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Posted by Coolguy in Design for Six Sigma. Tags: Product Development add a comment
May 25, 2008
Six Sigma advocates a 5 stage process for new product development. The complete NPD process includes the following stages: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Concept Study. This is done to uncover unknowns about the market and technology. Feasibility investigations are done to determine the limitations of the concept. Development of new product includes specifications, needs of customer, study of target markets etc. Maintenance activities following delivery. Continous learning through status reports and evaluation.
Formula for creating winning products
Posted by Coolguy in Design for Six Sigma. Tags: Product Development add a comment
May 25, 2008
According to a old (1993) study, new products account for 40% of sales and 46% of profits. For every 7 to 11 new product ideas, only 1 becomes a successful product according to a study. Here are some of the factors for creating winning products.
• • • • • • • • • • • •
Unique, superior product. Product should have value for customer Strong market orientation. Understanding for customers needs and wants. Predevelopment work. Up front activities like market analysis, technical assessment are vital before development starts. Good product definition. Product and project should be completely defined before development begi Quality of execution through out the development process. Team effort including research & development, marketing, sales and operations. Proper project selection to provide adequate resources for good projects. Poor projects must be killed. Good product launch ensures success. Top management leadership plays a vital role in product development process. They must provide strategy, resources and leadership. Speed to market. Strong, established new product process to screen new products Attractive market makes it easier to have a successful project
May 12, 2008
Posted by Coolguy in Service Delivery, Six Sigma. Tags: Metrics Management, Solution Delivery 3 comments Benchmarking and analysis of KPI’s against best practices is critical to the success of any internal service delivery organization. Almost every other organization has some sort of KPI’s of some sort in
place to measure and monitor performance. Metrics management is also key skills to successful Solution Delivery role. Six Sigma advocates three levels of metrics: business level metrics, operations level metrics and process metrics. Some of the metrics Six Sigma suggests are here. Business Level Metrics These metrics are typically financial and operational summaries for shareholders and management. Balanced scorecards is widely used for business level metrics. IT can be viewed either as a cost center or a profit center in companies. Based on this financial management for solution delivery is responsible for:
• • • • • •
Estimating costs of projects accurately working with vendors, where necessary Costs of providing services and undertaking projects fall withing approved budgets Tracking expenses against allocated budgets Helping Senior Management understand the total cost of completing an initiative Plan IT costs for maintaining and improving ongoing services Charge back IT investments to business units, where applicable
Operations Level Metrics These relate to cost, time and resource to produce products and maintain services. Examples specific to IT include:
• • • • •
Resource utilization metrics SLA Metrics Capacity Metrics Availably Metrics Service Continuity Metrics
Process Metrics These are detailed metrics form process level. Examples include
• • • • •
Agility in responding to a change Reduce total released defects, Total Containment Effectiveness (TCE) Fix defects closer to origin, Phase Containment Effectiveness (PCE) Compare implementations within company, Function Point Defects per KLOC Benchmark with other companies, Six Sigma that tracks Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO)
Six Sigma Introduction and Goals
May 11, 2008
Dr Mikel Harry is credited with the development of Six Sigma in Motorola. Refer to my post for additional information on Six Sigma certification What is Six Sigma ? Six Sigma is a highly disciplined process that focusses on producing and delivering near perfect products and services. Average American company is at 4 sigma level. There are six such levels. Does Six Sigma really work ? Short answer is. The six sigma steps for many organizations are described as DMAIC: Define: Select responses/processes to be improved Measure: Gather data to measure the process/response Analyze: Identify the root causes for defects Improve: Eliminate the cause Control: Monitor the process/response to sustain improvements Who developed it? Motorola developed Six Sigma in 1987.75 billion in 1998 and a accumulated savings of $2. . That is equivalent to 6. Six Sigma measures defects in million ‘opportunities’ and assigns ‘levels’.210 defects per million opportunities. Passing Six Sigma Green belt. yes it does !!. Here are some reported facts on how Six Sigma made a difference in big corporations: • • • Six Sigma is believed to have saved Morotola $940 million over 3 years.Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma goals. This is the highest level an organization can attain. Six Sigma Basics 1 comment so far I will attempt to introduce Six Sigma and various training programs available to get trained on Six Sigma with a series of simple Q&A’s.4 defects per million opportunities. HoneyWell reported a estimated saving of $1. Tags: CSSGB Blog.75 billion in year 1997 GE reported a saving of $1. An organizations is said to be at 6 sigma level if it has 3. Its a business improvement approach that seeks to find and eliminate causes of mistakes or defects in business processes.5 billion in 1998.
