáêÜôù ðåñéóôáôéêü, ðïõ äéçãåßôáé ï Êþóôáò óáí ôï óêõëß êëùôóþíôáò êáé äÝñíïíôáò.
Âáôéêéþôçò, ðáñïõóéÜæåé ìå áíÜãëõöï ôñüðï ¢ìá ôïí âëÝðïõìå íÜñ÷åôáé öùíÜæåé ç ìßá ïìÜäá
ôïí óáäéóìü êáé ôçí ðåñéöñüíçóç, ìå ôá ïðïßá óôçí Üëëç óõíèçìáôéêÜ: “Óýñìá”. ¸ôóé ôïõ êüëëçóå
áíôéìåôþðéæáí ïé S.S. ôïõò êñáôïõìÝíïõò: ôï ðáñáôóïýêëé, ï Óýñìáò, êáé ùò ôï ôÝëïò ì’ áõôü
ôïí ëÝãáíå»349.
«ÊáôÜ ôáò þñáò ôçò åñãáóßáò ïé öñïõñïß äåí
ðåñéïñßæïíôï ìüíïí åéò äáñìïýò êáé ýâñåéò, áëëÜ Ìüëéò ïé S.S. áíÝëáâáí ôç äéïßêçóç ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ
åðÝâáëëïí åéò ôïõò êñáôïýìåíïõò åíßïôå êáé ôïõò ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ, ï áñéèìüò ôùí áíäñþí ðïõ
÷åéñüôåñïõò åîåõôåëéóìïýò. Áñêåß íá áíáöÝñù, áðïôåëïýóáí ôçí åóùôåñéêÞ öñïõñÜ äéðëáóéÜóôçêå.
ùò ðáñÜäåéãìá, üôé åãþ áõôüò çíáãêÜóèçí ìßáí Ï ðëÝïí óêëçñüò Þôáí ï äéáâüçôïò Êüâáôò, Ýíáò
çìÝñáí íá åãêáôáëåßøù ôçí åñãáóßáí ìïõ åéò äåêáïêôÜ÷ñïíïò óôñáôéþôçò ðïõ åðéäåßêíõå
ôá óõñìáôïðëÝãìáôá êáé í’ áêïëïõèÞóù ôïí ðñùôïöáíÞ áãñéüôçôá óôçí åðéâïëÞ ôùí ôéìùñéþí
öñïõñüí, üóôéò, áöïý ìå ïäÞãçóå åéò õðáßèñéïí êáé ôçí åðßâëåøç ôùí áããáñåéþí 350. Ìåôáîý ôùí
áðï÷ùñçôÞñéïí, ìå åîçíÜãêáóå íá ìáæåýù êñáôïõìÝíùí Þôáí ãíùóôüò êáé ùò «Êïõëüò», äéüôé
áêáèáñóßáò ìå ôá ÷Ýñéá êáé íá ôáò ìåôáöÝñù åéò ôïõ Ýëåéðáí ôñßá äÜ÷ôõëá áðü ôï áñéóôåñü ÷Ýñé.
ðáñáêåßìåíïí ëÜêêïí»344. ËÝãåôáé ðùò áêüìá êáé ïé Ãåñìáíïß ôïí öïâïýíôáí 351.
Ï ÄçìÞôñçò ÐáõëÜêçò èõìÜôáé ôï «öéäÜêé» 352, Ýíá áðü
Ï óêëçñüò Paul Radomski ìåôÝôñåøå ôï óôñáôüðåäï ôá ðéï áãáðçìÝíá âáóáíéóôÞñéá, óôá ïðïßá õðÝâáëëå
ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ óå Ýíá ôåñÜóôéï åñãïôÜîéï, üðïõ ôïõò êñáôïõìÝíïõò ï óáäéóôÞò Êüâáôò:
êáíåßò äåí ìðïñïýóå íá óôáìáôÞóåé íá äïõëåýåé,
ïýôå êáí ãéá íá ðÜñåé áíÜóá 345. ÅðéðëÝïí, êÜðïéïé áðü «ÓùóôÞ ï÷éÜ. ¼ôáí äÝñíåé ãåëÜ êáé ôá ìÜôéá
ôïõò êñáôïõìÝíïõò ÷ñçóéìïðïéïýíôáí óå åîùôåñéêÝò ãßíïíôáé áêüìá ðéï ìéêñÜ êáé ôá äüíôéá ôïõ
åñãáóßåò, ð.÷. óå áããáñåßåò óôá ãñáöåßá ôùí S.S. óôçí ãõáëßæïõí óáí ôïõ ðåèáìÝíïõ. ÎÝñåé ðïëëÜ
ïäü ÌÝñëéí, óôéò âïìâüðëçêôåò ðåñéï÷Ýò ôïõ ÐåéñáéÜ, ãõìíÜóéá áêüìá, üðùò ôï öéäÜêé. ¸íá âñï÷åñü
óôï ÖÜëçñï êáé ôïí ÓêáñáìáãêÜ. Áõôïß, âÝâáéá, áðüãåõìá, ðïõ ç ãç Þôáí ëáóðùìÝíç, ðÞñå äýï
èåùñïýíôáí ó÷åôéêÜ ôõ÷åñïß, êáèþò åß÷áí ôçí åõêáéñßá åêáôïíôáñ÷ßåò áð’ áõôÝò ðïõ äåí åß÷áí äïõëåéÜ
íá âãïõí ãéá ëßãï áðü ôï óôñáôüðåäï, íá äïõí êáé, áöïý Ýâãáëáí ôá ðáëôÜ êáé ôá óáêêÜêéá
Üëëïõò áíèñþðïõò Ýóôù êáé áðü ìáêñéÜ, íá ìÜèïõí ôïõò, ôïõò áñáßùóå, üðùò êÜíïõí óôç óïõçäéêÞ,
êÜðïéá íÝá346. Ç Ýíôïíç óùìáôéêÞ êáôáðüíçóç óå ê’ ýóôåñá ôïõò õðï÷ñÝùóå íá ðÝóïõí ìðñïýìçôá
óõíäõáóìü ìå ôá ðåíé÷ñÜ ãåýìáôá ðïõ ðñïóöÝñïíôáí, óôç ãç êáé íá óÝñíïíôáé ìå ôçí êïéëéÜ üðùò
ïäçãïýóáí óôáäéáêÜ ôïõò êñáôïõìÝíïõò óôçí ðëÞñç óÝñíïíôáé ôá ößäéá. Êõëéþíôáé ïé Üíèñùðïé ÷Üìù
236

óôç ëáóðùìÝíç ãç óáí ôá ãïõñïýíéá êé’ ï Êïõëüò


ìå ôï êáëþäéï äÝñíåé áëýðçôá, üðïéïí ðÜñåé ôï
ìÜôé ôïõ íá áêïõìðÜ ôá ÷Ýñéá ôïõ ÷Üìù. ÁõôÞ ç
ôéìùñßá êñÜôçóå ßóáìå ìßá þñá. Ôï âÜóáíï ôïýôï
Þôáí ôï öéäÜêé»353.

