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Leadership in Tourism
Industry
Assignment
Leadership in Tourism Industry

Contents
Contents................................................................................................................ 2
Introduction........................................................................................................... 3
1 Compare the management style at an organisation where you have worked
with the management style at the Marriott Hotel in the case study......................4
2 Using an organization where you have worked evaluate the role and function of
at least one manager. Compare and contrast the leadership style of your chosen
organization with one of the leaders in the case study..........................................4
3 Evaluate the leadership skills required to ensure effective management of the
staff the two organizations....................................................................................5
4 Examine a team in which you have worked and write an account of the nature
and behavior of the group.....................................................................................8
5 Discuss how the traits and characteristic’s of the individuals within this team
influence their behavior at work............................................................................9
6 Compare and contrast the structure of the organization in the case study with
a travel and tourism organization with a different type of structure.....................9
7 Describe the culture of the organization in the case study and how it impacts
on the success of the business............................................................................10
8 Discuss the communication channels of the firm in the case study and explain
the importance of effective communications within organizations......................11
9 Give an account of a recent or planned change of significance within an
organization you have worked and describe what lead up to the change...........12
10 Analyze the planning and decision making processes that would be or were
involved in the change.........................................................................................12
Conclusion........................................................................................................... 13
Bibliography.........................................................................................................13

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Leadership in Tourism Industry

Introduction
This paper seeks to discuss the various facets in a hospitality industry. The
hotels taken up for study are The Marriot and Novotel. This paper discusses the
management approaches, employee satisfaction and how each ones style of
operations is different from another.

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Leadership in Tourism Industry

1 Compare the management style at an organisation


where you have worked with the management style
at the Marriott Hotel in the case study.

At the Marriott all the employees are addressed as “associates”. This is an


indication as to how the organization wants to induce professionalism as a
culture in the organization. The concept of culture in infused via various
communication channels, team activities, developmental activities and various
other motivational activities. At Marriot each associate is responsible for his or
her own career progress. There is no defined path for promotion, the employees
can choose to Horne their skills as and when they wish.

At Novotel there is a “three and three” strategy t hat is there is a three level
hierarchy and a certain amount bureaucracy in the levels of management at
Novotel. Though all employees are treated courteously, one has to wait for a
long to time to go up the ladder in spite of exciting career prospects.

2 Using an organization where you have worked


evaluate the role and function of at least one
manager. Compare and contrast the leadership style
of your chosen organization with one of the leaders in
the case study.

(Dr. Bob Mckercher. 2003). ‘Managers should know their business thoroughly and
how to follow through.’

It is very vital for a manager to understand and make proper decisions to


perform better operations and decisions. To make such contribution, a manager
should keep a close contact and relation with the team which helps control the
situation and make the right decisions. I set an example for others and gave
many who were willing to pay the price an opportunity to grow and have the
good things of life.’ Such attitude of a manager reflects the working culture and
also contributes to a positive environment within the team. One such example is
that of Anetude.

A lady named Anetude Michaud, in 1998, came to U.S with lots of hope and
dreams to succeed in her goals. Though her parents were expired in an accident,
she was determined and always aimed to fulfill her father’s dream. ‘I may not
have money to leave you,’he said, ‘but I want you to be strong so that you can
take care of yourself.’

She has later joined as a housekeeper at Orlando (which is now Marriott’s lake),

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at the very beginning of its inauguration. There was a time where every staff
members had to push themselves hard due to work load and for which the staff

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was not happy. But Anetude took it as a challenge. Mathew Sherman, director of
facilities says that ‘From day one, Anetude has never surrendered in her pursuit
of excellence,’

Being a humble lady, she always believed in leadership and simultaneously


maintained close relation with other staff members of the team. Known for her
humility, Anetude believes in leading by example and in maintaining a close
bond with her team. ‘She trains, develops, encourages, helps and, in turn, is
respected and loved,’ says Joanne Goodman, general manager. Her no
compromise work efforts and steadiness helped her stand still even in tough
situations at work. For instance, during hurricane tragedy, she and her staff
members cleaned rooms using torches and hand lights.

With respect to her personal life, she never failed to send funds to her church in
home town and also to her relatives. To keep a homely and close relationship
with staff members, she prefers to communicate in her native language, as even
most of them are Haitians. The success and happiness in her life is by her
childhood lessons she learnt in her life.

‘There are always going to be obstacles in life,’ says Anetude. J. Willard Marriott.
(2005) ‘But it’s all about how you approach it. If you work hard and stay positive,
you can accomplish anything. At Novotel there is a lot of bureaucracy and the
managers believe in delegating work and sitting in their cabins .Thus they are
not able to make effective efficient decisions. As a result delivering at a
consistent pace will be difficult and a general dissatisfaction at work will prevail.

