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OCT/NOV 2004 (Regular/Supplementary)
OPTICAL FIBRE COMMUNICATION OCT/NOV 2004 (Regular/Supplementary)
PART-A 1. What is the difference between Meridinal ray and Skew ray? Explain. 2. Define Total Internal Reflection? What is its significance? 3. What are the two important characteristics of the fibre that determine fibre information carrying capacity? Explain them, 4. What are SE LED and EE LED? Draw their schematic sketches. Explain them. 5. What is a fibre pigtail? Explain its need. 6. Name the different types of optical fibre connectors and splicing techniques. 7. Explain the duplex operation of optical WDM.
8. Enumerate the potential applications of optical fibre communication systems.
9. Write notes on 1) LOS 2) OTH systems 10. Explain the need of microwave repeaters.
11. Broadly compare the characteristics of MMSIF and MMGIF. Explain the construction and advantages of MMGIF. Or
12. Derive the equations in cylindrical coordinates for multimode step index glass fibres,
starting from Maxwell’s equations.
13. Write technical notes on 1) Attenuation 2) Scattering in glass fibres Or
14. a) List the requirements of the ideal optical detector,
b) With a neat sketch explain the detection principle of a PIN photo detector.
15. Explain in detail the need for optical splicing. Explain the principles of different splicing units. Or 16. Show that power coupling efficiency of source to glass fibre can be improved by using lensing schemes. Derive supporting equations.
17. a) Compare plastic fibres with glass fibres.
b) Explain the various modulation formats for optical communication. Or 18. Derive an expression for the rms pulse broadening in multimode fiber due to intermodal dispersion
19. a) Explain the basic principles of a typical microwave link. b) Explain the significance of C band or X band microwave frequencies for microwave communication. Or 20. a) Draw the neat block schematics of microwave terminal transmitter and receiver and explain their basic principle of operation, b) Explain the construction of a microwave link.
often in pairs although single fiber solutions exist .the end of the fiber is stripped and fusion spliced to a single fiber of a multi fiber trunk to break out the multi fiber cable into its component fibers for connection to the end equipments .alternatively they can have male connectors and plug directly to the trans-receiver (Q): Explain in detail the need for optical splicing? Explain the principles of different optical splicing units? ANSWER The continuous of an optical fiber along a communication link is determined by three factors (1). the cable length between the repeaters This uninterrupted length of optical fiber along a link therefore is not more than 10km. (1) Splices which are permanent joint between two fibers (2)Connectors which are demountable joints . the length of the cable that can be produced and installed as a continuous section along the link (3).Q).usually unbuffered . The fiber to fiber connection may be achieved by two ways.Thus for establishing long haul transmission links. the continuous length of fiber that can be produced by prevalent manufacturing method (2). what is meant by fiber pigtail? What is the need for it? A) A fiber pigtail is a single short . optical fiber that has an optical connector on one end and a length of exposed fiber on the other end . optical fibers are required to be connected. to allow them to be connected to end ports or other fibers runs with patch fibers . Pigtails can have female connectors and be mounted in a patch panel.
This can be done in two ways. flat and perpendicular to the core axes.This generates a crack in the fiber surface that propagates in the transverse direction and a flat fiber end is produced.The loss mechanisms associated with fiber to fiber connections may be grouped into two categories (1)Losses due to extrinsic parameters (2)Losses due to intrinsic parameters FIBER SPLICES A required (a) When the length of the system span is more than the manufactured cable length (b) When the cable is broken and needs to be repaired The primary objective of splicing is to establish transmission continuity in the fiber optic link. fiber splice is a permanent joint formed between two optical fibers .The major consideration in making these connections is the optical loss associated with them .Splicing is . namely through (a) Fusion splices (b) Mechanical splices In order to achieve a low loss splice. it is essential for the fiber ends to be smooth. This is normally achieved using a cleaving tool. This technique is called scribe and break or score and break. It involves scoring the fiber under tension with a cleaving tool .
