This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1, what is the
velocity of the container when it has reached the position
s = 2 m?
s
A
Solution: The 180kg container A starts from rest at s = 0. The
horizontal force (in newtons) is F = 700 −150s. The coefﬁcient of
kinetic friction is µ
k
= 0.26.
U
12
= T
2
−T
1
2
0
(700 −150s −0.26[180(9.81)])ds =
1
2
(180 kg)v
2
2
−0
700(2) −
1
2
(150)(2)
2
−(0.26[180(9.81)][2]) = 90v
2
2
v
2
= 1.42 m/s.
Problem 15.2 The mass of the Sikorsky UH60A heli
copter is 9300 kg. It takes off vertically with its rotor
exerting a constant upward thrust of 112 kN. Use the
principle of work and energy to determine how far it
has risen when its velocity is 6 m/s.
Strategy: Be sure to draw the freebody diagram of
the helicopter.
Solution:
U
12
= T
2
−T
1
[(112000 −9300[9.81])N]h
=
1
2
(9300 kg)(6 m/s)
2
h = 8.06 m.
179
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.3 The 20N box is at rest on the horizon
tal surface when the constant force F = 5 N is applied.
The coefﬁcient of kinetic friction between the box and
the surface is µ
k
= 0.2. Determine how fast the box is
moving when it has moved 2 m from its initial position
(a) by applying Newton’s second law; (b) by applying
the principle of work and energy.
F
Solution:
(a) The equations of motion can be used to ﬁnd the acceleration
F
x
: F −f =
W
g
a, F
y
: N −W = 0,
f = µ
k
N
Solving we have
a = g
F
W
−µ
k
= (
2
)
5 N
20 N
−0.2
=
2
Now we integrate to ﬁnd the velocity at the new position
a = v
dv
ds
⇒
v
0
vdv =
2 m
0
ads ⇒
v
2
2
= a(2 m) = (
2
)(2 )
v = . /s
(b) Using the principle of work and energy we have (recognizing
that N = W)
U
12
= T
2
−T
1
(F −µ
k
N)d =
1
2
W
g
v
2
−0
v
2
= 2g
F
W
−µ
k
d = 2(
2
)
5 N
20 N
−0.2
(2 m)
v = /s
Problem 15.4 At the instant shown, the 30N box is
moving up the smooth inclined surface at 2 m/s. The con
stant force F = 15 N. How fast will the box be moving
when it has moved 1 m up the surface from its present
position?
F
20Њ
Solution:
U
12
= T
2
−T
1
[(15 N) cos 20
◦
−(30 N) sin 20
◦
](1 m)
=
1
2
30 N
2
v
2
−
1
2
30 N
2
(2 m/s)
2
Solving we ﬁnd
v =
180
9.81m/s 0.49 m/s
0.49 m/s m
1 4 m
9.81 m/s
1.4 m
9.81 m/s 9.81 m/s
2.55 m/s.
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.5 The 0.45kg soccer ball is 1 m above
the ground when it is kicked straight upward at 10 m/s.
By using the principle of work and energy, determine:
(a) how high above the ground the ball goes, (b) the
magnitude of the ball’s velocity when it falls back to a
height of 1 m above the ground, (c) the magnitude of
the ball’s velocity immediately before it hits the ground.
12 m/s
1 m
Solution:
(a) Find the height above the ground
mg(1 m−h) = 0 −
1
2
mv
2
0
,
h =
v
0
2
2g
+1 m =
(10 m/s)
2
2(9.81 m/s
2
)
+1 m = 6.10 m
(b) When the ball returns to the same level, the velocity must be
equal to the initial velocity (but now it is moving downward)
because the net work is zero
v = 10 m/s ↓
(c) The velocity just before it hits the ground
mg(1 m) =
1
2
mv
2
−
1
2
mv
0
2
v
2
= v
0
2
+2g(1 m) = (10 m/s)
2
+2(9.81 m/s
2
)(1 m)
v = 10.9 m/s. ↓
(a) h = 6.10 m, (b) v = 10.0 m/s, (c) v = 10.9 m/s.
Problem 15.6 Assume that the soccer ball in Prob
lem 15.5 is stationary the instant before it is kicked
upward at 12 m/s. The duration of the kick is 0.02 s.
What average power is transferred to the ball during
the kick?
Solution:
U
12
=
1
2
(0.45 kg)(12 m/s)
2
−0 = 32.4 Nm
Power =
U
12
t
=
32.4 Nm
0.02 s
= 1.62 kW
181
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.7 The 2000N drag racer starts from rest
and travels a quarter e course. It completes the
cours
e
in 4.524 seconds and crosses the ﬁnishline traveling
at 325.77 km/h. (a) How much work is done on the car as
it travels the course? (b) Assume that the horizontal force
exerted on the car is constant and use the principle of
work and energy to determine it.
Solution:
(a) The work is equal to the change in kinetic energy.
U =
1
2
mv
2
=
1
2
2000 N
2
¸
(325.77 km/h)
¸
2
U = ×10 
(b) The work is equal to the force times the distance
U = Fd ⇒F =
U
d
=
×10
1
4
( )
=
F =
Problem 15.8 The 2000 drag racer starts from rest
and travels a quarter e course. It completes the
in 4.524 seconds andcrosses the ﬁnishlinetraveling
at .77 km/h Assume that the horizontal force exerted
on the car is constant. Determine (a) the maximum power
and (b) the average power transferred to the car as it
travels the quarter e course.
Solution: From problem 15.7 we know that the force is
(a) The maximum power occurs when the car has reached its maxi
mum velocity
P =Fv =( )(325.77 km/h)
= ×10  /s.
(b) The average power is equal to the change in kinetic energy
divided by the time.
P
ave
=
1
2
mv
2
t
=
1
2
2000 N
2
¸
(325.77 m/h)
¸
2
4.524 s
= 1. ×10 Nm/s.
(a) ×10 , (b) ×10 .
182
kilometr
9.81 m/s
1000
3600
8. 35
5
N m
8.35
5
Nm
1000 m
3339 N
3339 N
N
kilometr
course
25 3 .
kilometr
3339 N
1000
3600
3.02
5
N m
9.81 m/s
k
1000
3600
845
5
3.02
5
Nm/s 1.845
5
Nm/s
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.9 As the 32,000N airplane takes off, the
tangential component of force exerted on it by its engines
is F
t
= 45,000 N. Neglecting other forces on the air
plane, use the principle of work and energy to determine
how much runway is required for its velocity to reach
200 /h.
Solution:
U
12
=
1
2
mv
2
⇒Fd =
1
2
mv
2
⇒d =
mv
2
2F
d =
32,000 N
2
¸
(200 km/h)
¸
2
2(45,000 )
=
d =
Problem 15.10 As the 32,000N airplane takes off, the
tangential component of force exerted on it by its engines
is F
t
= 45,000 N. Neglecting other forces on the air
plane, determine (a) the maximum power and (b) the
average power transferred to the airplane as its velocity
increases from zero to 200 /h.
Solution:
(a) The maximum power occurs when the velocity is a maximum
P = Fv = (45,000 N)
¸
200 km/h
¸
= ×10  /s.
(b) To ﬁnd the average power we need to know the time that it takes
to reach full speed
a =
F
m
=
45,000 N
32,000 N
2
=
2
v = at ⇒t =
v
a
=
200 km/h
2
= s.
Now, the average power is the change in kinetic energy divided
by the time
P
ave
=
1
2
mv
2
t
=
1
2
32,000 N
2
200 km/h
2
s
= ×10 Nm/s.