3 Evaluate the leadership skills required to ensure


effective management of the staff the two
organizations.

(Shannon Elwell, 2005) Since J W Marriott established Marriott and till his
existence when he died in 1985, he perfectly established an ideal corporate
culture and leadership skills which has rooted strongly in all staff members,
hands on management, and the focus to meet customer satisfaction through
maintaining quality standards, services and hospitality.

He always trusted to be open-hearted, diligent and always gain trust from people
through being fair to people, efforts, keeping an eye on even tiny aspects, and
being prompt in responding customer needs.

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(Sauser W.I. and Sauser L.D. 2002) These policies and culture reflects the day to
day activities, daily interactions with people and behavior of employees which is
the primary goal to set these policies. Making them as a primary goal, the
organization can attain customer satisfaction, quality work and services, proper
operations and attain high standards from the existing.

Maintaining such behavior and characteristics, they will be accounted as special


team in Management, wherein such acknowledgements helps boost the
employee; an opportunity to grow and parallel, the company make growth and
profit from such valuable resources. Every speech, article, and reports reflects
JW Marriott’s attitude towards organizational culture, and always addressing
messages to manager’s saying ‘take care of the little things every day.’

Marriott believes in

Communicating with employees

J. Willard Marriott. (2005) says that ‘It is found as good practices for the
managers to account their employees individually i.e. personally as well as
professionally and communicate with them’. In other words, managers should
make their own time to spend in the midst of the employees to listen to their
queries, needs, problems, technical aspects, professional aspects etc…. and can

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also address, for instance, ‘How are we doing?’ and ‘What can we do to
improve?’ To effectively communicate with employees, managers should listen

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to them first and take necessary actions on that basis. In certain scenario, if it
helps organizational growth, then managers should appreciate their suggestions
or efforts. Wherever possible, Marriott is committed to getting its people to
participate in every decision that affects them. This communication through
participation will result in your employees being more motivated, more
enthusiastic about their jobs, happier in their work, and much more effective.

(J. Willard Marriott. 2005) ‘It's important to listen to employees, ask questions of
them, say 'Good Morning' to them, ask about their families, and get to know a
little bit about their aspirations, ambitions, home life and work motivations.’ It is
essential for a manager to communicate with employees personally and
professionally too and inculcate relations which bring them closer and discuss
with the management without any hassles. Then, the employees open up with
managers to discuss on their job related issues, suggestions, improvements,
queries and more.

(Dr. Bob Mckercher. 2003) Managers should communicate with their people and
often ask them on how is the work going on, what do you suggest? How it can be
improved? Etc… and also respond to their queries diligently. Further, your
appreciations and acknowledgements help them to give more to the organization
and help in organization growth. Marriott has always been following such work
ethics in management to make their people involve in any decisions made and in
turn, motivate and encourage them at their work place.

Meeting employee needs

J. Willard Marriott. (2005) ‘Employee loyalty is of great importance. That comes


by treating employees the way management would like to be treated.’

J. Willard Marriott. (2005) ‘I think there is no reason why we shouldn't see that
the housekeepers have good, clean-looking uniforms.’

(Shannon Elwell, 2005) It is important for the organizations to build team spirit,
good work culture, work uniforms, good equipment/tools etc… which helps both
employee and organization to enjoy the quality product and services offered to
the customers. Organization cannot expect quality product from the resource if
there basic criteria are not met. Marriott's founder said it best...’Take good care
of your employees and they'll take good care of the customers.’

Developing and recognizing employees

J. Willard Marriott. (2005) ‘If you don't hire the right kind of people, we can never
make anything out of them.’

‘The right kind of people’ give their best in work and also develop good
environment within the team by helping the team.

Managing such resources becomes easier since the hospitality industry demand

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such kind of work culture with such qualities, for example:

• Quick Learning

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• Respond to situation

• Growing up in ladder

J. Willard Marriott. (2005) ‘All through the years, I've seen bad habits destroy
brilliant, talented and fine men and women. So I know that the basis of my kind
of success is good habits and a good character.’

J. Willard Marriott. (2005) ‘Managers should instill in employees the importance


of good work, healthy habits, honesty, and integrity.’

The behavior and character of a manager greatly influence employees. It can be


learnt easily by their attitude, their vision, living style, hard working nature which
helps employees idealize them and work in their directions.

The Management strategy at Novotel is slightly different. Though there is


interaction amongst the employees this is not on a regular basis. All the skill sets
are provided with and the employees are expected to navigate through the job
.There is very minimal interaction between the employees and the management.
As a result tracking performance issues becomes difficult. Also due to lack of
motivation, there is will be a considerable dip in performance.