The adhesive ensures both mechanical bonding and index matching.FUSION SPLICES A good quality permanent joint may be obtained by fusion or welding the prepared fiber ends. known as the snug tube splice. This removes any defects due to imperfect cleaving. A widely used heating source for fusion is the electric arc. thus producing a fusion splice. the two ends are pressed together and fused with a stronger arc. A popular technique. uses a glass or ceramic capillary with an inner diameter just large to accommodate the optical fibers. a short arc discharge is applied to fire polish the fiber ends. A stable low loss splice may be obtained in this way but it posses stringent limits on the capillary diameters. . The alignment is done with the help of an inspection microscope. These normally use appropriate fixtures for aligning the fibers and holding them together. MECHANICAL SPLICES There are several mechanical techniques of splicing fibers. A possible drawback of such a splicing mechanism is that the heat produced by the welding arc may weaken the fiber in the vicinity of the splice. The prepared fiber ends are gently inserted into the capillary and a transparent adhesive is injected through a transverse hole. In the final step. The prepared fiber ends are placed in a precision alignment jig. After the initial setting.
The simplest technique uses an open v-groove. . The splice is accomplished with the aid of epoxy resin . Such a groove is called spring groove. The fibers may be placed in the cusp and the transparent adhesive ensures bonding as well as index matching and a flat spring on the top applies pressure ensuring that fibers remain in their positions. Other techniques of mechanical splicing normally employ v-grooves for securing optical fibers. The capillary is first filled with transparent adhesive.A slightly different technique uses an oversized metallic capillary of square cross section.it is also possible to obtain a suitable groove by placing two precision pins close to each other. The two fiber ends are forced against one of the four inner corners of the capillary. after which the prepared fiber ends are inserted into it. into which the prepared fiber ends are placed.
one of which contains a v-groove. Index matching gel is employed to improve its performance. In this method. An outer sleeve holds these two parts compressed so that the fibers are held tightly in alignment.groove principle to realize what is known as an elastomeric splice. the prepared fiber ends are sandwiched between two elastomeric internal parts. but it can also be used for single mode fibers as well as fibers with different code diameters.There is yet another technique that utilizes the v. . Originally this technique was developed for coupling multimode fibers.
also domed lenses can be placed over emitting surface to direct light to smaller area . In this method. Shruti Rajan Babu (#39) Q). MULTIPLE SPLICES For ribbon cables containing linear arrays of fibers. By.Splicing with most of these techniques if properly carried out. and then placed in a grooved substrate. . Adhesive is then used for bonding an index matching. the following technique has been used.What are SE LED and EE LED? Draw their schematic sketches and explain them? Barrus etched-well surface emitting LED The Barrus etched-well LED emits light in all directions.This LED is efficient than standard surface emitter and they allow more power to couple in to optical fiber but they are more difficult and expensive to manipulate.1dB for multimode fibers. results in splice loss of about 0. A cover plate retains the fibers in their position and also maintains mechanical stability. Some of these can also be used for splicing single mode fibers. The etched well helps to concentrate the emitted light into a small area. the fiber ends are individually prepared.
High fidelity .Edge-emitting LED These LED’s emits more directional light pattern than the surface emitting LED. 2 A) List the requirement of an ideal optical detector? 1 . The construction is similar to that of planar and barrus diodes expect that the emitting surface is a strip rather than a confined circular area. The light emitted from the active strip and from an elliptical beam pattern surface emitting LED’s are commonly used than edge-emitters because they emit more light. This LED is suitable to enhance optical coupling 50µm core fiber EE-LED is more expensive than S-LED. The typical emitting region for EE-LED is 8-10µm thick and 150µm wide.
Low bias voltages Ideally the detector should not require excessive bias voltages or currents. leakage currents and shunt conductance must be low. it is apparent that future systems (single-mode fiber) will operate it in the gigahertz range. 3. Also the gain mechanism within either the detector or associated circuitry must be of low noise.e. 5. 4. Stability of performance characteristics Ideally. for analogy transmission the response of the photo-detector must be linear with regard to the optical signal over a wide range. A minimum noise introduced by the detector Dark currents. i. internal gain) which vary with temperature. the quantum efficiency should be high. noise.To reproduce the received signal waveform with fidelity. 7. However. However. Large electrical response to the received optical signal The photo-detector should produce a maximum electrical signal for a given amount of optical power. 2. Small size The physical size of the detector must be small for efficient coupling to the fiber and to allow easy packaging with the following electronics. Short response time to obtain a suitable bandwidth Present systems extend into the hundreds of megahertz. and therefore compensation for temperature effects is often necessary. and possibly above. 6. the detector currently favoured (photo diodes) have characteristics (sensitivity. 8. High reliability . the performance characteristics of the detector should be independent of changes in ambient conditions.
