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Spectra Quest, Inc.
8201 Hermitage Road Richmond, VA 23228 (804) 261-3300 www.spectraquest.com June, 2007 ABSTRACT Clearance of a fluid film bearing is a critical parameter affecting the eccentric ratio as well as dynamic characteristics of the rotor system. Four shaft/rotor configurations have been tested on Spectra Quest’s Rotor Dynamics Simulator. For each test configuration, three bearing sets with different clearances were used to investigate the effects of clearance on damping in the fluid film bearing. It is observed that an increase in clearance will increase the modal damping because of the higher shear deformation. The experimental results also show that the critical speed and damping in the coast-down process are lower than those when the machine starts up. 1. INSTRUCTION In Wikipedia, the bearing is defined as a device to permit constrained relative motion between two parts, typically rotation or linear movement.1 Fluid bearings use a thin layer fluid to support the bearing load so that there is no metal-to-metal contact when the shaft rotates, which is the able to reduce wear. The portion of the rotating shaft at the bearing is often called the journal. The working mechanism of fluid film bearing was discovered more then 100 years ago. “Without relative motion or a converging clearance, no pressure or load capacity will be developed. It is the pressure in the lubricant film that carries the external load and bearing separates the solid surfaces.” 2 Figure 1 illustrates a typical hydrodynamic bearing V where the fluid is pumped in through an orifice. When the shaft spins with an angular velocity of ω, the fluid is dragged into a convergent clearance. Due to gravity, eccentricity, manufacturing imperfection, ω h1 misalignment, unbalance, and other factors, the rotor cannot always be perfectly centered. Therefore, the fluid forms a wedge (h1 is h0 larger than h0 in Fig. 1) which generates journal pressure to support the applied load. By assuming velocity continuity, the fluid velocity on the surface of the journal is the same as the velocity of the journal (V) at the Figure 1. Schematic of a hydrodynamic contact point, and is zero on the surface of bearing and the fluid velocity distribution. the bearing. The fluid velocity distribution
2. Bearing clearance is also an important parameter in rotor dynamics. In addition.1. safety cover oil supply speed display controller motor tachometer proximity probe pressure gauge Figure 2. For a cylindrical bearing. Therefore. the diametral clearance is defined as the difference between the bearing and shaft diameters. the dynamic parameters. the clearance has quite complicated effects on the performance on a rotor system. an increase in temperature will decrease the bearing stiffness as well as damping. an increase in the running speed will increase the heat generation. when a machine is speeding up. but also in the axial direction. Rotor Dynamics Simulator. as shown in Fig. are strongly affected by the fluid viscosity. As a result. which will further affect the energy dissipation caused by the shear deformation. Consequently. has a significant effect on the dynamic characteristics of a rotor system. On the other hand. 2. The eccentric ratio. In this study experiments have been carried out to investigate the effects of clearance on the bearing damping.through the thickness is normally not linear. lubricant’s viscosity is very sensitive to temperature. As the fluid friction is proportional to the viscosity as well as the velocity gradient. The RDS system is composed of two major subsystems. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP The tests were conducted on the SpectraQuest’s Rotor Dynamics Simulator (RDS) which is illustrated in Fig. a change in the clearance will change the fluid film and the shear stress. which is inversely proportional to the clearance. namely stiffness and damping. This is presumably caused by fluid loss due to end leakage. In the meanwhile. the simulator and the lubrication oil circulation assembly. 2 . the average velocity of the fluid is slightly less than V/2. which will further influence the dynamic behavior of the rotor system. So the fluid flows not only in the radial direction following the rotating of the shaft.
the motor drives the rotor shaft through a helical flexible coupling. bearings with different clearance selections are provided to perform in-depth study.For the simulator. (2) 1/2’’ shaft. Figure 3 illustrates the three bearing sets for the 1/2'' shaft. (1) 1/2’’ shaft. such as resonances. 3-5 The following configurations were used in this study. one loader mounted at the shaft center. 3 Figure 4. For each configuration. For each configuration. 15-4 15-5 15-6 Figure 3. The lubrication oil used is mineral oil with ISO 13 viscosity at room temperature. The ramp time for both the startup and coast-down is 30 seconds. (3) 5/8’’ shaft. in order to excite the critical speed in a sufficient time. and 1-in. Two proximity probes are mounted on each bearing housing with 90° apart so their signals can be used to calculate shaft orbit graphs. An optical tachometer is mounted near the motor output shaft. ½’’ Bearings with different clearance. one disk mounted at the shaft center. one disk mounted at shaft center. oil whirl and oil whip. The rotor shaft is supported by fluid film journal bearings. (4) 5/8’’ shaft. The simulator is equipped with several shaft-bearing configurations of different diameters. three disk evenly distributed. SpectraPad data acquisition hardware. and sends the tachometer signal to the data acquisition hardware. The length of the rotor shaft between the two bearings is 28 inches. . All the bearing numbers and their bore diameters listed in Tables I and II. The modular design of the RDS allows one to easily reconfigure the test rig and to perform different kinds of experiments of rotor dynamics training and research. three bearing sets with different clearances were tested with a startup followed by a coast-down test. Proximity probes are mounted on the journal bearing housings to measure the relative displacement of the shaft with respect to the bearing housing. The corresponding signal conditioner displays the running speed on a LED display. such as 1/2-. 5/8-.
