Philosophy Review Topic One: Mind Body Problem ³Only metaphysically similar things can be causally related to each

other´ Interactionism y y y Idea that mind and body work together, interacting and causing each other to make actions. Where do they interact? Rene Descartes= dualist. Believed the mind and the body interacted at the pineal gland, and that ³animal spirits´ carried the messages from one to the other. ³my senses sometimes deceive me´ No way to move things with the mind. What causes the other to happen? Hume¶s theory on causation 1. A is prior to B 2. A+B are contiguous (touch each other in space in time) 3. A+B are necessarily connected (constant conjunction) Generous Theory: Only needs these three conditions to prove causation. Does not include quote above about metaphysically similar things. Can Hume¶s conditions be connected to Interactionism? Critics claim that the theory of causation cannot be true without the quote on the metaphysically similar ideas. Criticism: The simplest objection to interaction is that, in so far as mental properties, states or substances are of radically different kinds from each other, they lack that communality necessary for interaction.

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Brie Gertler: Teacher at University of Virginia, defender of dualism y y It is possible to feel pain even if you are in no physical state. Disembodiment argument: descendant of Descartes¶ argument. Feeling pain with no physical features. If this pain could occur without a body, then there must be a mind controlling or feeling this pain. Not everything we can conceive of is possible. C fiber stimulation There is a concept of pain that is definitive and that it is possible that the hurting sensation has to occur for us. Feeling pain. If the pain is a physical state then we can see that there must be a possibility that there is pain coming from somewhere other than the body itself. Comparing data of the mind is the overall debate

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Frank Jackson y y y The Qualia Problem Experiences allow people to gain a better understanding about situations. Experiences and feelings have irreducibly subjective, non-physical qualities. Others take essentially the same position on the gap while insisting that this does not detract from a

Metaphysical items: 1. but green books could just as easily be red and have the same internal properties as the green book. y y y y . not a metaphysical connection. However. All mental processes or properties are brain processes or properties ie pain is the brain firing neurons No nomological danglers (unexplained facts in a theory) Correlation: All physical events correspond to immediate mental state Control: Tell someone to think about baseball and look to see if neurons fire in the same area as other people. just the firing of neurons. No location of the mind. Must be certain of the idea. Addresses some issues with the concept of solely a physical body. Identity of Indiscernible: If two things are identical. go with the simpler theory. and since he is not certain about the idea of identity theory.y y purely physicalist view of experiences and feelings. Some experiences are literal experiences. Properties etc. Mental Processes=Brain Processes Examples: The surgeon. The mental situations which defenders of dualism address are necessarily tied to the idea of physical occurrences. y Peter Carruthers y y ³Green afterimage´ Essential properties vs Accidental Properties: The greenness of after images are essential properties for people to have. Parsimony: If two explanations are equal in explanatory. they should be able to point out reactions of the brain either by looking at the brain through machines or other processes. Leibniz¶s law 1. what one says about one thing must be truth about the other. Materialism y y y y y y y y y Materialism: The only things which exist are material things. Event 3. if they show pictures of things. but some other events are difficult to perceive. If the surgeon cuts open a patients head and looks at the brain. What it shows rather is that some physical qualities or states are irreducibly subjective entities Defenses against criticisms by Darwin. There is a physical-physical causality which is created. Materialists must be able to defend their stance against the gap between physical and mental states that have been created. There¶s no physical mind in the brain. Certainty: Adaptation of Descartes idea of identity. defends it by stating he is certain. Pressures of evolutionary survival have to do which our changes physical and mental states. Thing 2.