4 Examine a team in which you have worked and write


an account of the nature and behavior of the group

I have an experience working in a banquet hall under Stephen Chu, banquet


captain, in customer service department. He has always exemplified his
character by the way he treats the customers and leaves a pleasant experience
to them which brings lots of ambience to customers. ‘Guests need to feel
comfortable from the moment they enter the hotel,’ he says.

He gives keen focus on how he treats with his customers and understands their
needs. For instance, he keys an eye on even in small things that customer
cherish like a coffee flavor during a corporate training which he would serve it
every time for that customer. If the customer requested for a particular brand
which is not available in stock, Stephen used to run down to a local store and get
the item. He prefers to make his presence in every event conducted in the
banquet and make an opportunity to meet the customer and find their comfort
level.

Stephen holds his position in the hotel from past thirty years. When we left his
home country, China, he planned to start his own U.S. Though he is fresher, but
based on his personal customer handling skills boosted him to start his own.

Currently, everyone recognize Stephen by his name. Whoever visit the banquet
hall calls for Stephen to meet. Moreover, he receives feedback and testimonials
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praising Stephen as a “Must Need” manager for any organization.

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J. Willard Marriott. (2005) ‘He inspires that response from people,’ says Shannon
Cousineau, director of event planning and operations. ‘Stephen is completely
selfless when it comes to providing service to our guests.’

5 Discuss how the traits and characteristic’s of the


individuals within this team influence their behavior
at work

Each day without fail, Gary Baldwin can be seen greeting his fellow associates,
asking about their day or sharing a joke. “You would never know if he was having
a bad day because he is always smiling and upbeat,” says Anthony Donnell,
director of food and beverage.

Most people don’t realize that Gary is challenged by a disability. He is very


independent, owns his own home, and is extremely successful in his position as
the hotel’s lead storeroom clerk. He is known for his thoroughness in keeping
inventory and for maintaining a meticulously organized storeroom. Gary’s
attention to detail is credited with saving the hotel more than $50,000 in food
costs in 2008.

For Gary, there is no such thing as “down time.” When he is waiting for a
delivery, he often goes out of his way to assist other departments with their
duties, ranging from washing dishes to plating food for banquets. He has even
been known to lend outside deliverymen a hand in organizing their trucks.
According to an associate, “If you need help, ask Gary. He will be there, and he
will do it with a smile.”

Gary “gives his all” on the job, but he also makes time for his other passion –
sports. He is an accomplished athlete and has competed several times in tennis
for the Special Olympics. He enjoys playing basketball and soccer, and has
attended training camps for the NFL’s Denver Broncos and NBA’s Denver
Nuggets. He was even asked to star in two of their local TV commercials.

After 19 years, Gary still looks forward to coming to work every day to be with
his Marriott family. For his fellow associates, the feeling is mutual. “Gary radiates
positive energy,” says a co-worker. “He is an inspiration to all of us.”

6 Compare and contrast the structure of the


organization in the case study with a travel and
tourism organization with a different type of
structure.

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The Marriot was founded in the year 1927 by Alice S. and J. Willard Marriot.
Currently it is run by J.W. Marriott, Jr (CEO) and William J. Shaw (president)

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This is an organization owned by the family and accounts up to a turnover of $19


billion globally.

It also franchises about 2600 hotels as well as resorts. This totals to about
425,900 rooms and 6,300 villas worldwide. It has been rated by the fortune 500
company as an organization admired the most. The management is very amiable
and encourages employees to choose their career paths.

Novotel is a Midscale hotel chain .This was started in France in the year 1967. It
is a part of the Accor group. It rests on the principles of Innovation. Its general
structure across the world includes

In the 60s- it concentrated on Bedroom Features

80s- It worked towards achieving Breakfast Buffet

90s- It included Contemporary Art in its architecture

The organizational structure is divided into 9 hierarchical levels

At the head office there exist

• 9th level President of Accor

• 8th level President of Novotel

• 7th level Director of operations

• 6th level Regional managers

• 5th level Directeurs delegues

At NOVOTEL hotel units there are the

• 4th level General Managers

• 3rd level Sous-directeurs

• 2nd level Heads of departments

At Novotel, there exists a lot of bureaucracy decision making is an arduous task


because it has to go through the many levels before a consensus is arrived at.

7 Describe the culture of the organization in the case


study and how it impacts on the success of the
business

The core objectives of Marriott reflect its management, and the staff members
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driving them towards success. Marriott's core values drive the culture.

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Marriott is continuing the reputation and standards embarked by J. Willard


Marriott towards customer satisfaction as well as employs. Marriott also looks
forward for internal employee training and assessment to motivate, upgrade
and monitor.