At the same time its important to realize that a company cannot loose money because of poor quality. resources are typically dedicated to take advantage of the opportunity.Orientation Training Green belt candidates – Green belt training Supervisors – Overview Black Belt candidates – Black belt training Management – Executive training Master black belts – Master black belt training Senior management – Sponsorship training When is it a good time to implement a improvement program like Six Sigma ? When times are good and when times are bad. if there are around 5 to 6 projects per year. So plenty of opportunities there.. black belts etc) Who is using Six Sigma ? (Just to name a few. When times are bad.. In big corp’s there is about one black belt per 100 employees.Improvement projects are typically last on list. (Green belts. focus is on survival.Why does Six Sigma work ? • • • • Typically short project times (6-9) months It forces Senior Management involvement Clear definition of success and its measurement Defined processes for training individuals. Which level of training is right for me ? Everyone.) • • • • • Morotola (Not surprisingly) GE Sony Toshiba Johnson and Johnson Does getting trained in Six Sigma make sense ? An average black/green belt will save a company about $175k.However customers are not likely to to repeat business with a company known for quality issues. When times are good. especially at bad times. When is a company ready for Six Sigma ? .
When performance is high. Tags: CSSGB Blog. Passing Six Sigma Green belt. 2008 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. project teams must work to implementing them. What should be a first project to implement Six Sigma ? • • • • • Should be simple but not trivial Should last around 3-4 months Reasonable time and resource constraints Problem should be clearly defined Problem should be measurable Six Sigma Certification May 11. Lean and DFSS 10% Define – Teams & Customer 10% Define – Tools. I will edit this post to add the links) . benchmark with other firms. This and a next few posts are my attempts to provide a comprehensive overview to anyone attempting the Six Sigma Green belt exam or to anyone just simply trying to learn more about basics of Six Sigma. 7. Following are the topics in the exam with the % weight for the topic in exam. develop and communicate strategic plans and strive to continously improve. After the metrics are established. Six sigma goals 5% 2. 10. What does Six Sigma measure ? Six Sigma advocates a holistic view on metrics. 3. 8. 9. 6. When the performance is OK. While I did blog about some of the tools and techniques of Six Sigma in the past. its better to concentrate on basics. 1. Apply cost management techniques and engage with customer. I decided to do more to help out any one aspiring to be a Six Sigma green belt. set goals and monitor them. The test is divided into 10 modules. Projects and Results 15% Measure – Data & Process Analysis 12% Measure – Probability 10% Measure – Capability & Measurement 8% Analyze – 15% Improvement Techniques – 7% Control – 8% (As I blog about these topics. 5. 4. Simplify processes. Six Sigma Green Belt 1 comment so far I recently successfully completed my Six Sigma green belt certification (CSSGB) administered by ASQ.If performance of a company is low.
Descriptive Statistics October 7. I swear by mindmapping technique. I used mind maps successfully to prepare for my PRINCE2 certifications. This is the only book/material I reviewed to prepare for the exam in addition attending a course at my local community college. Tags: Statistics add a comment Types are • • • • • Central tendency Dispersion Probability Density Frequency Distribution Cumulative Distribution Central Tendency: Measures the central value of a collection of data. Six Sigma Green Belt 2 comments Here is a good mindmap I created while preparing for my Six Sigma Green belt certification. I repeated the technique for this certification too and here is the mindmap I created. Tags: Mindmap. CSSGB Mindmap April 21.CSSGB Primer is a must have reference to attempt this exam. This map was created using Mindomo. . 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma Measure Phase. 2008 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma.
