TR 331 – HIGHWAY MATERIALS @udsm by BUJULU in share with christian nicolaus mbise | Asphalt | Fly Ash

TR 331 – HIGHWAY MATERIALS

DR. P. BUJULU Mr. F. Mutabazi TGE Dept.

Students from: TGE – Transportation & Geotech. Eng. (CTE) SCE – Stuctural & Constr. Engineering (CSE) WRE – Water Resources Engineering (CWR) EGY – Engineering Geology (BSc.GY?) PGD – Postgraduate Diploma in Civil Eng.

SUBGRADES
• The native material underneath a constucted pavement • Can also be selected borrow materials for fill section

• Foundation of pavement structure (major influence on the stability and durability of pavement)

SUBGRADES cont...
Preparation involves clearing & scarifying, levelling and light grading, compaction to specifications • Strength commonly measured by CBR method (force required for a standard plunger to penetrate 0.25 mm, as a percentage of the force for the same penetration in standard crushed aggregates)

textural characteristics for soils with small omount of fines that do not substantially affect its behaviour (granular) plasic soils .plasticity-compressibility characteristics for .Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) .SOIL CLASSIFICATION • Two systems: Highway and Transportation Officials) .AASHTO System (American Association of State • USCS System Based on: .

USCS System cont... sand (S) and fines (silt. M and clay.Shape of grain-size-distribution curve (Cu =d60/d10. Cc = d302/d60d10) . C) ..Plasticity and compressibility characteristics (position on plasticty chart) . Classification based on: .Percentage of gravel (G).

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Different Soil Classification Systems .

73(WL-20%) → Silt WL < 50% → High pl WL ≥ 50% → Low pl .73(WL-20%) → Clay Ip < 0.Soil Plasticity Chart Note generally that: Ip ≥ 0.

Silt-clay materials (fines) – with more than 35% ...075 mm (75 μm or No.PSD and Plasticity • Divided into two major groups: . 200 sieve ..The AASHTO SYSTEM • Based on the observed field performance of subgrade soils under highway pavements. 200) sieve passing No.e.Granular materials – with 35% or less passing 0. on the desirability of the soil as a subgrade material for highway construction • Criteria for classification . i.

with A-7 group being the poorest . A-4.The exception is the A-3 group. designated as A-1.The 7 basic groups have been subdivided into 12 subgroups . A-2. soils having approx. A-6 and A-7.The best soils for HW subgrades are classified under A-1 . A-3.Poorer soils are rated in numerical order. the same general load-carrying capacity and service characteristics are grouped together to form 7 basic groups. Soils classified as A-3 are better subgrade soils than the A-2 soils (why?). A-5. .NB: According to the AASHTO system. where: .

.AASHTO GROUPS & SUBGROUPS A. Typical is fine beach sand or desert wind-blown sand without silt or clay fines. either with or without a well-graded soil binder 1.1 Subgroup A-1-a: Materials consisting of predominantly of stone fragments or gravel. with a non-plastic or slightly plastic soil binder. ranging from coarse to fine. Also.2 Subgroup A-1-b: Materials consisting predominantly of course sand. 1. with or without a wellgraded soil binder. this group includes coarse materials without soil binder. Group A-1 Well-graded mixture of stone fragments or gravel. Group A-3 Materials consisting of sands deficient in coarse material and soil binder. or with a very small amaount of non-plastic silt. Granular Materials (fines ≤ 35%): 1. 2.

200) sieve.425 mm (No.1 Subgroups A-2-4 and A-2-5 These fulfill the requirements for group A-2. except that the fines portion contains plastic clay with the characteristics of the A-6 and A-7 groups. A-5.. A-2 soils are usually used as a cover material for very plastic subgrades . 3.075 mm (No. 40) sieve having the characteristics of the A-4 and A-5 groups.2 Subgroups A-2-6 and A-2-7 Same as for Subgroups A-2-4 and A-2-5. Group A-2 Includes a wide variety of ’granular’ materials that are borderline between the granular materials of groups A-1 and A-3 and the silt-clay materials of groups A-4. but cannot be classified as A-1 or A-3 due to fines content or plasticity or both in excess of the limitations of those groups.. It includes materials with ≤ 35% passing the 0. poor grading or a combination of the two. but with materials passing the 0. A-6 and A-7. resp. respectively. NB: A-2 soils are given a poorer rating than A-1 soils because of inferior binder. 3. 3..AASHTO Groups & Subgroups cont.

. It includes also mixtures of fine silty soil and up to 64% of sand and gravel retained on the 0. Group A-6 The typical material of this group is a plastic clay soil. 200) sieve.B. usually having ≥ 75% passing 0. 2. They are subject to frost heave. erosion and loss of stability if not properly drained.075 mm (No. They do not drain readily. It includes also mixtures of fine clayey soil and up to 64% of sand and gravel retained on the 0. except that it is usually of diatomaceous or micaceous character and may be highly elastic as indicated by the high liquid limits. 200) sieve. 3.075 mm (No.075 mm sieve. They are predominantly silty soils (which are difficult to compact). Group A-4 The typical material of this group is a non-plastic or moderately plastic silty soil. usually having ≥ 75% passing 0. Group A-5 The typical material of this group is similar to the A-4 material. Silt-Clay Materials (fines > 35%) 1. They are normally elastic or resilient in both the dump and semi-dry conditions. They have high volume changes when moisture content changes and they lose strength when soaked.075 mm (No. 200) sieve.

4... NB: PI > (LL-30) Refer to THE AASHTO SOIL CLASSIFICATION TABLE Classification Procedure (with the required data available): . Group A-7 The typical materials and problems of this group are similar to those of Group A-6. 4.Silt-Clay Materials cont. NB: PI ≤ (LL-30) 4. except that they have the high liquid limits of characteristic of the A-5 group and may be elastic and subject to high volume changes...2 Subgroup A-7-6: Includes materials with high plasticity indexes in relation to liquid limit and are subject to extremely high volume changes.1 Subgroup A-7-5: Includes materials with moderate plasticity indexes in relation to liquid limit and are subject to considerable volume changes. Fractional numbers should be converted to the nearest whole numbers for the purpose of classification .Proceed from left to right on the AASHTO Classification Table -The correct group found by the elimination method -The first group from the left which the test data will fit is the correct class NB: All limiting values must be in whole numbers.

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075 mm sieve .) sieve = 100% .Percentage passing 0.Example With the following soil test results.e.It is NOT Group A-2-5.425 mm (No. 30%) passes 0. 200) sieve = 30% .e.Liquid limit.e.It is NOT Group A-3. LL = 35 .Percentage passing 0.It is NOT Group A-2-4. as LL is less than 41 (i.It is NOT Group A-1-a. 30%) passes 0. 65%) passes 2. 10) sieve = 65% . as over 50% (i.00 mm (No. 40) sieve = 45% . PI = 21 SOLUTION: Proceeding from left to right on the AASHTO classification table: .The soil meets all requirements of Group A-2-6 The soil sample is therefore classified as Group A-2-6 . as less than 51% (i.00 mm sieve . LL = 35) . as over 25% (i. classify the soil according to the AASHTO system: .Percentage passing 2.e. as PI is greater than 10 (i.425 mm sieve (##) . PI = 21) .e.Percentage passing 38 mm (1½ in.075 mm (No.Plasticity index.It is NOT Group A-1-b.

g.01(F-15)(PI-10) Where: F = Percent passing 0..If the calculated GI ≤ 0. PI = Plasticity index NB: GI should be reported to the nearest whole number .g. e.For GI of A-2-6 and A-2-7. GI of 0 → excellent SG. it is should be reported as 0 . A-2-6(3). GI can be calculated from: GI = (F-35)[0.075 mm sieve (fines) expressed as a whole # (NB: This %ge is based on materials passing the 75 mm sieve) LL = Liquid limit.GROUP INDEX of Soils • • • • • Is a function of liquid limit.005(LL-40)] + 0.GI values should always be shown in parantheses after the classification group symbol. A-7-5(17) . plasticity index and amount of fines Used as a general guide to the load bearing capacity of soil Supporting value of subgrade ~ inverse ratio of its GI E. GI of ≥ 20→ poor SG material According to AASHTO.2 + 0. only the PI portion is used (why??) . A-4(12).GI can be estimated using a Nomograph with sufficient accuracy .

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g.Rollers (e.Dynamic compaction (densification) by falling mass . SOIL COMPACTION Definition • Mechanical densification of soils • By pressing soil particles (to park more closely together) • Through reduction of air voids (expulsion of air) • Achieved by mechanical means .3. for road or dam construction) .

compaction high strength and resistance to deformation • Shear strength increases bearing capacity • Reduces settlements • Decreases volume changes (swell & shrinkage) • Reduces water permeability & capillarity (number and size of voids) NB: Extent of improvement depends on type of soil. weight and power of roller. compaction energy (effort) applied (e. moisture content. etc) .Advantages of Soil Compaction • Generally.g. type of equipment. number of repetitions/passes.

