TH3C-4

E-Valuation

of

Synchronization

andl Fractilonally Spaced

Equalilzat'ion

in a

MIMO SC-FDE Test-Bed

Qipeng Cai', Andreas Wilzeck' and Thomas Kaiser'
Bismarckstrasse
47048 Duisburg, Germany; Email: {qipeng.cai, andreas.wilzeck}@uni-DuE.de 2mimoOn GmbH, Technologiezentrum fur Duisburg, Bismarckstrasse 120, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Email: info@rmimoOn.de
81,

'University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Communication Systems,

Abstract- This contribution deals with the synchronization and the fractionally spaced equalization for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Single-Carrier (SC) systems with Frequency Domain Equalization (FDE). Synchronization, channel estimation and the proposed equalization are evaluated as a system employing real-world over-air transmission in the 2.4 GHz ISM-band by using our current MIMO test-bed [1]. Spatial multiplexing is demonstrated, allowing the system to reach an un-coded net data rate of 28.78 Mbit/s using 8-PSK modulation and a 3-dB bandwidth of 10 MHz.

Carrier, Frequency Domain Equalization, Synchronization.

Index Terins Multiple-Input Multiple Output, Single-

I. INTRODUCTION
Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) caused by the time dispersion property of multi-path propagation has one of the highest impacts on the speed of high data rate wireless transmission. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), which has been widely deployed in current Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards, is invented to overcome the above mentioned difficulty with reasonable digital signal processing complexity. However, an OFDM system must fulfill rigorous requirements on timing and frequency synchronization [2], otherwise the orthogonality among the sub-carriers is lost and the communication system suffers from ISI and Inter Carrier Interference (ICI). Another weak point of OFDM systems is the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of its signal, which impacts greatly on the power efficienLcy of the power amplifier and then limits the battery lifetime of mobile devices. Single Carrier transmission with Frequency Domain Equalization (SCFDE) is viewed as an alternative approach to an OFDM system It uses a concept similar to that of an OFDM system to convert the linear convolution of the transmitted signal and channel impulse response into circular convolution in the discrete domain with the help of a Cyclic Prefix (CP) or a Unique Word (UW). The benefits of SC-FDE are eased synchronization requirements and its low PAPR property signal, which are very advantageous to low cost portable devices. Thus SC-FDE is a top candidate for the uplink in the physical layer of next generation wireless commu nication systems, for instance in the IEEE 802.16 Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) and 3GPP Long Term

Evolution of Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS-LTE). Another attractive technology expected to be exploited in next generation wireless communication systems is MIMO technology, which is able to increase channel capacity by deploying several transmit and receive antennas without increasing the signal bandwidth or the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In order to offer high data-rate communication, the MIMO technology attracts not only the academic community, but also standardization bodies in the industrial community. Practical studies are a crucial part of the development of complex systems like wireless communication systems. The hardware (Hw) platforms can be differentiated into three kinds, test-beds, demonstrators and prototypes. As mentioned in [3] a test-bed or measurement device is able to give access to real channel data with or even without typical hardware effects. Typically no real-time processing is performed on the Hw platform itself. A demonstrator is used to demonstrate some functionality, for example synchronization. A prototype is usually a complete set of functionalities operating already in real-time such as a first Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) implementation. In this contribution we will evaluate a 2 x 2 MIMO SC-FDE system employing spatial multiplexing based on our flexible MIMO prototyping test-bed [1]. The tasks and strategies for synchronization in time and frequency, equalization and the frame structure are described. A modified Schmidl & Cox metric [4] is adopted to achieve coarse timing synchronization. The Unique Word technique is chosen to ease residual frequency offset estimation and residual phase tracking [5]. Fractionally spaced frequency domain equalization [6] is deplo ed to omit a fine s nchronization of the system.

II TEST-BED & MEASUREMENT SETUP A detailed overview of our 4 x 2 MIMO test -bed can be found in [ I]. Here we would like to simply point out the most important features. The test-bed is based on Sundance's signal processing platform, which is modular, scalable and re-usable for different purposes. The test-bed is an advanced of/ine or hardware in the loop system for