y y y y y y y y y . Origins of each type of animals leads from evolution and the structure of one. belief and knowledge can overcome the idea that these ideas have to be flawed. Privacy: Since conscious statements are not identical with identical statements. Experiences are physical states because they still part of the brain process that would be argue that spatial positions must be assigned to the brain. 3. Conceptual histoy should show us that the materialism is better than folk psychology. Neuroscience can help to defend the idea that we are all just physical states. fears and so forth. These states are simply part of the brain and that many of these observations are false and cannot be proven to be part of the mental state. Point to the weaknesses of folk psychology.2. Can a brain-state be wicked as well as a thought be wicked? Yes because they are intentional. Felt Quality. Paul Churchland y Philosophical Behaviorism: Any sentence about a mental state can be paraphrased. Statements of meaningfulness. We do not understand the ideas of mental illnesses or intelligence or other claimed ideas of mental states which cannot be related to the idea of a dualist theory. Complete Knowledge: There must be a mental state since we do not understand everything that we have and know. other types of mental states and bodily behavior. Eliminative Materialism: We are made of a psychological framework is a false and radically misleading conception of the causes of human behavior and nature of cognitive activity. Flaws with philosophical behaviorism. without loss of meaning. Functionalism: The essential feature of any type of any mental state as is causally relates to environmental effects on the body. Pain has a physical feel and thoughts can produce reactions in the brain. desires. After-green image. 2. Older states become eliminated and outdated. 4. Both of them are caused by the brain-state. they are not the same as each other. 5.Cannot physically feel these states. beliefs. 6. Intertheoretic Reduction: All cases where a new and very powerful theory turns out to entail a set of propositions and principles of some older conceptual theory or framework. A priori advantages over identity theory and functionalism Criticisms: Begs the question because one¶s introspection reveals directly the existence of pains. Color: Brain-states cannot be green. 3. Ignores inner aspect of mental states. Value: Thoughts have different brain-states. Relates previous scientific discoveries with the ideas of physical material rather than just assumed ³phlogiston´ Arguments for Eliminative Materialism: 1. Cannot specify the multiracked disposition said to constitute any given mental state. that or other observable circumstances. There¶s no internal difference in the two statements. into a long and complex sentence about what observable behavior would result if the person were in this.

Individualism: How do we pick people out? c. boy grows up at age 10 and gets flogged. If a person loses his memories. IS he the same person? As time progresses. Body Criteria ± Person with amnesia still has the same body c. If the people have their souls transferred to one another. Persona has a substance and conscience. they could be the same person. 3. 2. thinking substance ie. Same immaterial spirit united to the same animal. if he only loses his previous actions. but exists. does he remain the same person? If the Prince and Cobbler wake up in the opposite person¶s body. No answer Theories of Personal Identity John Locke y y y y y y y y ³Sameness of a rational being´ or consciousness The man is like the body and depends on the biological organization. Idea of a person but be seen as the perception of a rational being who acts based upon what the body tells him to do. remembers getting flogged. The same numerical soul. The person is morally responsible for his actions. If one loses his memories. Age 65 still remembers war. memories of memories. Must be the same individual immaterial. Memory Criteria. Reidentification: How do we recognize people as same people? Criteria for Reidentifcation a. Memories can be false: Fallabilist Must decide what makes the same spirit. The same animal.Topic 2: Personal Identity Problem of Personal Identity a. man or person. For example. do we really have sameness in identity? Defense of Locke: Law of transitivity. y Thomas Reid y y y y Criticism of John Locke on basis that personal identity is indefinable.Locke¶s Prince and Cobbler b. which has no regard to a soul. but not getting flogged. At age 25 becomes famous war hero. which is which anymore? Criteria: 1. Unity: Person remain the same after qualitative changes b. still can remember concepts from that age. Memories create the conscience of a person and help to establish the idea of the word remember. he could become two diffrenet people. y y .

4. we can know what is going to happen to a person prior to it happening. y Recreation of a soul would be a problem. 3. Could we combine both the brains to create a new person? Different experiences combined could create new person. People can be recreated and it would not even matter what had happened in the past. If a person has the same experiences as another person. Opposite end of the spectrum from the Cartesian theory. Bundle Theory denies the existence of people due to the lack of a self. without the body? y Could we create a soul detector? . but is merely a quality. Death and Survival of Death John Perry Different Survival Theories 1. Hume continues to place ³I´ into the essay. y Cannot prove if anyone has a soul. y y y Topic 3: Life. Ordinary survival is about as bad as being destroyed and having a replica.David Hume y y y y y y y y y No a priori knowledge Knowledge created through experiences rather than already there Perception of self cannot be proven to be true Experiences create the concept of knowledge All we see are different perceptions of the things around us. to which Parfit agrees. Scenes can be recreated. Bundle Theory: We stumble upon perceptions and beliefs that we only learn through experience. Since we are not people. Buddha argued the no self view. Identity is nothing really belonging to these different perfections and uniting them together. they will end up being the same person. Death Ends All Reincarnation Immortality Resurrection Perry¶s Arguments of Death Ends All: Gretchen Weirob=John Perry 1. Does a soul travel with the body after death. Soul and Personal Identity y Immaterial souls are not possible to conceive. creating the question of who this I person is? Must be smuggling in some idea of the self into his paper. 2. Derek Parfit y y y y Ego Theory: Experiences are what unite a person.