The test is used to provide a guide for specifications on field compaction .PROCTOR (COMPACTION) TEST Objective is to determine the relationship between compacted dry density and soil moisture content.

PL) .Density-Moisture Relationship • Degree of compaction ~ Dry density (kg/m3) at a given moisture content (%) • NB: ρd = ρ/(1+w) • Dry density ~ compactive effort + moisture content • OMC = moisture content which gives the highest dry density (depends on type of compaction) • Hint: OMC is smaller than the Plastic limit (wp.

. ..Density-Moisture Relationship cont.

reduces friction. gives lower ρd • Zero-air voids curve ~ 100% saturation (sat.Compaction Mechanism • At low moisture content – particles not lubricated (friction prevents densification) • Increase of moisture content film of water develops. line) • It is practically not attainable (removing all the air?!) • Points on the zero-air void curve: ρdz= ρwGs/(1+wGs). Gs = spec. Gravity. ’w’ in fraction! . increases compactability • At OMC closest packing at that compaction effort • Further increase of moisture creates excess pore water pressure on compacting.

• Points on lines of different saturation levels: ρd = (1-Va)/(1/ ρs – w/ρw) = ρwGs(1-Va)/(1+wGs) .

27 blows/layer : Drop height = 300 mm (Standard PT) and 450 mm (Modified PT) .Standard v.5 kg hammer. 45. But preferred by PMDM (1999) Standard PT: 3 layers.5 cm drop Modified PT: 5 layers.5 kg hammer. ASTM) ≡ BS Standard PT Modified PT ≡ BS Heavy compaction test In CML (2000): 1 litre mould is specified. Modified Proctor tests: • Standard PT used mostly for road pavements • Modified PT used mostly for airfields & heavily loaded highways.8 cm drop NB: Standard PT (AASHTO. 2. 30. 4.

Typical Compaction Curves MOD. PROCTOR COMPACTION CURVES 2300 2200 Dry density (Kg/m3) 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 1400 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Moisture content (%) Mzumbe Msamvu Ngunja Jaribu Katoke Muhutwe Saturation (ZAV) line for Gs=3.0 .

roller size) . Kneading – variable comp effort applied thru protrusions on a padded drum wheel Sheep’s (tamping) foot roller .May also be equiped to vibrate .Suitable for soil layers 150-300 mm thickness .Exerted pressures 1000-1500 kPa (dep.Used mainly for cohesive soils (clays & silts) .Field Compaction Methods Following compaction techniques: 1.3 to 5 passes (repetitions) .

.Used mainly for granular materials .Also to finish the upper surface of compacted layers (subgrade.Smooth steel wheeled: recom. max speed 15 km/h .Compaction layer thickness: 100-200 mm .Pneumatic rubber-tired: efficiency dep. base course and asphalt surface) . Static compaction – non-vibratory smooth steel wheeled and pneumatic rubber-tired rollers . 2.. on pressure (NB: too high pressure may cause bearing capacity failure or rutting of soil layer) .Compaction methods cont.

Requires 3-5 passes .Operating mass varies.Mechanism: either a rotating or reciprocating mass (actuated by a hydraulic motor) . Vibratory compaction – vibratory smooth-drum rollers (1 drum + rubber-tired drive or 2 smooth drums..Used for gravel. granular base courses and asphalt mixtures . one of which saves as the drive wheel) .. 3.Compaction methods cont.Layer thicknesses up to 1 m: . sand & silt soils. 2-15 tons .

Layer thickness 200-250 mm possible . 4.5-6 coverages (e.Can be hand-operated or tractor-mounted .30-1000 kg tampers manufactured . Impact compaction – tamping compactors .Used for small & inclined areas (patch or trenches) . by half-ton compactor) .Compaction methods cont..g..

economy (cost implication)] • Embankment formation (spreading thin layers of uniform thickness and compacting each layer to slopes and cambers. This results in uniform strength and moisture contents. normally ±5%). available time.If too wet. specifications (target ρd.e.lab)] (x 100%) . add water by spraying and mixing thoroughly . related to laboratory Proctor test results on same material) i. normally ±2%) . Lack of this may result in differential settlements and potholing) • Moisture control (should be close to OMC. available equipment.If too dry. spread the soil out in thin layers and turn it over to facilitate water evaporation before compaction. Percent compaction = [ρd(field)/ ρd(Proctor.Field Compaction Procedure • Selection of suitable procedure and equipment [soil type. NB: Specification of Soil Compaction (% compaction.

Example: • Minimum percent compaction recommended in RN31 Upper 500 mm of soil (subgrade): 93-95%* Roadbases and Subbases: Lower layers of an embankment: : 98%* 90-93%* 95-100%+ NB: * Based on BS Heavy (Modified Proctor) Compaction (4.5 kg rammer) + Based on BS Light (Standard Proctor) Compaction (2.5 kg rammer) In Tanzania [PMDM (1999)]. we adopt: Acceptable variation of field MDD = ±5% of lab (specified) MDD Acceptable variation of field OMC = ±2% of lab (specified) OMC .

Field Compaction Controls • Involves determination of field dry density and in-situ moisture content (then compare with specifications. • For w. transmitted through soil (some absorbed) and (the rest) measured by detector infront of equipm. gamma rays emitted into soil from source in the base of equipment. lose energy due to collision with hydrogen atoms and are measured by a detector to give soil moisture content. neutron radiation emitted into soil.Destructive & Non-destructive methods Non-destructive method Nuclear method • Nuclear densometer – determination of ρd and w • For ρd . . Density of soil determined from calibration. from PT) • Two major control methods: .

Nuclear method – Density & Misture .

Advantages: • • • • Test is very fast → immediate results (corr. measures possible) Many tests possible → statistical methods in the control process Soil or pavement layer not disturbed Can be used over a wide range of materials Disadvantages: • High capital required to procure the equipment • Field personnel exposed to dangerous radioactive emissions (protection required and safety standards to be enforced) ...Nuclear method cont..

The rubber membrane allows the fluid to fill all the cavities in the test hole. Sand replacement method (sand-cone apparatus) The baloon method: by forcing a liquid-filled baloon in the test hole. . of test hole Dry density from bulk density and moisture content Volume of test hole (sample). The volume of the liquid required to fill the hole is read on the apparatus.Destructive methods ( sampling) • • • • • Sample of compacted material dug out → test hole (~100mm Ø) Total mass (weight) of excavated material determined Moisture content determined Vol. two common methods: 1. Baloon method 2. of excavated material determined from vol. It gives the volume of the excavated material.

g.Overcompaction OK if CBR requirements met. • • • • • • • • Uniform med.. otherwise scarify and recompact .) . The Sand Replacement method • Vol. etc. sand of essentially constant loose density used..Undercompaction corrective measures (e. type of roller. Sand (density) and pouring funnel (vol.compactive effort. layer thickness. number of passes.Volume of excavated material cont. of test hole determined from mass of loose standard sand (known ρo) required to fill the test hole.) calibrated in laboratory Mass of sand that fills the test hole determined (hence.. volume) Mass (weight) of excavated material determined Bulk density of excavated material computed Moisture content determined by oven-drying Dry density of excavated material (field dry density) determined Compared with specified dry density Relative compaction .

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CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR)
• Performed on subgrade to determine bearing capacity for pavement design purposes • Subgrade strength for determining required thickness of pavement for roads & airfields • CBR value = Resistance to penetration of 2.5 mm (or 5.0 mm) of a standard cylindrical plunger of 50 mm ø, expressed as a %ge of the known resistance for the same penetration in standard crushed aggregate (calibrated as 13.2 kN or 20 kN, respectively). • Soil sample compacted to anticipated ρd and w (normally OMC) • Surcharge weight (annular discs) placed to simulate pavement layers; 2 kg disc simulates approx. 70 mm pavement layer. • Normally soaked for 96 hrs (4 days) to simulate the field soaking (inundation), common in the tropics.

CBR - Lab Test Set Up

CBR continues....
• The piston plunger penetrates the compacted sample at a rate of 1.0 mm/min. • The plunger load recorded for each 0.25 mm penetration to a max of 7.5 mm • Load-penetration curve is plotted and loads corresponding to 2.5 and 5 mm penetration are recorded • Plunger resistance at 2.5 mm expressed as a %ge of 13.2 kN • Plunger resistance at 5 mm expressed as a %ge of 20 kN • The higher of these two is reported as the CBR of the sample • Load-penetration curves sometimes need corrections (corrected zero). • Two test methods devised: - CBR test – One Point Method (explained above & Illustration) - CBR test – Three Point Method (recommended by MoI/TZ)

CBR Test Curves (need no correction) .