6
(a) ×10 , (b) ×10
6
.
183
km
9.81 m/s
1000
3600
112 m.
N
112 m
km
1000
3600
2.5
6
N m
9.81m/s
13.8 m/s
1000
3600
13.8 m/s
4.03
9.81m/s
1000
3600
4.03
1.25
2.5
6
1.25 Nm/s Nm/s
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.11 The 32,000N airplane takes off from
rest in the position s = 0. The total tangential force
exerted on it by its engines and aerodynamic drag (in
) is given as a function of its position s by
F
t
= 45,000 − 5.2s. Use the principle of work and
energy to determine how fast the airplane is traveling
when its position is s = 950 .
Solution:
U
12
=
950
0
(45,000 −5.2s) ds
= (45, 000)(950) −
1
2
(5.2)(950)
2
= 40.4 ×10
6
U
12
=
1
2
mv
2
=
1
2
32,000 N
2
v
2
Solving, we ﬁnd
v =
Problem 15.12 The spring (k = 20 N/m) is un
stretched when s = 0. The 5kg cart is moved to the
position s = −1 m and released from rest. What is the
magnitude of its velocity when it is in the position s = 0?
s k
20Њ
Solution: First we calculate the work done by the spring and by
gravity
U
12
=
0
−1 m
(−ks +mg sin 20
◦
) ds
=
1
2
k(−1 m)
2
+mg sin 20
◦
(1 m)
=
1
2
(20 N/m)(−1 m)
2
+(5 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
) sin 20
◦
(1 m)
= 26.8 Nm.
Now using work and energy
U
12
=
1
2
mv
2
⇒v =
2U
12
m
=
2(26.8 Nm)
5 kg
= 3.27 m/s.
v = 3.27 m/s.
184
Newtons
m
Nm
9.81 m/s
157.4 m/s.
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.13 The spring (k = 20 N/m) is un
stretched when s = 0. The 5kg cart is moved to the
position s = −1 m and released from rest. What max
imum distance down the sloped surface does the cart
move relative to its initial position?
s k
20Њ
Solution: The cart starts from a position of rest, and when it
reaches the maximum position, it is again at rest. Therefore, the total
work must be zero.
U
12
=
s
−1 m
(−ks +mg sin 20
◦
) ds
= −
1
2
k(s
2
−[−1 m]
2
) +mg sin 20
◦
(s −[−1 m])
= −
1
2
(20 N/m)(s
2
−[−1 m]
2
) +(5 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
) sin 20
◦
(s −[−1 m]) = 0
This is a quadratic equation that has the two solutions
s
1
= −1 m, s
2
= 2.68 m.
The distance relative to the initial is s = s
2
+1 m.
s = 3.68 m.
Problem 15.14 The force exerted on a car by a proto
type crash barrier as the barrier crushes is F = −(120s +
40s
3
) s is the distance in metre from the initial
contact. The effective length of the barrier is 18 . How
fast can a 5000N car be moving and be brought to rest
within the effective length of the barrier?
s
Solution: The barrier can provide a maximum amount of work
given by
U
12
=
18
0
−(120s +40s
3
) ds
= −
1
2
(120)(18)
2
−
1
4
(40)(18)
4
= −1.07 ×10
6
Using work and energy, we have
U
12
= 0 −
1
2
mv
2
−1.07 ×10
6
m = −
1
2
5000 N
2
v
2
Solving for the velocity, we ﬁnd
v =
185
N, where
m
Nm.
N
9.81m/s
64.8 m/s .
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.15 A 5000N car hits the crash barrier at
80 km/h and is brought to rest in 0.11 seconds. What
average power is transferred from the car during the
impact?
s
Solution: The average power is equal to the change in kinetic
energy divided by the time
P =
1
2
mv
2
t
=
1
2
5000 N
2
80 km/h
2
0.11 s
= ×10
6
 /s.
P = ×10
6
Problem 15.16 A group of engineering students con
structs a sunpowered car and tests it on a circular track
with a 1000m radius. The car, with a weight of 460 N
including its occupant, starts from rest. The total tangen
tial component of force on the car is
F
t
= 30 −0.2s ,
where s is the distance (in ft) the car travels along the
track from the position where it starts.
(a) Determine the work done on the car when it has
gone a distance s = 120 m.
(b) Determine the magnitude of the total horizontal
force exerted on the car’s tires by the road when it
is at the position s = 120 m.
Solution:
(a) U =
120 m
0
[30 −0.2 s] N ds = 2160 Nm
(b) 2160 Nm=
1
2
460 N
2
v
2
⇒ v = /s
F
t
= [30 −0.2(120)] = 6 N
F
n
= m
v
2
ρ
=
460 N
2
( )
2
1000 m
= 4.32 N
F =
F
t
2
+F
n
2
=
(6 N)
2
+(4.32 N)
2
= 7.39
186
9.81 m/s 3600
1000
1.14 N m
1.14 Nm/s.
N
9.81 m/s
9.6 m
9.81 m/s
9.6 m/s
N
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.17 At the instant shown, the 160N
vaulter’s center of mass is 8.5 m above the ground, and
the vertical component of his velocity is 4 m/s. As his
pole straightens, it exerts a vertical force on the vaulter
of magnitude 180 +2.8y
2
y is the vertical
position of his center of mass relative to its position at
the instant shown. This force is exerted on him from
y = 0 to y = 4 m, when he releases the pole. What is
the maximum height above the ground reached by the
vaulter’s center of mass?
Solution: The work done on him by the pole is
U
pole
=
4
0
(180 +2.8 y
2
) dy
= 180(4) +2.8
(4)
3
3
= 780  .
Let y
max
be his maximum height above the ground. The work done
by his weight from the instant shown to the maximum height is
−160(y
max
−8.5) = U
weight
, or U
weight
+U
pole
= mv
2
2
/2 −mv
2
1
/2
780 −160(y
max
−8.5) = 0 −
1
2
160
(4)
2
.
Solving, y
max
=
Problem 15.18 The springs (k = 25 / ) are un
stretched when s = 0. The 50N weight is released from
rest in the position s = 0.
(a) When the weight has fallen 1 cm, how much work
has been done on it by each spring?
(b) What is the magnitude of the velocity of the weight
when it has fallen 1 ?
s
k
k
Solution:
(a) The work done by each spring
U
12
=
1cm
0
−ksds = −
1
2
(25 N/cm)(1cm)
2
= −12.5 Ncm.
(b) The velocity is found from the workenergy equation. The total
work includes the work done by both springs and by gravity
U
12
= (50 N)(1 cm) −2(12.5 Ncm) = 25 Ncm.
U
12
=
1
2
mv
2
=
1
2
50 N
2
v
2
Solving for the velocity we ﬁnd v =
(a) −12.5 Ncm, (b) 0.31 m/s.
187
N, where
N m
9.81
14.2 m
N cm
cm
9.81 m/s
0.31 m/s.
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.19 The coefﬁcients of friction between
the 160kg crate and the ramp are µ
s
= 0.3 and
µ
k
= 0.28.
(a) What tension T
0
must the winch exert to start the
crate moving up the ramp?
(b) If the tension remains at the value T
0
after the crate
starts sliding, what total work is done on the crate
as it slides a distance s = 3 m up the ramp, and
what is the resulting velocity of the crate?