y Soul in the afterlife the same as the one on Earth? y Can memory alone suffice to show personal identity? y Cartesian Circle 1 Real Memory Explains Identity 2 Identity marks the difference between real and apparent memories 3 If Real Memory explains identity. but do not have to be determinists. No excuses Determinism is a doctrine which states y . y The first issue is that memory is fallible. y Seeing or touching the soul is impossible. y Commitment to materialism. Duplication y If God could put one soul into the afterlife. can he create 3 or 100 of that same soul? y God avoids this duplication. but is only true if identity explains the difference between the two. y y y Topic 4: Free Will and Moral Responsibility Introduction y y y y y Is determinism compatible with moral responsibility? Praised for good actions and punished for bad acts? Compatiblism: Person is responsible for actions. If we prove a soul exists. A caused x to happen b. y Criterion of uniqueness y Is it logically impossible for God to duplicate souls? y Extrinsic Properties: Hard to determine if a person is a widow. blurring the line of personal identity. 2. y Jumps into criteria for a soul in order to prove personal identity. but are responsible for their actions. Moral Responsibility: A is morally responsible if a. Hard Determinism: People do not have free will and are not responsible for their actions. have same problem as people trying to prove it. y Apparent memories and genuine memories can be confused with one other.Could find a soul for each person and tell the different traits from one another. Moral Implications c. Memory and Personal Identity y Memory can connect people with and ideas over time. Soft Determinists: People do not have free will. that¶s not a good way to transfer to prove personal identity. does that mean that there¶s nothing actually defending them individually? 4 Can this be defended? 3. They are similar to soft determinists. does that disprove Weirob¶s argument? If you cannot test for a soul. must investigate further than just assumption.

Holbach and John Hospers: Defenders of Hard Determinism y y y y Argue that there is no alternative in decision making. Parsimony Freud: Some actions we do not know why we are acting in these ways=unconscious motivation Part of causes which we took no part in doing. Still can punish/reward for utilitarian reasons. Eventually. received ideas. but does not mean that he has the freedom to throw himself out the window. We can never determine that people are acting by themselves with absolute certainty. whether true or false. y y y y y y y . Must have a cause that forces him to jump out the window. Forces continually drive people to there ideas. Cause and effect. Absence of restraint does not mean absence of necessity. Choices do not prove freedom. scientific explanations Unconscious Motivation: Most actions can be explained through process and decision making. There are always forces that are making people come to decisions. Every action has come from a cause in the brain. but some are not. is predictable Indeterminism Denial of determinism: At least one event is completely uncaused. Every action has some reason behind it and must be concluded to have come from outside force. Fatality is part of the necessary order. Always necessary consequences of person¶s temperament. in principle. Refer to the will that has created the reason to act. No one can resist the inclination to act in the way that actions have occurred. he could have chosen to do otherwise. Person could throw himself out of the window. Every event. all actions will be explained and determinism will be proven true. Wide area of behavior where determinism is true Strongest desire v Call to duty Hard Determinism y y y y y y y y y y The movement of science Consistent movement towards causality and determinism Scientists are more able to explain phenomena with logical. medical. Every event has a cause b. There are no decisions that we can make that do not have causes. No agent causing us to make certain actions. Every event is inevitable c. such as a sick man choosing to die. and notions. even if they are evil. Some people believe our personalities are set by age 5-life determined by luck. but they do not morally deserve it. Defend against the arguments that one could have done otherwise.y y y y a.

but when are we constrained. Accomplish what one wants to do. are there any causes or reasons as to why we believe in hard determinism. Stace and Fischer A. b. Therefore. In order to be morally responsible a.y y y Criticisms: Smerdyakov effect: Ivan realizes that there is no afterlife to punish him and would like to kill his father. Consciousness of Necessity: In order to be acting freely. Compatible with Moral Responsibility We are not responsible for natural laws. Criticism: Can it rationally be believed? If hard determinism is true. Instances where the erson s free to act i.e. then we are not acting freely. but does not have the guts. even if the decision that was made was wrong. A causes B b. are we actually making that decision for ourselves or is this force of determinism making us make that decision even though hard determinists do not believe in moral responsibility. Ayer y y y y y y There are never accidents for making a decision. Criticism: Sentimentality: If we are sentencing criminals to death. Soft Determinism y y Actions must be caused. Smerdyakov would and does. Future can be explained by the past. Differences between constrain and compel. His brother. Determinism does not equal Fatalism Many of our actions are caused by our own desires/wants Fatalism. kleptomaniacs. There was a cause for the person to make that action. not morally responsible for the action. y y y y y y y y Ayer. If one is constrained. they I should have done otherwise. Contiguous in space and time d. Gets away with it and the Ivan gets arrested. a person must have their decisions caused.J. our desires have no influence on what happens. Priority A happened before B c. Behavior must be modifiable. was coerced. Has to do with moral responsibility. but people are responsible for the caused actions. B is expected from A Modifiability and I could have done otherwise Rational to run red light when hijacked I could not have done otherwise. then is the past influencing the future? . or is it just because we have outside forces acting on us. Hume¶s Theory a. If it is true that I could have done otherwise. but our desires and actions can cause actions to happen. Bad deed leads to good.

