MODIFIABLE FACTORS -DM Type II -Hypertension -Chronic Kidney Disease -Folic Acid Deficiency -Sedentary Lifestyle

NON- MODIFIABLE FACTORS -Age (86 years old) -Gender (Female) -Family History of diseases

DM T2

Slow healing wounds 

oVascular resistance

Insulin resistance

Hyperglycemia

oActivity of RAA S

Loss of sodium

Use of diuretics

LSLF diet

Impaired filtration mechanism 

qGFR

Inadequate intake of sodium qRenal function Loss of relatively more salt than H20 oCreatinine

Inability to dilute urine qOsmolality of ECF CKD ECF -diluted ICF -concentrated Build up of fluid and waste products

Uremia

qRBC H20 moves into cells- Osmosis RBC prod

Impaired renal excretion of H20

Salt wasting

HYPONATREMIA

o Levels of Na & TBW Swelling of cells

TBW exceeds Na Neurons Altered ability to depolarize &repolarize

Lethargy, confusion, seizures, irritability

encephalopathy

Gottfried N. Smeltzer.. LEC.Copstead. W&W Hyponatremia in the Neurosurgical Patient: Diagnosis and: Differential DiagnosisC. 890-893 Pathophysiolgy by Lippincott. Cole.621 Medical-Surgical Nursing 12th Edition. . p. Couldwell W. Bare. OLB Banasik p. Et Al.References: rd Pathophysiology 3 Edition.

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