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which is used to obtain frame synchronization and coarse timing synchronization. TX AAAAAAAA| Tx L TX2 Fig. Afterwards a digital quadrature modulation converts the base-band signals to digital low IF signals. the IFFT/FFT block size is 64 symbols. Several data payload blocks follow this subframe training. The memory size is 2 x 1 GByte. Therefore. Block Diagram of 2 2 MIMO SC-FDE Transmitter Chu ° Chu 0 0 | B. which means that they are fully independent systems. is required to avoid Inter Block Interference Corresponding to a special frame/sub-frame structure the resulting blocks are multiplexed to the two transmitter branches. and preambles for synchronization and channel estimation are added. Time and frequency synchronization functions have to he carried out to achieve the frame detection and to estimate the frequency offset caused by the independently running receiver and transmitter local oscillators. Thereby. Finally RF signals are broadcast over the air. Next.4 GHz ISM-band by an analog MIMO Radio Frequency (RF) front-end. For our 2 x 2 MIMO SC-FDE demonstration a frame structure as given in Fig. The function can be described as follows: pre-processed digital base-band signals are first digitally up-converted to a low Intermediate Frequency (IF). 2. The maximum sampling rate is 100 Mega Samples Per Second (MSPS). 1. The RF signals are radiated by the two transmitting antennas. Each sub-frame starts with training sequences assisting the MIMO channel estimation and frequency offset estimation. Root Raised Cosine (RRC) filters with a roll-off factor t of = 0. Afterwards RRC filters are deployed to limit the noise bandwidth to the system signal bandwidth.46 GHz and the IF is 15 MHz. 3. 1. The RF carrier frequency is 2. several filtering. Block Diagraimn of 2 x 2 MIMO SC-FDE Receiver the 2. mixing and amplification processes are involved. They also act as matched filters for the transmit pulse shape. and the resolution is 14 bit. III MATLAB IMPLEMENTION OF MIMO SC-FDE A. which consists of a preamble and several sub-frames. The training sequences of each transmit antenna are chosen in such a way that they are orthogonal in time. Fig.Binrydata1 I ingI-1u-Y j jnaftng IPreamble ITraining Seq Multiplexer Tx 1 -(OR2 RRC IV Digital IF Mod. which employs spatial multiplexing. Frame Structure of Our MIMO SC-FDE System. For our evaluation we will use a 2 x 2 setup of the testbed. The binary data is first mapped to symbols employing 8-PSK data modulation. filtered by band-pass filters. A/D converters change the analog IF signals into digital IF signals. This symbol stream is separated into blocks of 48 symbols and a Unique Word (UW) of Lcp = 16 symbols is added at the beginning of each block. which are passed to the digital processing functions implemented in MATLAB. Ta 2 (IBI) and to fulfill the theorem of cyclic convolution. resulting in a logging memory of 512 MByte per antenna. and the resulting data is logged in real-time by huge memory modules. The training sequences for each transmit antenna are two repeated Chu sequences.3 are carrying out pulse shaping and are limiting the bandwidth of the base-band signals. These filters are operating at an over-sampling factor of 2. Both the A/D conversions and the D/A conversions. which requires further over-sampling to reach the D/A conversion rate. These IF signals are then converted by Digital-to-Analog (D/A) converters into analog signals and then further upconverted to the 2. Overview The digital low IF signals for transmissio are generated by a MATLAB implementation of the MIMO SC-FDE transmitter. No reference cables or similar are shared between the transmitter and the receiver. down-converted from radio frequency to IF frequency by mixers and amplified by low-noise amplifiers. A digital quadrature demodulation is performed to obtain complex base-band signals.4 GHz ISM band. The digital low IF signals are converted into analog signals and then further transformed into RF signals. Eight Frank-Zadoff sequences with 16-symbol length constitute the preamble. or in this case a UW. At the receiver-side RF signals are received with four antennas and are at first downconverted to a low IF by the analog MIMO RF front-end. 2) via its antennas. The transmit signals have a 3dB signal band-width of 10 MHz. The length Lcp should be as long as the length of the channel impulse response plus the group delays of all the filters in the transmitter and the receiver. All four received low IF signals are synchronously sampled by Analog-to-Digital (A/D) converters. The block diagram can be seen from Fig. The compensation 528 . The addition of a Cyclic Prefix (CP). each with a length of 64 symbols and an added Cyclic Prefix (CP) of length Lcp. > B2 >-BC h a2 2 0 Preamble *< 0 h E--N Trainingsequences (TDM) Sub-frame Data playload blocks Fig. are operating with 40 MHz. The RF signals are received by the receiver (Fig. STARS^2 Transmitter rm&mae (OCRS2) Digital IF Md. 3 is proposed.