These assumptions are very important in keeping to the beliefs that we have. y y y y y y y y y Criticisms y y y y y y Soft determinism argues that determinism is compatible with moral responsibility but not fatalism. Frankfurt examples: John Locke and the key lock in his mind. Wanting to pick up the snake but not being able to due to psychological aversion. may not be true. i. Examples: Jones and Smith.Walter Stace y y y y y y y Problems with Free Will Used to be concluded that determinism is inconsistent with free will.e. . Political decisions. or that people have no free will or moral responsibility. Simple and refined conditional analysis. could be held morally responsible because ICHDO. Judge and Stace. Common usage and the issues with words defined. so no need to clarify. but could not have done otherwise. y John Martin Fischer y y Compatiblism and Semi-compatiblism Semi-compatiblism: Moral responsibility and free will are compatible with both determinism and indeterminism. Ghandi and Smtih. Has to do with desires and ICHDO. He experienced free will to choose the Democrat. Acts not freely caused are those whose immediate causes are states of affairs external to the agent. Causal determinism: There could be an infringement on free will if causal determinism is true. Both will be compatible with free will and moral responsibility if true. Acts freely done are those whose immediately causes are psychological states in the agent. Example of Keith Leher. Very luring to assume compatiblism because it¶s hard to believe that our actions have no causes. but does that mean it actually is compatible with determinism. Attack the consequence argument. However. Differences between free acts and unfree acts. Distinction with regards to hard cases. Decision to turn right or left. Semi-compatiblism combines the best parts of indeterminism and determinism by allow people to track common sense in making distinctions between those factors that act to undermine free will and the ones that do not. the 3 steps in introduction Are those three criteria true for fatalism as well? Do desires and wishes actually influence fate? Is there any distinction anymore? Pill makes it impossible for us to make decisions. Free will is a condition of oral responsibility. Wholly determined beforehand.

he has 90 minutes. c. Free in any decision/choices? The idea of he could have done otherwise. Campbell argues that there is a concept of a self. Proof is introspective. Person would try to trick computer? Libertarian Arguments y y y y y y Ought implies can: Coach of basketball team says 6¶ 3´center ought to be 6¶ 8´ but has no power to make that decision.A. or are they caused? Decisions caused by volition? Do I feel volitions? Impulses? Gut feeling? Can we learn to volition? The Self: C. b. Randomness can occur. Infinite Regression Objection: Are volitions free. but decisions are not caused. and wanted to get exercise. Ask the person to raise either left or right hand. Range of free will: How much freedom do we have? Some only believe we have freedom when deciding between two competing desires. Right Hand and the Left Hand: Tied up to the chair. Agree that people make choices based upon beliefs and outer world. Computer hooked up to person. y y y y y y y y y y Criticisms . Do not want people to think him lazy and he wants the lawn to look nice. Example of mowing the lawn: Determinists say that a person mows the lawn because it needs to be cut. The feeling of freedom: certain instances where people feel free to take actions while there are instances where people do not feel free to take actions. Genuine alternatives c. Computer cannot predict which hand the person will raise. only hands are free. or hidden inner choices which push us towards decisions. Libertarian argues that inner thoughts choose action. No coercion b. No one determines what the self does. The future can be manipulated by our own choices. Myself=character + nature. Cause is the agent Agency Theory: Future is malleable and that the agent acting at the time has the option to make his own decisions.Indeterminism and Libertarianism y Basic Intuitions for Indeterminism a. Moral temptation. Libertarian Models y Volition Theory: We make volitions. Conditions a. People can resist the need to do something and can choose to do otherwise. The self causes free acts. Movement of science: Uncertainty principle: events at subatomic level cannot be predicted or explained.