tdrift=w/vd 2) Diffusion time of carriers generated outside the depletion region-tdiff=d2/2Dc 3) Time constant incurred by the capacitance of the photo-diode with its load-Cj=ɛsA/w . This creates a p-i-n (PIN) structure. To achieve this n-type material is doped so lightly so that it can be considered intrinsic. where absorption takes place in the depletion region. 10. 9. Low cost Economic considerations often of prime importance in any large scale communication system application. High Sensitivity at operating wavelengths. and to make a low resistance contact highly doped n-type (n+) layer is added.The detector must be capable of continuous stable operation at room temperature for many years. Three main factors that determine speed of response are: 1) Drift time of carriers through the depletion layer. B) With neat sketches explain the detection principle of a p-i-n photo-detector? In order to allow low operation at longer wave lengths where the light penetrates more deeply into the semiconductor material a wider depletion region is necessary.
When the angle of incidence is increased the angle of refraction also increases. For a particular value of angle of incidence the angle of refraction is 90° then the transmitted ray will be parallel to the boundary. What is its significance? When a ray of light travels from an optically denser medium to an optically rarer medium the angle of transmission will be greater than the angle of incidence so that the refracted ray bends away from the normal. Define total internal reflection. Conditions for total internal reflection: 1.By Sruthi Loy (#33) Q). Light must travel from an optically denser medium to an optically rarer medium . When the angle of incidence is further increased beyond θc the value of refracted angle increases beyond 90° and hence the refracted ray comes back into the original medium then the ray is said to be totally internally reflected. This value of angle of incidence for which the angle of transmission is 90° is termed as the critical angle θc.
The standing wave developed in the core is not sinusoidal but has the form of an oscillatory Bessel function due to the circular geometry of the fiber. Maxwell’s equations can be written as: Δ X E = . The angle of incidence in the denser medium must be greater than critical angle of the denser medium.2. Q) Derive equations in cylindrical coordinates for a multimode step index glass fiber starting from Maxwell’s equations. The transmission of optical energy through an optical fiber is achieved by using the principle of total internal reflection. The dielectric cylinder which models the step index optical fiber can act as a waveguide. Hence by using total internal reflection optical energy can be transmitted within an optical fiber without loss of information. The mechanism is that a total internal reflection at the cylindrical boundary with the cladding results in a standing wave across the core and a decaying field in the cladding. Because of the curvature of the boundary transverse modes of the cylindrical fiber are mixed into a set of hybrid modes that have components of electric and magnetic fields in the axial direction. the condition is given by sinθc = n2/n1 where n1 = core refractive index & n2 = cladding refractive index.∂B /∂t . this entire field pattern propagates along the fiber. For the analysis of the optical waveguide we have to consider Maxwell’s equations which give relationship between electric and magnetic field. When the angle of incidence is greater than critical angle the ray undergoes total internal reflection.
E) – Δ2 E = . Δ2 H = μ ε ∂2 / ∂t2 The actual step index fiber has a core radius of a 1 and a refractive index μ1 and its cladding has a finite outer radius a2 and refractive index μ2 with another medium air or some protective material beyond the cladding.μ ∂ /∂t ( ∂D /∂t ) = .∂B /∂t) = Δ x (.μ ∂ /∂t (Δ x H) = . Δ x (Δ x E) = Δ (Δ.μ ∂H /∂t) = . We assume a solution of the equation in the form: Hz = gf1 (r) f2 (θ) f3 (z) f4 (t) Where g = a constant The time and z dependent form is like f3 (z) f4 (t) = e j (ωt – βz) The wave is sinusoidal in time and travels along the z – direction. B = 0 B = μH & D = εE Δ x (Δ x E) = Δ X (.μ ε ∂2E / ∂t2 Δ x ( Δ x E ) = .Δ.μ ∂ / ∂t ( ε ∂E /∂t ) = .μ ε ∂2E / ∂t2 We know that Δ x ( Δ x E ) = Δ ( Δ.E ) – Δ2 E From Maxwell’s equations we have.Δ2 E Δ2 E = μ ε ∂2E / ∂t2 Again we have. D = 0 Δ X H = ∂D /∂t Δ. So f 2 (θ) will be a periodic function of the form f2 (θ) = Now we get ∂2 f1 (r) / ∂r2 + 1/r ∂ / ∂r f1 (r) + ( p2 – ν2/r ) f1 = 0 .
