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As an MBA in an organization perception study is necessary to understand employees activates. Perception can be process of interpreting information about another person or another organization. It is our sensory experience and by it we evaluate thought, behaviour, organization and a situation in initial stage of our thought. Kelly¶s Attribution Theory: it shows that attribution is a perceptual process. Kelly has proposed attribution theory, ³Individuals make attribution based on information gathered in the form f three informational cues±consensus, distinctiveness and consistency.´ Theoreticians proposed that attributions can be affected by two very common errors ± fundamental attribution error and self-serving bias. In these two attribution errors can be cultural errors. In the last we can say perception can be defined as personal primary sensory to evaluate a person, organization and situations. Gestalt Theory A group of early experimental psychologists known as Gestalt psychologists believed that perceptions are more than the stimuli that create them. By more is meant that a meaningful, whole pattern is created by the stimuli (that is, the total is more than the sum of its parts). These psychologists developed the idea, the principle of Prägnanz, that stimuli can be grouped and seen as a whole. These psychologists believed that the innate, organizing tendencies of the brain would explain organization functions in perception, including many optical illusions, for example, the phi phenomenon and certain figure-ground relationships. y The phi phenomenon occurs when you see two adjacent lights alternately blinking off and on and perceive them as one light moving back and forth. This phi phenomenon illusion is frequently used in signs to suggest movement. y Figure (object)-ground (background) relationships are important in Gestalt theory, which suggests that perceptions are organized to produce a figure-ground effect. One tends to see objects against backgrounds rather than to view each separately. However, when instructed, one may reverse the relationship and see the object as background and vice versa. In the famous figure-ground illustration shown in Figure 1 , do you see a goblet or the profile of two faces?
Figure 1-A Figure-Ground Illustration Attribution: Internal and External perception Attribution Biases Perception process moves from selecting, starting and end on interpreting information. Factors which influence perception are: perceiver, Object or being perceived and in the context of the situation in which the perception is made. Barriers to perception are like burdensome whatever others want to perceiving and interpreting. ³Attribution refers to how a person explains the cause of another¶s or his or her own behaviour.´ Internal attributions: This is something within the individual¶s control. External Attributions: it means something is outside the individual¶s control.
Selection of stimuli is not made at random. There are three ways by which the selected data i.What is perceptual process? The perceptual process is sequence of steps that begins with the environment and leads to our perception of a stimulus and an action in response to the stimulus. Through the sensory organs. . these need to be organised in some form so as to assign some meaning to them. namely. which will be received from various sources. Hence. These are discussed in some detail below. INTERPRETATION The data collected and organised remain meaningless for the perceiver till these are assigned meanings. people selectively perceive objects or things. we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. Perception not only creates our experience of the world around us. and situation. interpretation of data forms one of the most important elements in the entire perceptual process. person perceived etc. Our eyes. we see things. cold receptors and touch receptors all send signals to the brain. The most important ones are halo effect.e. tongue tastes. the reception of stimuli is a physiological aspect of the perception process. but depending on the two types of factors. organising the bits of information in to a meaningful whole is called "ORGANISATION". attribution..ears. desires. It also includes our resulting action to the original stimulus. This is also called as the SELECTIVE PERCEPTION. nose smells. Several factors influence interpretation. All the workers having similarity in certain aspects may be perceived to have similar opinion about their supervisor or boss. 3. FACTORS AFFECTING PERCEPTION Factors that influence perception relate to the perceiver. Grouping is based on similarity principal. and the internal factors. SELECTION OF STIMULI People arc bombarded by a number of stimuli everyday. They cannot absorb or assimilate what they observe or receive them from the environment all at a time. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS It consists of the following stages:1. personality. The cognitive process within the brain then comes up with the decision to go back inside and pick up a coat and an umbrella before we set out again. which interest them most in a particular situation and avoid those for which they are ineffective. which works out that its raining. This is ourresponse to the stimulus. they select some stimuli for further processing to attach meaning to them while the rest are screened. INTERNAL FACTORS These factors reside in the person concerned. inputs are organised. In this way. hear sound. Assigning meanings to data is called interpretation. personality. The perceptual process is a sequence of steps that starts with the stimuli that happen in our surroundings and leads through nerve transmission through peripheral and central nerves and the brain to our perception of what is going on.. Stimuli may be external to us such as sound waves or inside of us such as energy generation by muscles. 2)Closure. 2. and experience. They include a person's needs. So.g. external factors. RECEIVING STIMULI The perception process begins with the reception of stimuli. The tendency to form a complete meaning from an incomplete one is known as closure. data collected and organised do not make any sense without interpretation. and touch things. and 3) Simplification.As regards simplification. Through the perceptual process. it allows us to act within our environment. Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. They are 1) Grouping. For e. Thus. situation. ORGANISATION OF STIMULI Having selected the stimuli or data. Strictly speaking. 1. Normally. All these factors are of two kinds 1) Internal or endogenous factors. the perceptual process involved when we go outside from a room with no windows on a rainy day is that the simulus from the environment . when people find themselves overloaded with information they try to simplify it to make it more meaningful and 4. stereotyping. perceived. Thus.is recognised by our senses. and 2) External or Exogenous factors.the fact that it is raining and cold and we are getting wet .