18°
s
Solution:
(a) The tension is T
0
= W sin θ +µ
s
N, from which
T
0
= mg(sin θ +µ
s
cos θ) = 932.9 N.
(b) The work done on the crate by (nonfriction) external forces is
U
weight
=
3
0
T
0
ds −
3
0
(mg sin θ) ds = 932.9(3) −1455.1
= 1343.5 Nm.
The work done on the crate by friction is
U
f
=
3
0
(−µ
k
N) ds = −3µ
k
mg cos θ = −1253.9 Nm.
From the principle of work and energy is
U
weight
+U
f
=
1
2
mv
2
,
from which
v =
6(T
0
−mg(sin θ +µ
k
cos θ))
m
v = 1.06 m/s
T
0
T
0
mg mg
µ
s
N
N
µ
k
N
N
(a) (b)
Problem 15.20 In Problem 15.19, if the winch exerts
a tension T = T
0
(1 +0.1s) after the crate starts sliding,
what total work is done on the crate as it slides a distance
s = 3 m up the ramp, and what is the resulting velocity
of the crate?
Solution: The work done on the crate is
U =
3
0
T ds −
3
0
(mg sin θ) ds −µ
k
3
0
(mg cos θ) ds,
from which
U = T
0
¸
s +0.05s
2
¸
3
0
−(mg sin θ)(3) −µ
k
(mg cos θ)(3).
From the solution to Problem 15.19, T
0
= 932.9 Nm, from which the
total work done is
U = 3218.4 −1455.1 −1253.9 = 509.36 Nm.
From the principle of work and energy, U =
1
2
mv
2
, from which
v =
2U
m
= 2.52 m/s
188
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.21 The 200mmdiameter gas gun is
evacuated on the right of the 8kg projectile. On
the left of the projectile, the tube contains gas
with pressure p
0
= 1 ×10
5
Pa (N/m
2
). The force F
is slowly increased, moving the projectile 0.5 m to
the left from the position shown. The force is
then removed and the projectile accelerates to the
right. If you neglect friction and assume that the
pressure of the gas is related to its volume by
pV = constant, what is the velocity of the projectile
when it has returned to its original position?
Projectile
F
Gas
1 m
Solution: The constant is K = pV = 1 ×10
5
(1)(0.1)
2
π
= 3141.6 Nm. The force is F = pA. The volume is V = As, from
which the pressure varies as the inverse distance: p =
K
As
, from which
F =
K
s
.
The work done by the gas is
U =
1
0.5
F ds =
1
0.5
K
x
ds = [K ln(s)]
1.0
0.5
= K ln(2).
From the principle of work and energy, the work done by the gas is
equal to the gain in kinetic energy:
K ln(2) =
1
2
mv
2
, and v
2
=
2K
m
ln(2),
v =
2K
m
ln(2) = 23.33 m/s
Note: The argument of ln(2) is dimensionless, since it is ratio of two
distances.
Problem 15.22 In Problem 15.21, if you assume that
the pressure of the gas is related to its volume by
pV = constant while it is compressed (an isothermal
process) and by pV
1.4
= constant while it is expand
ing (an isentropic process), what is the velocity of the
projectile when it has returned to its original position?
Solution: The isothermal constant is K = 3141.6 Nm from the
solution to Problem 15.21. The pressure at the leftmost position is
p =
K
A(0.5)
= 2 ×10
5
N/m
2
.
The isentropic expansion constant is
K
e
= pV
1.4
= (2 ×10
5
)(A
1.4
)(0.5
1.4
) = 596.5 Nm
The pressure during expansion is
p =
K
e
(As)
1.4
=
K
e
A
1.4
s
−1.4
.
The force is F = pA = K
e
A
−0.4
s
−1.4
. The work done by the gas
during expansion is
U =
1.0
0.5
F ds =
1.0
0.5
K
e
A
−0.4
s
−1.4
ds = K
e
A
−0.4
¸
s
−0.4
−0.4
¸
1.0
0.5
= 1901.8 Nm.
From the principle of work and energy, the work done is equal to the
gain in kinetic energy,
1
0.5
F ds =
1
2
mv
2
,
from which the velocity is
v =
2(1901.8)
m
= 21.8 m/s
.
189
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.23 In Example 15.2, suppose that the angle
between the inclined surface and the horizontal is in
creased from 20
◦
to 30
◦
. What is the magnitude of the
velocity of the crates when they have moved 400 mm?
v
v
A
B
20Њ
Solution: Doing work–energy for the system
0.4
0
(m
A
g sin 30
◦
−µ
k
m
A
g cos 30
◦
+m
B
g) ds =
1
2
(m
A
+m
B
)v
2
2
[40 sin 30
◦
−(0.15)(40) cos 30
◦
+30](9.81)(0.4) =
1
2
(70)v
2
2
Solving for the velocity we ﬁnd
v
2
= 2.24 m/s.
Problem 15.24 The system is released from rest. The
4kg mass slides on the smooth horizontal surface. By
using the principle of work and energy, determine the
magnitude of the velocity of the masses when the 20kg
mass has fallen 1 m.
20 kg
4 kg
Solution: Write workenergy for system
U = (20 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
)(1 m) =
1
2
(24 kg)v
2
⇒ v = 4.04 m/s
Problem 15.25 Solve Problem 15.24 if the coefﬁcient
of kinetic friction between the 4kg mass and the hori
zontal surface is µ
k
= 0.4.
Solution:
¸
F
y
: N −(4 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
) = 0 ⇒ N = 39.24 N
Write workenergy for system
U = [(20 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
) −0.4(39.24 N)](1 m) = 180.5 Nm
180.5 Nm =
1
2
(24 kg)v
2
⇒ v = 3.88 m/s
N
T
0.4 N
(4 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
)
190
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.26 Each box weighs 50 N and the
inclined surfaces are smooth. The system is released
from rest. Determine the magnitude of the velocities of
the boxes when they have moved 1 m.
45°
30°
Solution: Write workenergy for the system
U = (50 N sin 45
◦
)(1 m) −(50 N sin 30
◦
)(1 m) = 10.36 Nm
10.36 Nm =
1
2
100 N
2
v
2
⇒ v =
Problem 15.27 Solve Problem 15.26 if the coefﬁcient
of kinetic friction between the boxes and the inclined
surfaces is µ
k
= 0.05.
Solution:
¸
F
: N
1
−(50 N) sin 45
◦
= 0
¸
F
: N
2
−(50 N) cos 30
◦
= 0
N
1
= 35.4 N, N
2
= 43.3 N
Workenergy for the system
U = (50 sin 45
◦
)(1 ) −(0.05)(35.4 )(1 )
−(50 Nsin 30)(1 m) −(0.05)(43.3 N)(1 m) = 6.42 Nm
6.42 Nm =
1
2
100 N
2
v
2
⇒ v =
0.05 N
1
0.05 N
2
50 50
N
1
N
2
N N
191
9.81 m/s
1.43 m/s
N m N m
9.81 m/s
1.12 m/s
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.28 The masses of the three blocks are
m
A
= 40 kg, m
B
= 16 kg, and m
C
= 12 kg. Neglect the
mass of the bar holding C in place. Friction is negligible.
By applying the principle of work and energy to A and B
individually, determine the magnitude of their velocity
when they have moved 500 mm.
A
B
C
45Њ
Solution: Denote b = 0.5 m. Since the pulley is onetoone,
denote v
A
 = v
B
 = v. The principle of work and energy for weight
A is
b
0
(m
A
g sin θ −T ) ds =
1
2
m
A
v
2
,
and for weight B
b
0
(T −m
B
g sin θ) ds =
1
2
m
B
v
2
.