5 and 5 mm penetration are recorded • Plunger resistance at 2. • Two test methods devised: .2 kN • Plunger resistance at 5 mm expressed as a %ge of 20 kN • The higher of these two is reported as the CBR of the sample • Load-penetration curves sometimes need corrections (corrected zero).5 mm expressed as a %ge of 13.5 mm • Load-penetration curve is plotted and loads corresponding to 2.25 mm penetration to a max of 7...CBR test – Three Point Method (recommended by MoI/TZ) .CBR continues.CBR test – One Point Method (explained above & Illustration) . • The piston plunger penetrates the compacted sample at a rate of 1..0 mm/min. • The plunger load recorded for each 0.

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• Specimens compacted at diff. Dry density plotted (see next slide) • CBR value of soil for any degree of compaction can be determined in field. # of layers or # of blows) • Dry density and corresp.CBR test – Three Point Method • Recommended by Min. CBR determined for each specimen • Graph of (soaked) CBR v. of Infrastructure (T) • Test principle similar to the Single Point Method. compactive effort (varying wt of rammer. but three specimens for each sample. .

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fly-ash pellets. crushed rock. used in natural state except for crushing. etc.g. durability.: Result from physical and chemical modifications of materials or byproducts (e. light wt aggr. or in combination with cementing materials. such as cement or bitumen to form concretes for bases. .: Rock fragments. recycled concrete and asphalt pavement. sand) Artificial Aggreg. and workability • Can broadly be classified as either natural or artificial aggreg. wearing surfaces or drainage structures • Should be capable of transmitting the stresses induced by traffic loads and resisting wear due to abrasive forces from moving traffic and natural elements (weathering). cleanliness. Blast furnace slag. • Aggregate specifications tend to seek characteristics that will ensure the required gradation. sizing and washing (e. gravel.AGGREGATES FOR H/W CONSTRUCTION • Refers to granular mineral particles used either alone as road bases. toughness. subbases. backfill. Natural Aggreg. strength. etc.g..

Production of Crushed Rock Aggregates 10mm graded crushed rock aggregate 20mm graded aggregate .

Densely graded mixes are also more economic (less binder needed) .Aggregate Properties & Tests The most important properties: .Hardness (resistance to wear) .Gradation (PSD) .Being free from deleterious substances (cleanliness) PSD and Gradation .Durability (resistance to weathering) . strength.Crushing strength and toughness (resistance to impact/shock) .Relative density (SG) and absorption . and economy of pvmt structure .Strength (resistance to shear failure) increases if mixture is densely graded .Affects density.Shape and surface texture .Usually plotted on aggregate grading chart and judged according to the given specification limits (envelope) for a particular project .

• Flat particles. etc. crushed rock/stone aggregate.g. needle-shaped particles break more easily than cubical particles • Particles with rough. strength. smooth gravel particles. thin particles. or long. natural gravel. bond with binder materials and resistance to skidding and sliding between particles. fractured faces allow better bond with binder than do rounded.Particle Shape and Surface Texture • They affect aggreg. e. . • The particle shape is expressed in terms of its Flakiness Index and Elongation Index • Surface texture is expressed in terms of aggregate type. crushed gravel (at least with one face broken).

Particle Shape C u b ic a l A g g re g a te R o u n d e d A g g re g a te .

the presence of flaky particles is undesirable as they cause inherent weakness due to the likelyhood of breaking down under heavy traffic loads.3 mm sieve NB: For base course and wearing course aggregates. .Flakiness Index Test • Aggregates are classified as flaky when they have a thickness of less than 60% of their mean size • Flakiness Index is found by separating the flaky particles using a standard Metal Thickness Gauge and expressing their mass as a percentage of the sample mass • The test is applicable to the material passing a 63 mm sieve and retained on a 6.

as they cause inherent weakness due to the likelyhood of breaking down under heavy traffic loads.Elongation Index • Aggregates are classified as elongated when they have a length (greatest dimension) of more than 1. retained on the 6.3 mm sieve NB: As for the flakiness. the presence of elongated particles is undesirable for base course and wearing course aggregates.8 of their mean sieve size • The Elongation Index is found by separating the elongated particles using a standard Metal Length Gauge and expressing their mass as a percentage of the sample mass. • Applicable to material passing a 50 mm sieve. .

Determination of Flat and Elongated Aggregate Particles 1:5 pivot point fixed post (B) fixed post (A) swinging arm .

OF AGGREGATES • • • • Mineral aggregate is porous. Three methods of measuring aggregate specific gravity: Bulk SG. Gsb = Aggregate Dry Mass Bulk Vol 1. and Effective SG Bulk Specific Gravity. can absorb water and asphalt to a var.S. Ratio of water to asphalt absorption varies with each aggregate. Hence.000 g/cm3 Bulk Volume = solid volume + water permeable voids “SSD” Level water permeable voids . Gsb • This includes the volume of the water permeable voids in the aggregate (often termed the “”saturated surface dry” or SSD volume of the aggregate.G. degree. Apparent SG.

Gsa • This does not include the volume of the water permeable voids in the aggregate Gsa = Aggregate Dry Mass App Vol 1.G. OF AGGREGATES cont… Apparent Specific Gravity.000 g/cm3 Apparent Volume = volume of solid aggr particle Apparent volume does not include volume of surface pores .S.

Gse = Solid Aggr Particle Dry Mass Eff Vol 1.G. OF AGGREGATES cont… Effective Specific Gravity. Gse • This includes the volume of the water permeable voids in the aggregate that cannot be reached by the asphalt.S.000 g/cm3 Effective Volume = volume of solid aggr particle + volume of water permeable pores not filled with asphalt volume of water permeable pores not filled with asphalt effective asphalt binder .

Specific Gravity and Absorption • Important in the mix design of concrete and asphalt mixtures .

= MWA*100(%)/MD. MWA = mass of absorbed water = MSSD – MD . VN = net vol.. VB = bulk vol. MD = dry mass of aggreg. (=Vs+Vpp-Vpa) • Bulk Specific Gravity GsB. related to the total volume of aggregate (including the volume of absorbed water) GsB = MD/(VB* ρW)..• Apparent Specific Gravity GsA. Spec. surface-dry SG (Eff. MD = dry mass of aggreg. related to net volume (excluding volume of absorbed water) GsA = MD/(VN*ρW). (= Vs+Vpp) • Sat. Gravity): GsSSD = MSSD/(VB* ρW) MSSD = Mass of saturated surface dry aggregate Absorption (%): Abs.

LAAV < 50% is normally required . LAAV) • Expresses the aggregate resistance to wear • Wear due to polishing effect of traffic and internal abrasion and grinding of the aggregates • Should not be rounded or polished (skid resistance) • Determined by the Los Angeles Abrasion test – LAAT • Degradation of aggregates due to abrasion.12) sieve • Wash the retained material. impact and grinding in a rotating drum containing steel spheres • Place a clean sample (mass. oven-dry and weigh (m2) • LAAV (%) = [(m1. m1) in the LAA cylinder + abrasive charge (standard weight of steel spheres) • Rotate the drum at speed of 30 to 33 rpm for 500 revolutions • Discharge the material and sieve it on the 1.75mm (No.HARDNESS (→ Los Angeles Abrasion Value.m2) /m1] *100.

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36 mm sieve after crushing under a compr. load of 400kN • Applicable to aggr. • Measures resistance to crushing of traffic wheel loads • ACV determined by measuring material passing 2. retained on 10 mm • • Sieve dry aggr. passing 14 mm. ACV) • ACV gives resistance to crushing under gradually applied compressive load. to each layer apply 25 blows of • • • • Calculate the ACV: ACV(%) = (m2/m1)*100 .36mm sieve and determine %ge passing (m2) Repeat the test and report the mean ACV to the nearest whole number • Place in test cylinder in 3 layers.Resistance to crushing (Aggreg. level Apply crushing force @ uniform rate so as to reach 400kN in 10 min ± 30sec Release the force. Crushing Value. sample on 14mm and 10mm to remove oversize & undersize Oven-dry at 105 ± 5°C for about four hours and cool tamping rod dropped from h = 50 mm above aggregate surface. remove all crushed material using brush and weigh (m1) Sieve on the 2.

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time-interval 1 sec.Toughness (Aggregate Impact Value. thus m = (m2/ m1)* 100. number of blows adopted is that which yields between 5% and 20% fines. AIV) • • • • Resistance to sudden shock or impact Tested on fraction passing 14 mm. retained on 10 mm sieve Preparation similar to ACV test. and AIV = (15m)/n where m = %ge of materials finer than 2. • Crushed sample is weighed (m1). Test on dry or soaked condition Sample in AIV cylinder subjected to 15 blows of hammer (13. fraction passing 2. and we define m.514 kg) falling thru h = 380 ± 5 mm.36 mm sieve determined (m2) • For dry-condition test: AIV(%) = (m2/ m1)* 100 • For soaked condition.36 mm sieve n = number of hammer blows that produced m% fines .