1. ‘Do whatever it takes to Take Care of the Customer’

2. ‘Pay extraordinary attention to detail’

3. ‘Take pride in their physical surroundings’

4. ‘Use their creativity to find new ways to meet the needs of customers’

Marriott has always encouraged communities and volunteers in the organization


which has greatly impacted the financial part.

8 Discuss the communication channels of the firm in the


case study and explain the importance of effective
communications within organizations.

Department meetings are conducted every month for associates.

Verification of every department quarterly to check performance, updates and


appraisal awards within the department.

Weekly newsletters to let the employees know about the happenings of Marriott
and to let them know about their performance impacting organizational growth.

Regular meetings on Shifts to take customer and shift updates along with the
department heads and update them on the day events and issues. However,
daily each deparment or employee has 15 mins of short meetings on resolving
issues and new updates.

Each staff member is given an opportunity to discuss on the challenges faced in


their department and how it is overcome.

To accommodate such discussions and meeting, an individual place is alloted for


staff members to gather and communicate. It is ensured that it falls near from
their place to avoid time difference and also help people gather immediately.

Dashboards to display work/events like:

• Assessment on Guest Relations guest relation surveys

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• Job Opportunities

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• Hotel Statistics

• Goals, Core values and Missions

• Testimonials/Feedback of Customers

• Events

• Hotel Offers

• Safety and Environment

‘Employer engagement survey’ – Prepare reports department wise, hotel reports


every year as a survey and is declared by the HR team to all staff member to
identify team and individual performances. Later these details are sent to the HR
department where further any staff can individually discuss on any further issues
or queries.

Communication is very important in organizations

• It makes decision making process easy

• Control can be better exercised

• New ideas can be developed

• Innovations will be better

9 Give an account of a recent or planned change of


significance within an organization you have worked
and describe what lead up to the change

One of the major challenges was to beat recession and Novotel did not believe in
reducing the number of employees or firing its employees. The plan it resorted to
permit employees to travel less which would reduce the cost. It reduced the
ramping up of hotels and reduced certain incentives. Alternatively it took to
means to increase its sales and respond to customers” whole heartedly. This
meant falling back on its original principles of innovation and customer
satisfaction. This is a salient strategy adopted not only to maintain its existing
customer base but also marginally increase sales during the period of recession.

10 Analyze the planning and decision making processes


that would be or were involved in the change
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A few days prior to executing the plan, there was a two day training program for
the front office house staff. This included interactive customer service workshops
.Also, emphasis was laid professional behavior and appearance and health and
safety.

Training on Customer service included topics like how a loss of one customer can
be a loss to the company. There was another program for about 90 minutes
where in situations were actually played to the employees and they were asked
to give insights and assistance to the characters.

These were the various plans and decisions taken by Novotel to survive the
recession.

Conclusion

Thus when one looks at the hospitality industry, not only is it important to retain
a good image and position in the market but it is equally essential to maintain a
healthy relation and motivate on employees .This is one of the key success
factors for a hospitality industry. If one takes care of its employees well, the
same will be assured for its customers.

Bibliography

1. Shannon Elwell. (2005),Marriot Management philosophy

2. alper.yilmaz, (2009), Cultural Change Management And Quality In The


Tourism Industry
3. EECA business,(2010), Novotel Ellerslie
4. Olga Strietska-Ilina, Manfred Tessaring. (2005). Luxembourg: Office for
Official Publications of the European Communities
5. Fish and Wildlife Branch, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. (2009).
Moose Management Policy.
6. ERICH SCHMIDT VERLAG. (2008).
7. Sauser W.I. and Sauser L.D. (2002), Changing the Way We Manage
Change, Westport,CT, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated
8. Clarke, M., Meldrum, C. (1999), “Creating Change From Below: Early
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Lessons For Agents Of Change”, The Leadership & Organization
Development Journal, Vol. 20 No.2

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9. Barbara Anderson, Chris Provis and Shirley Chappel. (2002). The


Recognition And Management Of Emotional Labour In The Tourism
Industry.Sustainable Tourism Pvt Ltd
10.Anon. (2007). Marriott Leads the Way to Customer Satisfaction. A study of
Marriott.
11.J. Willard Marriott. (2005).The Marriott Management Philosophy. A living
tradition of values and beliefs.
12.Anon. (2010). Novotel Ellerslie – it doesn’t take a big investment to make
better use of energy. A Case Study.
13.Rhodri Thomas. (2009). Flexible Working Practices in Tourism and
Travels.Institute of Travel and Tourism
14.Dr. Bob Mckercher. (2003). Sustainable Tourism Development – Guiding
Principles For Planning And Management.

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