Add the two equations:
(m
A
−m
B
)gb sin θ =
1
2
(m
A
+m
B
)v
2
.
Solve: v
A
 = v
B
 =
2(m
A
−m
B
)gb sin θ
(m
A
+m
B
)
= 1.72 m/s
T
T
N
BC
N
AB
N
AB
N
A
m
B
g
m
A
g
Problem 15.29 Solve Problem 15.28 by applying the
principle of work and energy to the system consisting of
A, B, the cable connecting them, and the pulley.
Solution: Choose a coordinate system with the origin at the pulley
axis and the positive x axis parallel to the inclined surface. Since the
pulley is onetoone, x
A
= −x
B
. Differentiate to obtain v
A
= −v
B
.
Denote b = 0.5 m. From the principle of work and energy the work
done by the external forces on the complete system is equal to the
gain in kinetic energy,
x
A
0
m
A
g sin θ ds +
x
B
0
m
B
g sin θ ds =
1
2
m
A
v
2
A
+
1
2
m
B
v
2
B
,
from which
(m
B
−m
A
)gb sin θ =
1
2
(m
A
+m
B
)v
2
A
and v
A
 = v
B
 =
(m
A
−m
B
)
(m
A
+m
B
)
2gb sin θ = 1.72 m/s.
N
BC
N
A
m
B
g
m
A
g
192
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.30 The masses of the three blocks are
m
A
= 40 kg, m
B
= 16 kg, and m
C
= 12 kg. The coefﬁ
cient of kinetic friction between all surfaces is µ
k
= 0.1.
Determine the magnitude of the velocity of blocks A and
B when they have moved 500 mm. (See Example 15.3.)
A
B
C
45Њ
Solution: We will apply the principles of work —energy to blocks
A and B individually in order to properly account for the work done
by internal friction forces.
b
0
(m
A
g sin θ −T −µ
k
N
A
−µ
k
N
AB
) ds =
1
2
m
A
v
2
,
b
0
(T −m
B
g sin θ −µ
k
N
BC
−µ
k
N
AB
) ds =
1
2
m
B
v
2
.
Adding the two equations, we get
([m
A
−m
B
]g sin θ −µ
k
[N
A
+2N
AB
+N
BC
])b =
1
2
(m
A
+m
B
)v
2
The normal forces are
N
A
= (m
A
+m
B
+m
C
)g cos θ,
N
AB
= (m
B
+m
C
)g cos θ,
N
BC
= (m
C
)g cos θ.
Substitute and solve ⇒ v = 1.14 m/s.
Problem 15.31 In Example 15.5, suppose that the skier
is moving at 20 m/s when he is in position 1. Deter
mine the horizontal component of his velocity when he
reaches position 2, 20 m below position 1.
1
2
3
Solution:
U
12
= −mg(y
2
−y
1
) =
1
2
mv
2
2
−
1
2
mv
2
1
−m(9.81)(0 −20) =
1
2
mv
2
2
−
1
2
m(20)
2
Solving for v
2
we ﬁnd
v
2
= 28.1 m/s.
193
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.32 Suppose that you stand at the edge of
a 61 m cliff and throw rocks at 9.1 m/s in the three
directions shown. Neglecting aerodynamic drag, use the
principle of work and energy to determine the magnitude
of the velocity of the rock just before it hits the ground
in each case.
30Њ
30Њ
(a)
(b)
(c)
61 m
Solution:
U = m(
2
)( ) =
1
2
mv
2
−
1
2
m( )
2
⇒ v =
Note that the answer does not depend on the initial angle.
Problem 15.33 The 30kg box is sliding down the
smooth surface at 1 m/s when it is in position 1.
Determine the magnitude of the box’s velocity at
position 2 in each case.
(a)
1
2
60°
1
2
(b)
40°
2 m
Solution: The work done by the weight is the same in both cases.
U = −m(9.81 m/s
2
)(0 −2 m) =
1
2
mv
2
2
−
1
2
m(1 m/s)
2
⇒ v = 6.34 m/s
Problem 15.34 Solve Problem 15.33 if the coefﬁcient
of kinetic friction between the box and the inclined sur
face is µ
k
= 0.2.
Solution: The work done by the weight is the same, however, the
work done by friction is different.
(a) U = −m(9.81 m/s
2
)(0 −2 m)
−(0.2)[m(9.81 m/s
2
) cos 60
◦
]
¸
2 m
sin 60
◦
¸
U =
1
2
mv
2
2
−
1
2
m(1 m/s)
2
⇒ v
2
= 5.98 m/s
(b) U = −m(9.81 m/s
2
)(0 −2 m)
−(0.2)[m(9.81 m/s
2
) cos 40
◦
]
¸
2 m
sin 40
◦
¸
U =
1
2
mv
2
2
−
1
2
m(1 m/s)
2
⇒ v
2
= 5.56 m/s
Problem 15.35 In case (a), a 5N ball is released from
rest at position 1 and falls to position 2. In case (b), the
ball is released from rest at position 1 and swings to
position 2. For each case, use the principle of work and
energy to determine the magnitude of the ball’s velocity
at position 2. (In case (b), notice that the force exerted on
the ball by the string is perpendicular to the ball’s path.)
(a) (b)
2
2
1 1
2
m
Solution: The work is independent of the path, so both cases are
the same.
U = −m(
2
)(0 −2 m) =
1
2
mv
2
2
−0 ⇒ v
2
=
194
9.81 m/s 9.1 m/s
35.7 m/s
9.81m/s 6.26 m/s
61 m
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.36 The 2kg ball is released from rest in
position 1 with the string horizontal. The length of the
string is L = 1 m. What is the magnitude of the ball’s
velocity when it is in position 2?
L
2
1
40Њ
Solution:
U
12
= −
−Lsin α
0
mgj · dsj
U
12
= −mg(−Lsin α) = (2)(9.81)(1) sin 40
◦
U
12
= 12.61 Nm
U
12
=
1
2
mv
2
2
−
1
2
mv
2
1
v
1
≡ 0
1
2
(2)v
2
2
= 12.61
v
2
= 3.55 m/s
2 kg
1 m
α
2
1
L
L = 1 m
SIN α
Problem 15.37 The 2kg ball is released from rest in
position 1 with the string horizontal. The length of the
string is L = 1 m. What is the tension in the string when
the ball is in position 2?
Strategy: Draw the freebody diagram of the ball
when it is in position 2 and write Newton’s second law
in terms of normal and tangential components.
Solution: m = 2 kg
¸
F
r
: −T +mg cos 50
◦
= −mv
2
2
/L
From Problem 15.36,
v
2
= 3.55 m/s
T = mg cos 50
◦
+mv
2
/L
T = 37.8 N
40°
50°
T
e
θ
e
r
mg
195
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.38 The 400N wrecker’s ball swings at
the end of a 25m cable. If the magnitude of the ball’s
velocity at position 1 is 4 m/s, what is the magnitude of
its velocity just before it hits the wall at position 2?
1
2
95°
65°
Solution:
U = −(400 N)(−25 m sin 95
◦
−[−25 m sin 65
◦
])
U =
1
2
400 N
2
(v
2
2
−[4 m/s]
2
)
⇒ v
2
=
Problem 15.39 The 400N wrecker’s ball swings at
the end of a 25m cable. If the magnitude of the ball’s
velocity at position 1 is 4 m/s, what is the maximum
tension in the cable as the ball swings from position 1
to position 2?