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o..The Graph Method NB: The Calculation Method is normally used in our HW Lab.The Calculation Method .36 mm sieve (for sample 14mm – 10mm) • Applicable to both weak and strong aggr.t.36 mm sieve) • Two test methods used: . • Particularly prescr. for relatively weak aggregates (ACV > 30%) • Follows same principles as ACV test. dry and soaked cond. but applied force not fixed • Load varied i.Ten Percent Fines Value (TFV) • Measure of strength of road aggregates (alternative to ACV) • Measures resistance to crushing under gradually applied load • Determined by measuring the load required to produce 10% material that passes 2. . determine load that will crush the sample to produce 10% fines (passing 2.

e.5% and 12. • Fraction passing 2.g.36 mm sieve.5% • Do second test using specimen of same size. slags) is attained..).g.The Calculation Method • A static force is applied thru plunger at uniform rate so that in 10 min ± 5 sec a penetration of 20 mm (crushed aggr. to obtain second value of m • Determine force F (whole #) to produce 10% fines for each test F = 14f /(m+4) • Report the mean of the two F values as the TFV of aggregate. uncrushed gravel) or 24 mm (honeycombed aggr.. • The force (f) required for this penetration is recorded • The specimen is weighed (m1) and sieved on 2. 15 mm (rounded/partially rounded aggr. .36 mm sieve is weighed (m2) • Its percentage is calculated: m (%) = (m2/m1)* 100 • m should fall between 7. applying same force f. e.

The Graphical Method • Four test specimens are prepared and subjected to 50 kN. 150 kN and 400 kN. to 10% fines is reported as TFV • This method combines TFV test with ACV test (why?) . 100 kN. curve is drawn • • The force F corresp. • Four values of m are determined and plotted (ordinates) against corresponding loads (abscissas).

the test measures the resistance of aggregates to disintegration in a saturated solution of Na2So4 (or MgSo4) • Immerse the aggregate in Na2SO4 soln for 16-18 hrs. heating and cooling. dry and sieve them. oven-dry the sample at 110 ± 5 °C and allow it to cool. freezing and thawing (should be sound) • Used to measure the aggregates susceptibility to weathering. • Express the %ge passing (lost or broken) related to the initial .Durability of Aggregates (Soundness Test) • Shows the resistance of aggregate to disintegration due to cycles of wetting and drying. • The weakening effect is more remarkable for sedimentary rocks due to existence of planes of weakness between layers • Commonly measured by the Soundness Test (AASHTO designation T104. remove and allow to drain for 15 ± 5 min. Wash the aggregates. or ASTM C88-90) • In lab. Repeat the process 4 more times.

remove and allow to drain for 15 ± 5 min. Wash the aggregates. Express the %ge passing (lost or broken) related to the initial sample mass Guide: Loss not to exceed 12% if Na2SO4 is used or 18% if MgSO4 is used . the test measures the resistance of aggregates to disintegration in a saturated solution of Na2SO4 (or MgSO4) Immerse the aggregate in Na2SO4 soln for 1618 hrs.In lab. Repeat the process 4 more times. oven-dry the sample at 110 ± 5 °C and allow it to cool. dry and sieve them.

and gap-graded (ref.e. combined or blended) in order to meet the gradation specified for use • Descriptive terms include dense-(or well-) graded.(or uniformly-) graded. open.Aggregate Blending • Aim is to obtain aggregate of required (specified) gradation (within grading envelope) • Gradation affects density and strength of pavement • During production. aggregates are sorted in closelygraded ’single-sizes’ • These can be remixed in desired proportions (i. Next slide) .

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Design of Aggregate Gradation • Refers to blending of crushed aggregates. starting with ’single sized’ aggregates (by nominal sizes) • A trial-and-error procedure is generally used.The Mathematical Method .The Graphical Method . but two methods used to decide on ’where to start’: .

C. = %ge of ’single-sized’ materials passing the given sieve a.. = 1. where P = %ge passing a given sieve for the blended aggr.. blending • The general formular expressing the combination (blending) is: P = aA + bB + cC + ..00 Case 1: Combining two aggregates... b. . c.The Mathematical Method of aggr. used in combination NB: a + b + c + .. . P = aA + bB.. Substituting in first eqn: a = (P – B)/(A –B) Example: Required to blend aggregates A and B in the Table (next slide) to meet the specification (envelope) given in the same table. .. = Proportions of aggregates A.. ... B. A... a + b = 1 b = (P –A)/(B –A) and a = 1 – b. B. C..

5 Then.5 = 0.0 – 0. a = 1. By examining the gradations we note that most of the materials passing 2.Example cont.2) = 0.36mm will be provided by aggregate B Proportions are determined to meet the mid-point of the specification envelope Thus: b = (42.5.2)/(82 – 3. the blended gradation is shown in the Table (next page) .5 – 3. Hence.

Example cont. .

Example cont. .

same example) Graphical solution for proportioning of two aggregates .Graphical Method (Two aggrates.

5 (% Retained) Then: Apply the simultaneous equations variable elimination method.. E.g: Passing sieve 4.. thus: (100-P) = a(100-A) + b(100-B) + c(100-C) + ...COMBINING MORE THAN TWO AGGREGATE FRACTIONS General equation for blending: P = aA + bB + cC + .76 mm: 100a + 100b + 54c = 67.5 (Remember: a+b+c = 1) Is equivalent to: 0a + 0b + 46c = 32. or graph . (%Passing) Can also be expressed in terms of ”% Retained”...

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30 to 28.0 (100) 96.075 100 x 0.5% • Specification (passing): 4.300 0.0 x 0.65 = 14.65 = 2.5% • Sieve 4.0 100 x 0.8 9 x 0.25 a = 0.1 (60-75) 47.300 mm sieve from 1.g.65 – 0.25 = 25 100 x 0.65 = 5.36 40.3 (5-10) .3 x 0.1 = 10. B x 25% size (mm) 25.18 0.1 = 7.65 = 35.4b + 8.4b + 8. changing spec.4 12.30 mm→ 28.1 31.76 1. 0.5c = 15.7 4.25 = 25 100 x 0.6 x 0.0 100 x 0.4 x 0.76 mm→ 70%.150 0. for 1.1 = 10.1 = 4.0 x 0.0 100 x 0. 1.01 100 x 0.3 (20-35) 17.1 = 10.65 = 61 54 x 0.0 100 x 0.5(0.25 = 16. b = 25%.HW-Solution • E.9 3.18 mm→ 44%.6 26.18 mm to 44% and 0.65 = 65 94 x 0.4 22.1 x 0.1 x 0.65 = 20.76 mm retained: 0a + 0b + 46c = 30 c = 0.25 = 25 66.4 5.8 x 0.00 – 0.5 b = 0.25 Aggreg.6 x 0.0 (90-100) 70.25 a = 1 – b – c = 1.1 = 10.5 40. A x 10% Aggreg.1 • a = 10%. C x 65% 100 x 0.0 73.25 = 1.5 17.0 Combined 100.65 • Subtraction of 0.18 mm sieve (passing): 0a + 40.1 = 10.65) = 15.0 (40-55) 31.7 (12-22) 7. c = 65% BS sieve Aggreg.25 = 6.25 = 4.

etc. river gravel or decomposed rock gravel. especially in the southern Africa region. • Must be well graded (fall within relevant grading envelope) and must contain sufficient fines to provide a high density on compaction.Natural Gravel Bases • Suitable are lateritic or quartzitic gravels. thus: LL < 25% PI < 12% (dry areas) or PI < 6% (wet areas) Shrinkage limit < 4% • Must have a minimum 4-day soaked CBR of 80% . Others are calcrete & silcrete gravels. • The fines should preferably be non-plastic or meet the specified (prescribed) range of Atterberg Limits.

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SOIL STABILIZATION • A technique used to improve engineering properties of weak or problem in-situ (local) soils (→ in-situ soils that do not meet the specified engineering requirements) • Properties that may be improved include .Volume stability→reduces swell + shrinkage potential. Reduce dust. prevents water from entering pavement structure . weathering and breakdown caused by traffic. stability & bearing capacity . pressure . workability .Strength → increase strength. incr.Durability → increases resistance to erosion.Permeability → reduces permeability.Plasticity & workability → reduces plasticity. .

Chemical stabilization (use of agents) . • Stabilization technique is suitable for ”stage construction” (i.) or may function as a base course for pavement (heavy traffic).. • Functional advantages: .e. may function briefly as wearing course..Stabilization cont.Stabilized soil provide firm support for wearing course (low vol.Mechanical stabilization . then apply surface treatment for increased traffic.. finally apply AC surface on top (functions as base course) for heavy traffic Main Categories: .

uniform interm. sufficient granular materials should be added to make sure grains come into contact with each other (?) .Mechanical Stabilization • Technique applied to soil that can not satisfactorily be improved by compaction (poor gradation. 200-300 veh/day require higher-quality surfacing ./day) .g. cost increases rapidly due to loss of materials and formation of dust. sand → A3) • Soil. geosynthetics . gravel or aggregate of the missing sizes is added and admixed so as to improve engineering properties of original soil • NB: Admixtured material should be relatively inert so that it affects only the physical properties of original soil . e.To cohesive soils. sometimes up to 50% • Technique used for sub-bases of high-quality roads or base and surface courses of lower-quality roads (ADT < 50 veh.Above 100 veh/day.Normally more than 10%.Includes thermal stabilization (freezing/heating). maint.