H ðñþôç åêôÝëåóç óôï ×áúäÜñé

Ç ðñþôç åêôÝëåóç óôï óôñáôüðåäï ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ


Ýëáâå ÷þñá óôéò 7 Äåêåìâñßïõ 1943 ôï áðüãåõìá. Ôï
èýìá, ôï ïðïßï åêôåëÝóôçêå áðü ôïí ßäéï ôïí Radomski,
Ýöôáóå óôï ×áúäÜñé ìå äùäåêáìåëÞ ïìÜäá áðü ôéò
öõëáêÝò ÁâÝñùö ôï ìåóçìÝñé ôçò ßäéáò çìÝñáò 354. Ìáæß
ôïõ Þôáí êáé ï Êþóôáò Âáôéêéþôçò, ï ïðïßïò äéçãåßôáé
ôï áíáôñé÷éáóôéêü åðåéóüäéï:

«Ôçí çìÝñáí ôçò áíá÷ùñÞóåþò ìáò áðü ôáò


öõëáêÜò ÁâÝñùö, ôï áõôïêßíçôïí ôïõ ïðïßïõ
åðåâáßíáìåí åóôáìÜôçóå ðñï ôçò åéóüäïõ
ôïõ åîùôåñéêïý ðåñéâüëïõ. Åßäïìåí ôüôå íá
ñßðôïõí åíôüò ôïõ ï÷Þìáôïò Ýíáí Üíèñùðïí
óéäçñïäÝóìéïí, ñáêÝíäõôïí, ìáýñïí áðü ôï
îýëï. Åðñüêåéôï ðåñß åíüò åöÝäñïõ õðïëï÷áãïý
ôïõ åëëçíéêïý óôñáôïý, ôïõ Éóñáçëßôïõ ËåõÞ
åî Éùáííßíùí. ¼ôáí åöèÜóáìåí åéò ôï ×áúäÜñé,
ï ÄéïéêçôÞò, êáôÜ ôï ðñïóêëçôÞñéïí ôïõ
áðïãåýìáôïò, åêÜëåóå ôïí äéåñìçíÝá êáé ôïõ
åíå÷åßñéóåí åí Ýããñáöïí, äéÝôáîå äå óõã÷ñüíùò
ôïí äõóôõ÷Þ êñáôïýìåíïí, ï ïðïßïò Þôï áêüìç
óéäçñïäÝóìéïò êáé åß÷å ôá÷èåß áñéóôåñÜ ìïõ, íá
ðñï÷ùñÞóåé ðëçóßïí ôïõ. Áöïý ôïí åìáóôßãùóåí
åéò ôï ðñüóùðïí åóôñÜöç ðñïò ôïí äéåñìçíÝá
êáé ôïõ åßðå íá äéáâÜóåé ìåãáëïöþíùò ôçí
Ýããñáöïí äéáôáãÞí ôïõ. Êáé ï äéåñìçíåýò
áíÝãíùóå: “Ï äéïéêçôÞò ×áúäáñßïõ ÔáãìáôÜñ÷çò
Ñáäüìóêõ èá åêôåëÝóåé éäéï÷åßñùò åíþðéüí óáò
ôïí ËåõÞ, äéüôé áðåðåéñÜèç íá äñáðåôåýóåé ôçí

Èýìá âáóáíéóôçñßùí, ðïõ Ýëáâáí ÷þñá óôï êôÞñéï


ôçò ïäïý ÌÝñëéí (Áðü ôï ëåýêùìá ôïõ Õðïõñãåßïõ Åóùôåñéêþí
- Äéåýèõíóç ÅãêëçìáôïëïãéêÞò Õðçñåóßáò Öùôïãñáößáé áðü ôá
äåéíïðáèÞìáôá ôïõ åëëçíéêïý ëáïý êáôÜ ôç äéÜñêåéá ôçò Êáôï÷Þò
ôï 1941-1944).
237

ÐñùôïóÝëéäï ðáñÜíïìïõ öýëëïõ ôïõ ÑéæïóðÜóôç ðïõ êõêëïöüñçóå ëßãåò çìÝñåò ðñéí áðü ôçí ÁðåëåõèÝñùóç.

çìÝñáí ôçò óõëëÞøåþò ôïõ. ÐñïóÝîáôå. Ç áõôÞ êáé ôùí õðüëïéðùí áãñéïôÞôùí ôïõ ôáãìáôÜñ÷ç
ôý÷ç óáò ðåñéìÝíåé, áí åðé÷åéñÞóåôå ôï ßäéïí”. Radomski, äåí Þôáí ôüóï íá ôéìùñÞóåé ôïí ËåõÞ,
Ïé ðáñáôåôáãìÝíïé êñáôïýìåíïé åðÜãùóáí áðü üóï íá áðïôñÝøåé ðáñüìïéåò ðñÜîåéò. ÃåíéêÜ, ôï
öñßêçí. Ï áðáßóéïò äéïéêçôÞò åðñáãìáôïðïßçóåí óýóôçìá ôñïìïêñáôßáò êáé åêöïâéóìïý, ôï ïðïßï
ôçí áðåéëÞí ôïõ. ÅôñÜâçîå ôï ðåñßóôñïöïí êáé åöÜñìïóå ï ×ßôëåñ óå ïëüêëçñç ôçí Åõñþðç, óôü÷åõå
åðõñïâüëçóå åíáíôßïí ôïõ áôõ÷ïýò áíèñþðïõ, óôïí áöáíéóìü ôçò èÝëçóçò êáé ôçò öáíôáóßáò ôùí
ï ïðïßïò åóùñéÜóèç êáôÜ ãçò áéìüöõñôïò. õðüäïõëùí ðëçèõóìþí. ¸ôóé, ç óõìðåñéöïñÜ ôùí
Ï Ãåñìáíüò äïëïöüíïò áôÜñá÷ïò äéÝôáîåí ôüôå ìåëþí ôçò öñïõñÜò óôï óôñáôüðåäï ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ
íá ôïí ðÜñùìåí. Ðñéí üìùò ôïí óçêþóùìåí, åß÷å óôü÷ï íá äçìéïõñãÞóåé óôïõò êñáôïõìÝíïõò ìßá
åðåôÝèç åíáíôßïí ìáò ìå ôï âïýíåõñïí, ôïí åðÞñåí äéáñêÞ áíáóöÜëåéá ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôç æùÞ ôïõò 356.
áðü ôá ÷Ýñéá ìáò êáé ôïí åðõñïâüëçóåí áêüìç ÌåôÜ ôç äïëïöïíßá ôïõ ËåõÞ, áêïëïýèçóáí
ìßáí öïñÜ. ÄéÝôáîå ôüôå íá ôïõ áöáéñÝóùìåí ðïëõÜñéèìåò ïìáäéêÝò åêôåëÝóåéò óôï ×áúäÜñé.
ôá õðïäÞìáôá. ¹óáí êáéíïõñãÞ êáé óõíåðþò ÁíåöÝñåôáé üôé åêôåëÝóôçêáí óõíïëéêÜ 1.800
êáëÞ ëåßá. Áêïëïõèïýìåíïé áðü ôïí äéïéêçôÞ êñáôïýìåíïé, åíþ 300 áêüìç èáíáôþèçêáí óôéò
ìåôåöÝñáìå ôï èýìá ðñïò ôáöÞí êáé ôç õðïäåßîåé áíáêñßóåéò óôï áñ÷çãåßï ôçò ÃêåóôÜðï óôçí ïäü
ôïõ, åëëåßøåé öôéáñéïý êáé óêáðÜíçò, ôï åèÜøáìå ÌÝñëéí óôï êÝíôñï ôçò ÁèÞíáò êáé óôï ×áúäÜñé.
ìå ôá ÷Ýñéá ìáò åéò Ýíá ëÜêêïí óêïõðéäéþí. ÁíÜìåóá óå áõôïýò õðÞñ÷áí ôïõëÜ÷éóôïí 30
Ï áôõ÷Þò äåí åß÷åí åêðíåýåé áêüìç, üôáí ôïí ãõíáßêåò, 104 áíÜðçñïé ðïëÝìïõ, 190 öïéôçôÝò êáé 40
åêáëýøáìå ìå ôï ÷þìá ôïõ ×áúäáñéïý»355. ìáèçôÝò357. Ç ðëÝïí ìáæéêÞ åêôÝëåóç Þôáí áõôÞ ôùí
Óýìöùíá ìå ïìÜäá øõ÷ïëüãùí ðïõ åñåýíçóå ôï 200 Áêñïíáõðëéùôþí ôçí 1ç ÌáÀïõ 1944, óôçí ïðïßá
öáéíüìåíï ôçò íáæéóôéêÞò âßáò ìåôÜ ôï ôÝëïò ôïõ èá áíáöåñèïýìå áíáëõôéêÜ óå ìßá áðü ôéò åðüìåíåò
ðïëÝìïõ, ï óôü÷ïò ôçò äïëïöïíßáò áõôÞò, êáèþò åíüôçôåò358.
238
239

Ôï ôñïìåñü Ìðëïê 15 êáôÜ ôç äåêáåôßá ôïõ 1950.