Solution: From the solution to Problem 15.37, the tension in the
cable is T = mg sin α +m
v
2
L
. From the solution to Problem 15.38,
v
2
= 2gL[sin α −sin 65
◦
](65
◦
≤ α ≤ 95
◦
), from which T = 3 mg sin
α −2 mg sin 65
◦
. The maximum tension occurs when sin α is a max
imum in the interval (65
◦
≤ α ≤ 95
◦
), from which
T = 3 mg sin 90
◦
−2 mg sin 65
◦
= 474.9516 N.
196
9.81 m/s
7.75 m/s
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.40 A stunt driver wants to drive a car
through the circular loop of radius R = 5 m. Determine
the minimum velocity v
0
at which the car can enter the
loop and coast through without losing contact with the
track. What is the car’s velocity at the top of the loop?
R
0
Solution: First, let us ﬁnd V
T
¸
F
n
: N +mg = mV
2
T
/R
For minimum velocity, N →0
mg = mV
2
T
/R
V
T
=
√
Rg = 7.00 m/s
Now ﬁnd V
0
using workenergy
U
0T
=
10
0
−mgj · (dxi +dyj)
U
0T
=
10
0
−mg dy = −mgy
U
0T
= −98.1m (Nm)
Also, U
0T
=
1
2
mV
2
T
−
1
2
mV
2
0
= −98.1m (Nm)
Solving for V
0
(V
T
= 7.00 m/s)
V
2
0
= V
2
T
+(98.1)(2)
V
0
= 15.68 m/s
V
TOP
= V
T
V
0
R
ds = dxi + dyj
N
e
t
e
n
mg
Problem 15.41 The 2kg collar starts from rest at posi
tion 1 and slides down the smooth rigid wire. The yaxis
points upward. What is the magnitude of the velocity of
the collar when it reaches position 2?
(3, –1, 3) m
x
y
z
(5, 5, 2) m 1
2
2 kg
Solution: The work done by the weight is U
weight
= mgh, where
h = y
1
−y
2
= 5 −(−1) = 6 m. From the principle of work and
energy, mgh =
1
2
mv
2
, from which
v =
√
2 gh = 10.85 m/s
197
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.42 The 4N collar slides down the smooth
rigid wire from position 1 to position 2. When it reaches
position 2, the magnitude of its velocity is 24 m/s. What
N
was the magnitude of its velocity at position 1?
(4 Ϫ1, 4) m
x
y
z
(Ϫ2, 6, 4) m
1
2
4
n,
Solution:
U = (4 N)(6 −[−1]) =
1
2
4 N
/s
2
([24 m/s]
2
−v
2
1
)
⇒ v
1
=
Problem 15.43 The forces acting on the 125 kN air
plane are the thrust T and drag D, which are parallel to
the airplane’s path, the lift L, which is perpendicular to
the path, and the weight W. The airplane climbs from
an altitude of 914 m to an altitude of 3048 m. During
the climb, the magnitude of its velocity decreases from
(a) What work is done on the airplane by its lift during
the climb?
(b) What work is done by the thrust and drag com
bined?
T
W
D
L
Solution:
(a) The work due to the lift L is zero since it acts perpendicular to
the motion.
(b) U = U
L+D
−( )( − )
U =
1
2
2
([183 m/s]
2
−[244 m/s]
2
)
⇒ U
L+D
= ×10
7
198
m
9.81 m
20.9 m/s
244 m/s to /s. 183 m
125000 N 3048 914 m
125000 N
9.81 m/s
10.07 Nm
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.44 The 10.7 kN car is traveling 64.4 km/h
at position 1. If the combined effect of the aerodynamic
drag on the car and the tangential force exerted on its
wheels by the road is that they exert no net tangential
force on the car, what is the magnitude of the car’s
velocity at position 2?
30°
30°
1
2
36.6 m
30.5 m
Solution: The initial velocity is
v
1
= = /s
The change in elevation of the car is
h = (1 −cos 30
◦
) + (1 −cos 30
◦
)
= (1 −cos 30
◦
) =
The initial kinetic energy is
1
2
W
g
v
2
1
= 173895
The work done by gravity is
U
gravity
=
h
0
(−W) ds = −Wh = − (h) = − .
From the principle of work and energy the work done is equal to the
gain in kinetic energy:
U
gravity
=
1
2
W
g
v
2
2
−
1
2
W
g
v
2
1
,
from which
v
2
=
2g(− +173895)
W
= /
Problem 15.45 The10.7 kN car is traveling m/h
position 1. If the combined effect of aerodynamic
drag on the car and the tangential force exerted on its
wheels by the road is that they exert a con. stant 1.78 kN
tangential force on the car in the direction of its motion,
what is the magnitude of the car’s velocity at position 2?
Solution: From the solution to Problem 15.44, the work done by
gravity is U
gravity
= − Nm due to the change in elevation of
the car of h = .
1
2
W
g
v
2
1
= 173895
The length of road between positions 1 and 2 is
s = (30
◦
)
π
180
◦
+ (30 )
◦
π
180
◦
= .
The work done by the tangential force is
U
tgt
=
s
0
ds = ( . ) =  .
From the principle of work and energy
U
gravity
+U
tgt
=
1
2
W
g
v
2
2
−
1
2
W
g
v
2
1
,
from which
v =
2( . )(− + + )
2400
= . /s = h
199
6 k 4. 4 17. 9 m
36.6 30.5
67.1 8.98 m
N
10700 95903.9 Nm
95903.9
11.96 m s
64.4 k
at
95903.9
8 98 m, and Nm.
36.6 30.5 35.1 m
1780 1780 62468.5 N m
9 81 95903.9 62468.5 173895
16 1 m 57 .9 km/
35 1
m/h
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.46 The mass of the rocket is 250 kg. Its
engine has a constant thrust of 45 kN. The length of the
launching ramp is 10 m. If the magnitude of the rocket’s
velocity when it reaches the end of the ramp is 52 m/s,
how much work is done on the rocket by friction and
aerodynamic drag?
2 m
Solution:
U = U
Fr+Dr
+(45 kN)(10 m) −(250 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
)(2 m)
U =
1
2
(250 kg)(52 m/s)
2
U
Fr+Dr
= −107 kNm
Problem 15.47 A bioengineer interested in energy
requirements of sports determines from videotape that
when the athlete begins his motion to throw the 7.25kg
shot (Fig. a), the shot is stationary and 1.50 m above
the ground. At the instant the athlete releases it (Fig. b),
the shot is 2.10 m above the ground. The shot reaches a
maximum height of 4.60 m above the ground and travels
a horizontal distance of 18.66 m from the point where
it was released. How much work does the athlete do on
the shot from the beginning of his motion to the instant
he releases it?
(a) (b)
Solution: Let v
x0
and v
y0
be the velocity components at the instant
of release. Using the chain rule,
a
y
=
dv
y
dt
=
dv
y
dy
dy
dt
=
dv
y
dy
v
y
= −g,
and integrating,
0
v
y0
v
y
dv
y
= −g
4.6
2.1
dy.
−
1
2
v
y0
2
= −g(4.6 −2.1), we ﬁnd that v
y0
= 7.00 m/s. The shot’s x
and y coordinates are given by x = v
x0
t , y = 2.1 +v
y0
t −
1
2
gt
2
. Solv
ing the ﬁrst equation for t and substituting it into the second,
y = 2.1 +v
y0
x
v
x0
−
1
2
g
x
v
x0
2
Setting x = 18.66 m, y = 0 in this equation and solving for v
x0
gives
v
x0
= 11.1 m/s. The magnitude of the shot’s velocity at release is
U
2
=
v
x0
2
+v
y0
2
= 13.1 m/s.