A longer impulse response of the channel yields a narrower optimal window of possible (5) where arg(Q) is the operator to get the angle information of a complex value. Unfortunately. Each Chu sequence is protected by a CP of length Lcp. The DFT window only needs to be placed in such a way that the data block used for the DFT process will not be smeared by the dispersion from a previous block. but we extend it to fit our preamble with 8 short Frank-Zadoff sequences. At the end the received and equalized symbol streams are de-multiplexed. This UW is still included after equalization of a block and can therefore be used to analyze the behaviour of the FDE (quality measures). which is based on proposals in [7]. which can be compared to the transmitted data. Under the assumption that the channel length is not above the length of the CP and that the channel is constant during frame transmission. and for phase tracking purposes. the frequency offset. k = O(I)LChu-1. is 80 symbols.1. r(k+iL. Instead of a CP. The offset causes a continuous rotation of the base-band signal constellation and must therefore be cormpensated for correct detection of the data._. A more robust estimator can be constructed through averaging Afk over the whole Chu sequence as 1 Afk =. In order to estimate the carrier frequency offset.k2) / A property of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is that a cyclic shift of the sequence will only result in a constant phase rotation which can be easily compensated via equalization.JLI aru(r [k] r[k+Lp]). k = 0(1)LCh. frequency offset and phase offset within the data transmission duration as well as the channel impulse responses should be detected and estimated in the base-band signal processing of the receiver. r[k] are the received symbols of the Chu sequence and * denotes complex conjugate. k = O()Lchu. as shown in Fig. Hence. It is intuitive to select the central position of the plateau as the starting point of the DFT process. and the channel transfer functions of the MIMO channels are estimated under the assumption of quasi-static channels. and removes the distortion caused by the multi-path channel.k c r i=2 . For frame start detection we choose the metric proposed by Schmidl & Cox in [4]. Afterwards the UW needs to be removed. it is difficult to get a reliable result by selecting the central position of the plateau when the channel length grows near the length Lcp. Thereby. i A = Ch k=O E AJk (6) In order to cope with residual offsets and possible variations of the phase. This bandwidth expansion requests an over-sampling factor 529 . LCh. (4) where Ts denotes the symbol duration.2.. C. the constraint for choosing an optimal start point for the DFT window is greatly relaxed. (3) is changed to [r(k+ (i-I)L). we used a UW prefixed to each block. Based on this estimate. the received symbols in the two repeated Chu sequence have the relationship as r[k + Lp] r[k + Lp] = = r[k3. Thus. the estimate of Af from symbol k can be expressed The proposed metric can be formulated as k i=2 r-Lk ri. Equaliation Fractionally Spaced Equalization (FSE) [6] is motivated hy bandwidth expansion by the factor (1 + a) caused by the Root Raised Cosine (RRC) filters with a roll off factor of a. B. Details will be shown in an upcoming contribution. Lp = LChu + Lcp. The k-th received symbols of the i'-th sequence can be expressed by a vector as rik = start positions and the slopes of the left and right sides of the plateau are getting lower. to estimate a residual frequency offset.1)]T i = I. Synchronization Frame start position. a fractionally spaced MIMO Frequency Domain Equalizer (FDE) resolves the superposition of the MIMO channel. we choose an additional algorithm in order to get a more reliable result. A carrier frequency offset can significantly degrade the receiver performance.-1f (3) With Af. We implemented phase tracking after the equalizer in order improve the received signal constellation prior to the detection (de-mapper).. The channel estimation is carried out afterwards. r[k] eJ2. the training sequence of each transmitter antenna consists of two repeated Chu sequences of length LChu = 64 symbols. Corresponding to the proposed frame structure. which are typi ally deployed in communication systems. we implemented a phase tracking algorithm based on the UW approach as given in [5] (method 3). meanwhile neglecting the frequency offset and the noise.for the carrier frequency offset is performed for the whole frame. there is an uncertainty concerning the optimal position caused by the frequency selective channel and the noise.TAfLpT. 3. which can be also caused by sampling offsets as well. So the period of the repeated symbols in these two Chu sequences. compensates fractional delays. detected and translated into binary data. Under this requirement we can almost arbitrarily choose a start position and while being more concerned with robustness The modified Schmidl & Cox metric for frame detection generates a plateau which corresponds to the position of the optimal window with some constant offset. as Hence. the repetition property of the training sequences can be employed to estimate the frequency offset in the received base-band signal.

