Coordinate Geometry

• On a number line, the numbers increase in size to the right and decrease to the left

If we draw a line through the point 0 perpendicular to the number line, we will form a grid

The thick horizontal line in the above diagram is called the x-axis, and the thick vertical line is called the y-axis.

• •

The point at which the axes meet, (0, 0), is called the origin. On the x-axis, positive numbers are to the right of the origin and increase in size to the right further, negative numbers are to the left of the origin and decrease in size to the left.

On the y-axis, positive numbers are above the origin and ascend in size further, negative numbers are below the origin and descend in size.

As shown in the diagram, the point represented by the ordered pair (x, y) is reached by moving x units along the x-axis from the origin and then moving y units vertically.

In the ordered pair (x, y), x is called the abscissa and y is called the ordinate; collectively they are called coordinates.

The x and y axes divide the plane into four quadrants, numbered I,II, III, and IV counterclockwise. Note, if x y , then (x, y) and (y, x) represent different points on the coordinate system.

The points (2, 3), (-3, 1), (-4, -4), and (4, -2) are plotted in the following coordinate system

Example:1 In the figure below, polygon ABCO is a square. If the coordinates of B are (h, 4), what is the value of h ?

A) 4 B) C) D) 4

E) Not enough information Solution: Since the y-coordinate of point B is 4, line segment CO has length 4. Since figure ABCO is a square, line segment AO also has length 4. Since point B is in the second quadrant, the x-coordinate of B is -4. The answer is (D). Be careful not to choose 4. h is the x-coordinate of point B, not the length of the square’s side. Example 2: For each ordered pair, enter x and y and plot the corresponding point. Determine the quadrant or axis where each point is located. (2 , 3) , (-2 , -1) , (0 , -2) , (2 , -1) , (0 , 0) , (-2 , 3) , (2 , 0) (-2 , 2) , (0 , 3) , (1 , -2) , (2 , 1) , (-3 , 0) , (-2 , -3) , (2 , -2) 1 - point (x,y) is situated in quadrant II. 2 - point (x,y) is situated in quadrant IV. 3 - point (x,y) is on the x axis. 4 - point (x,y) is situated in quadrant III. 5 - point (x,y) is situated in quadrant I. 6 - point (x,y) is on the y axis. Solution: 1 - A point (x,y) such that x > 0 and y > 0 is situated in quadrant I. 2 - A point (x,y) such that x < 0 and y > 0 is situated in quadrant II. 3 - A point (x,y) such that x < 0 and y < 0 is situated in quadrant III. 4 - A point (x,y) such that x > 0 and y < 0 is situated in quadrant IV. 5 - A point (x,y) such that y = 0 is situated the x axis 6 - A point (x,y) such that x = 0 is situated the y axis

Practice Questions 1) In the figure below, which one of the following must be true about the value of the y-

coordinate of point P ? (A) y < 6 (B) y > 6 (C) y > 5 (D) y = 6 (E) y < 5 2) In the figure to the right, a is the x-coordinate of point P and b is the y-coordinate of

point Q. In which quadrant is the point (a,b)? (A) I (B) II (C) III (D) IV (E) cannot be determined from the information given 3) In the figure below, which of the following could be the coordinates of a point in the

shaded region? (A) (1, 2)

(B) (-2, 3) (C) (3, -5) (D) (-5, 1) (E) (-1, -6) 4) For each ordered pair, enter x and y and plot the corresponding point. Determine the quadrant or axis where each point is located. (2 , 3) , (-2 , -1) , (0 , -2) , (2 , -1) , (0 , 0) , (-2 , 3) , (2 , 0) (-2 , 2) , (0 , 3) , (1 , -2) , (2 , 1) , (-3 , 0) , (-2 , -3) , (2 , -2) 5) For what values of x and y is the point (x,y) situated in quadrant I? A) x=0,y=0 B) x>0,y>0 C)x<0 ,y>0 D) x<0,y<0 6) For what values of x and y is the point (x,y) situated in quadrant II? A) x=0,y=0 B) x>0,y>0 C)x<0 ,y>0 D) x<0,y<0

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