Let U
A
be the work he does
U
A
−mg(y
2
−y
1
) =
1
2
mv
2
2
−
1
2
mv
1
2
U
A
−(7.25 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
)(2.1 −1.5) =
1
2
(7.25)(13.1)
2
−0,
or U
A
= 666 Nm
y
x
y0
x0
2.1 m
4.6 m
18.66 m
v
v
200
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.48 A small pellet of mass m = 0.2 kg
starts from rest at position 1 and slides down the smooth
surface of the cylinder to position 2, where θ = 30
◦
.
(a) What work is done on the pellet as it slides from
position 1 to position 2?
(b) What is the magnitude of the pellet’s velocity at
position 2?
1
2
0.8 m
m
u
Solution:
v
1
= 0 R = 0.8 m
U
12
=
1
2
mv
2
2
−
1
2
mv
2
1
U
12
= (0.5)(0.2)v
2
2
= 0.1v
2
2
The work is
U
12
= (0.2)(9.81)(0.8 −0.8 cos 30
◦
)
= 0.210 Nm.
(a) U
12
= 0.210 (Nm)
(b) 0.1v
2
2
= 0.210 (Nm)
v
2
= 1.45 m/s
R
R cos 30°
30°
2
1
Problem 15.49 In Active Example 15.4, suppose that
you want to increase the value of the spring constant k
so that the velocity of the hammer just before it strikes
the workpiece is 4 m/s. what is the required value of k?
400
mm
300 mm
2
1
k k
Workpiece
Hammer
Solution: The 40kg hammer is released from rest in position 1.
The springs are unstretched when in position 2. Neglect friction.
U
12
= mgh +2
1
2
kd
2
=
1
2
mv
2
2
k =
m
d
2
v
2
2
2
−gh
k =
40 kg
(0.2 m)
2
[4 m]
2
2
−[9.81m/s
2
][0.4m]
k = 4080 N/m.
201
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.50 Suppose that you want to design a
bumper that will bring a 50 . package moving at 10 /s
to rest 152.4 mm from the point of contact with bumper.
If friction is negligible, what is the necessary spring
constant k?
k
10 m/s
Solution: From the principle of work and energy, the work done
on the spring must equal the change in kinetic energy of the package
within the distance 152.4 m.
1
2
kS
2
=
1
2
W
g
v
2
from which
k =
W
g
v
S
2
=
50
10
0.
2
=
Problem 15.51 In Problem 15.50, what spring con
stant is necessary if the coefﬁcient of kinetic friction
between the package and the ﬂoor is µ
k
= 0.3 and the
package contacts the bumper moving at 10 m/s?
Solution: The work done on the spring over the stopping dis
tance is
U
S
=
S
0
F ds =
S
0
ks ds =
1
2
kS
2
.
The work done by friction over the stopping distance is
U
f
=
S
0
F ds =
S
0
µ
k
W ds = µ
k
WS.
From the principle of work and energy the work done must equal the
kinetic energy of the package:
1
2
kS
2
+µ
k
WS =
1
2
W
g
v
2
,
from which, for S =
k =
W
g
(v
2
−2 gµ
k
S)
S
2
=
202
N m
9.81 152
22060 N/m
0.152 m,
21863 N/m
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.52 The 50 package starts from rest,
slides down the smooth ramp, and is stopped by the
spring.
(a) If you want the package to be brought to rest
from the point of contact, what is the
necessary spring constant k?
(b) What maximum deceleration is the package sub
jected to?
N
k
30Њ
m 4
Solution:
(a) Find the spring constant
U
12
= mgh −
1
2
kx
2
= 0
k =
2mgh
x
2
=
2(50 N)(4.5 m)sin 30
◦
(0.5m)
2
k = 900 N/m
(b) The maximum deceleration occurs when the spring reaches the
maximum compression (the force is then the largest).
kx −mg sin θ = ma
a =
k
m
x −g sin θ
a =
(900 N/m)
50 N
.
2
(0.5 ) −(
2
) sin 30
◦
a =
2
Problem 15.53 The 50N package starts from rest,
slides down the smooth ramp, and is stopped by the
spring. The coefﬁcient of static friction between the pack
age and the ramp is µ k = 0.12. If you want the package
to be brought to rest from the point of contact,
what is the necessary spring constant k?
k
30Њ
m 4
Solution: Find the spring constant
U
12
= mgd sin θ −µ
k
mg cos θ d −
1
2
kx
2
= 0
k =
2mgd
x
2
(sin θ −µ
k
cos θ)
k =
2(50 N)(4.5m)
(0.5 )
2
(sin 30
◦
−0.12 cos 30
◦
)
k = 713 / .
203
N
0.5 m
9 81 m/s
m 9.81m/s
83.4 m/s
0.5 m
m
N m
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.54 The system is released from rest
with the spring unstretched. The spring constant
k = 200 N/m. Determine the magnitude of the velocity
of the masses when the right mass has fallen 1 m.
k
20 kg
4 kg
Solution: When the larger mass falls 1 m, the smaller mass rises
1 m and the spring stretches 1 m. For the system of two masses,
springs, and the cable,
U
12
=
1
0
(−ks) ds +
1
0
(−m
1
g) ds +
1
0
m
2
g ds
U
12
= −
1
2
ks
2
1
0
−m
1
gs
1
0
+m
2
gs
1
0
U
12
= −
1
2
k −4(9.81) +(20)(9.81)
U
12
= 56.96 Nm
Also U
12
=
1
2
(m
1
+m
2
)V
2
f
−0
Solving V
f
= 2.18 m/s
m
1
m
2
k
4 kg 20 kg
Problem 15.55 The system is released from rest
with the spring unstretched. The spring constant
k = 200 N/m. What maximum downward velocity does
the right mass attain as it falls?
Solution: From the solution to Problem 15.54,
U
12
= −
1
2
Ks
2
+(m
2
−m
1
)gs
and
U
12
=
1
2
(m
1
+m
2
)V
2
For all s. Setting these equal, we get
1
2
(m
1
+m
2
)V
2
= (m
2
−m
1
)gs −
1
2
Ks
2
(1)
Solve for
dv
ds
and set
dv
ds
to zero
1
2
(m
1
+m
2
)2v
dv
ds
= (m
2
−m
1
)g −Ks = 0
The extreme value for V occurs at
S =
(m
2
−m
1
)g
K
= 0.785 m
Substituting this back into (1) and solving, we get V = 2.27 m/s
204
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.56 The system is released from rest. The
4kg mass slides on the smooth horizontal surface. The
spring constant is k = 100 N/m, and the tension in the
spring when the system is released is 50 N. By using the
principle of work and energy, determine the magnitude
of the velocity of the masses when the 20kg mass has
fallen 1 m.
20 kg
4 kg k
Solution:
50 N = (100 N/m)x
1
⇒ x
1
= 0.5 m
U = (20 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
)(1 m) −
1
2
(100 N/m)([1.5 m]
2
−[0.5 m]
2
)
U =
1
2
(24 kg)(v
2
2
−0)
v
2
= 2.83 m/s
Problem 15.57 Solve Problem 15.56 if the coefﬁcient
of kinetic friction between the 4kg mass and the hori
zontal surface is µ
k
= 0.4.