2004. The input of the FSE is over-sampled by a factor of two. and T. D the frequency domain down -sampling matrix of size N X 2:N. The reached un-coded net data rate (excluding trainlngg) of this 2 x 2 MIMO SCFDE transmission employing 8-PSK modulation and a 3-db bandwidth of 10 MHz can be calculated to 28.Part I.' 9 (F2NGRRC) r (7) a d whered dNT]T is an NTx1 Ivector. Huemer. and H. Each block has a data payload of 48 symbols. Fechtel. containing the equalized data vector of the transmitted streams. which are 8-PSK modulated. "Unique Word Based Phase Tracking Algorithms for SC/FDE Systems. Technische Universitaet Wien. 2002. Meyr. P. while the output is on symbol rate. vol. Wilzeck. Fock. We formulate it as r = I~~~~~~~ -2 I -2 -1 0 1 2 Re Fig. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work is partly funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeimnschaft (DFG) under the project title "Analytische und experimentelle Untersuchung von mehrteilnehmerfahigen Mehrantennen-Systemen mit niederratiger Ruckkoppelung" (KA 1154/15). "Robust frequency and tiiming synchronization for OFDM. [7] S. Japan. A. "Opti-nium receiver "MIMO Prototyping Test-bed with Off-The-Shelf Plug-In RF Hard- design for wireless broadband systems using OFDM . the measurement is performed in an indoor environment without Line of Sight (LoS) path. Wilzeck. The transmitter and the receiver are placed in two different sized office rooms. Schmidl and D. A. FN the N X N Fourier matrix. H. Vrcelj. ISCIT 2004. R. 1613 1621. W is the 2NNT X 2NNR equalizer matrix.AN OVERVIEW" (invited to special session "MIMO Prototyping"). 1668-1677. and v = IV I * VNR ]T is the stacked receive noise vector. The MIMO channel estimation procedure is based on a Least Square (LS) approach and makes use of the time orthogonal training sequences offered at the start of each sub-frame. {d} (INR (8 PremT)rC =(INR Prer) LH(INT (GRRCPadd))d + v Constellation of Equalized Received Symbols. G. We proposed a simple to use frame structure which can of course be further improved. pp. Q. For the later measurements a Zero Forcing (ZF) MIMO equalizer is used. Reinhardt. 2006. 11 pp. 1999.5 1- 0. GRRC = F2 GRRC F2N signifies the linear RRC convolution matrix.of two in the digital processing.5 (FN D)] W JIN. M. Amelingmeyer. d = Id1 ? dNT] is the stacked transmit data vector. and Padd denote CP removal matrix and CP insertion matrix respectively. 12th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2004). October 2004. GRRC is the 2N x 2N RRC filter matrix. no. Cai. I is the z x z identity matrix. ElL-Hadidy. Witschnig." IEEE Transactions on Communications. vol. [2] M. 4. "Pilot Aided Tiiming Synchronization for SC-FDE and OFDM: A Comparison. IV. [3] T. but comes at the cost of noise amplification. The measurement is based on 172 sub-frames." Proc.5k-1 k-1. The aim is to reach a better performance and to have access to the 5 GHz ISMband as well. S. Cox. 70 74. which simplifies the synchronization requirements. Vaidyanathan. 'r is a 2NNR x 1 vector containing the stacked received vectors. 47." Proc. and B.5k0F-0. where the cylic prefix is already removed. [4] T. RESULT & CONCLUSION The analog RF hardware of the current test-bed will be updated within the next few months. fractionally spaced equalization for a MIMO SC FDE system employing spatial multiplexing under realistic conditions. Germany. M. (8) where Prem. "Theory of fractionally spaced cyclic prefix equalizers" Proc ICASSP 2002 vol 2 pp 1277 1280.78 Mbit/s Within this contribution we evaluated synchronization algorithms combined with ware. M. M. but allows an easy access for the estimation of channel parameters. Speth. Hausner. V." IEEE Transactions on Communications. 530 . The fractionally spaced equalizer performs equalization in such away that a foregoing fine synchronization is not required. Weigel. which are separated by a wall. Kaiser. The constellation diagram of the received de-multiplexed symbols is shown in Fig. 2003. Rupp. and J. "PROTOTYPING FOR MIMO SYSTEMS . [5] M. Sapporo. Kaiser. [6] P. Universitaet Duisburg-Essen. REFERENCES [1] A. 45. Berentsen. 1997. In the case of a MIMO SC-FDE system with NT transmit antennas and NRF receive antennas a MIMO FSE of an single block can be described by d = NT X Constellation Diagram 1. Austria. Austria. IEEE GLOBECOM 2003. which simply inverts the MIMO channel effects. 4. September 6-10. Thereby. pp." IEEE Workshop on Smart Antennas. each containing 10 blocks. Vienna.