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You are on page 1of 8

Measurements

Chapter Four

the actual value of the entity being measured.

• Measurements are precise if they differ from one another by a small

amount.

• What can you say about the causes relating to each type?

Measured Value

Measured

Value = ƒ(TV + Ac + Rep + Rpr)

TV = true value

Ac = gauge accuracy

Rpr = gauge reproducibility

• Equipment or gage

o Type of gage

Attribute: go-no go, vision systems

(part present or not present)

Variable: calipers, probe, coordinate measurement machines

o Unit of measurement - usually at least 1/10 of tolerance

• Operator and operating instructions

Measurement error

measured and the true value.

• Systematic variation

o Accuracy - improper calibration

o Reproducibility - different persons using same equipment with

different techniques

• Periodic variation

o Stability - wear, deterioration, environment

• Random variation

o Repeatability (unable to locate part to be measured)

• Accuracy

• Stability

• Reproducibility

• Repeatability

Accuracy

observed average.

measuring tool)

True average

Observed

average

Accuracy or

mean bias

Stability

Time 1

Time 2

measurements obtained with a gage over time.

Stability

Reproducibility

Operator B

Operator A

Operator C

True Average

operators using the same gage measuring the same part.

Repeatability

uses the same gage to measure the same part several times.

True Average

Observed Average

Repeatability

• Reproducibility

o operator training, or

o more clearly define measurement scale available to the operator

• Repeatability

o gage maintenance

o gage redesign to better fit application

Reproducibility

R&R, GR&R, or gauge R & R is a concept to insure stabile

measurements where a single person gets the exact same results each

and every time they measure and/or collect data measurements. This

can be necessary to ensure data consistency and stability. There are

different ways to perform this. The following is an abbreviated

explanation using the method recommended by the AIAG, (Automotive

Industry Action Group). It is used in most quality plans including six

sigma and ISO9000.

process variation for the total measurement system and its component's

repeatability, reproducibility and part to part variations. The formulas to

do this analysis and the proper sequence to follow is below.

Repeatability

EV = Equipment Variation

r = 4.56 for 2 trials, 3.05 for 3 trials

Reproducibility

AV = Appraiser Variation

k = 3.65 for 2 appraisers, 2.7 for 3 appraisers

Part Variation

PV = Part Variation

Rp = Range of part averages

j= Depends on number of parts

Part 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

j 3.65 2.7 2.3 2.08 1.93 1.82 1.74 1.67 1.62

Total Variation

TV = Total Variation

%EV = 100(EV/TV)

%AV = 100(AV/TV)

%R&R = 100(R&R/TV)

%PV = 100(PV/TV)

Guidelines for acceptable results are...

10%- May be satisfactory. Depends on the magnitude of the use, cost

30% of new gauges, cost of repairs, etc.

> 30% Unsatisfactory. Take corrective action.

or gage to obtain the same measurement reading every time the measurement process is

undertaken for the same characteristic or parameter. In other words, GR&R indicates the

consistency and stability of a measuring equipment. The ability of a measuring device to provide

consistent measurement data is important in the control of any process.

Mathematically, GR&R is actually a measure of the variation of a gage's measurement, and not

of its stability. An engineer must therefore strive to minimize the GR&R numbers of his or her

measuring equipment, since a high GR&R number indicates instability and is thus undesirable.

As its name implies, GR&R (or simply 'R&R') has two major components, namely, repeatability

and reproducibility. Repeatability is the ability of the same gage to give consistent measurement

readings no matter how many times the same operator of the gage repeats the measurement

process. Reproducibility, on the other hand, is the ability of the same gage to give consistent

measurement readings regardless of who performs the measurements. The evaluation of a

gage's reproducibility, therefore, requires measurement readings to be acquired by different

operators under the same conditions.

Of course, in the real world, there are no existing gages or measuring devices that give exactly

the same measurement readings all the time for the same parameter. There are five (5) major

elements of a measurement system, all of which contribute to the variability of a measurement

process: 1) the standard; 2) the workpiece; 3) the instrument; 4) the people; and 5) the

environment.

All of these factors affect the measurement reading acquired during each measurement cycle,

although to varying degrees. Measurement errors, therefore, can only be minimized if the errors

or variations contributed individually by each of these factors can also be minimized. Still, the

gage is at the center of any measurement process, so its proper design and usage must be

ensured to optimize its repeatability and reproducibility.

There are various ways by which the R&R of an instrument may be assessed, one of which is

outlined below. This method, which is based on the method recommended by the Automotive

Industry Action Group (AIAG), first computes for variations due to the measuring equipment and

its operators. The over-all GR&R is then computed from these component variations.

calculated from measurement data obtained by the same operator from several cycles of

measurements, or trials, using the same equipment. Appraiser Variation or AV, represents the

reproducibility of the measurement process. It is calculated from measurement data obtained by

different operators or appraisers using the same equipment under the same conditions. The

R&R, is just the combined effect of EV and AV.

It must be noted that measurement variations are caused not just by EV and AV, but by Part

Variation as well, or PV. PV represents the effect of the variation of parts being measured on the

measurement process, and is calculated from measurement data obtained from several parts.

Thus, the Total Variation (TV), or the over-all variation exhibited by the measurement system,

consists of the effects of both R&R and PV. TV is equal to the square root of the sum of (R&R)2

and (PV)2 square, i.e.,

TV = √ (R&R)2 + PV2.

In a GR&R report, the final results are often expressed as %EV, %AV, %R&R, and %PV, which

are simply the ratios of EV, AV, R&R, and PV to TV expressed in %. Thus,

%EV=(EV/TV)x100%; %AV=(AV/TV)x100%; %R&R=(R&R/TV)x100%; and

%PV=(PV/TV)x100%. The gage is good if its %R&R is less than 10%. A %R&R between 10%

to 30% may also be acceptable, depending on what it would take to improve the R&R. A %R&R

of more than 30%, however, should prompt the process owner to investigate how the R&R of the

gage can be further improved

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