Solution:
50 N = (100 N/m)x
1
⇒ x
1
= 0.5 m
U = (20 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
)(1 m) −
1
2
(100 N/m)([1.5 m]
2
−[0.5 m]
2
)
−(0.4)(4 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
)(1 m)
U =
1
2
(24 kg)(v
2
2
−0)
v
2
= 2.59 m/s
205
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.58 The 40 Ncrate is released from rest on
the smooth inclined surface with the spring unstretched.
The spring constant is k = 8 / .
(a) How far down the inclined surface does the crate
slide before it stops?
(b) What maximum velocity does the crate attain on
its way down?
k
30Њ
Solution: At an arbitrary distance s down the slope we have:
U = (40 N)(s sin 30
◦
) −
1
2
(8 N/m)s
2
=
1
2
40 N
2
v
2
(a) When it stops, we set v = 0 and solve for s = 5
(b) Solving for v
2
, we have
v
2
= (20s −4s
2
) ⇒
dv
2
ds
= (20 −8s) = 0 ⇒s = 2.5 m
Using s = 2.5 m ⇒ v
max
= 3 /s
Problem 15.59 Solve Problem 15.58 if the coefﬁcient
of kinetic friction between the 4kg mass and the hori
zontal surface is µ
k
= 0.2.
Solution: At an arbitrary distance s down the slope we have:
U = (40 N)(s sin 30
◦
) −
1
2
(8 N/m)s
2
−(0.2)(40 N cos 30
◦
)s
=
1
2
40 N
2
v
2
(a) When it stops, we set v = 0 and solve for s = 3.27 m
(b) Solving for v
2
, we have
v
2
= (13.07s −4s
2
) ⇒
dv
2
ds
= 1(13.07 −8s) = 0
⇒ s = 1.63 m
Using s = 1.63 m ⇒ v
max
=
206
N m
9.81 m/s
m
0.491 0. 491
.5 m
9.81 m/s
0.491 0. 49
2.29 m/s
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.60 The 4kg collar starts from rest in posi
tion 1 with the spring unstretched. The spring constant
is k = 100 N/m. How far does the collar fall relative to
position 1?
k
1
Solution:
V
0
= V
f
= 0
Let position 2 be the location where the collar comes to rest
U
12
= −
Ks
2
2
+mgs
Also U
12
=
1
2
mV
2
f
−
1
2
mV
2
0
= 0
Thus 0 = mgs −
Ks
2
2
s(2mg −Ks) = 0
Solving, s = 0.785 m.
k
1
ks
s
mg
207
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.61 In position 1 on the smooth bar, the
4kg collar has a downward velocity of 1 m/s and
the spring is unstretched. The spring constant is k =
100 N/m. What maximum downward velocity does the
collar attain as it falls?
Solution: The work is
U
12
= −
Ks
2
2
+mgs
Also,
U
12
=
1
2
mV
2
2
−
1
2
mV
2
1
where m = 4 kg and V
1
= 1 m/s
Thus,
1
2
mV
2
2
−
1
2
mV
2
1
= −
Ks
2
2
+ mgs (1)
Finding
dV
2
ds
, and setting it to zero,
mV
2
dV
2
ds
= −Ks +mg = 0
s = mg/k = 0.392 m
Solving (1) for V
2
we get V
2
= 2.20 m/s
k
1
Problem 15.62 The 4kg collar starts from rest in posi
tion 1 on the smooth bar. The tension in the spring in
position 1 is 20 N. The spring constant is k = 100 N/m.
How far does the collar fall relative to position 1?
Solution: For this problem, we need a new reference for the
spring. If the tension in the spring is 20 N
T = kδ
0
and K = 100 N/m
δ
0
= 0.2 m. (the initial stretch)
In this case, we have
U
12
= −
Ks
2
2
s+0.2
0.2
+mgs
s+0.2
0.2
Also V
0
= V
f
= 0 ∴U
12
= 0
0 = −
K(s +0.2)
2
2
+
K(0.2)
2
2
+mg(s +0.2) −mg(0.2)
Solving, we get s = 0.385 m
208
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.63 The 4kg collar is released from rest
at position 1 on the smooth bar. If the spring constant is
k = 6 kN/m and the spring is unstretched in position 2,
what is the velocity of the collar when it has fallen to
position 2?
k
2
1
200 mm
250 mm
Solution: Denote d = 200 mm, h = 250 mm. The stretch of the
spring in position 1 is S
1
=
√
h
2
+d
2
−d = 0.120 m and at 2 S
2
= 0.
The work done by the spring on the collar is
U
spring
=
0
0.12
(−ks) ds =
¸
−
1
2
ks
2
¸
0
0.120
= 43.31 Nm.
The work done by gravity is
U
gravity
=
−h
0
(−mg) ds = mgh = 9.81 Nm.
From the principle of work and energy U
spring
+U
gravity
=
1
2
mv
2
, from
which
v =
2
m
(U
spring
+U
gravity
) = 5.15 m/s
Problem 15.64 The 4kg collar is released from rest
in position 1 on the smooth bar. The spring constant is
k = 4 kN/m. The tension in the spring in position 2 is
500 N. What is the velocity of the collar when it has
fallen to position 2?
Solution: Denote d = 200 mm, h = 250 mm. The stretch of the
spring at position 2 is
S
2
=
T
k
=
500
4000
= 0.125 m.
The unstretched length of the spring is L = d −S
2
= 0.2 −0.125 =
0.075 m. The stretch of the spring at position 1 is S
1
=
√
h
2
+d
2
−
L = 0.245 m. The work done by the spring is
U
spring
=
S
2
S
1
(−ks) ds =
1
2
k(S
2
1
−S
2
2
) = 88.95 Nm.
The work done by gravity is U
gravity
= mgh = 9.81 Nm. From the
principle of work and energy is U
spring
+U
gravity
=
1
2
mv
2
, from which
v =
2(U
spring
+U
gravity
)
m
= 7.03 m/s
209
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.65 The 4kg collar starts from rest in
position 1 on the smooth bar. Its velocity when it has
fallen to position 2 is 4 m/s. The spring is unstretched
when the collar is in position 2. What is the spring
constant k?
Solution: The kinetic energy at position 2 is
1
2
mv
2
= 32 Nm.
From the solution to Problem 15.63, the stretch of the spring in posi
tion 1 is S
1
=
√
h
2
+d
2
−d = 0.120 m. The potential of the spring is
U
spring
=
0
S
1
(−ks) ds =
1
2
kS
2
1
.
The work done by gravity is U
gravity
= mgh = 9.81 Nm. From the
principle of work of work and energy, U
spring
+U
gravity
=
1
2
mv
2
. Sub
stitute and solve:
k =
2
1
2
mv
2
−U
gravity
S
2
1
= 3082 N/m
Problem 15.66 The 10kg collar starts from rest at
position 1 and slides along the smooth bar. The yaxis
points upward. The spring constant is k = 100 N/m and
the unstretched length of the spring is 2 m. What is the
velocity of the collar when it reaches position 2?
x
y
(4, 4, 2) m
(6, 2, 1) m
(1, 1, 0) m
1
2
z
Solution: The stretch of the spring at position 1 is
S
1
=
(6 −1)
2
+(2 −1)
2
+(1 −0)
2
−2 = 3.2 m.
The stretch of the spring at position 2 is
S
2
=
(6 −4)
2
+(2 −4)
2
+(1 −2)
2
−2 = 1 m.