240

Ìðëïê 15 óôéò äþäåêá ôï ìïíáäéêü ãéá ôá êåëëéÜ óõóóßôéï


ôçò çìÝñáò. Ôï øùìß êáé ôï ðéÜôï ôÜðåñíå ï
Ôï Ìðëïê 15 ùò ÷þñïò áõóôçñÞò áðïìüíùóçò êñáôïýìåíïò áð’ ôçí ðüñôá ðïõ ìéóÜíïéãå ÷ùñßò
åãêáéíéÜóôçêå ôïí ÄåêÝìâñéï ôïõ 1943. Ç áñ÷éôåêôïíéêÞ íá âëÝðåé áíèñþðéíï ðñüóùðï. Ç çìåñçóßá
ôïõ ìïñöÞ, ìå ôïõò ìåãÜëïõò èáëÜìïõò êáé ôá ëéãïóôÜ ìåñßäá ôïõ øùìéïý êáé ôé øùìß!!! Þôáí ôï ðïëý 30
ðáñÜèõñá, õðïäåéêíýåé üôé ÷ôßóôçêå ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá äñÜìéá êáé ôï ìïíáäéêü óõóóßôéï ðÝíôå êïõôáëéÝò
óôåãÜóåé êÜðïéá óôñáôéùôéêÞ öõëáêÞ. Âñéóêüôáí óôï ñåâýèéá Þ ìáýñá ÷ïíôñÜ ìáêáñüíéá íåñüâñáóôá,
âüñåéï ôìÞìá ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ, êïíôÜ óôá Ìðëïê 3 êáé ðÜíôïôå üìùò æåóôü êáé öñïíôéóìÝíï áð’ ôïõò
4. Ï ÈÝìïò ÊïñíÜñïò ðåñéãñÜöåé 359: Áêñïíáõðëéþôåò ìáãåßñïõò. Ïé èÜëáìïé åß÷áí êáé
ô’ áðüãåõìá óõóóßôéï ðïõ ãåíéêÜ åêåß äéíüôáíå êáé
«Ôï ìüíï ÷ôßñéï ðïõ ìÝíåé áóïõâÜíôéóôï, óå ìåãáëýôåñç ðïóüôçôá. Óôéò ôåóóåñéóßìéóç ôï
åîùôåñéêÜ ãéá íá öáßíåôáé ðáëéü, ìïõ÷ëéáóìÝíï, áðüãåõìá ðåíôÜëåðôç Ýîïäï ãéá “ëïõôñü”, ðÜëéí
áñá÷íéáóìÝíï, ãéá ôçí ðñþôç øõ÷ïëïãéêÞ ôñåéò-ôñåéò êáé óôéò ðÝíôå áêñéâþò êáôÜêëéóç. ¼ëç
åðßäñáóç. Äýï ðáôþìáôá. Óôï ðñþôï Ýíá ìåãÜëï ìÝñá ï öõëáêéóìÝíïò åßíáé õðï÷ñåùìÝíïò íÜ ’÷åé
äùìÜôéï 4×7, äåîéÜ, êé Üëëï Ýíá áñéóôåñÜ. ÁõôÜ áíïéêôü ôï ðáñÜèõñï, åßôå âñÝ÷åé åßôå ÷éïíßæåé
ðñïïñßæïíôáí ãéá ðåíÞíôá êé áðÜíù êñáôïýìåíïõò êáé íá ìÝíåé óå óõíå÷Þ ïñèïóôáóßá ïëüêëçñï
ôï êáèÝíá. Êáé ëÝãïíôáé èÜëáìïé. Ãýñù-ãýñù, ôï äùäåêÜùñï. Êáé ôï öáÀ ôïõ áêüìá üñèéïò ôï
óôïí õðüëïéðï ÷þñï, åßíáé êÜðïéåò ôñýðåò, óáí êáôåâÜæåé âéáóôéêÜ, ãéáôß åêôüò áðü ôç äéáôáãÞ
êáôáöýãéá óêõëéþí, ìå ìéá óéäåñÝíéá ðüñôá, ÷ùñßò äåí õðÜñ÷åé êáé ôñüðïò íá êáèßóåé êáíåßò áöïý ôï
êáíåíüò åßäïõò áåñéóìü, ìå ôïß÷ïõò êáé ðáôþìá êåëëß åßíáé ôåëåßùò êáé áðüëõôá ãõìíü áðü êÜèå ôé
ïëüãõñá. ÁõôÜ åßíáé ôá êåëëéÜ ôçò áõóôçñÞò áíôéêåßìåíï. ÊÜèå ðáñÜâáóéò ôéìùñåßôáé ìå Üãñéï
áðïìüíùóçò. ìáóôßãùìá ìÝ÷ñéò áßìáôïò, ìÝ÷ñé ëéðïèõìßáò»361.
»Ç ßäéá äéáññýèìéóç áêñéâþò êáé óôï äåýôåñï
ðÜôùìá. Ôá ðáñáèõñÜêéá ôùí èáëÜìùí åßíáé øçëÜ. Ôéò þñåò ôïõ ýðíïõ ïé êñáôïýìåíïé âáóáíßæïíôáí áðü
Ãéá íá ìç ìðïñåß ï êáôÜäéêïò íá êõôôÜæåé üîù»360. ôï äéáðåñáóôéêü êñýï, êáèþò Þôáí õðï÷ñåùìÝíïé íá
îáðëþíïõí óôï ôóéìÝíôï Þ óå ìßá Üâïëç óáíéäÝíéá
Ïé óõíèÞêåò óôïõò èáëÜìïõò êáé óôá áðïìïíùôÞñéá âÜóç ìå ìßá ôñß÷éíç êïõâÝñôá ãéá óêÝðáóìá. Ç
Þôáí Üèëéåò, êáèþò äåí õðÞñ÷å èÝñìáíóç, åðáñêÝò íõ÷ôåñéíÞ ôáëáéðùñßá ôïýò áíÜãêáæå íá îõðíïýí
íåñü êáé åîáåñéóìüò. Ôï öáãçôü Þôáí åëÜ÷éóôï, åíþ êáôÜêïðïé362. Ôéò ðáñáðÜíù êáêïõ÷ßåò óõìðëÞñùíáí
ï ÷þñïò Þôáí ðåñéïñéóìÝíïò êáé ïé êñáôïýìåíïé ïé øåßñåò êáé ïé êïñéïß, êáèþò êáé ç áãñéüôçôá ôùí
Þôáí õðï÷ñåùìÝíïé íá óôÝêïíôáé üñèéïé åðß äþäåêá öñïõñþí, ïé ïðïßïé ìå ôéò öùíÝò êáé ôá ìáóôßãéÜ
óõíå÷åßò þñåò. Ï ÁëÝîáíäñïò ÆÞóçò, ðïõ Ýìåéíå óå ôïõò êñáôïýóáí ôïõò êñáôïõìÝíïõò óôï Ìðëïê 15
áðïìïíùôÞñéï ôïõ Ìðëïê 15 åðß ðÝíôå ïëüêëçñïõò óå êáôÜóôáóç äéáñêïýò áíáóôÜôùóçò êáé áãùíßáò 363.
ìÞíåò, ðåñéãñÜöåé ìßá ìÝñá óå èÜëáìï áðïìüíùóçò: ÅðéðëÝïí, ç áõóôçñÞ áðïìüíùóç äñïýóå êáôáóôñïöéêÜ
óôçí øõ÷ïëïãßá ôùí åãêëåßóôùí. Ï äçìïóéïãñÜöïò
«Ôï ðñüãñáììá ôçò çìÝñáò ãéá ô’ áðïìïíùôÞñéá Áíôþíçò Óáïõóüðïõëïò, ï ïðïßïò ðáñÝìåéíå óôçí
åßíáé ôï áêüëïõèï ÷åéìþíá Þ êáëïêáßñé. Óôéò ðÝíôå áðïìüíùóç ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ ðÜíù áðü Ýîé ìÞíåò,
ðáñÜ ôÝôáñôï Ýãåñóç ê’ áìÝóùò Üíïéãìá ôïõ áíáöÝñåé:
ðáñÜèõñïõ ìå ïðïéïíäÞðïôå êáéñü êáé óêïýðéóìá
ôïõ êåëéïý. ¾óôåñá Ýîïäïò ôñåéò-ôñåéò óôï «Ç áðïìüíùóç óôá êåëéÜ áðïôåëïýóå Ýíá áðü ôá
“ëïõôñü” ãéá ôçí õäñïëçøßá êáé ôçí êáèáñéüôçôá öïâåñüôåñá ìáñôýñéá óôá ïðïßá õðïâÜëëïíôáí
üðïõ êÜèå áíÜãêç Ýðñåðå íá ôåëåéþóåé ôï ðïëý ï åãêÜèåéñêôïò ôïõ Ìðëïê 15. Ìáñôýñéï ü÷é ôüóï
óå ðÝíôå ëåðôÜ!!!. Óôéò Ýîé äéáíïìÞ øùìéïý êáé Üìåóá óùìáôéêÞò âßáò, áëëÜ êõñßùò øõ÷éêü.
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Ç óõíå÷Þò áðïìüíùóç, ç åíáôÝíéóç ôùí ßäéùí