1. less desirable o E.mode and median. Tags: Data add a comment Types of data: 1. Four measures are range. Attribute data : Integers. PSI. Mean: Sum of all divided by number of data points Mode: Most frequently occurring number in the data set Median: Middle value when data is arranges in ascending order or descending order Measures of dispersion Uses to describe the spread or dispersion. Data Analysis October 7. 2. less complex skill levels. more storage. discrete. 4. more desirable o E. continuous. 2. 2. Data collection methods • • Automatic Manual Data coding: . 3. But no starting or end points. variance standard deviation & COV 1.g: Inches. more complex skill levels. Range: Difference between largest and smallest values Variance Standard Deviation Coefficient of Variation Probabilty Density Describes behavior of random variable.Three measures are mean.g:Defects. Ratio: Has starting and end point. 3. Total scratch length etc Locational data Measurement scales (In increasing scale of desirability) : • • • • Nominal : No ordering possible Ordinal: Data is arranged in order but meaningless order Interval: Data is in order and differences can be found. less storage. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma Measure Phase. scratches etc Variable data: Real numbers. 3.
Six Sigma Tools add a comment October 4. Create a process map List outputs of process List customers of outputs List inputs of process List suppliers of process FMEA Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. Display of cross-functional activities in a single. FMEA is defined as a group of activities to . Multiply coding Coding by substitution Coding by truncation Relational Matrices October 7. 3. SIPOC October 7. 3. Subtract. 2. 5. 2. • • • • • • Key process output variables are listed horizontally Key process input variables are listed vertically. Advantages are: 1. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. 4. assign a priority number Within the matrix a number is entered for the effect that each input variable has on the output variable Multiply the process output priority by effect value Sum the results from above step This shows which of the input variables have greatest effect on output variables. 2007 FMEA is a technique for elimination of any type of failure in products or services. Tags: Six Sigma Tools add a comment It enables all team members to view the process in the same light.• • • Add. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. For each output variable. Tags: Six Sigma Tools add a comment This tool can aid with the prioritisation of key process input variables. simple diagram Big picture perspective with scope to add details Framework applicable to either large organizations or smaller processes Steps for creating a SIPOC: 1. Tags: FMEA.
sub-systems and components Design: DFMEA will reduce risk of failures. QFD October 4. 3. Improved product/service functions Lowered warranty costs Reduced manufacturing problems Increased customer satisfaction Types of FMEA: • • • • System: Deals with systems. occurance and detection levels Compute risk priority number and prioritize (RPN) Implement corrective actions and re-evaluate RPN”s Update the table Benefits: 1. healthcare industries etc. It can be used in conjunction with Pareto Analysis. 2. Covers financial. legal. Tags: QFD. Service FMEA: Investigate services before they reach customer. 4. which is used to prioritize potential failure modes. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. Focus is on failures caused by design deficiencies. prioritizing each product/service characteristic while simultaneously setting development targets for product or service development . Steps for FMEA are: • • • • • • • Decide on process Study process Identify potential failure modes Rate severity.• • • Recognize and evaluate the potential failure of a product/process and effects of that failure Identify the actions that eliminate or reduce the failure Document the entire process FMEA’s are used for new designs and technologies and modification for existing process or design. Heath care has its own customized version. Six Sigma Tools 1 comment so far QFD transforms customer needs (the voice of the customer) into engineering characteristics (and appropriate test methods) of a product or service. Process: PFMEA focuses on manufacturing and assembly process.
2007 The following steps help determine organizations readiness to deploy DFSS: • • • • Monitor Sigma levels Written schedule of prioritized project ideas Remain aware of marketplace changes Gauge the organizations capability for success with DFSS DMADV October 4. 5. Product Development add a comment Its a five step process for Six Sigma design for new products. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. IDOV (Identify. Product Development add a comment With DMAIC the six sigma analyst takes an existing process and follows a series of steps to improve its current state. IDOV October 3. Organizational readiness to deploy DFSS Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. 2. Design. Four step IDOV Model: . 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. 1. IDOV. 3. 4. Tags: DFSS. Its a group decision making technique used in product or service development. Design : Develop process details to meet customer needs Verify: Verify the design performance and ability to meet customer needs. Optimize and Validate) quantifies the steps necessary to achieve six sigma quality in new products and processes. Its useful when product or process is not in existence and one needs to be developed. Tags: DFSS. Tags: DFSS add a comment October 4. DMADV.Also referred as “Voice of Customer” or “House of Quality”. Design : Define project goals and deliverables Measure : Measure customer needs and specifications Analyze : Analyze process options to meet customer needs.