Following are the important ones that can help improve one's perception. Therefore. it develops a sense of self-esteem. one should improve to know more about oneself. . and status etc. 3. in many cases. and even turnover. frequency. In such case. 4. effective communication needs to be developed to ensure that the true and right message reaches the right place at the right time. colleagues. the level of an employee's performance is given high importance. Looking at a problem from other's point of view enables the person to perceive the other side of the problem. the managers need to overcome their personal bias. EMPLOYEE EFFORT Since many organisations. EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW Different interviewers try to see different things in the same candidate differently. has important effect on organisations. Interviewers form early Impressions about the candidate. there will be problems of increased alienation of employee. frank and open communication with others and mutual trust are some commonly adopted practices for perceiving more accurately. In case there is a big gap between the expectations and realities. attribution etc distort a person's perception about things or problems. a salesman's performance can be assessed based S on how many rupees of sales he generated in his territory during a given period of time. 1. BE EMPATHET1C Empathy means to be able to see a situation as it is perceived by other people. many employees jobs are evaluated subjectively. these become judgmental. A few of these are obvious. This will enable to know the problem in a better perspective. IMPROVING ONE'S SELF CONCEPT When people successfully accomplish what they want. Judgement will become susceptible to distortion. AVOIDINGPERCEPTUAL DISTORTION Some factors like the halo effect. IMPROVING PERCEPTION Perception can be improved b y making various attempts. Promotions pay rises.g. sincere and continuous efforts should be made to guard oneself against such biases. Therefore. and thus arrive at differen perceptions. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Assessment of an employee's performance very much depends on the perception of the evaluator about the employee. EXTERNAL FACTORS These factors relate to what is being perceived and the situation. Hence. which ultimately weighs more in the selection Therefore. it is like putting your feet in another's shoes. interviewers must be given adequate training in the skills of interviewing. 6. intensity. absenteeism. 2.. 2. superior officers and executives closely tie an employee's future to his performance and its appraisal. 4. the candidate can be seen perceived by another interviewer as no goo for the job.2. an employee's future in an organisation depends upon his effort made for achieving the organisational goals. Hence. It becomes objective when performance can be sufficiently quantified. In a way. For e. It also indicates that correct perception about on self helps perceive others also more accurately. PERCEPTION AND ITS APPLICATION IN ORGANISATIONS The perception. 3.. 5. get rid of any negative feelings about others. Who one thinks is a good candidate. Frequent interactions with peers. PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION New employees during their selection process acquire a set of expectations booth about the organisation and about the job. Performance Appraisal is both objective and subjective. COMMUNICATING OPENLY Experience suggests that sometimes perception gets distorted due to communication gap and inadequate communication. m practice. These are size. PERCEIVING ONESELF ACCURATELY That is to say. It might affect the performance appraisal process. stereotyping. However. and continuation of job is the most obvious and common outcome of the employee's performance. HAVING POSITIVE ATTITUDE Positive attitude makes one's perception positive or more accurate. and the same is discussed below: 1. which in turn will improve a person's perception about the problem. free.
attaching meaning to the information that we have selected and organized. culture. As a result. Slowly pronounce each of the following (bur words:2) M-A-C-T-A-V-I-S-H M-A-C-D-O-N-A-L-D M-A-C-B-E-T-H M-A-C-H-I-N-E-R-Y Like many people. . In our example. 5. needs. In the example of the individual rumored to have a short temper. This exercise illustrates an interesting characteristic of perception: the tendency to organize information into the patterns that we expect to perceive. indeed. STEREOTYPING Stereotyping is the tendency to attribute characteristics to an individual on the basis of an assessment of the group to which the individual belongs. Several common tendencies to distort perceptions are particularly applicable to managerial communication and interactions.However. assessment of an individual's performance is subjective judgement and thus. over time. When a manager engages in stereotyping. two steps occur. and education. Awareness of these perceptual tendencies can help managers avoid the misunderstandings that such distortions often create. Like effort. the manager may begin to organize the selectively perceived behavior into a pattern of incidents in which the individual was angry. The third stage is interpreting. assessment of loyalty is also a subjective judgement susceptible to perceptual distortions and bias. The process is complex and involves three main stages. The second stage of title perceptual process is organizing. the halo effect. begin to interpret (perhaps unfairly) the organized information as indicating that the person does. personality. If the manager is not careful. it is very likely that individuals will differ in their perceptions of the very same situations and messages. have a short temper. the patterning of information from the selection stage. DISTORTION IN PERCEPTION (Students are required to go through the notes in the APPENDIX) APPENDIX Perception is the process that individual use to require and make sense out of information from the environment. EMPLOYEE LOYALTY While assessing employees the managers also make another important decision whether the employee are loyal to the organization. suppose that a manager taking over a new unit has heard a rumor that a particular individual in the unit has a short temper. The perceptions of individuals are affected by a variety of factors such as experiences. These tendencies are stereotyping. susceptible to perceptual distortions and bias also. you may have pronounced the last word as "MacHinery. this piece of information may cause the manager to pay particular attention to situations in which the person is impatient or angry. As an example an employee looking for greener pastures outside the organisation may be labeled as disloyal to the organisation. projection. For example. the manager may. As a resultant behaviour. and perceptual defense. The first stage is selecting the filtering of stimuli that encounter so that only certain information receives our attention." This happens because the previous pattern leads us to expect another word with the same type of pronunciation. the organisation may cut his future advancement opportunities.