ãõìíþí ôïß÷ùí, ç óôÝñçóç ôçò äõíáôüôçôáò íá
áíôáëëÜîåéò ìßá êïõâÝíôá ìå óõíÜíèñùðü óïõ,
ç Üãíïéá ôïõ ôé ãßíåôáé Ýîù, ôïõ ôé óå ðåñéìÝíåé,
ôïõ ôé óçìáßíåé Ýíáò óõãêå÷õìÝíïò èüñõâïò ðïõ
öèÜíåé ùò ô’ áõôß óïõ, ðéÝæåé áöüñçôá ôï íåõñéêü
óïõ óýóôçìá, ðáñáëýåé ôçí øõ÷éêÞ óïõ áíôï÷Þ,
óå êáôáâÜëëåé, óå ìåôáâÜëëåé âáèìçäüí øõ÷éêÜ
óå ñÜêïò, óå öèÜíåé óôá üñéá ôçò ðáñáêñïýóåùò,
óôïí áíôéèÜëáìï ôçò ôñÝëáò...»364.

Ïé êñáôïýìåíïé óôï Ìðëïê 15 Ýâãáéíáí óôï ðñïáýëéï


ìüíïí ôçí þñá ôïõ ðåñéðÜôïõ, áõôïß óôïõò èáëÜìïõò
êÜèå ìÝñá, åíþ áõôïß óôá áðïìïíùôÞñéá êÜèå 2-3
Óçìåßùìá ðïõ Ýãñáøå ç Áëßêç Ó÷ïéíÜ, êñáôïýìåíç óôï ×áúäÜñé,
Þ êáé 4-5 çìÝñåò. Ï ðåñßðáôïò äåí êñáôïýóå ðÜíù óôéò 26 Áõãïýóôïõ 1944 (Áíáôýðùóç áðü ôï ×áúäÜñé, êÜóôñï êáé
áðü åßêïóé ëåðôÜ ôçò þñáò. Ïé êñáôïýìåíïé óôçí âùìüò ôçò ÅèíéêÞò Áíôßóôáóçò, óåë. 449).
áðïìüíùóç Ýâãáéíáí óå ìéêñÝò ïìÜäåò· ó÷çìÜôéæáí
Ýíáí êýêëï êáé ðñï÷ùñïýóáí áðÝ÷ïíôáò ï Ýíáò áíáöÝñåôáé ó÷åôéêÜ ìå ôçí ýðïõëç äéïéêçôéêÞ ôå÷íéêÞ
áðü ôïí Üëëï ôïõëÜ÷éóôïí 1 ìÝôñï, þóôå íá ìçí ôïõ Karl Fischer:
ìðïñïýí íá ìéëÞóïõí ìåôáîý ôïõò. ¹ôáí áíáãêáóìÝíïé
íá âáäßæïõí ìå ãñÞãïñï âÞìá Þ ôñï÷Üäçí êÜôù «Ï Ñáíôüìóêõ öåýãåé. Óôç èÝóç ôïõ Ýñ÷åôáé ï
áðü ôçí Üãñõðíç ðáñáêïëïýèçóç ôùí ðÜíïðëùí Ößóóåñ. Åò-Åò ðÜíôá, ì’ Üëëç ìÜóêá. ÓðïõäáóìÝíïò
öñïõñþí. Óôü÷ïò ôïõ ðåñéðÜôïõ Þôáí íá êéíçèïýí ïé óôï ßäéï ó÷ïëåßï. Øçëüò, îáíèüò, óùìáôþäçò.
êñáôïýìåíïé, íá îåìïõäéÜóïõí êáé íá åêôåèïýí ãéá ëßãç Ôßðïôå ôï âßáéï êáé Üãñéï åðÜíù ôïõ. Áíôßèåôá
þñá óôçí åõåñãåôéêÞ áêôéíïâïëßá ôïõ Þëéïõ. ÓôáäéáêÜ ðñÜïò, ãëõêïìßëçôïò, ðåéèáñ÷çìÝíïò óôïí åáõôü
ïé ðåñßðáôïé ìåéþèçêáí êáé ôåëéêÜ êáôáñãÞèçêáí ôïõ. Ìéá êÜðïéá êáëýôåñç ðñïóï÷Þ äåß÷íåé Ýíáí
ïñéóôéêÜ365. Üíèñùðï ìåèïäéêü, ìå óêÝøç êñõììÝíç âáèéÜ óôçí
ÊÜèå Ôñßôç, ìåôÜ ôï ìåóçìåñéáíü óõóóßôéï óôï Ìðëïê øõ÷Þ ôïõ, ýðïõëï êáé óáôáíéêü. Ï Ößóóåñ êáëÜ
15, ãßíïíôáí êáé áíáêñßóåéò. ÁõôÝò ðñáãìáôïðïéïýíôáí ðëçñïöïñçìÝíïò, îÝñåé ðïý ðåñíÜåé. Ï Ñáíôüìóêõ
óôï öõëÜêéï áðü áíáêñéôÞ, ðïõ åðéóêåðôüôáí ôï ìå ôï âïýñäïõëá äïýëåøå êáëÜ ôïí ÷áñáêôÞñá
óôñáôüðåäï åéäéêÜ ãé’ áõôüí ôïí óêïðü 366. êáé ôïí Ýêáìå ðéï óêëçñü. Ôïõ êëçñïíüìçóå ìéá
ìÜæá åíùìÝíç, ðïõ êáìéÜ äýíáìç äåí ìðïñïýóå
íá óðÜóåé. Ãé’ áõôü óêÝöôçêå áðü ôçí Üëëç
Ï äéïéêçôÞò Karl Fischer ìåñéÜ íá âñåé ôñüðï íá ôçí äéáëýóåé. Êáé äåí
Þôáí Üëëïò áðü ôçí ðñïäïóßá. ¸êáíå óýóôçìá
Óôá ôÝëç Öåâñïõáñßïõ ôïõ 1944 ï ôáãìáôÜñ÷çò Paul ôç óðéïõíéÜ êáé ôçí êáëëéÝñãçóå üóï ìðïñïýóå
Radomski áíôéêáôáóôÜèçêå áðü ôïí Karl Fischer, êáëýôåñá. ¢íèñùðïé êáôÜëëçëïé, ìå ôáðåéíü
ï ïðïßïò óõíÝ÷éóå ôçí Üãñéá ðïëéôéêÞ ôùí S.S. ìå ÷áñáêôÞñá êáé åëáöñéÜ óõíåßäçóç, åßôå Ýíôå÷íá
ôåëåßùò äéáöïñåôéêü ôñüðï áðü ôïí ðñïêÜôï÷ü ðåñáóìÝíïé ìÝóá óôï óôñáôüðåäï, åßôå áðü
ôïõ. ÁíôéêáôÝóôçóå ôç âáíáõóüôçôá êáé ôç èçñéùäßá ôïõò ßäéïõò ôïõò êñáôïýìåíïõò, Üãíùóôïé ìÝóá
ôïõ Radomski ìå ôçí åóùôåñéêÞ êáôáóêïðßá êáé ôïí ó’ áãíþóôïõò, îåãëéóôñïýóáí óôï ìéóüöùôï ôçò
÷áöéåäéóìü, þóôå íá åëÝã÷åé áðïôåëåóìáôéêüôåñá ÷áñáõãÞò êé Üöçíáí óçìåéþìáôá ìÝóá áðü ôçí
ôï óôñáôüðåäï367. Óôçí Åëåýèåñç ÅëëÜäá (25/10/1946) ðüñôá ôïõ äéïéêçôÞ, ôïõ Ößóóåñ. Ï óêïðüò Þôáí íá
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Ôï åîþöõëëï ôçò äåýôåñçò Ýêäïóçò (1945) ôïõ Ýñãïõ ôïõ ÈÝìïõ ÊïñíÜñïõ
ðïõ ðåñéãñÜöåé ôéò öñéêáëåüôçôåò ôùí Ãåñìáíþí óôï óôñáôüðåäï ×áúäáñßïõ.
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óõãêåíôñþíïíôáé üóåò ðëçñïöïñßåò ìðïñïýóáí ôïõò áíôéêáôáóôÞóïõí, êáèþò ïé ßäéïé èá ìåôáöÝñïíôáí