New-to-world products : These are inventions and discoveries such as laser printers etc. Types of new products October 3. 3. Identify System constraints Decide how to exploit systems constraints Looks for ways to reduce effects of constraints Elevate systems constraints Back to step 1 Kaizen October 1. but to the company. 2. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. Quantified customer information (customer feedback) becomes first set for CTQ. 2. Product improvements : Improvements to existing products. Additions to product lines : These are extensions to the company’s existing product line like diet coke. 5. Baking soda as a deodorant Cost Reductions: New products replacing exisitng one’s. 5. QFD. Tags: Six Sigma Tools add a comment . 2. Tools used typically are o DOE (Design of Experiments) o PQS (Product Quality Scorecards) are defined o Finite Element Analysis (FEA) o Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) o Statistical Inference (ANOVA) Optimize: Capability analysis for each component and sub-component. Resources are bottlenecks Balance the flow thru a plant Bottleneck will restrain the entire throughput Steps of TOC 1. with lower cost. 6. Validate: Test and validate the design. Repositioning’ s : Products that are re targeted for new use. New category products : These are products that are not new to the world. Technical requirements. TOC Concepts 1. Theory Of Constraints Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. 4. 3. 2007 Process of removing bottlenecks that limit production or throughput. here are some commonly accepted new product terms 1. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Design for Six Sigma. 3. performance targets and specifications (Use a team charter. Tags: Six Sigma Tools add a comment October 1. Tags: Product Development add a comment In the area of new product development. FMEA and Benchmarking) Design:Overall layout and geometry of product is developed.• • • • Identify: Overall product requirements are identified. 4.
Management maintains and improves operating conditions Progress improvement is key PDCA is used Quality is highest priority Problems are solved with hard data TPM October 1. 4. 3. It originates from Toyota. Kanban is intended to provide a product to customer with shortest possible lead time. 3. It provides for material control for the factory floor. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma.Stands for Kai ~ change and Zen ~ good. Equipment Failure Setup and adjustments Idling and minor stoppages Reduced speed Process defects Reduced yields Kanban October 1. 2. It accomplishes improvements at little or no expense without purchase of expensive equipment. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. Kanban’s are generally cards to provide some indication of parts. 5. Tags: Six Sigma Tools add a comment Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) promotes group actives for greater euipment effectiveness with operators sharing responsibility for routine machine inspection. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. Cards control flow of production and inventory. add a comment Takt time= Available Production time / Rate of customer demand Balanced Scorecard October 1. 2. It aims to stem 6 big losses that contribute negatively to equipment effectiveness: 1. October 1. 4. Inventory and lead times are reduced thru leveling of production. 6. Tags: Six Sigma Tools add a comment Kanban is “Sign” in Japaneese. It involves 1. cleaning and maintenenace. Kanban is not suited for one-of-a-kind production operations. Tags: Metrics Management. Six Sigma Tools 2 comments . time of delivery etc. 5. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma.
Steps for building a balanced scorecard are: • • • • • Gather information for scorecard through interviews with senior management Prepare a rough draft and refine with other levels of management Develop vision. Cash Flow. Setup times Learning and growth: How will we sustain our ability to change and improve ? ~Employee surveys. 4. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. Customers: How should we appear to our customers ? ~ Customer surveys. Financial : How will we appear to shareholders ? ~ ROI. Market Share. Sales backlog Internal Business Process: What business process should we excel at ? ~ Reduce Rework. 3. Six Sigma Goals 2 comments Organizational performance goals and metrics: Profit • • • • • • Stockholder value Capital investments ROI Personnel costs Sales Profit Margins Cycle Times: • • • • Existing cycle times Internal Benchmarks External Benchmarks Reduction in cycle times Marketplace Response: • • • • Market Survey Analysis of returns New product development Customer retention . Employee suggestions. Tags: Metrics Management. objectives and measures for the scorecard Develop an implementation plan Review balanced scorecard periodically Six Sigma Metrics October 1. Cycle time.Balanced scorecard is a system that translates a company’s vision and strategy to meaningful measures. training budgets. 2. complaints logged. Balanced scorecard focuses company’s attention on four perspectives of vision and strategy: 1.