This indicates that β≥K2 and it gives a cut – off condition. The condition is K1≥β. Moreover Kn(Wr) must be zero for very high value of r so In above calculation we have excluded one solution. Similar equation can also be obtained for Ez.The equation is differential equation for Bessel function. This is because Yn(ur) tends to infinity as r tends to zero. Inside the core the solutions are Bessel functions of the first kind of order n. then Ez and H z are expressed by the relations for r<a1 Ez = C Jn (ur) e jωt – βz Hz = C Jn (ur) e jωt – βz For the region outside the core we should imply the modified Bessel’s functions of the second kind Kn (Wr) Ez = A Kn (Wr) e iνθ e jωt – βz Hz = G Kn (Wr) e iνθ e jωt – βz These are spiralling waves along the axis but their transverse non – uniformity gradually dies out with radial distance away from the core cladding interface. –Wr when Wr tends to infinity. But C1 is taken as zero to exclude Yn (ur). This simply indicates that the field strength is infinite on the axis of the fiber core. The cut – off condition indicates that it is the point at which a mode is not confined to the core region. By Shamy Alphons Tom (#31) Q) What are the two important characteristics of fiber that determine fiber information carrying capacity? Explain them. Similarily a second condition on β can be deduced from the behaviour of Jn(ur). It is evident from the definition of the modified Bessel function that Kn (Wr) tends to e W>0. The solution is C1 Yn(ur). .
In graded-index fibers the radial refractiveindex profile can be carefully selected so that the pulse broadening is minimized at a specific operating wavelength. The common procedure is to express the attenuation coefficient in units of decibels per kilometer. from compositional fluctuations and from structural inhomogenities or defects occurring during fiber manufacture.km. scattering and radiative losses of the optical energy. denoted by dB/km. α(dB/km) = 10/zlog[P(0)/P(z)] = 4.scattering losses in glass arises from the microscopic variations in the material density. For single component glass the scattering loss at a wavelength λ resulting from density fluctuations can be approximated by αscat = 8π3/3λ4n8p2kBTfβT . its power decreases exponentially with distance. The information-carrying capacity can be determined by examining the deformation of short light pulses propagating along the fiber. For a step index fiber the various distortion effects tend to limit the bandwidth-distance product to about 20MHz. The basic attenuation mechanism in a fiber are absorption. If P(0) is the optical power in a fiber at the origin. It helps in determining the maximum transmission distance between a transmitter and the receiver or an in-line amplifier.km and pulse dispersion.5GHz. then the power P(z) at a distance z further down the fiber is P(z) = P(0)e-αpz αp = 1/zln[P(0)/P(z)] is the fibre attenuation coefficient.As light travels along a fiber. II. Q) Write technical notes on:I. Glass is composed of randomly connected network of molecules in which the molecular density is either higher or lower than the average density in the glass.A) The two important characteristics of fiber that determine the information capacity of an optical waveguide is usually specified by the bandwidth-distance product in MHz.343αp(km-1) ii) Scattering in glass fibers:. Attenuation Scattering in glass fibers A) I) Attenuation:. This had led to bandwidth-distance products as high as 2.km.
