MODIFIABLE FACTORS -DM Type II -Hypertension -Chronic Kidney Disease -Folic Acid Deficiency -Sedentary Lifestyle

NON- MODIFIABLE FACTORS -Age (86 years old) -Gender (Female) -Family History of diseases


Slow healing wounds 

oVascular resistance

Insulin resistance


oActivity of RAA S

Loss of sodium

Use of diuretics

LSLF diet

Impaired filtration mechanism 


Inadequate intake of sodium qRenal function Loss of relatively more salt than H20 oCreatinine

Inability to dilute urine qOsmolality of ECF CKD ECF -diluted ICF -concentrated Build up of fluid and waste products


qRBC H20 moves into cells- Osmosis RBC prod

Impaired renal excretion of H20

Salt wasting


o Levels of Na & TBW Swelling of cells

TBW exceeds Na Neurons Altered ability to depolarize &repolarize

Lethargy, confusion, seizures, irritability


Gottfried N. Smeltzer.. LEC.Copstead. W&W Hyponatremia in the Neurosurgical Patient: Diagnosis and: Differential DiagnosisC. 890-893 Pathophysiolgy by Lippincott. Cole.621 Medical-Surgical Nursing 12th Edition. . p. Couldwell W. Bare. OLB Banasik p. Et Al.References: rd Pathophysiology 3 Edition.

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