5 . Dense grading may be approximated by the Fuller’s power grading law: p = 100(d/D)n where p = %ge by mass passing a given sieve. surface) ii....3 and 0. crushed gravel and sands) iii. thus maintain dumpness to bind materials together NB: i. High stability can be obtained by a dense mixture of course and fine materials (which provide good interlock and high shear strength) iv. normally 0. Aggregate larger than 25 mm should not be used (dislocation fr. toughness) (2) Resistance to abrasive action of traffic (hardness) (3) Ability to shed rain water as surface run-off (4) Capillary properties to replace the moisture lost thru surface evaporation. d = aperture size of the sieve D = size of the largest particle in the mixture (largest sieve) n = an exponent between 0. Angular particles provide best interlock (e. • Mechanical requirements for stabilized soil surface (light traffic): (1) Stability to support weight of traffic (strength.Mechanical Stabilization cont.5.g.

• Stabilization may be due to either .both. pozzolans (mainly ashes) and industrial chemicals (e. known as stabilizing agents (binders. cement) .g. binding and water-proofing (e. lime and bitumen • Others include blast furnace slag (normally as GGBFS).g. fly ash.water-proofing soil partcles (e.e.binding soil particles together.g.g.CHEMICAL STABILIZATION → Use of Stabilizing Agents • Improvement of soil properties by incorporation of reactive substances. i. or . polymers) • Usually added in relatively small amounts ~5-15% by weight. bituminous stabilization). stabilizers) • Common stabilizers are cement. cementation (→ binders. in chemical stabilization) . e.

.) for cement hydration → strength. durability . 3-16% by wt. normally at OMC. silts and clays require higher percentages (why?) • Mixture compacted. stiffness. targeting MDD • Then cured (high moisture/humidity and temp.Cement Stabilization An intimate mixture of soil (or gravel) and cement • Cement contents vary: 5-14% by vol. • Sands & gravels require lower amounts.

.Dicalcium silicate 2CaO.Fe2O3 → C4AF • C3S / C2S / C3A + H2O → C-S-H / C-A-H (hydration products) • Effect increases with time (age).SiO2 → C3S .Tricalcium silicate 3CaO.Al2O3 → C3A .SiO2 → C2S .Tricalcium aluminate 3CaO.Al2O3. continues for years.Tetracalcium aluminate ferrite (Ferrit) 4CaO.Hydration of cement → Cementation • Starting with cement clinker compounds: .

22). ref. 4hrs soaking. freezing/thawing).• Min. strength is usually guaranteed NB: OMC/MDD values for soil-cement differ from those of orig. cement cont. In US by compaction (OMC/MDD) and durability test (wetting/drying.19-1. CML Test 1. then. determined in UK and TZ by specified strength (7 days UCS. soil .

2.1: American Recommendations fot Amount of Cement required for Stabilization .Tab.

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and the final surface using a smooth-wheel roller • Curing A bituminous curing membrane (e.g.14 l/m2) or use impermeable sheeting . scarify existing soil to required depth using scarifier attached to grader or spread imported material to required depth. The mixture is then well blended • Compacting & Finishing The soil-cement is initially compacted using sheepsfoot rollers. emulsions & tars.g.07-0.g. The uppermost 25-50 mm using pneumatic-tired rollers.5 l/m2. then pulverise using rotary speed mixers or gang ploughs). cutback bitumen RC-250/MC-250. Enough water is added to achieve moisture content 1-2% over OMC (why?).Construction Process • Pulverisation The soil to be stabilized must be thoroughly pulverised before cement is added (e. • Mixing of soil and cement Normally. rate: 0. cement is spread (e. rate: 0. by a spike-toothed harrow) to provide a uniform amount over the pulverised soil.

must be protected→surface treatment. SPREADING AND MIXING Soil-cement is friable.cover .PLACEMENT.

slaking] • But also: Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O [Carbonation] !! • Addition of lime [CaO or Ca(OH)2] to soil/gravel changes the physical-chemical properties of soil → Modification/Stabilization • Takes place in two stages: .Modification (→ immediate process/effect). long-term process/effect) .LIME STABILIZATION • Lime occurs either as QUICKLIME (CaO) or SLAKED (Hydrated) Lime [Ca(OH)2] • CaCO3 + heat → CaO + CO2 [Production of quick lime] • CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2 + heat [Hydration of q/l.Cementation (with sufficient lime. and .

4) which promotes formation of silicates & aluminates that react with Ca2+ to produce cementitious materials. Minimum lime content to produce pH 12.4 is known as the Initial Consumption of Lime (ICL) . 3% lime may reduce PI by ⅓ to ⅔. 5% may change soil to non-plastic) • Increases volume stability (reduces swelling & shrinkage) • Also increases CBR (i.Soil Modification / Initial consumption of lime SM Refers to the effects of the initial chemical reactions between lime and clay minerals (cation exchange) • Reduces plasticity (→ increases workability: e.g.e. Subgrade strength) NB: Addition of lime to soil produces a highly alkaline environment (pH 12.

in the presence of water) produces cementitious compounds similar to hydration of Portland cement → binding of soil particles (cementation) .Cementation • Reaction of lime with silicates and aluminates of clay (or from added pozzolanic materials.Al2O3 + Ca(OH)2 + yH2O → C-A-H .SiO2 + Ca(OH)2 + xH2O → C-S-H .C-S-H & C-A-H → Cementitious. binding properties • Known as pozzolanic reactions .

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This technique is known as “Two Stage Stabilization” .Lime stabilization cont. Pozzolanic reaction is relatively very slow (time and temperature dependent)... stiffness & durability In highly plastic clays.. addition of lime may be done first to modify the clay (to reduce plasticity and increase workability) and followed (after a mellowing time) by cement to increase strength by the cementation (hydration) reactions..UCS.. hence CBR.

• NB: Most artificial pozzolans are industrial waste products (e. etc.g. fly ash/pulverized fuel ash. chemically react with lime at ordinary temperatures to form compounds possessing cementitious properties.Pozzolanic Stabilization • A pozzolanic material (pozzolana) is a siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which in itself possesses little or no cementitious value (binding property). but will. fly ash & GGBFS). in ground bricks). • Generally have a glassy or non-crystalline structure • Typical are volcanic ash. some clay minerals (e.g. when in a finely divided form and in presence of moisture. Their utilization has environmental advantages (apart from possible economical & technical advantages) . ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). rice husk ash.

tars. • In layers of 50-150 mm.g.A combination of both mechanisms (in many instances) • Different types of bitumen can be used. . Functions through: . cutbacks and emulsion bitumen (depending on circumstances → type of soil/gravel. controlled by density. thereby maintaining the already existing strength (main mechanism) . thus enhancing strength (→ adhesion. compaction by sheepsfoot roller or pneumatic-tired roller. required end product.Bituminous Stabilization • A bituminous material is dispersed throughout the soil and compacted. surface tension) . e. etc. temperature and moisture content. economy.Waterproofing the soil.Cementing through binding soil particles together. penetration grade (Pengrade 85-100 and 120-150).

type of improvement. economy and the environment • Following figure gives a procedure suggested by FHWA (US) – next slide • Table 7.8 (PMDM. 1999) gives stabilizer selection criteria adopted in Tanzania . mainly the type of soil to be stabilized.Selection of a stabilizing agent • Selection of a stabilizing agent depends on many factors.

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Moisture-density relations (Proctor test) .Grading analysis (PSD) .California bearing ratio (CBR) .Laboratory Tests on Stabilized Materials • Tests carried out during design and construction are: .Indirect tensile strength (ITS) .Stabilizer application rate .Initial consumption of lime (ICL) .Durability tests .Atterberg limits (plasticity) .Tests for deleterious materials (?) • Notes given for self-reading .Unconfined (uniaxial) compressive strength (UCS) .

Deep Stabilization Penetratn Retrieval + Binders .

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base and surface • Subbase. subbase. base and surface courses Pavement • Two types: Rigid pavement and Flexible pavement • Strength of the subgrade is the main factor controlling design of flexible pavements • Basic design criterion is the depth of pavement required to distribute the applied surface load to the subgrade in such a way that the S/g will not be overstressed to cause an unacceptable deformations. • The base (road base) is designed to bear the burden of distributing the applied surface loads and to ensure the bearing capacity of the subgrade is not exceeded.PAVEMENT STRUCTURE • Components usually include the subgrade. • The materials used in the base must be of high quality .

as: • A structural member (layer) of pavement (lower quality than road base but stronger than subgrade) • A drainage layer and to control the capillary rise D15 subbase > D15 subgrade 4.a platform for construction traffic . D15 subbase < D85 subgrade 4 • A service layer.The Subbase Can be considered as an extension of the road base Its essence depends on the intended function.to prevent infiltration of s/g material into the pavnt str. .a cut-off blanket to prevent moisture migrating upward from the subgrade . as .