calculate the magnitude and phase of the first order (the fundamental order associated to the rotating speed) and show the Bode plot where the magnitude is plotted in the dB scale. respectively. The VibraQuest system provides steady state. and ω1 and ω2 are the half-power frequencies on the right and left sides of the resonance frequency. Figure 5 and 6 show the Bode plots of 1/2'' shaft with one disk configuration during the startup and coast-down processes. That means for a resonance peak in the Bode plot. 4. and on-line order tracking. the modal damping was estimated in the Bode Plot Panel of the VibraQuest system. The damping ratio ζ is then calculated as ζ = ω − ω1 1 = 2 2Q ωr where Q is the quality factor. It then calculates the associated modal damping. ωr is the resonance frequency. four types of data acquisition mode. representing a critical speed. as shown in Fig. calculate damping ratio using the half-power point method for a selected vibration mode.4 kSamples/second for each channel. As the RDS is able to run up to 6000 RPM. 3. the data streaming mode was used. c. DATA ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS For each test. In both figures it can be seen that the amplitude peak corresponds to a phase change. Note the magnitudes are plotted in the dB scale for the damping calculation. Each input channel has its own 24-bit sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter. d. and calculate the damping factor using the halfpower point method. which means the peak is the first critical speed. the two frequencies at which the magnitude is 3 dB less than that of the resonance peak have half energy compared to the resonance frequency. The socalled “half-power point method” is named because 10log (1/2) = -3 dB. the software will automatically catch the true peak. 4 . smooth the Bode plot using the wavelet denoising method. The sampling rate can be up to 102. a multi-channel data acquisition system. calculate speed profile using the tachometer signal. Once the red curser is moved close to a peak corresponding to a resonance mode. data streaming. The analysis procedure is as follows: a. b. All the calculations are performed automatically when the cursor is moved close to the peak under investigation. Since each test lasted more than one minute in this study. All the channels are synchronized. The algorithm used also involves the wavelet denoising method and curve fitting to smooth the amplitude curve and increase the accuracy of the calculation. the sampling rate was set to be 5120 Hz which is sufficient to analyze up to the 20th order. Then the algorithm will search the true peak as well as the 3 dB down points on the left and right of the resonance. hammer test.The data acquisition and analysis were conducted using SpectraQuest’s VibratQuest system along with SpectraPad.
Figure 5. The analysis was repeated for all the tests and results are shown in Tables I and II. 7 and 8. Bode plot of the startup test of configuration #1 (1/2’’ shaft. one disk). as well as in Figs. Figure 6. one disk). 5 . Bode plot of the coast-down test of configuration #1 (1/2’’ shaft.
6 948.11 1388.035 1036.251 3.892 4.5060 0.674 3.075 1043.699 10.17 1342.68 1380.88 2213.228 damping ratio (%) 4.62 1300.6275 0.6290 0.667 4.5025 0.709 6.41 963.599 4.596 Table II.12 1442.784 5.39 2.453 6 .15 2123.55 4.572 4.33 3.64 1453. Critical speeds and damping ratios of 1/2'' shaft tests Loading condition Bearing 15-4 1 disk 15-5 15-6 15-4 3 disks 15-5 15-6 Bore diameter (inch) 0.78 2237.5040 0.26 4.49 1049.95 901.6290 0.92 1303.16 1301.92 2104.6275 0.68 2132.01 2117.935 6.5025 0.071 5.011 10.476 4.739 3.73 1355.056 3.6310 0.41 1353.5060 Running condition start up coast down start up coast down start up coast down start up coast down start up coast down start up coast down Critical speed (rpm) 1442.935 3.6 damping ratio (%) 4.033 3. Table I. Critical speeds and damping ratios of 5/8'' shaft tests Loading condition Bearing 16-4 1 loader 16-5 16-6 16-4 1 disk 16-5 16-6 Bore diameter (inch) 0.5040 0.622 2.Table I.6310 Running condition start up coast down start up coast down start up coast down start up coast down start up coast down start up coast down Critical speed (rpm) 1383.