ðéï ðïëëÝò ãéá êéíÞóåéò ìÝóá óôï óôñáôüðåäï êáé ôçí åðïìÝíç óå Üëëï óôñáôüðåäï. Åðßóçò, äéÝôáîå
ãéá êÜðïéá ðñüóùðá æùçñÜ êáé áðïöáóéóôéêÜ»368. ôïõò ×áëêéäÝïõò íá ðÜñïõí ðßóù ôá ðñïóùðéêÜ ôïõò
åßäç êáé íá âñßóêïíôáé ìðñïóôÜ óôá ìáãåéñåßá ôçí
Åðß Fischer ðñáãìáôïðïéÞèçêáí ïé ðéï ðïëëÝò êáé ðéï åðïìÝíç ôï ðñùß, ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ìåôáöåñèïýí óå
ìáæéêÝò åêôåëÝóåéò áðü ôçí ßäñõóç ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ. Üëëï óôñáôüðåäï. Ìå äåäïìÝíç ôç öÞìç ãéá ìáæéêÞ
Ðáñ’ üëá áõôÜ, ç Ýíôáóç ðïõ åðéêñáôïýóå óôï ×áúäÜñé åêôÝëåóç, ðïõ áíáöÝñáìå ðáñáðÜíù, üëïé üóïé
ôçí åðï÷Þ ôïõ Radomski åß÷å óáöþò ÷áëáñþóåé, ìßëçóáí ìå ôïí Fischer ðßóôåøáí üôé åðñüêåéôï íá
êáèþò ï íÝïò äéïéêçôÞò äåí ÷ñçóéìïðïéïýóå óáäéóìü åêôåëåóôïýí. ¸ôóé, ïé Áêñïíáõðëéþôåò ðñïóðÜèçóáí
êáé áãñéüôçôá ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá åêôåëÝóåé ôéò åíôïëÝò íá áðï÷áéñåôÞóïõí üóïõò ðåñéóóüôåñïõò áðü ôïõò
ôùí áíùôÝñùí ôïõ369. ößëïõò ôïõò Þôáí äõíáôüí. Áêïëïýèùò ìáæåýôçêáí
óôïí èÜëáìï 1 ôïõ Ìðëïê 3, üðïõ ìå ìïõóéêÞ áðü äýï
êéèÜñåò êé Ýíá âéïëß Ýãéíå áðï÷áéñåôéóôÞñéï ãëÝíôé 371.
Ç åêôÝëåóç ôùí äéáêïóßùí Ôï åðüìåíï ðñùß, ðñéí áðü ôï ðñïóêëçôÞñéï,
- ÐñùôïìáãéÜ ôïõ 1944 óõãêÝíôñùóáí ôïõò ×áëêéäáßïõò êáé ôïõò åðéâßâáóáí
óå öïñôçãÜ ðïõ ôïõò áðïìÜêñõíáí áðü ôï
Óôéò 30 Áðñéëßïõ 1944 êõêëïöüñçóå óôï ×áúäÜñé ç óôñáôüðåäï. ÌåôÜ ôï ðñùéíü óõóóßôéï, ï Fischer
öÞìç üôé ïé S.S. óêüðåõáí íá åêôåëÝóïõí äéáêüóéïõò êÜëåóå ãåíéêü ðñïóêëçôÞñéï, óôï ïðïßï äéÜâáóå ìéá
êñáôïõìÝíïõò ùò áíôßðïéíá ãéá ôç äïëïöïíßá ëßóôá äéáêïóßùí ïíïìÜôùí. Áõôïß Þôáí ïé äéáêüóéïé
Ãåñìáíïý óôñáôçãïý êáé ôñéþí áîéùìáôéêþí ôïõ êïíôÜ ðïõ èá åêôåëïýíôáí, ùò áíôßðïéíá ãéá ôç äïëïöïíßá
óôç ÓðÜñôç áðü «êïììïõíéóôéêÜò óõììïñßáò» 370. Ï ôïõ Ãåñìáíïý óôñáôçãïý. Ç ïìÜäá ôùí ìåëëïèáíÜôùí
äéïéêçôÞò êÜëåóå êÜðïéïõò áðü ôïõò ðñïúóôáìÝíïõò ðåñéëÜìâáíå üëïõò ôïõò Áêñïíáõðëéþôåò, ðëçí
óôá óõíåñãåßá, üëïõò Áêñïíáõðëéþôåò êïììïõíéóôÝò. äåêáÝîé áôüìùí, ôïõò Áíáöéþôåò êáé ìåñéêïýò
Ï Fischer ôïýò æÞôçóå íá õðïäåßîïõí ðïéïé ìç ãåñìáíïêñáôïýìåíïõò. Óõãêåíôñþèçêáí ìðñïóôÜ óôá
Ìåôáîïêñáôïýìåíïé êñáôïýìåíïé èá ìðïñïýóáí íá ìáãåéñåßá, üðïõ ðñéí åðéâéâáóôïýí óôá áõôïêßíçôá,