Cost Mgmt. Six Sigma Goals October 1. High Performance: Benchmark against other firms. empower employees. Problem Solving. Medium and Low performance companies should consider some building block steps first. They concluded that Six Sigma approach achieves best results if implemented by highperformance organizations.• • Customer Losses Facilities Rating Resources • • • • • • Cost of poor quality Variation reduction Percent defects Process capability studies ROI Projects Number of improvement projects Metrics Do and Don’t's: • • • • • • • • • “Vital Few” : No more than 20 business level metrics Metrics should have past. Process simplification. on three categories: Profitability. Tags: Six Sigma Basics 1 comment so far October 1.present and future Metrics should be linked to meet needs of shareholders. Productivity & Quality. Customer innovation Medium Performance : Set goals & monitor. customers and strategies Business level metrics to link to shareholder needs Operational level metrics to link to operations needs Process level metrics to link to employee needs Metrics should be consistent across the organization Metrics should evolve with strategy Metrics should have targets or goals When is a company ready for Six Sigma ? Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. Department improvement teams. involve middle management. Communicate strategic plans. Six Sigma may not be right if: • • • Company has strong process improvement efforts in place Current changes are overwhelming company people and resources Potential gains are not sufficient to finance investment to support Six Sigma. 2007 Ernst & Young measured 500 companies in 1992. continuously improve. • • • Low Performance: Concentrate on basics. 2007 .
4 ppm 5 Sigma 233 ppm 4 Sigma 6. Six sigma can be defined as “Business improvement approach that seeks to find and eliminate causes of mistakes or defects in business processes by focusing on outputs that are of critical importance to customers” In Six Sigma. 5. 6. failure rate is defined as defects per opportunity (DPO) or Defects per million opportunities (DPM). 3.210 ppm Six Sigma strategy should consist of the following eight elements: • • • • • • • • R Recognize true state of business D Define what plans are in place to realize improvement of each state M Measure the business systems that support the plans A Analyse the gaps in system performance benchmarks I Improve system C Control system-level chars S Standardize the systems I Integrate systems Business successes from Six Sigma: 1. Defect Levels: • • • 6 Sigma 3.210 defects per million.Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. Sr Mgmt : Sponsorship Training . 2. 4. It discovered a 10 to 1 payback for Six Sigma training investments. Cost reductions Market-share growth Defect reductions Culture changes Productivity improvements Customer relations imporvements Product & service improvements Cycle-time reductions Motorola credits Six-Sigma to savings of $940 M over 3 years.6% defective or 6. Levels of training required: 1. 8. 7. This is equivalent to 0. Tags: Six Sigma Basics add a comment Average American company is at level four of six sigma.
Critical To Quality (CTQ) Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. 3. Master Black Belt: Black Belt training Management : Executive Training Supervisors: Overview Everyone: Six Sigma Orientation Green Belts: Green Belt Training. people and strategies. Its effective for solving problems involving human factors. Tags: DMAIC. Draw a horizontal line leading to the head and vertical lines leading to the main line. 6. Tags: DMAIC. When you have answer to a question. You ask “Why ?” for 5 times (can vary) to get to the bottom of a problem. Some standard categories for service industries are : Policies. questions should be concise and focussed. 2. Fish Bone Analysis (Ishikawa Diagram) Can be used when you have a complex problem having multiple causes and when you need to brainstorm to identify possible causes. Material. Six Sigma Tools 1 comment so far September 28. Its one of the most simplest techniques to identify a root for a problem. 2007 CTQ focuses on key metrics of customer satisfaction. Brainstorming Prioritizing Action plans 4M version of the plan has Manpower. For this technique to work. 4. Method. procedures. First step is to frame a Why question stating the problem and place it at the head. 2007 Simplest technique to indentify the root cause of a problem. Machine. Success or failure of a product depends on the ability of a company to identify CTQ’s and translate them into product specifications. Development of CTQ tree involves the following steps: . Label vertical lines with categories or departments where the problem may have originated. you can frame the answer into another “Why” Question.2. 5M and E has measurement and Environment exra. Problem Solving. Six Sigma Tools 2 comments 5 Why Technique September 28. Root cause analysis techniques Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. 3. Typically used to baseline existing products. 5. Three steps to complete a fishbone are: 1.