Name the different types of optical fiber connectors and splicing techniques? Ans:a)Butt joint connectors-It employ a metal.The fiber ends are first prealigned and butted together.the solid angle within which optical power is coupled to the fiber from the LED is increased by the same factor.the hole diameter expands so that the elastic material exerts a symmetrical force on the fiber.However if the emitting area of the source is smaller than the core area. The losses of multimode fibers are generally higher than those of single mode fibers.It allows an accurate and automatic alignment of the axes of two fibers to be joined.Fusion splices are made by thermally bonding together prepared fiber ends.The fiber is epoxied in to a precision hole which has been drilled in to the ferrule. In the V groove splicing technique.ceramic or moulded plastic ferrule for each fiber and a precision sleeve in to which the ferrule fit.the prepared fiber ends are first butted together in a V shaped groove. and crystallized regions in the glass. and the elastic tube splice.They are then bonded together with an adhesive In the elastic tube splicing method. unreacted starting materials.These lenses either collimate the light emerging from the transmitting fiber .Show that the power coupling efficiency of source to glass fiber can be improved by using lensing schemes.the fiber is inserted in a tube made of elastic material.then the resulting optical power coupled in to the fiber is the maximum that can be achieved.the V groove mechanical splice .a miniature lens is placed between the source and the fiber to improve the power coupling efficiency. Expanded beam connectors-it employs lenses on the ends of the fibers. Sharon Varghese (#32) Q. The function of microlens is to magnify the emitting area of the source to match exactly the core area of the fiber end face.Two types of butt joint connectors are straight sleeve and tapered sleeve mechanisms.or focus the expanded beam on to the core of the receiving fiber Splicing technique includes fusion splice.When fibre is inserted. . Q.If the emitting area is increased by a magnification factor M.The defects that causes scattering may be in the form of trapped gas bubbles. By.If the source emitting area is larger than the fiber core area.The butt joint is then heated with an electric arc or a laser pulse.Giving equations Ans: The optical power launching analysis is based on centering a flat fiber end face directly over the light source as close to it as possible.
Several lensing schemes are rounded end fiber.a small glass sphere in contact with with both the fiber and the source.Placing the LED close to the lens surface results in a magnification M of the emitting area. For Nonimaging microsphere.a large spherical lens used to image the source on the core area of the fiber end.This is given by the ratio of the cross sectional area of the lens to that of the emitting area.a cylindrical lens generally formed from a short section of fiber. 2 M = π R2 πr2 = R r 2 With the lens the optic power PL = Ps R r sin2θ .a system consisting of a spherical surfaced LED and a spherical ended fiber .and a taper ended fiber.
For a fiber of radius a and numerical aperture NA. and cross talk . By operating each source at a different peak wavelength. the WDM scheme is the same as frequency division multiplexing(FDM) used in microwave radio and satellite systems . A bidirectional WDM scheme is shown in the second figure.Where Ps is the total output power from the LED without lens The theoretical coupling efficiency that can be achieved is based on the energy and radiance conservation principle. This includes losers occurring at the connection points of the WDM . Ideally. Two different WDM setups have been shown . Ans) There are more sophisticated systems which make a fuller utilization of the transmission capacity of an optical fiber . In the first one . In standard point-to-point links a single-fiber line has one optical source at its transmitting end and one photodetector at the receiving end . Conceptually . a unidirectional WDM device is used to combine different signal carrier wavelengths onto a single fibre at one end and to separate them into their corresponding detectors at the other end . a dramatic increase in the information capacity of a fiber can thus be achieved by the simultaneous transmission of optical signals over the same fiber from many different light sources having properly spaced peak emission wavelengths . The three basic performance criteria are insertion loss . Signals from different light sources require separate and uniquely assigned optical fibres . Various WDM techniques have been examined for optical fiber networks . Insertion loss defines the amount of power loss that arises in the fiber optic line from the addition of a WDM coupling device .This efficiency is usually determined by the size of the fiber.the maximum coupling efficiency is By. the integrity of the independent messages from each source is maintained for subsequent conversion to electric signals at the receiving end . This involves sending information in one direction at a wavelength λ1 and simultaneously in the opposite direction at a wavelength λ2 . This is the basis of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). this type of transmission makes use of a very narrow portion of the transmission bandwidth capability of a fiber We also see that many additional spectral operating regions are possible . Sibin Koshy (#35) Q) Explain the duplex operation of critical WDM . Since an optical source has a narrow spectral width . channel width . Let us first examine the system requirements of the WDM technique.
channel widths that are 10 to 20 times larger are required because of the wider spectral output width of these sources .element to the fiber line and any intrinsic losses within the multiplexing element itself. The tolerable interchannel cross-talk levels can vary widely depending on the application. 17)a) Compare plastic fibres with glass fibres . a -10 dB level is not sufficient whereas a -30 dB level is. Channel width is the wavelength range that is allocated to a particular optical source. However. drift of peak operating output wavelength with temperature changes). a multiplexer is needed at the transmitting end to combine optical signals from several light sources onto a single optical fiber . For LED sources. In implementing a unidirectional WDM system . channel widths of several tens of nanometers are required to ensure that no interchannel interference results from source instability(for example. If laser diodes are used . Cross talk refers to the amount of signal coupling from one channel to another. in general. Ans) Plastic fibres Glass fibres . In practice . designers can tolerate insertion losses of a few decibels at each end .