Ï áãùíéóôÞò Í. ÌáñéáêÜêçò,
ãåùðüíïò áðü ôá ×áíéÜ ôçò ÊñÞôçò,
êáé ôï éäéü÷åéñï óçìåßùìá ðïõ Üöçóå
ëßãï ðñéí áðü ôçí åêôÝëåóÞ ôïõ
ôçí ÐñùôïìáãéÜ ôïõ 1944
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Üñ÷éóáí íá ôñáãïõäïýí ôïí åèíéêü ýìíï, ôï ôñáãïýäé ÐåôÜí ôá êáðÝëá ôïõò óôïí áÝñá. Âáäßæïõíå ìå
ôçò Áêñïíáõðëßáò êáé ôïí ÆÜëïããï ìðñïóôÜ óôá óôáèåñü âÞìá. ÖùíÜæïõí “ÆÞôù ç ËåõôåñéÜ” êáé
ìÜôéá ôùí Ýêðëçêôùí Íáæß ðïõ äåí ôïëìïýóáí íá ÷Üíïíôáé ìåó’ ôï êëåéóôü áõôïêßíçôï. ¸öõãáí!»372.
áíôéäñÜóïõí. Ï ÆÞóçò ÆùãñÜöïò õðÞñîå ìÜñôõñáò
áõôÞò ôçò óõãêëïíéóôéêÞò óêçíÞò: Ïé äéáêüóéïé ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ ìåôáöÝñèçêáí óôï
ÓêïðåõôÞñéï ôçò ÊáéóáñéáíÞò, üðïõ ôïõò åêôÝëåóáí
«Ôþñá ôïõò ðáñáêïëïõèïýìå áðü ìáêñéÜ. Ãåëïýí ìå ïðëïðïëõâüëá. Ïé óïñïß ìåôáöÝñèçêáí
êáé ôñáãïõäïýí. ¸÷ïõí óôÞóåé åäþ óôç ìÝóç ôïõ óôï ô Íåêñïôáöåßï, üðïõ ôÜöçêáí óå áôïìéêïýò
óôñáôüðåäïõ ôùí Åò-Åò ÷ïñü. ×ùñéóôÜ ïé ãÝñïé. ôÜöïõò373.
ÌðñïóôÜ ï ÌáêÝäïò, ôéìçìÝíïò êáðíåñãÜôçò ôçò
ÊáâÜëáò. ×ùñéóôÜ ïé íÝïé. ÌðñïóôÜ ï ÌáíáóÞò
(Ðáðáäüðïõëïò). Êé Ýðåéôá åíþíïíôáé ðÜëé üëïé ÍáðïëÝùí Óïõêáôæßäçò
ìáæß ãéá íá âãåé áð’ ô’ áíôñéùìÝíá ôïõò óôÞèéá ì’
üëç ôïõò ôç äýíáìç ôï áèÜíáôï ôñáãïýäé: Ìåôáîý ôùí äéáêïóßùí ðïõ åêôåëÝóôçêáí ôçí
Áêñïíáõðëßá, Áêñïíáõðëßá, ÐñùôïìáãéÜ ôïõ 1944 Þôáí êáé ï ÍáðïëÝùí
Ðßóôç, Åëðßäá, Ðåéèáñ÷ßá [...] Óïõêáôæßäçò, ï ìåãÜëïò Þñùáò ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ. Áðü ôç
»Äåí ìðïñïýìå íá ôïõò áíôéêñýóïõìå. Ç êáñäéÜ èÝóç ôïõ äéåñìçíÝá, ôçí ïðïßá åß÷å áðü ôçí ßäñõóç ôïõ
ìáò ìáôþíåé. Ôá ìÜôéá âïõñêþíïõí. Ïé ëõãìïß óôñáôïðÝäïõ, ï Óïõêáôæßäçò ðñïóðáèïýóå íá âïçèÜ
ðÜíå íá ðíßîïõí ôç öùíÞ üëùí åìÜò ðïõ ìåßíáìå. ìå êÜèå äõíáôü ôñüðï, áëëÜ êáé ìå áõôïèõóßá ôïõò
Ìá ü÷é. ÊÜíïõìå ýóôáôç ðñïóðÜèåéá. Ïýôå Ýíá óõãêñáôïõìÝíïõò ôïõ 374.
äÜêñõ íá ìçí áöÞóïõìå íá êõëÞóåé. Îåèõìáßíåé ×áñáêôçñéóôéêü åßíáé ôï ðåñéóôáôéêü ðïõ ìáò ðáñáäßäåé
Ýôóé ôï ìßóïò êáé ç äßøá ãéá åêäßêçóç óâÞíåé. ï Öëïýíôæçò. ÊÜðïéá óôéãìÞ, ëïéðüí, ï ôñïìåñüò
Áò óôåãíþóïõí óôá ìÜôéá ôá äÜêñõá. Áò ãßíïõí Radomski åðÝâëåðå ìßá ïìÜäá Åâñáßùí ðïõ ìåôÝöåñáí
öëüãá ðïõ ìáò êáßåé ôá óùèéêÜ êáé ìÝñá êáé ìðÜæá êáé áíôéëÞöèçêå üôé Ýíáò áðü ôïõò åñãÜôåò äåí
íý÷ôá. Íá ìçí îå÷Üóïõìå ðïôÝ ôçí þñá ôïýôç, åß÷å åíôåëþò ãåìÜôï ôïí íôåíåêÝ ôïõ êáé âÜäéæå ìå ðéï
ðïôÝ üóï æïýìå. áñãü âÞìá. Ï «Óýñìáò» Ýâáëå ôéò öùíÝò êáé æÞôçóå
»Ôá áõôïêßíçôá ðïõ èá ôïõò ðÜñïõí öÜíçêáí óôç áðü ôïí Óïõêáôæßäç íá ôïí ÷ôõðÞóåé. Åêåßíïò, öõóéêÜ,
óôñïöÞ ôïõ äñüìïõ. ÂáñéÜ ïðëéóìÝíïé óôñáôéþôåò áñíÞèçêå ìå åðéìïíÞ, ðñÜãìá ðïõ åîáãñßùóå ôïí
ðáñáôÜ÷èçêáí óôçí ðüñôá. ¢ñ÷éóáí íá ìðáßíïõí äéïéêçôÞ. ¸ôóé, Üñ÷éóå íá ÷ôõðÜ ìå ìåãÜëç áãñéüôçôá
ìÝóá. ôïí äéåñìçíÝá. Åí ôù ìåôáîý ï Åâñáßïò Ýöõãå. ¼ôáí
¾óôáôç óôéãìÞ! Ï ÁíÝóôçò (Ëáæáñßäçò) áíåâáßíåé ôï åßäå áõôü ï Radomski, åßðå óôïí ÍáðïëÝïíôá üôé ï
ó’ Ýíá ðåæïýëé. Ìå ôç äõíáôÞ öùíÞ ôïõ äßíåé ôï Üíèñùðïò ðïõ õðåñÜóðéæå Þôáí ôåìðÝëçò êáé èñáóýò.
ðáñÜããåëìá: Ðñïóï÷Þ! Ïé Ãåñìáíïß äåí ôïëìïýí ¸ôóé, ôïõ æÞôçóå îáíÜ íá ôïí ÷ôõðÞóåé. Ï Óïõêáôæßäçò
íá åìðïäßóïõí. ÂãÜæïõí üëïé ôá êáðÝëá ôïõò. ÓéãÞ áñíÞèçêå êáé áíáãêÜóôçêå íá õðïóôåß íÝï îõëïäáñìü
íåêñïôáöåßïõ. ÊáìéÜ éåñïôåëåóôßá äåí Ýãéíå ìå áðü ôïí âÜíáõóï äéïéêçôÞ 375.
ôüóç êáôÜíõîç. Ôñáãïõäïýí: Ï ÍáðïëÝùí Óïõêáôæßäçò ãåííÞèçêå óôçí Ðñïýóá ôï
Óå ãíùñßæù áðü ôçí êüøç 1909. ÌåôÜ ôç ÌéêñáóéáôéêÞ êáôáóôñïöÞ åãêáôáóôÜèçêå
ôïõ óðáèéïý ôçí ôñïìåñÞ... ìå ôçí ïéêïãÝíåéÜ ôïõ óôçí ÊñÞôç. Óðïýäáóå óôç
»ÐïôÝ ï ÷áéñåôéóìüò ôçò ËåõôåñéÜò äåí ÌÝóç êáé Áíþôáôç ÅìðïñéêÞ Ó÷ïëÞ, åñãÜóôçêå ùò
áíôéëÜëçóå óôéò ðïëéôåßåò êáé ôá ÷ùñéÜ, ôá âïõíÜ ëïãéóôÞò êáé õðÞñîå ðñüåäñïò ôùí ÅìðïñïûðáëëÞëùí
êáé ôá öáñÜããéá ôçò ÅëëÜäáò ðéï óõãêéíçôéêÜ, ðéï Çñáêëåßïõ. ÁíÝðôõîå óçìáíôéêÞ óõíäéêáëéóôéêÞ äñÜóç,
åéëéêñéíÜ, ðéï áíôñåéùìÝíá... åîáéôßáò ôçò ïðïßáò óõíåëÞöèç êáé åîïñßóôçêå óôïí
»Ôþñá åßíáé Ýôïéìïé. Åßêïóé-åßêïóé ðñï÷ùñïýí. [...] Áú ÓôñÜôç. Áêïëïýèùò ìåôáöÝñèçêå óôéò öõëáêÝò
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Ï ÍáðïëÝùí Óïõêáôæßäçò
óôï ÔìÞìá Ìåôáãùãþí óôïí
ÐåéñáéÜ ôï 1936. Óôçí Ýíèåôç
öùôïãñáößá, ðïñôñÝôï
ôïõ Í. Óïõêáôæßäç.