Tags: DMAIC add a comment September 28. Features Reliability : Perform at an expected level without breakdown Conformance : Conform to pre-established quality standards. E.g: Customer is hungry and orders food Identify basic requirements of the customer E. CTQ’s ideally have upper and lower limits and come from qualitative feedback that come from customers Value-added features of a product are add-ons that may not be perceived as critical to quality. Factors governing customer satisfaction: • • • • Performance : Tyically measures in speed.g: Customer at fast food chain Identify Customers needs E. 2. Validate the requirements with customer Translate needs into drivers for improvement Calculate measurable outcomes for improving product Customers & Quality Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. Rest simply switch Customers may not always use the product for its intended purpose.g: A customer may be using PDA for only voice as the data connectivity is poor. savings in cost & labor etc. 4. Price economical etc. 2007 • • • • • Customer is the ultimate judge of quality Customers can be internal or external Cost of acquiring new customers is typically 5-6 times more than the cost of retaining existing one Only about4% of customers ever express their dissatisfaction explicitly. 5. Progress further with more levels as needed E.g: Taste should be good. CTQ • • • CTQ (Critical to Quality) characteristics of a product are the key quantifiable characteristics that should be met to meet customer satisfaction. 3. 7.1. Identify the customer E. 6. taste etc. . price. accessibility.g: Promptness of delivery.
2. Tags: Project Charter add a comment Includes 1.• • • • Durability: Lenght in time a product should perfor. Speed and convenience of service and courtesy of service personnel Aesthetics : Look & feel. 2007 Statement of work • • • • • • • • Defines scope of project Select the process to be improved Reasons of selecting the process over others Tasks in project Steps Reporting Milestones Information to be collected to report progress of project Schedule Statement of resources Has both human and physical resources. Process Improvement Project Charter Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. Smell. 3. Human resources include: • • • • Identifies people involved Project start date Duration of involvement of people and reporting relationships Identify any training they require Physical resources include: • • Identify work location Six Sigma tools and equipment needed Statement of expected benefits . Statement of work Statement of resources Statement of expected benefits September 27. before it deteriorates in quality Servicability: Ease. sound and taste where applicable Perceived value: Created in customers mind based on product desciption and advertised features.
Champion: Is the project sponsor. 2. Familiarity with cross-functional issues. This helps set expectations and helps set a comparable limit of a projects outcome. 4. Selection of champion: 1.It should have the estimates of resource consumption and resource saving. It defines sucess level. 5. Common expectations are: • • • • • Incerased sales Higher quality Quicker turn-around of product Increased customer satisfaction Higher employee productivity and morale Project team September 27. Tags: Six sigma teams add a comment Six Sigma project team has: 1. 5. Important attributes: • • • 6. Typically CEO or VP in most companies. Understanding of Six Sigma Capable of communicating Six Sigma initiatives at every opportunity Department heads are not good candidates as they may not be familiar with cross-functional issues. funds estimation & approval Confrontation resolution . 4. 3. 2. 3. Champion Quality Leader Black Belt Process Owner Green belts All functions of role should be present and defined if all the members of team are not present. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. Authoritative to make resources available to the projects Open-minded to view dis-agreements Persuasive to increase buy-in by employees and support from Management Responsibilities: • • • • Foster training for the Six-Sigma team Mediation and road-block removal Project Selection.