Damping ratios in terms of bearing clearance for 1/2’’ shaft tests.5 4 3.5 3 15-4 coast down (b) 15-5 Bearing number 15-6 Figure 7. 7 .5 4 3.5 Damping ratio (%) 5 4.1/2'' sahft with one disk 5.5 3 startup coast down (a) 15-4 15-5 15-6 Bearing number 1/2'' shaft with three disks 6 Damping ration (%) 5.5 startup 5 4.
More discussion on this issue will be provided in another tech note. we need to study the relationship between clearance and film thickness.5 4 3. Therefore. Therefore the modal damping is improved. which is inversely proportional to the film thickness. This explains our experimental results. so the relationship between film thickness and clearance is quite complicated. in order to study the effect of clearance on damping.5 5 4. it is observed that damping factor has an increasing trend as the clearance increases. For a fluid film. an increase in clearance will decrease the film thickness which will increase the shear stress in the fluid film. as shown in all the plots in Figs. But the Sommerfeld number also involves the clearance.5/8'' shaft with one disk 12 Damping ratio (%) 10 8 6 4 2 16-4 16-5 Bearing number 16-6 start up coast down (a) 5/8'' shaft with one loader 7. Damping ratios in terms of bearing clearance for 5/8’’ shaft tests. although some exemption exists. The film thickness to clearance ratio is a function of the Sommerfeld number.5 Damping ratio (%) 7 6. In some running conditions.5 6 5. DISCUSSIONS First. 7 and 8. 8 . 4. the energy is dissipated mainly due to the shear stress.5 3 16-4 16-5 Bearing number 16-6 start up coast down (b) Figure 8.
H. Unfortunately. Cylindrical bearings are the most possible pattern to cause oil whirl and whip. FUTURE WORK As seen in the last section. but also. generate a tangential force which is in the same direction of rotation. The overall effects of many factors such as mass. 5. the effect of clearance on damping is a complicated problem. 34th Turbomachinery Symposium (2005) 3 http://www. Spectra Quest Inc.pdf 4 “Dynamic Behaviors of Rotor with Fluid Film Journal & Rolling Element Bearings”. C. For all the test conditions. Therefore. causing the oil whirl and whip phenomena. 6 provides an equation for the radial damping of a hydrodynamic damping. Byrne. such as tilting pad bearing. Cloud. as we have seen. “Fundamentals of Fluid Film Journal Bearing Operation and Modeling”. temperature was not measured in the experiments. oil viscosity is very sensitive to temperature. instead of reducing the rotor’s whirling motion. In addition. is designing other anti-whirl bearings. Less viscosity will decrease the stiffness and damping coefficient of the fluid film. If we calculate the derivative of the damping expression with respective to the diametral clearance. the critical speed and damping ratio during the coast down process is slightly less than that in the startup process. This will cause instability and may lead to serious consequences. it can be found that the radial damping is a monotonically decreasing function of clearance size. oil temperature is an important parameter in rotor dynamics. and others are hurt by high damping. in order to reduce the fluid circumferential flow velocity. In the rotating coordinate system.However. He. such a damping-related tangential force is promoting the shaft vibration. November 2005 9 . These cross coupled terms. J.wikipedia. REFERENCES 1 2 http://en. M. the cross-coupled terms. Some researches reported the exactly opposite prediction. high damping may be quite harmful. some vibration problems benefit from.com/downloads/MFS_RDS.org/wiki/Bearing_%28mechanical%29 M. mathematically speaking. SpectraQuest Tech Note. As explained in the instruction section. the rotor behavior is determined by not only the principal stiffness. the oil temperature is higher than during startup due to increasing bearing temperature in the test.5 In order to avoid complicated theoretical derivation. It is believed that during the coast down process. and so on have to be considered as well. Ref. the bad effect of high damping can be simply explained as follows. A careful study of Tables I and II shows that the critical speeds and damping ratios in the startup and the coast down processes are different. In fact for cylindrical bearings. We will use thermal couple to measure the oil temperature in the future test in order to quantify the effect of temperature. stiffness. It is worth noticing that high damping is not the only criterion for noise and vibration control.spectraquest. which are proportional to damping.
spectraquest.com/articles/printableFiles/01deathofwhirl_print. Bently. Goldman.com/tech/index. First Quarter 2001 pp. P. Orbit. SpectraQuest Tech Note.5 “Interesting Rotor Dynamics Observations on Oil Whirl and Whip”. http://www. 10-13. Eldridge.html 10 . “The Death of Whirl – What the SFCB Can Do for the Stability of Rotating Machinery”. April 2006 6 D.bpb-co. T.pdf Note: All the SpectraQuest tech notes are available online at http://www.
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