ôçò Áêñïíáõðëßáò, ôùí ÔñéêÜëùí êáé ôçò ËÜñéóáò êáé Ãõíáßêåò óôï ×áúäÜñé
ôåëéêÜ êáôÝëçîå óôï ×áúäÜñé.
Ç áíáöïñÜ ôïõ ïíüìáôïò ôïõ Óïõêáôæßäç óôç ëßóôá ôùí Ç ðñþôç êñáôïýìåíç óôï óôñáôüðåäï ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ
ìåëëïèáíÜôùí ôçò 1çò ÌáÀïõ 1944 ðñïêÜëåóå ìåãÜëç Þôáí ç ÇëÝêôñá, ðïõ Ýöôáóå óôéò 7 Äåêåìâñßïõ 1943
êáôÜðëçîç êáé äÝïò óôïõò êñáôïõìÝíïõò ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ. êáé êëåßóôçêå óôïí èÜëáìï 11 ôïõ Ìðëïê 15. ÓôáäéáêÜ,
Ï ßäéïò áðïäÝ÷èçêå ôç ìïßñá ìå Ýíá ÷áìüãåëï êáé ìåôáöÝñèçêáí áñêåôÝò ãõíáßêåò, ÷ñéóôéáíÝò êáé
ðáñÝäùóå ôç óöõñß÷ôñá êáé ôá ÷áñôéÜ ôïõ óôïí âïçèü Åâñáßåò, ðïõ ôïðïèåôÞèçêáí óôïí èÜëáìï 29 ôïõ ßäéïõ
äéåñìçíÝá ÈáíÜóç ÌåñåìÝôç ëÝãïíôÜò ôïõ: Ìðëïê378. Ìåôáîý áõôþí ç Çñþ Êùíóôáíôïðïýëïõ. Ôïí
ÉáíïõÜñéï ïé ãõíáßêåò ìåôáöÝñèçêáí óôï Ìðëïê 11 êáé
«ÈáíÜóç, ìç îå÷íÜò ðïôÝ ðùò åßóáé ¸ëëçíáò äýï ìÞíåò áñãüôåñá óôï Ìðëïê 6. Ç ðñþôç åêôÝëåóç
êñáôïýìåíïò êáé åîõðçñåôåßò ¸ëëçíåò áãùíéóôÝò. ðïõ ðåñéëÜìâáíå êáé ãõíáßêåò Ýãéíå óôéò 2 ÌáÀïõ 1944.
Íá åßóáé ðÜíôá êáëüò êáé ìáëáêüò ìáæß ôïõò. Óôï Ìåôáîý ôùí êñáôïõìÝíùí óôï ×áúäÜñé Þôáí êáé ç ËÝëá
ðñüóùðü óïõ ôïõò áðï÷áéñåôþ üëïõò»376. ÊáñáãéÜííç, ç ïðïßá êëåßóôçêå óôçí áðïìüíùóç êáé
áêïëïýèùò åêôåëÝóôçêå óôéò 8 Óåðôåìâñßïõ 1944 óôï
ÐñÝðåé íá óçìåéùèåß üôé ï Karl Fischer ðñüôåéíå óôïí Äáöíß, óôïí ÷þñï üðïõ óÞìåñá åßíáé ï ÄéïìÞäåéïò
Óïõêáôæßäç íá ôïõ ÷áñßóåé ôç æùÞ, åêôåëþíôáò áíôß êÞðïò. Õðïëïãßæåôáé üôé óôï ×áúäÜñé êñáôÞèçêáí
ãé’ áõôüí êÜðïéïí Üëëï êñáôïýìåíï. Ï áíäñåßïò ðÜíù áðü 300 ÷ñéóôéáíÝò êáé ðåñßðïõ 2.500 Åâñáßåò
äéåñìçíÝáò áñíÞèçêå êáôçãïñçìáôéêÜ 377. ãõíáßêåò. ÅëÜ÷éóôåò áðü ôéò Åâñáßåò, ãýñù óôéò åßêïóé,
246