Specifications for Base and Subbase Materials
Sieve (mm) 50 25.0 9.5 4.75 2.00 0.425 0.075 Grading; Percent passing by wt Gr. A Gr. B Gr. C Gr. D Gr. E Gr. F 100 100 75-95 100 100 100 100 30-65 40-75 50-85 60-100 25-55 30-60 35-65 50-85 55-100 70-100 15-40 20-45 25-50 40-70 40-100 55-100 8-20 15-30 15-30 25-45 20-50 30-70 2-8 5-20 5-15 5-20 6-20 8-25

Coarse aggreg. – Not over 50% Los Angeles Abrasion Value Amount passing 0.075 shall be no more than 2/3 of passing 0.425 Fraction passing 0.425mm: Max. LL =26, Max. PI = 6

MACADAM SYSTEM OF PAVENT CONSTR.
• Developed 1783-1826 by John Laudon Mac Adam • The foundation (subgrade) is shaped and compacted to the intended surface camber, thereby giving: - good side drainage to the foundation - uniform construction thickness • Can easily be brought to a highly stable state, resulting in minimal deformation in pvmnt under traffic load • Uses crushed rock/stone, crushed gravel or crushed slag for aggregate materials • Stability mechanism rely on interlocking and friction • Types: dry- & water-bound, crusher-run, bituminous coated macadams

3.0 BITUMINOUS MATERIALS
3.1 INTRODUCTION • Also known as Asphaltic Materials.
• Are materials that contain bitumen (US: asphalt), resemble bitumen, or constitute a source of bitumen. • They include bitumen (asphalt) and tar binders.

Bitumen (Asphalt)
A solid or semi-solid (viscous) material, black or dark-brown in colour, having adhesive properties (cementitious), and consisting essentially of hydrocarbons, derived from petroleum or occurring in natural asphalt deposits, and soluble in carbon disulphide, CS2.

Tar
A viscous liquid, black in colour, with adhesive properties, obtained by destructive distillation of coal or wood. In H/E we mostly refer to tar derived from bituminous coal.

g. or rock asphalt in sandstone or limestone) Petroleum Asphalt Also known as refinery asphalts. It is produced by industrial (fractional) distillation of crude petroleum (crude oil) It is the heaviest fraction and the one with the highest boiling point. in Trinidad lake. . etc.NB: Tar can also be obtained from petroleum by chemical treatment (cracking). not physical processes such as fractional distillation used for production of bitumen (asphalt) Bitumen (Asphalt) .Two main categories: Natural asphalt & Petroleum asphalt Natural Asphalt Occurs naturally in natural deposits (as native asphalt e. boiling at 525 °C (977 °F).

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3.3 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES • Those which directly affect the performance of asphalt in a mixture while being mixed. • Challenge: To develop physical tests that satisfactorily characterize key asphalt binder parameters and how they change throughout the lifetime of a mix. • Asphalt is a rheological material → Its stress-strain characteristics are time-dependent • Asphalt is a thermoplastic material → Its stiffness (or consistency) varies with temperature → Physical properties of asphalt are time and temperature dependent . laid and in service.

.3.High asphalt stiffness → fatigue cracking Thus: Comparison of diff binders must be done at some common reference temperature Characterizing asphalt binder properties should involve examining rheological properties over the range of temp that may be encountered in its lifetime.1 RHEOLOGY • Study of deformation and flow of matter • Important in determining physical properties of asphalt • HMA deformation closely related to rheology of asphalt →Rheology determines performance of HMA pavement • Example: .High HMA deformations and flow → rutting and bleeding .3.

1 = 80) .Assumption: same penetration deform similarly NB: Based on field performance. no relation with test parameter .Pen units expressed in 0.g. of weight (100g). 1.Rheological Properties (Consistency parameters) Measure of hardness or degree of fluidity.1 mm (e. 8 mm → 8/0. Penetration Test (AASHTO T49. ASTM D5) Penetration depth of a standard needle under specified cond. time (5 sec) and temperature (25°C) ..

The harder an asphalt cement.Asphalt of lower pen grades are used at bus-stops or parking places where traffic stresses are very high.The values represent the min & the max pen for each pen grade .Two common grades are 60-70 (for hot regions) and 85-100 (for cold regions) .Asphalt Penetration cont… . 120-150. the lower will be its penetration & vice versa .It is an empirical parameter used in grading asphalt . 85-100. 60-70. 200-300 . . penetration grades exist: 40-50.Five stand.

falls through h = 25 mm (touches the base plate) • The harder an asphalt. Softening Point • Also known as the “ring and ball” softening point. enveloped in binder.2. . many asphalt types have a penetration of 800 (= 80 mm). at which asphalt change from solid to liquid • At this temp. asphalt can no longer support the weight of a 3.. • The ball. • Temp. the higher is its softening point • At the softening temp.5g steel ball.

. to viscosity of asphalt in HMA pvmnt during hot summer (most critical state in service) • Visc. approx. • Asphalt viscosity measured at two temp. at 135°C is called kinematic viscosity [centistokes] • At this temp. • It is a fundamental property of fluid (asphalt). asphalt is sufficiently fluid to flow under gravitational forces alone. approx.VISCOSITY (KINEMATIC AND ABSOLUTE) • Viscosity measures resistance to flow at a given temp. whereas penetration and softening point are empirical tests. • Corresp. to viscosity of asphalt at mixing and laydown conditions.:60°C &135°C • Viscosity at 60°C is called absolute viscosity [poise] • Corresp.

Absolute Viscosity • Also known as dynamic viscosity • Measured at 60°C. using a vacuum viscometer. μ = τ/γ Where: μ = viscosity [poise = g/cm-sec].3. NB poise = Pa-sec/m2 τ = shear stress γ = rate of shear (= dγ/dt) .

4. flow under gravity Measures time to flow between two timing marks . Kinematic Viscosity • • • • • Kinematic viscosity = absolute viscosity/density Measured at 135°C to simulate the mixing process The cross-arm (capillary tube) viscometer is used A constant head is maintained.

5. Ductility Test
• Test involves stretching a standard-sized asphalt briquette (dumbbell) to its breaking point. • The sample under water at 25°C is stretched at 50mm/min until it breaks. • The distance at rapture, in cm, is reported as ductility.

6. Rotational (brookfield) Viscometer (RV) test
Will be discussed in the Superpave Mix Design chapter.

3.3.2 DURABILITY (AGING) TESTS
• Short-term aging → During the mixing process • Long-term aging → After pvmt construction due to environmental exposure and loading • No direct measure for binder aging (age-hardening) • Aging effects accounted for by subjecting asphalt binder to simulated aging, then conducting other standard physical tests to evaluate the changes • Durability tests include: 1. Thin-film oven test (TFO) – NEXT SLIDE 2. Rolling thin-film oven test (RTFO)→Not covered 3. Pressure aging vessel test (PAV)→ Not covered

1) Thin-film Oven (TFO) Test
• Determines the effect of heat and air on a thin film of a bituminous material. • Indicates changes in asphalt properties during conventional mixing; the residue approximates binder condition in newly constructed pavement • A thin film of asphalt heated in oven at 163°C for 5 hrs • Changes in other properties – penetration, viscosity & ductility expressed as a %ge of the original values. - Retained penetration = Penetration of aged sample * 100%
Penetration of original sample

- Aging index

=

Viscosity of aged sample * 100% Viscosity of original sample

3. • Recommended safe temp for Pen-grade ~ 245-335°C • Flash Point is the lowest temp at which the vapour from (heated) asphalt is ignited by an open flame • Fire Point is the lowest temp at which asphalt continues to burn without further heat supply.3 Safety Tests • Measure temperature at which asphalt materials will burst or flash into flames • Working temperatures must be controlled (kept below Flash Point by ~ 50°F) for safety purposes.Pensky Martin Flash Point test .Cleveland Open Cup (Flash and Fire Point test) .3.Tag Open Cup test and . • Safety tests include: .