make an economically attractive system . one can use . examples of plastic fibre constructions are : 1) A polystyrene core and a methyl methacrylate cladding to give an NA of 0. there exists a limit as to the maximum numerical aperture and acceptance angle that can be accomodated . Ans) There are three fundamental ways by which information can be sent in a coherent optical transmission system. frequency shift keying(FSK) . less durable . permits the use of inexpensive large-area light-emitting diodes which in conjunction with the less expensive plastic fibres . To recover the information at the receiver. relatively expensive b) Explain the various modulation formats for optical communication. PMMA is the core and fluorinated polymers make up the cladding . high numerical apertures and acceptance angles can be accomodated . examples of glass fibre constructions are: 1) Halide glass fibres – fluoride glasses are used which have extremely low transmission losses 2) Active glass fibres – rare earth elements are used which give the resulting material new optical and magnetic properties . more durability . made of plastic . used as a reinforcing agent for many polymer products . used in sensing .50 . mechanically less flexible . more tough material . no such provision provided . made up of glass cladding and glass core . In binary digital systems a common ASK technique is on-off keying (OOK). made from extremely fine fibres of glass . cost is low .. These are phase shift keying (PSK) .60 2) A polymethyl methacrylate core and a cladding made of its copolymer to give an NA of 0. less optical signal attenuation in glass fibres . greater optical signal attenuation in plastic fibres . less tough material . mechanically more flexible . or amplitude shift keying(ASK) .
Suppose we send an OOK sequence of 1 and 0 pulses which occur with equal probability. Thus one can describe receiver sensitivity in terms of the S/N available at the receiver output. The BER depends on the signal-to-noise ratio(S/N) and the probability density function (PDF) at the receiver output (at the input to the comparator). Since the OOK data stream is on only half of the time on the average. let us first look at a direct. Generally one characterizes the performance of a digital communication system in terms of the bit error rate (BER). the required number of photons per bit of information is half the number required per pulse. . Traditionally the receiver sensitivity for various coherent optical detection techniques has been described in terms of the average number of photons required to achieve a 10-9 BER. the BER depends only on the signal-to-noise ratio. which is directly proportional to the received optical signal power. Direct detection OOK : To make a comparison between various detection techniques. Since for high local-oscillator powers the PDF is Gaussian for both heterodyne and homodyne techniques.either homodyne or heterodyne optical detection techniques together with either synchronous or asynchronous electrical detection. The particular choice of modulation and demodulation methods determines the fundamental receiver sensitivity.detection OOK system. Thus if N and 0 electron-hole pairs are created during 1 and 0 pulses .
then the average number of photons per bit NP for unity quantum efficiency(η=1) is NP N + (0) or . N1 . that is N0 =A2LO T For a pulse .respectively . N=2NP . The chance of making an error is Pr (0) = e-2Np The above equation implies that about 10 photons per bit are required to get a BER of 10-9 for a direct-detection OOK system. the voltage V seen by the decoder in the receiver during a pulse is V = N1 – N0 = 2ALOAST And the associated rms noise n is n = N10. OOK Homodyne System : As has already been mentioned. Let us first look at the homodyne case. The amplification electronics that follow the photo detector add both thermal noise and shot noise. V = 2nAST0. is N1=(ALO+AS)2=( A2LO + 2ALOAS)T Where the approximation arises from the condition A2LO > A2S Since the local oscillator output power is much higher than the received signal level . When a 0 pulse of duration T is received. the average number N0 of electron-hole pairs created is simply the number generated by the local oscillator.5 = N00. so that the required power level lies between 13 and 20 dB above the quantum limit. the average number of electron-hole pairs .5 = (erfc ( .5 Thus we have BER as BER = (1-erf ( Where . In practice this fundamental quantum limit is very difficult to achieve for directdetection receivers. either homodyne or heterotype type receivers can be used with OOK modulation.
