As you already know Sodium Thiosulphate is a secondary standard substance hence it should be standardized first before being used

and we are assuming in the following procedures that the Sodium Thiosulphate used is STANDARDIZED (How?!! This would be discussed later.) Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7 with molar mass ≈ 294 AMU) is an oxidizing agent. It’s reduced by an acid solution of Potassium Iodide and Iodine is set free Equations: (Cr2O7) +6e +14H → 6I -2e →
2+ 3+ 2+

2Cr +7H2O I2

3+

(Cr2O7) +6I +14H  2Cr +3I2+7H2O The total equation is K2Cr2O7+6KI+14CH3COOH 3I2+7H2O However, two important point must be mentioned concerning this reaction: 1) The Hydroiodic acid (HI) is formed due to the presence of excess of iodide ions is strong 3+ acidic medium. Unfortunately, HI is readily oxidized by air, especially in the presence of Cr salts as following: H +I HI → 2I2+2H2O Consumption of Iodide ions by the acid result in an early endpoint; Indicating a false concentration less than the actual concentration of Dichromate. To decrease the probability of the previous side reaction we shall use a weak acid such as Acetic acid which will provide the necessary protons for the main reaction and won’t lower the pH too much. (Acids like HCl would lower the pH too much enhancing the formation of HI) 2) The reaction between Iodide and Dichromate is not instantaneous. That’s why CuSO4 is added as a catalyst and the reaction medium - the conical flask - must be let for about 10 minutes covered and away from light to allow the completion of the reaction, which is indicated by the appearance of the dense red color of Iodine. From the reaction equation: Each molecule of K2Cr2O7 results in 3 molecules of I2 (MV)Dicromate=3(MV)Iodine Since Eq. wt of Dicromate= M/3 & Eq. wt. of I2=M/1 (NV) Dicromate =(NV) Iodine In another words, released Iodine is equivalent to Potassium Dichromate
+ -

-1-

/water free) 3) CuSO4 is just a catalyst so its concentration doesn’t matter a lot.(NV) Iodine is determined via titration with STANDARD Sodium Thiosulphate (Na2S2O3. Notice that the color may appear again after 3-5 minutes. 2% solution would be fine. 4) 10 g KI dissolved in water to 100 ml. -2- . 7) Continue titration till the blue color of the Starch-Iodine complex disappears permanently.1N solution. 6) Start the titration with 0.1N Sodium Thiosulphate until a pale yellow color is obtained. 2) Add 2 ml of the glacial CH3COOH. only then you can record the endpoint. Then pipette 10 ml of that solution into the conical flask. 2) Glacial Acetic acid (conc. It’s reduced by an acid solution of Potassium Iodide and Iodine is set free Equations: I2+2e → 6S2O3 -2e → I2+2S2O3  2I + S4O6 The total equation is I2+2Na2S2O3  2NaI+ Na2S4O6 Materials: We are going to need: 1) Standard 0.5H2O) Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7 with molar mass ≈ 294 AMU) is an oxidizing agent. Let’s say the weight enough to prepare 0.1N Na2S2O3 solution as a titrant. 5) leave the conical flask covered and away from light for about 10 minutes. Procedures: 222- 2I - S4O6 2- 0. so you have to continue titration as long as possible until the color never appear again. 3) Add 2 ml of CuSO4 solution. The mixture will turn into a reddish brown color due to liberation if Ionine. Then add two drops of starch. 4) Then add 10 ml of the 10% KI solution to the mixture.1 N Na2S2O3 1) Dissolve a specific mass of the K2Cr2O7 Sample in 100 ml of water.

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