Safety Tests cont…

3.3.4 TEMPERATURE SUSCEPTIBILITY • Refers to the rate at which consistency of asphalt changes with changes in temperature. • Consistency is measured by penetration and viscosity • Two common parameters for temp susceptibility are the Penetration Index (PI) and PenetrationViscosity number (PVN) • The Penetration Index (PI) only will be discussed

1. Penetration Index (PI) • If logarithm of penetration, log(Pen), is plotted against temperature (T), a straight line is obtained; thus: log(Pen) = A*T + k where A (= slope) shows the temp susceptibility of the asphalt, k is a constant. Thus: A = log(PenT1)-log(PenT2) T1 - T2 Then, Penetration Index (PI) PI = (20-500A)/(1+50A) NB: The lower the PI value, the higher the temp susceptibility. For paving asphalts, PI = +1 to -1

Penetration Index (PI) cont… • Considering the “Ring-and-Ball” softening point (TR&B.25°C Or.PI)/[50(10+PI)] Substituting in equation above: (20-PI)/(10+PI) = 50* log(800)-log(PenT) TR&B – T . at any temperature T: A = log(800)-log(PenT) TR&B – T From equation for PI: A = (20 . where penetration ≈ 800) and penetration at 25°C: • A can be determined (and hence PI) from: A = log(800)-log(Pen25°C) TR&B .

Temperature susceptibility for different asphalts .

) heating • Two products are common . • May be liquefied so they can be used without necessity of (or with min.Cutback asphalts (cutback bitumen or cutbacks) .4 LIQUEFIED ASPHALTS • Normal (Pen-grade) asphalts exist as semisolids (highly viscous) at room temp.3.Asphalt emulsions (bituminous emulsions or emulsified asphalt/bitumen) .

• Manufacturing involves passing hot asphalt and water containing emulsifying agent under pressure through a colloid mill to produce extremely small (< 5-10 μm) globules or droplets of asphalt suspended in water .1 Asphalt Emulsions • Liquefied asphalt obtained by dispersion of asphalt globules in water (containing emulsifying agent/stabilizer).4.3.

and siliceous gravel) are negatively charged → compatible with cationic emulsions • Aggregates of limestones. (sandstone. are positively charged and are therefore compatible with anionic emulsions . etc.Cationic emulsion (electro-positively charged). or . asphalt emulsions may be categorized as: . dolomite.Anionic emulsion (electro-negatively charged) • Most siliceous aggreg. quartz.Asphalt Emulsion cont… • Emulsifiers are additives used to promote dispersion and stability of asphalt-water mixture (w/out segregation) NB: Asphalt is an organic material → does not mix with H2O Emulsifying agent imparts an electric charge to surface of asphalt globules → globules repel one another (dispersed) • On the basis of the type of electric charge.

Rapid setting (RS) . temp). RH. • Depending on the rate of setting or breaking. surface chemistry of aggregates.Medium setting (MS). rate of evaporation of water (wind. . porosity of aggr. or .Slow setting (SS) • Depends on composition of emulsion. emulsion may be classified as: .Classification of Asphalt Emulsions Setting/breaking of emulsions: • Evaporation of emulsion water leads to formation of a continuous film of asphalt on the surface of aggregates (coalescing).

viscosity at 60°C (cSt) . 800 and 3000 • The number gives the min. 250.g.4. RC) – 70. • Highly-volatile cutter (e. diesel or gasoil) gives “Slow Curing (SC)” cutter • Common cutback grades are MC-30 and (RC. naphtha or gasoline) gives a “Rapid Curing (RC)” cutback • Medium-volatile cutter (e. MC.2 Cutback Asphalts • Obtained when an asphalt is liquefied by dissolution in an organic solvent (called cutter) • Curing of cutback-aggregate mixtures occurs by evaporation of the cutter from the cutback.g.3.g. kerosene) gives “Medium Curing (MC)” cutback • Low-volatile cutter (e.

Emulsions (ASTM D-244) Distillation of Emulsions Distillation of Cutbacks .fugitive petrolenes and residual asphaltic bitumens • Can be done on liquid asphalt as well as emulsions .Cutbacks (ASTM D-402) .5 Distillation of Asphalts • For separation into components:.3.

Cold Mix Asphalt – cutback or emulsion mixed with aggreg.4. (iv) Surface treatment (slurry seals.Penetration Method – heated asphalt sprayed over and allowed to penetrate compacted crushed aggregates .0 ASPHALT MIX TYPES AND DESIGN • Types of asphalt mixes for pavements include . . and laid at ambient temperature. dressing).Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) – heated asphalt + heated aggreg. (v) Bituminous macadam. (ii) Rolled asphalt.Inverted Penetration Method – spreading asphalt binder over the roadway surface and laying selected aggregates to penetrate the asphalt. . (vi) Penetration macadam . (iii) Mastic asphalt. • Asphalt mixes so produced include (i) Asphalt concrete (AC).

They have higher air voids than AC 5. thoroughly controlled mixture of hot asphalt binder and hot mineral aggregates 2. tack coats etc . Mastic Asphalt: A mortar type of bituminous mix usually cast into blocks. Asphalt Concrete: A high quality. 4. etc. These mixes are more flexible and durable than asphalt concrete 3. Bitumen Macadams: They contain coarsely graded mineral aggregates coated with asphalt in premix plants. to prevent attrition of aggregates.Principal Bituminous Mix Types 1. Rolled Asphalt: A high quality mortar type produced using fine aggregate and penetration grade asphalt. surface dressing. Penetration Macadams: Produced by spraying heated. Surface Treatments: Inc. For crack sealing. with 14-17% hard asphalt binder (10-25 pen). dissolved or emulsified asphalt over compacted crushed aggregate in-situ. 6.

5.1 Types of Bituminous Surfacing .

OTTA SEAL CONSTR. Spreading of aggregate over cutback asphalt spray Rolling with pneumatic Rollers in Otta seal construction .

4. can sustain very heavy traffic loads (roads & airfields) . (iv) Fatigue resistance.1 ASPHALT CONCRETE • Produced by the HMA method • Primarily used for construction of flexible pavements • Very strong paving material. (vi) Impermeability. (vii) Workability .structural strength to pvmt • May be designed as “open-graded” or “dense-graded” • Large-stone open-graded mixtures are more suitable for supporting heavy truck traffic • Important (required) properties of AC: (i) Stability. (iii) Flexibility. (v) Skid resistance. (ii) Durability.

Depends on cohesion of binder and internal friction of mineral aggregate . Weather → oxidation (age-hardening) .Associated with low asphalt contents. dense aggreg gradation & well compacted impervious mixtures .Insufficient stability leads to rutting and corrugations 2) Durability: .Resistance of AC to disintegration by weathering and traffic.Required Properties of AC 1) Stability: .Resistance to deformation due to applied load .Controlled by thickness of asphalt film around aggr . dense aggregate gradations and well-compacted impervious mixtures .Enhanced by high AC contents.

Controlled by aggregate physical characteristics (texture.Dense-graded mixtures offer higher fatigue resist. 5) Skid resistance . low asphalt content & open-graded aggregate . localized/differential settlements) without cracking . shape & resistance to polish) .Ability of AC to conform to base deformations (e.g.3) Flexibility .Also.Resistance to pavement failure due to repeated traffic loading (failure in form of alligator cracking) .Enhanced by high asphalt contents and relatively open-graded aggregates 4) Fatigue resistance .

Improves pavement durability and stability .6) Impermeability . dense gradation and sufficient compaction (→ imperviousness) 7) Workability .Resistance to penetration of water and air .Factors that promote high stability cause workability problems (→ a compromise required) 8) Others include “Resistance to temperature cracking” and “Resistance to stripping” .Facilitated by high asphalt content.Ease of AC placement and compaction (with reasonable effort) .

Workability X X X X X .MIX PROPERTY Bitumen content High Low X X X X X X X Aggregate gradation Dense Open X X X X X X X Air Voids (in compacted mix) High Low X X Stability Durability Flexibility Fatigue resist Skid resist. Impermeab.

2 ASPHALT MIX DESIGN • Two primary properties desirable in design of asphalt concrete mixtures are stability and durability (i.e. Sufficient asphalt binder to ensure a durable pavmnt 2.& skid resistance . Sufficient workability to facilitate proper compaction Addit. fatigue. Sufficient mix stability to serve without distortion or displacement at the anticipated traffic load 3. requirements: Flexibility.4. getting a stable AC mix that is durable) • • Additional factors are also economy and workability Aim is therefore to find an economical gradation and blend of aggregate and asphalt that will yield a mix having: 1. Sufficient voids in the compacted mix to avoid bleeding 4.

1 MARSHALL MIX DESIGN • Developed by Bruce Marshall in the US • Aims at obtaining a dense mix of high stability but with adequate void content to allow sufficient binder content for good durability and flexibility • Standardized in ASTM D1559 and AASHTO T245 • Standard procedure involves: (i)Prep. Ф ≈ 101. determined by the traffic levels Traffic level Light Heavy (ESAL < 104) (ESAL > 106) Medium (ESAL = 104-106) Number of blows/face 35 50 75 .5 mm. of test specimens.heating.4.5 mm . mixing and compacting in mould .2.both faces of sample receives same number of compaction blows. h ≈ 63. drying.

