# Exercise 1.

1 : Calculate the quantized energy levels of a linear harmonic oscillator of angular
frequency “ω” in the old quantum theory.
~ Using basic algebra and Plank's relation between energy and frequency we get:
AE=h + ℏ=
h
2n
o=2 n+ AE=An ℏ o - E
n

1
2
+n) ℏo
Potential Energy: V=
k x
2
2
=
mo
2
x
2
2
- x
2
=
2V
k
=
2V
mo
2
- x=
.
2V
mo
2
Kinetic Energy:
¦
K=
m∗v
2
2
)
Classical
& p=mv -
¦
T=
p
2
2 m
)
New
Total Energy: E = V +T =
mo
2
x
2
2
+
p
2
2 m
-
p
2
2m
=E−
mo
2
x
2
2
- p
2
=2 mE−m
2
o
2
x
2
Solved for momentum: p=
.
2 mE−m
2
o
2
x
2
& position: q=
.
2V
mo
2
=
.
2
mo
2
mo
2
x
2
2
=x
Old Quantum Theory:

p
j
d q
j
=n
j
h -

−q
q
p
j
d q
j
=

−q
q
p
j
d q
j
+

q
−q
p
j
d q
j
=n
j
h
if q is a distance traveled in a potential, Ax or Ar can be q because they are also distances.
2

−q
q
p
j
d q
j
= n
j
h = 2

−q
q
.
2 mE−m
2
o
2
x
2
d x = 2

.
2V
mo
2
.
2V
mo
2
.
2 mE−m
2
o
2
x
2
d x
Setting V=E - 4

0
.
2E
mo
2
.
2 mE−m
2
o
2
x
2
d x can be pluged into my TI-89 to get:
2nE
o
2nE
o
=n h - E=
n oh
2n
=n ℏo

E
n

1
2
+n) ℏ o for n=1,2,3,4,...
Exercise 1.2 : Assuming that the electron moves in a circular orbit in a coulomb field, derive the
Balmer
Ao=
E
ℏ ¦
1
n
1
2

1
n
2
2
)
formula for the spectrum of hydrogenic atoms from the quantum
condition (1.2)

p
i
d q
i
=n
i
h and the Bohr formula (1.1) AE=h+ .
~ Once more we use the same set of equations as (Exercise 1.1)
ℏ=
h
2 n
o=2n+ AE=An ℏ o
circumference C=2nr and angular momentum L=mv r

p
i
d q
i
=n
i
h p
i
=.2 mT=mv q
i
=distance oncircumference from0 to 2nr

0
2n
p
i
d q=n
i
h=p
i
r

0
2n
d q=mv

0
2nr
d q=2nr mv
Centripetal Force: F=ma F
c
=m
v
2
r
equal to the force keeping it in (Bore's orbit) -F
c
=F
e
Electrical Force: F
e
=q E=e
e
4nc
0
r
2
=
e
2
r
2
1
4nc
0
-
e
2
r
2
1
4nc
0
=m
v
2
r
-
e
2
4nc
0
=r mv
2
p=mv & k =
1
4nc
0
&
e
2
4nc
0
=r mv
2
- mk e
2
=r p
2
r=
mk e
2
p
2
p=
.
mk e
2
r
E=n ℏo & p=mv & o=2n f =
v
r
- E=n ℏ
v
r
-
E
v
=
n ℏ
r
- p=2
E
v
=2
n ℏ
r
mk e
2
=4 r
¦
n ℏ
r
)
2
- mr k e
2
=4¦n ℏ)
2
- r=4
¦n ℏ)
2
mk e
2
& p=
2 n ℏ
r
=2n ℏ
¦
mk e
2
¦2 n ℏ)
2
)
=
mk e
2
2 n ℏ
Energy from Work : W=F d - T =F
e
r=
e
2
r
2
r
4nc
0
=
e
2
4nc
0
r
Total Energy: E=T+V=
−e
2
4nc
0
r
+
p
2
2m
=
¦
mk e
2
2 n ℏ
)
2
1
2 m
−e
2
k
mk e
2
4¦ n ℏ)
2
=
mk
2
e
4
8ℏ
2
n
2

mk
2
e
4
4 ℏ
2
n
2
=
−1
8
mk
2
e
4

2
n
2
The final solution is based on an intuitive understanding of proportions...
We know: AE=n ℏAo & E=
−1
8
mk
2
e
4

2
n
2
- E∝
1
n
2
- E
n
=E
1
¦
1
n
2
)
Ao=
E
ℏ ¦
1
n
1
2

1
n
2
2
)

Once more we use the same set of equations as (Exercise 1.1) h ℏ= =2   E = n ℏ  circumference C =2  r and angular momentum L=m v r 2 ∮ pi d qi= ni h p i =  2 m T =m v q i=distance on circumference from0 to 2 r 2 2 r ∫0 2 p i d q=n i h= p i r ∫0 d q= m v ∫0 F c =m v r 2 d q =2 r m v Centripetal Force: F =m a Electrical Force: F e =q E=e 1 k= 4 0 equal to the force keeping it in (Bore's orbit)  F c = F e  e2 1 v2 e2 2 =m  =r m v 2 4 0 r 4 0 r m k e2 m k e2 p r= p= r p2 nℏ E nℏ E =  p=2 =2 v r v r 2 2 2nℏ mk e mk e p= =2n ℏ = r 2nℏ 2 n ℏ2 2 e e2 1 = 2 4 0 r 2 r 4 0 e2 2 2 p =m v & & = r m v  m k e =r 4 0 v v E =n ℏ  & p =m v & =2 f =  E =n ℏ  r r 2 2 nℏ n ℏ  m k e 2=4 r  m r k e 2 =4n ℏ 2  r=4 & r m k e2    Energy from Work : W = F d  T = F e r= −e 2 p2 mk e2 1 m k e 2 m k 2 e 4 m k 2 e 4 −1 m k 2 e 4 Total Energy: E =T V =  = −e 2 k 2= 2 2 − 2 2= 8 ℏ2 n2 4 0 r 2 m 2nℏ 2m 4 n ℏ 8ℏ n 4ℏ n The final solution is based on an intuitive understanding of proportions.2 : Assuming that the electron moves in a circular orbit in a coulomb field.Exercise 1.2) ~ ∮ pi d qi =ni h   and the Bohr formula (1. derive the Balmer formula for the spectrum of hydrogenic atoms from the quantum E 1 1  = 2− 2 ℏ n1 n2 condition (1.1)  E =h .. −1 m k 2 e 4 1 1 We know:  E= n ℏ   & E=  E∝ 2  En = E1 2 2 2 8 ℏ n n n E 1 1  = − ℏ n2 n2 1 2   e r e = 2 r 4 0 4 0 r 2 2 2       ..