Act in one¶s own best interest. If humans can cause things to happen. All of my actions are prompted by my motives. Counsel of prudence. Good will is a will to obey the moral law. All actions are caused by the agent or outside forces. Hypothetical Imperative: Implies an ³if´ clause. Self-deception on good deeds. Psychological Egoism. Only thing people look out for is their own self-interest. One must act in the way that in accordance with a categorical imperative because it applies to everyone. Only good thing is a good will. Maxim: Form of ³I wil do ______´ Intrinsic good within itself extrinsic produces intrinsic. what makes me act in this way? We can still predict actions in the future based upon the past. Ethical Egoism argues that people out to pursue their own interests in order to promote their own wellbeing. If libertarianism is true. Act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can act the same time will that it become a moral law. Person gains pleasure when person gets what he wants. . No exceptions. no way to predict the future. This is a means towards happiness. Topic 6: Ethical Skepticism. Self defeating? In a world where people tell the truth only when it benefits them and lie when it benefits them may cause problems for society. Topic 5: Kant¶s Moral Philosophy y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Deontology: Determine morally right based upon the action/motives Actions have good and bad consequences. Different versions of the CI: ³can will that it be´ Some of these alternatives do not make sense with the CI. not only as means to an end.y y y y y Cannot be held morally responsible for random events that could be true under indeterminism. Will everyone start looking out for themselves? Treat people as ends. but nothing to do with the morality of decision. Uses of CI: I will help everyone if it benefits me to help him. Cultural Relativism Psychological Egoism: Joel Feinberg y y y y y y y All human actions when properly understood can be seen to be motivated by selfish desires. People only act well when there¶s a motive for them to act well. Categorical Imperative: I ought never to act except in such a way that I could also will that my maxim should become universal law.

Making people an object of their actions is degrading. Only one¶s culture can decide what is morally right or morally wrong. it is not selfish. Is every action only an objective to gain pleasure for oneself? We normally get pleasure no matter what our desires are for. (some actions can both be beneficial to the person.Criticisms y y y The question is whether the objective of the motive is selfish. What if we desired something else. y y James Rachels Ethical Egoism y y y y y Acting on behalf of others would just lead to more mischief than good. We shouldn¶t meddle in other people¶s business. People can adapt to acting in our own best interest while not messing with other people¶s lives. Against Ethical Egoism y y y Cannot provide solutions for conflicts of interest (2 presidents running against each other) Logically inconsistent to practice ethical egoism. We learn that our bad actions eventually have negative consequences for ourselves. Cultural Relativism William Graham Sumner y y y Morality should be based upon one¶s culture and should not apply to all of society. What does the action aim to do? If the action aims to help others. Acts other than ethical egoism do not take seriously the importance of individualism. However. but they are not inherently selfish. but cause unintended consequences) Any moral doctrine that assigns greater interest of one group than to those of another is unacceptably arbitrary unless there¶s a difference between the two groups that justifies the action. but that didn¶t happen and we still feel pleasure? What if Jones¶ goal in life is to be frustrated? Only thing that actions have are motives. there¶s no difference that can be made between oneself and the other people that can be justified for the treatment created from these actions. pleasure as a by-product of an action is not proof that the action was selfish. People should be tolerant of other¶s beliefs and practices Criticisms y y y y Does the conclusion follow? Moral reformers? Sumner¶s own location What is a culture? Ethical Relativism .

y y y What is morally right and morally wrong based upon the individual¶s decision to choose what is wrong and what is wrong. Criticism . He becomes superior. Are there absolute rights or wrongs? Ethical Skepticism y y Ideas about moral beliefs are just subjective opinions. Actor. Life can have meaning beyond these hopes. Eliminates moral reform. Person therefore is free and autonomous. Writer Any person can be absurd if follow these ideas. Feelings and emotions are at the heart of ethics Moral Cynicism: Act in the way you want to do so. Lives in the moment. Place burden on the church or other beliefs rather than themselves. no ethical progress Is it possible to be a tolerant objectivist? The Myth of Sisyphus I The Absurd y y y y y y y People have desires World does not answer these questions Meaning of life can be discovered and achieved based upon religious teachings Camus states there are no Meanings to life Feeling of absurdity includes thinking about nothing or boredom of life. radicals such as KKK are morally correct in their actions. No reason to influence other. Conqueror. Not bound by other¶s beliefs and desires Ex: Don Juan. Answer: meaning of life: must be found by the person through different acts. Options y Hope y Suicide y Revolt Camus¶ Argument for Revolt y y y y y y y y Illusions of hope bind people. Horror of realizing one day one will die. Ex Sisyphus punishment He overcomes the gods and defeats fate. No objective opinions. One intrinsic good is life Person who revolts lives in the present. Do not think about anyone else Consequenes y y y If relativism is true. Longing for future but knowing that time is the enemy.

y y y Is hope bad? Camus gives no rejections to our hopes of afterlife? How is life absurd? Person who commits suicide is simply denying the fact. .

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