First. the manager uses those perceived common characteristics to draw conclusions about the characteristics of the individual. such as equipment or luck). For example. such as compiling a well-done or poorly prepared report. if others also were late in completing the assignment. managers or workers may not be very receptive to certain types of information. we make causal judgments that are either dispositional (attributed to internal causes. a publicly owned hospital company based in Beverly Hills. in which a person tends to "behead" the bearer of bad news even though the bearer was not the cause of the problem. such as handling customers. Inc. As a result. interviewers and managers need to make special efforts to collect enough data to make reasonable judgments in all the specific areas that they are trying to evaluate. feelings.25 Such judgments often form the basis for subsequent actions. PERCEPTUAL DEFENSE Perceptual defense is the tendency to block out or distort information that one finds threatening or that challenges one's beliefs. and distinctiveness (the degree to which an individual behaves differently in other situations). Thus if other staff member completed the same assignment on time. managers may communicate inappropriate expectations. His reply offended many members of the audience and caused the incident to be reported in The Wall Street journal. PROJECTION Projection is the tendency of an individual to assume that others share his or her thoughts. should we attribute it to an internal factor like lack of effort or ability. Second. Stereotyping leads to problems when the generalizations do not apply or do not apply equally to all members of the group or when people try to generalize about less specifically related characteristics. Thus some managers get angry at employees who provide information about serious problems thai cannot be ignored. a manager may use a general impression based on one thing a worker does. For example. consistency (the degree to which an individual behaves the same way' in this or a similar situation at other times). if Jane does not complete a work assignment on time. rather than acquiring information about the person's characteristics more directly. Burleson later "admitted he gave a lame and a stupid answer" to the question HALO EFFECT The halo effect is the tendency to use a general impression based on one or a few characteristics of an individual to judge other characteristics of that same individual. For example. On the other hand. Unfortunately. or should we decide some work context or other external issue is to blame? To make such judgments we consider consensus (the degree to which the behavior is similar to the way most people act in a given situation). even though the manager needs to know about them. Observes reported that Burleson¶s response implied that women cannot deal with the stress of the executive suite. such as personality traits or a person's own efforts) or situational (attributed to external causes. the precedent and chief operating officer. Jane normally complete such . According to the theory.. Attribution theory attempts to explain how individuals make judgments or attributions about the causes of another's or their own behavior. Gene Burleson ran into communication difficulties because of Stereotyping. and characteristics. Burleson was addressing a meeting of several hundred employees when one asked why the company did not have any women directors or top executive. and she has missed deadlines on several other types of assignments. This may lead to the "shoot the bearer of bad news' syndrome. To avoid the halo effect. at American Medical International. 10 judge the worker's ability in other areas of work. California. Jane has had trouble completing the same assignment on time in the past. Engaging in twoway communication to learn how other individuals really do feel about various issues can help managers avoid the ill effects of projection. In such situations. the manager categorizes the individual as belonging to a group whose members are perceived as sharing certain common characteristics. we would make a probably make a dispositional judgement why the assignment was late. projection can encourage managers to engage in one-way communication because they assume that they know how their employees feet on various issues. Attribution Processes One aid to understanding how perceptions ultimately influence managerial communication and interpersonal processes is attribution theory.
including areas controlled by their supervisor. tend to see successes as resulting from their own hard work and ability and to view failures as stemming from bad luck or factors in the work environment. . In making causal judgments. we are likely to succumb to the self serving bias. Subordinates. The attributions we make are likely to influence how we handle resolving the late assignment. For instance. the tendency to underestimate the importance of situational influences and to overestimate the importance of dispositional influences in explaining behavior.assignments by the deadlines. on the other hand. b This tendency sets lie stage for serious communication problems between managers and their subordinates. The self-serving bias is the tendency to perceive oneself as responsible for successes and others as responsible for failures. managers need to be particularly aware of lie fundamental attribution error. We are particularly likely to make this error when we are attempting to explain the behavior of others. when here are successes and failures involved. Moreover. a manager may attribute subordinates' successes to her or his own effective leadership but conclude that failures are due to the subordinates' shortcomings. we are likely to attribute the difficulty to situational factors.
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