Tags: DMAIC. Pareto charts etc Improve: Test various solutions to improve the root cause of the problem. Control: Create detailed control plans to maintain the levels of quality achieved in impr0ve phase. benefits. Kano. Plan for full scale implementation if pilots show positive effect on the root cause. DMAIC is used when a problem can be resolved by improving and existing process or when you need a new process. . process maps etc.• • Budget allocation Results measurement Quality Leader: Responsible for customer needs and improving efficiency. Six Sigma Tools add a comment Kano analysis is a tool which can be used to classify and prioritize customer needs. Tags: DMAIC. Black Belts work full time on six sigma. Problem Solving add a comment Characteristcs of a good problem: • • • • Clearly defined Impact measured in terms of time to fix and delay it causes to product delivery Can be resolved by applying common quality mgmt techniques Resolving the problem should have visible impact on customer satisfaction Kano Analysis February 4. Its named after its developer Noriaki Kano. available resources. Six Sigma. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Business Analysis. Green Belts work on regular projects too. DMAIC September 27. missed opportunities and affected areas. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. Process Owner: Responsible for individual processes Black belts/ Greenbelts : Technical owners for Six Sigma. Good Problem September 27. Can include customer requirements. Communicate the results. Tags: DMAIC add a comment Stands for: • • • • • Define: State the goals. Measure : Measure the impact t of the problem in terms of defects. 2007 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. Analyze: Analyze the data using data analysis tools like Histograms.
All identified requirements may not be of equal importance to all customers. Delighters introduce novelty to the product.g: Price of a TV Delighters: Going beyond customer expectations.Kano analysis is a quality measurement tool used to prioritize customer requirements based on their impact to customer satisfaction.Kano analysis is a quality measurement tool which is used to determine which requirements are important. Tags: Six Sigma Basics 1 comment so far Six Sigma: . not all have the same importance. Note that the Kano model can be used to help identify customer segments. Kano analysis can help you rank requirements for different customers to determine which have the highest priority. based on the relative priority of each segment’s requirements. Once segments have been defined. etc. using both needs analysis and more tradition criteria such as gender. company size. 2005 Posted by Coolguy in Six Sigma. E. Six Sigma Basics February 11. The results can be used to prioritize your effort in satisfying different customers. This is useful because customer needs are not all of the same kind. Kano Analysis Model groups customer requirements into three basic categories: • • • Dissatisfiers ~ Basic Requirements ~ Threshold ~ “Must be’s” Satisfiers ~ Variable Requirements ~ Performance ~ “More is better” Delighters ~ Hidden requirements ~ Excitement A successful product should have • • • All dissatisfiers Maximum Satisfiers As many delighters as possible within marketable cost of product Dissatisfiers: Attributes of a product that customers take for granted. Delighters are typically provided free or with limited cost. and are different for different populations.g: A TV with games etc. the Kano model can be re-applied to each segment to further defined the segment’s priorities. Customer will not buy a product if it doesn’t have this basic features.. E:g Picture and sound in a TV Satisfiers: Customers uses these to rate a product against its competition. E.
com/Six-Sigma/Six-Sigma-Tutorial. To achieve this. decreases variation and maintains consistent quality of the process output. Measure performance. Six Sigma Strives for perfection. Six Sigma uses a methodology known as DMAIC (Define opportunities. It was started in Motorola.aspx .isixsigma.It allows for only 3. Six Sigma experts can also design a brand new business process using DFSS (Design For Six Sigma) principles. Control performance). This leads to defect reduction and improvement in profits. product quality and customer satisfaction The three key elements of Six Sigma are: Customer Satisfaction Defining Processes and defining Metrics and Measures for Processes Using and understanding Data and Systems Setting Goals for Improvement Team Building and Involving Employees Source: http://sixsigmatutorial. Six Sigma experts (Green Belts and Black Belts) evaluate a business process and determine ways to improve upon the existing process.4 defects per million opportunities for each product or service transaction. Analyze opportunity. (http://www.com/ca/mbb_bb/) Six Sigma improves the process performance.Six Sigma methodology provides the techniques and tools to improve the capability and reduce the defects in any process. in its manufacturing division. where millions of parts are made using the same process repeatedly Six Sigma methodology improves any existing business process by constantly reviewing and re-tuning the process. Improve performance.