again . The incoming optical signal is first combined with a strong optical wave being emitted from the local oscillator. IS 18(half the number required per pulse) Thus for OOK homodyne detection the BER is given by BER = erfc(ηNP)0. This is done using either a fiber directional coupler and a partially reflecting plate called a beam splitter.5) for x>=5 is erfc(x0. then the average number of received photons per bit of information .5 erfc(x) = I – erf(x) is the complimentary error function In the ideal case when the quantum efficiency is unity. 10-9 BER is achieved with an average received optical energy of 36 photons per pulse . The figure given below shows the fundamental setup for a homodyne receiver.5 To simplify this we note that a useful approximation to erfc(x0. but it is also the most difficult method to implement. transparency comes into play since the incoming signal is weaker than the local-oscillator output. NP .5)=e-x/(πx)0. . When a beam splitter is used. PSK Homodyne System : Homodyne detection of PSK modulation gives the best theoretical receiver sensitivity.5 For ηNP >= 5 in OOK homodyne detection.5 so that BER = e-ηNp/(πηNP)0.x=20. if we assume an OOK sequence of 1 and 0 pulses which occur with equal probability .
The following figure shows the general receiver configuration. because the photo detector output appears at an intermediate frequency ωIF . The intermediate-frequency carrier is recovered by mixing the output of the PLL with the intermediate-frequency signal. Let us look at this for PSK. which is usually a microwave phase-locked loop(PLL). One then uses a low pass filter to recover the baseband signal . In synchronous PSK detection one uses a carrierrecovery circuit. to generate a local phase reference .5 . The BER for synchronous heterodyne PSK is given by BER = erfc (ηNP)0.Heterodyne Detection Schemes : The analysis for heterodyne receivers is more complicated than in the homodyne case . An attractive feature of heterodyne receivers is that they employ either synchronous or asynchronous detection.
With repeaters. messages over thousands of kilometres of fiber can be sent. The small size and large information-carrying capacity of optic fibers is much high as compared to copper twisted-pair cables in telephone systems. separation between repeaters in a fiber system is greater than in a coaxial link. Sijo Cyriac (#36) Q. The low weight of fiber cables as compared to coaxial lines gives them distinct advantages of submerged cable applications because of the relative ease of transporting ad laying fibers. underwater fiber links have been designed to span the oceans.By. Enumerate the potential applications of optical fibre communication systems. Continuous passive links more than 100 km long have been produced. . Because of low losses. Because repeaters can be spaced very far apart in fiber systems.
Military applications of fiber optics include communications. Alternatively.e. over the range The rms pulse broadening at the fiber output due to intermodal dispersion for the multimode step index fiber σs (i. Derive an expression for the rms pulse broadening in multimode fiber due to intermodal dispersion Considering a perfect step index fiber. Optic cables can be suspended directly from power line towers or poles if clearance space permits and if the load can be tolerated. the fiber can be embedded in a wire cable.(3) . When the optical output to the fiber is a pulse pi (t) of unit area as illustrated --------------. Hence M1 = And M2 = ----------.(2) ----------. a useful quantity regard to intermodal dispersion on an optical fiber link is the rms pulse broadening resulting from this dispersion mechanism along the fiber. Similarly fibers can be placed near high-voltage power lines without adverse effects whereas wire systems would be noisy. standard deviation) may be given in terms of the variance σs2. command and control links on ships and aircrafts. Optic fiber communications are compatible with electrified railways because they are not affected by EMI. data links for satellite earth stations and transmissions lines for tactical command post communication Q.(1) It may be noted that pi(t) has constant amplitude of ≤ pi (t) ≤ . σs2 = M2 – M12 Where M1 is the first temporal moment which is equivalent to the mean value of the pulse and M2 the second temporal moment is equivalent to the mean square value of the pulse.
σ s2 = M2 = -----------(4) Integrating over the limits of the input pulse and substituting for Pi (t) in (3) over this range gives: σ s2 = = ( t2dt ----------------(5) )2 ---------------------. Explain the propagation of the skew rays and meridional rays through an optical fibre . (2) and (3).(6) gives: Hence substituting for σ s= By Sreejith.R (#37) 1. then from eqs. and assuming that is maintained for the output pulse.The mean value M1 for the unit input pulse of the figure is zero.
What are the characteristics of MMSIF and MMGIF? Explain the construction and advantages of MMGIF? MULTI MODE STEP INDEX FIBRE (MMSIF) .
MULTIMODE GRADED INDEX FIBRES (MMGIF) .
By Sanjay Mohan(#30) .
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