êáôÜöåñáí íá åëåõèåñùèïýí áðü ôï ×áúäÜñé· Þôáí Åâñáßïé óôï ×áúäÜñé


üóåò åß÷áí êÜíåé ìåéêôü ãÜìï Þ åß÷áí îÝíç õðçêïüôçôá.
Áðü ôéò ÷ñéóôéáíÝò åêôåëÝóôçêáí 31, åíþ 161 óôÜëèçêáí Ïé ðñþôïé Åâñáßïé ìåôáöÝñèçêáí óôï ×áúäÜñé 379 óôéò 4
üìçñïé óôç Ãåñìáíßá. Äåêåìâñßïõ 1943. Åðñüêåéôï ãéá ïêôþ Üôïìá, ôá ïðïßá
áðïìïíþèçêáí óôï õðüãåéï ôïõ Ìðëïê 3. Ï áñéèìüò
ôùí Åâñáßùí óôï ×áúäÜñé áõîáíüôáí óôáäéáêÜ Ýùò ôçí
Üíïéîç ôïõ 1944, üôáí óõãêåíôñþèçêáí óôï óôñáôüðåäï
ðïëëïß Åâñáßùí áðü ïëüêëçñç ôçí ÅëëÜäá,
ðñïêåéìÝíïõ íá ïäçãçèïýí óôç Ãåñìáíßá 380.
Ç ðñþôç ìåãÜëç ìåôáöïñÜ Åâñáßùí óôï ×áúäÜñé Ýãéíå
óôéò 29 Ìáñôßïõ 1944. Ôüôå Ýöôáóáí óôï óôñáôüðåäï
614 Åâñáßïé áðü ôçí ¢ñôá, ôçí ÐñÝâåæá, ôï Áãñßíéï, ôçí
ÐÜôñá, êáèþò êáé Åâñáßïé ìå éóðáíéêÞ, ðïñôïãáëéêÞ êáé
éôáëéêÞ êáé õðçêïüôçôá. ¼ëïé áõôïß, ìáæß ìå êÜðïéïõò
áðü ôïõò Åâñáßïõò ðïõ âñßóêïíôáí Þäç óôï ×áúäÜñé,
äçëáäÞ óõíïëéêÜ 1.300 Üôïìá, áðïôÝëåóáí ôçí ðñþôç
ìåãÜëç áðïóôïëÞ óôá óôñáôüðåäá óõãêÝíôñùóçò
ôçò ÊåíôñéêÞò Åõñþðçò óôç Ãåñìáíßá. Óôéò áñ÷Ýò
ôïõ Éïõíßïõ ìåôáöÝñèçêáí óôï óôñáôüðåäï 1.850
ÅðôáíÞóéïé Åâñáßïé, êõñßùò áðü ôçí ÊÝñêõñá. Ç ïìÜäá
áõôÞ, åíéó÷õìÝíç áðü 575 Åâñáßïõò ðïõ âñßóêïíôáí
Þäç óôï ×áúäÜñé, áíá÷þñçóå óôéò 20 Éïõíßïõ ãéá ôçí
ËÝëá ÊáñáãéÜííç. Ðïëùíßá. Ç ôåëåõôáßá ìáæéêÞ ìåôáãùãÞ Åâñáßùí
ðñáãìáôïðïéÞèçêå ôçí 1ç Áõãïýóôïõ 1944. ÐåñéëÜìâáíå
1.700 Åâñáßïõò áðü ôá ÄùäåêÜíçóá, êõñßùò ôç Ñüäï, ïé
ïðïßïé ìåôáöÝñèçêáí óôçí Ðïëùíßá.
Ïé Ãåñìáíïß ìåôá÷åéñßæïíôáí ôïõò Åâñáßïõò
êñáôïõìÝíïõò ìå êáô’ åîï÷Þí áðÜíèñùðï ôñüðï. Ï
Êþóôáò Âáôéêéþôçò ðåñéãñÜöåé ôï äñÜìá ôùí Åâñáßùí
áðü ôá ÄùäåêÜíçóá:

«Áðü ôá ðáñÜèõñá ôùí èáëÜìùí ìáò çäõíÞèçìåí


íá ðáñáêïëïõèÞóùìåí ïëüêëçñïí ôï ìáñôýñéïí
ôùí Åâñáßùí,· ôïõò äáñìïýò êáé ôáò ìáóôéãþóåéò,
ôçí ìåôáöïñÜí áóèåíþí Þ çìéèáíþí ãåñüíôùí
åíôüò êïõâåñôþí, ôï ðïäïðÜôçìá ìéêñþí ðáéäéþí.
Åßäïìåí ôïõò Ãåñìáíïýò óôñáôéþôáò íá êôõðïýí
ìå ôá üðëá ôùí ãõíáßêáò, íá ôáò îåãõìíþíïõí êáé
åßäïìåí ôïí ÄéïéêçôÞí ôïõ ×áúäáñßïõ, Êáñë Ößóóåñ,
íá ìáóôéãþíåé ìéêñÜ ðáéäéÜ ôá ïðïßá åêõëßïíôï
êáôÜ ãçò ïäõñüìåíá êáé ìå ôï Üëëï ôïõ ÷Ýñé... íá
Çñþ Êùíóôáíôïðïýëïõ. èùðåýåé ôïí óêýëïí ôïõ»381.
247

Óýã÷ñïíç Üðïøç ôïõ Ìðëïê 15 óôï óôñáôüðåäï


×áúäáñßïõ.

Äçìïóßåõìá áðü ôïí ðáñÜíïìï ÑéæïóðÜóôç


ôçò 20Þò Óåðôåìâñßïõ 1944, üðïõ áíáããÝëëåôáé
ç áðåëåõèÝñùóç 2.000 êñáôïõìÝíùí áðü ôï
óôñáôüðåäï ×áúäáñßïõ.
249

Ôï óôñáôüðåäï ×áúäáñßïõ
óôçí éóôïñéêÞ ìíÞìç

Ï
÷þñïò ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ ×áúäáñßïõ
åßíáé ôüðïò ìáñôõñßïõ êáé éóôïñéêÞò
ìíÞìçò. Èåùñåßôáé ãéá ôçí ÅëëÜäá ÷þñïò
áíôßóôïé÷ïò ìå ôá óôñáôüðåäá ¢ïõóâéôò, Ìáïõô÷Üïõæåí,
Íôá÷Üïõ, ðïõ üìùò, ó÷åäüí áìÝóùò ìåôÜ ôç óõíôñéâÞ
ôùí äõíÜìåùí ôïõ ¢îïíá, áíáêçñý÷èçêáí éóôïñéêÜ
ìíçìåßá êáé ìå óåéñÜ åíåñãåéþí åîáóöáëßóôçêå ç
áíÜäåéîç êáé ç ðñïâïëÞ ôïõò.
Óôç ÷þñá ìáò, áíôßèåôá, ç éóôïñßá ôçò ÅèíéêÞò
Áíôßóôáóçò åðß ðïëëÜ ÷ñüíéá áãíïÞèçêå. Ìüëéò ôï
1982, ìå ôïí Íüìï 1285 ðïõ øÞöéóå ç åëëçíéêÞ ÂïõëÞ,
Þëèå ç áíáãíþñéóç ôçò ÅèíéêÞò Áíôßóôáóçò êáé
Üñ÷éóå íá ðáßñíåé ôéò ðñáãìáôéêÝò ôçò äéáóôÜóåéò Ôï Ýìâëçìá ôïõ ÄÞìïõ, åìðíåõóìÝíï
ùò êïñõöáßï éóôïñéêü ãåãïíüò. Ó’ áõôÜ üìùò ôá 40 áðü ôçí éóôïñßá ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ ×áúäáñßïõ.
ðåñßðïõ ÷ñüíéá ôçò áãíüçóÞò ôçò, ç éóôïñßá ôïõ
óôñáôïðÝäïõ Ýìåíå óôï ðåñéèþñéï. åðéæÞóáíôåò êñáôïýìåíïé ôïõ óôñáôïðÝäïõ ìðïñïýóáí
Ôï óôñáôüðå