They are compressed in the Marshall test machine (rate 51mm/min) for determination of Stability and Flow NB: Stability is the max load resistance (kN) that the test specimen will develop at 60ºC in the Marshall test.Marshal Mix Design cont… (ii) Bulk density test Determined on compacted cooled specimens by the water displacement method. with a thin coat of paraffin wax on it (iii) Stability and flow test Specimens are conditioned for 30-40 min in water bath at 60ºC. :Flow is the total deformation (in 0.25 mm units) of the specimen at failure when subjected to compression in the Marshall stability test .

Marshall Mix Design Test Set-up .

asphalt) (v) Interpretation of test results The obtained data are used to prepare plots which are used to determine the optimum binder content (vi) Determination of the optimum binder content The content that fulfills the requirements . namely: VMA = Voids in Mineral Aggregates VTM = (Air) Voids in Total Mix VFB = Voids Filled with Binder (also VFA .This involves determination of voids using known and computed density (specific gravity) values .Three types of voids are considered.Marshal Mix Design cont… (iv) Density-voids analysis .

• Mineral aggregates are porous. • For Marshall mix design. Bulk Specific Gravity.000 g/cm3 Bulk Volume = solid volume + water permeable voids “SSD” Level water permeable voids . Gsb = Aggregate Density-Voids Analysis Dry Mass Bulk Vol 1. Gsb • This includes the volume of the water permeable voids in the aggregate (often termed the “”saturated surface dry” or SSD volume of the aggregate. can absorb water and asphalt to a var. we consider Bulk SG and Effective SG 1. degree.

2. Gse = Solid Aggr Particle Dry Mass Eff Vol 1. Effective Specific Gravity.000 g/cm3 Effective Volume = volume of solid aggr particle + volume of water permeable pores not filled with asphalt volume of water permeable pores not filled with asphalt effective asphalt binder . Gse • Includes the volume of the water permeable voids in the aggregate that cannot be reached by the asphalt.

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IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS 1. expressed as a percentage of the bulk volume of the compacted mixture VTM = (Va/Vm)* 100% 2. Effective asphalt binder (volume) (Vbe) The volume of total asphalt (content) minus the portion of asphalt ‘lost’ by absorption into the aggregate particles Vbe = Vb – Vba NB: BA Pba = (Mba/Mg)*100% . Voids in Total compacted Mix (VTM) Total volume of the small pockets of air existing between the coated aggregate particles in a compacted asphalt paving mixture. Asphalt binder content (Pb) Pb = (Mb/Mm)* 100% 3.

voids in mineral aggregate minus voids in the compacted total mix.IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS cont… 4. Volume Filled with Binder (VFB) The percentage of the voids in the mineral aggregates (VMA) that is ‘occupied’ by the effective asphalt binder (i. expressed as a percent of total volume of the mixture specimen VMA = [(Va + Vbe) / Vm] *100% 5.e. expressed as a percent of the voids in mineral aggregates) VFB = (Vbe/VMA)*100% = [(VMA-VTM)/VMA] * 100% . Voids in Mineral Aggregate (VMA) The volume of inter-granular void space between the aggregate particles of compacted paving mixture that includes the air voids (VTM) and effective asphalt binder content (Pbe).

Vba) + Va 3) ρmb = Mm/Vm .Vba 8) Va = Vm . unit volume .(Vg + Vbe) = 1 . cons. Vba = Mba/ ρba = Mba/(Gb* ρw) 7) Vbe = Vb . (Gm = ρmb/ ρw) 4) Vgb = Mg/ ρgb = Mg/(Ggb*ρw) 5) Mb = Pb * Mm .SUMMARY OF RELATIONSHIPS 1) 2) Mm = Mb + Mg = Mbe + Mba + Mg Vm = Vg + Vbe + Va = Vg + (Vb . Vb = Mb/ρb = Mb/(Gb* ρw) 6) Mba = Pba * Mg .(Vg + Vbe).

SUMMARY OF RELATIONSHIPS cont… 9) VTM = (Va/Vm)*100% = (Va/1)*100% if Vm = 1 m3 = (Vbe+Va)*100% 10) VMA = [(Vbe + Va)/Vm] *100% 11) VFB = [Vbe/(Vbe+Va)] *100% = [(VMA-VTM)/VMA] *100% NB: Theoretical maximum density (spec. Gmm): Imaginary density that would result if the specimen had been compacted so that there were no voids in the aggregatebinder mixture (i.e. VTM = 0%) Gmm = Mm/(Vbe+Vg) = Mm/[(Mb/Gb) + (Mg/Gge)] = 100/[(Pb/Gb) + (Pg/Gge)] . Va = 0. gravity.

8%. If the specific gravities of aggregates and asphalt binder are 2. a binder content. Pb of 5.142 = 2298 kg Mba = Pba * Mg = 0.Marshall Mix Design .67 and 1.008 * 2298 = 18 kg Mbe = Mb .Mb = 2440 .EXAMPLE An asphalt concrete mix has a bulk density of 2440kg/m3.Mba = 142 – 18 = 124 kg . VMA and VFB SOLUTION: Considering 1 m3 of AC mixture: Mm = ρm *1 = 2440 kg Mb = Pb * Mm = 0.058 * 2440 = 142 kg Mg = Mm .8% and aggregate binder absorption of 0. find the AV (VTM).03 respectively.

120 m3 Va = Vm – (Vgb + Vbe) = 1 – (0.019 m3 Therefore: VTM = (Va/Vm) * 100% = (0.019+0.019 + 0.861 – 0.5% .120)]*100% = 89.120/(0.9% VMA = [(Va+Vbe)/Vm]*100% = [(0.861 m3 Vbe = Mbe/(Gb * ρw) = 124/(1.SOLUTION cont… Vg = Mg/(Ggb * ρw) = 2298/(2.120)/1]*100% = 13.9% VFB = [Vbe/(Va+Vbe)]*100% = [0.03 * 1000) = 0.120) = 0.019/1)*100% = 1.67 * 1000) = 0.

ALTERNATIVE USEFUL FORMULAS P + P2 + P3 G = 1 P P2 P3 1 + + G1 G2 G3 Gmm Pmm = 100 − Pb Pb + G se Gb ⎡ (100 − Pb ) ⎤ VMA = 100⎢1 − Gmb ⎥ 100G sb ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ VTM ⎤ VFA = 100 ⎢1 − VMA ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ Gmb ⎤ VTM = 100⎢1 − ⎥ ⎣ Gmm ⎦ .

G se − G sb Pba = 100 Gb G se G sb Pmm − Pb Gse = Pmm Pb − G MM G B Pb − β Pbe = 100 100 − β Pba (100 − Pb ) β= 100 .ALTERNATIVE USEFUL FORMULAS cont..

Material Asphalt cement Coarse aggregate Fine aggregate Mineral filler Specific gravity 1.40 52.35 33. and d) the percent voids in the mineral aggregate.69 Mix composition by weight of total mix 6.45 7.80 . c) the effective asphalt content of the paving mixture.EXAMPLE 2 (HOMEWORK) The table below lists data used in obtaining a mix design for an asphaltic concrete paving mixture.51 2.02 2. If the maximum specific gravity of the mixture is 2. b) the absorbed asphalt.35.74 2.41 and the bulk specific gravity is 2. determine: a) the bulk specific gravity of aggregates in the paving mixture.

VTM • Binder content vs. Density • Binder content vs. VMA • Binder content vs.INTERPRETATION OF DATA From the test results. VFB . prepare the following plots: • Binder content vs. Corrected Marshall Stability • Binder content vs. Marshall Flow • Binder content vs.

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DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM ASPHALT CONTENT Two methods available: • The Asphalt Institute’s Method • The NAPA Method (National Asphalt Paving Association) 1.maximum stability .mid-point of specified air voids range (e. The Asphalt Institute’s Method (a) Determine the asphalt content at: .maximum density . 4 for 3-5) Find the average of the three values obtained .g.

If any of the values fails to meet the specifications. VMA and VFB (c) Compare the values of the above parameters obtained from the plots with the specification values or limits (next slide). Air voids (VTM). determine Stability. . the mixture should be redesigned. otherwise the mix formulation is accepted .(b) In the respective plots and at average asphalt content (from (a)). Flow.

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VMA and VFB (c) Compare the values of each of the above parameters against the specifications or limits (tables). Flow. The NAPA Method Emphasis is placed on the air voids in the total mix. VTM (a) Determine the asphalt content corresponding to the median of the specifications air voids content (usually 4%). Take this value as the tentative optimum asphalt content.2. then the tentative asphalt content is adopted. otherwise redesign the mixture . If all are within the requirements. then: (b) Determine the values of the following parameters (from the plots) at the tentative asphalt content: Marshall stability.

This is selected at the final stage of the laboratory design as the mix that was most economical and give the most satisfactory results OPTIMALITY .SELECTION OF THE JOB FORMULA The Job Mix Formula is the gradation and the asphalt content which satisfy all specification requirements and upon which plant mixtures are to be produced for the construction.

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