The work done by the spring is
U
spring
=
S
2
S
1
(−ks) ds =
1
2
k(S
2
1
−S
2
2
) = 460.8 Nm.
The work done by gravity is
U
gravity
=
h
0
(−mg) ds = −mgh = −(10)(9.81)(4 −1)
= −294.3 Nm.
From the principle of work and energy:
U
spring
+U
gravity
=
1
2
mv
2
,
from which
v =
2(U
spring
+U
gravity
)
m
= 5.77 m/s
210
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.67 A springpowered mortar is used to
launch 44.5 N packages of ﬁreworks into the air. The
package starts from rest with the spring compressed to
a length of 152. 4 mm. The unstretched length of the
spring is k =1762 N/m,
what is the magnitude of the velocity of the package as
it leaves the mortar?
60°
762 mm
152.4 mm
Solution: Equating the work done to the change in the kinetic
energy,
−
1
2
k(S
2
2
−S
2
1
) −mg(y
2
−y
1
) =
1
2
mv
2
2
−
1
2
mv
2
1
:
−
1
2
(1 )[0 −( )
2
]−( )(
◦
ft) =
1
2
( / )v
2
2
−0.
Solving, we obtain v
2
= 9 /s.
Problem 15.68 Suppose that you want to design the
mortar in Problem 15.67 to throw the package to a height
of 45.7 m above its initial position. Neglecting friction
and drag, determine the necessary spring constant.
Solution: See the solution of Problem 15.67. Let v
2
be the
velocity as the package leaves the barrel. To reach , mg( −
sin 60
◦
) =
1
2
m(v
2
sin 60
◦
)
2
. Solving, we obtain v
2
=
and energy inside the barrel is
−
1
2
k[0−( )
2
]−( )(
◦
)=
1
2
( / )( )
2
−0,
which gives k =
Problem 15.69 Suppose an object has a string or cable
with constant tension T attached as shown. The force
exerted on the object can be expressed in terms of polar
coordinates as F = −T e
r
. Show that the work done on
the object as it moves along an arbitrary plane path
from a radial position r
1
to a radial position r
2
is U
12
=
−T (r
1
−r
2
).
T
θ
r
Solution: The work done on the object is
U =
r
2
r
1
F · ds.
Suppose that the arbitrary path is deﬁned by dr = (dre
r
+rdθe
θ
),
and the work done is
U =
r
2
r
1
F · dr =
r
2
r
1
−T (e
r
· e
r
) dr +
r
2
r
1
T (re
r
· e
θ
)rdθ
= −
r
2
r
1
T dr = −T (r
2
−r
1
)
since e
r
· e
s
= 0 by deﬁnition.
211
762 mm. If the spring constant is
762 0.61m 44.5 0.61sin 60 44.5 9.81
3 .3 m
45.7 m 45.7
0.61 34.4 m/s.
Work
0. 61m 44.5 0. 61sin 60 m 44.5 9.81 34.4
14549 N/m.
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.70 The 2kg collar is initially at rest at
position 1. A constant 100N force is applied to the
string, causing the collar to slide up the smooth vertical
bar. What is the velocity of the collar when it reaches
position 2? (See Problem 15.69.)
2
1
100 N
200 mm
500 mm
Solution: The constant force on the end of the string acts through
a distance s =
√
0.5
2
+0.2
2
−0.2 = 0.3385 m. The work done by the
constant force is U
F
= Fs = 33.85 Nm. The work done by gravity
on the collar is
U
gravity
=
h
0
(−mg) ds = −mgh = −(2)(9.81)(0.5)
= −9.81 Nm.
From the principle of work and energy:
U
F
+U
gravity
=
1
2
mv
2
,
from which v =
2(U
F
+U
gravity
)
m
= 4.90 m/s
Problem 15.71 The 10kg collar starts from rest at
position 1. The tension in the string is 200 N, and the
y axis points upward. If friction is negligible, what is the
magnitude of the velocity of the collar when it reaches
position 2? (See Problem 15.69.)
y
200 N
x
(4, 4, 2) m
(6, 2, 1) m
(1, 1, 0) m
1
2
z
Solution: The constant force moves a distance
s =
(6 −1)
2
+(2 −1)
2
+(1 −0)
2
−
(6 −4)
2
+(2 −4)
2
+(1 −2)
2
= 2.2 m.
The work done by the constant force is
U
F
=
s
0
F ds = Fs = 439.2 Nm.
The work done by gravity is
U
gravity
=
h
0
(−mg) ds = −mgh = −(10)(9.81)(3)
= −294.3 Nm.
From the principle of work and energy U
F
+U
gravity
=
1
2
mv
2
, from
which
v =
2(U
F
+U
gravity
)
10
= 5.38 m/s
212
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.72 As the F/A  18 lands at 64 m/s, the
cable from A to B engages the airplane’s arresting hook
at C. The arresting mechanism maintains the tension
in the cable at a constant value, bringing the 115.6 kN
airplane to rest at a distance of 22 m. What is the tension
in the cable? (See Problem 15.69.)
B
C
A
22 m
20.1 m
Solution:
U = −2T (
( )
2
+( )
2
− )
=
1
2
2
(0 −[64 m/s]
2
)
T =
Problem 15.73 If the airplane in Problem 15.72 lands
at 73.2 m/s, what distance does it roll before the arresting
system brings it to rest?
Solution:
U = −2( )(
s
2
+( )
2
− )
=
1
2
2
(0 −[64 m/s]
2
)
Solving we ﬁnd s =
Problem 15.74 A spacecraft 320 km above the sur
face of the earth is moving at escape velocity v
esc
=
10,900 m/s. What is its distance from the center of the
earth when its velocity is 50 percent of its initial value?
The radius of the earth is 6370 km. (See Example 15.6.)
320 km
v
esc
Solution:
U
12
= mgR
2
E
1
r
2
−
1
r
1
=
1
2
mv
2
2
−
1
2
mv
2
1
r
2
=
¸
v
2
2
−v
2
1
2gR
2
E
+
1
r
1
−1
r
2
=
¸
(5450 m/s)
2
−(10,900 m/s)
2
2(9.81 m/s
2
)(6,370,000 m)
2
+
1
6,690,000 m
¸
−1
r
2
= 26,600 km.
213
22 m 10.1 m 10.1 m
115600 N
9.81 m/s
858500 10.1 m 10.1 m
115600
9.81 m/s
26.61 m
858.5 kN
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.75 A piece of ejecta is thrown up by the
impact of a meteor on the moon. When it is 1000 km
above the moon’s surface, the magnitude of its velocity
(relative to a nonrotating reference frame with its ori
gin at the center of the moon) is 200 m/s. What is the
magnitude of its velocity just before it strikes the moon’s
surface? The acceleration due to gravity at the surface of
the moon is 1.62 m/s
2
. The moon’s radius is 1738 km.
1000 km
200 m/s
Solution: The kinetic energy at h = 1000 km is
¸
m
2
v
2
¸
R
M
+h
= 2 ×10
4
Nm.
The work done on the ejecta as it falls from 1000 km is
U
ejecta
=
R
M
R
M+h
(−W
ejecta
) ds =
R
M
R
M
+h
−mg
M
R
2
M
s
2
ds
=
¸
mg
M
R
2
M
s
R
M
R
M
+h
= mg
M
R
M
h
R
M
+h
,
U
ejecta
= 1.028 m×10
6
Nm. From the principle of work and energy,
at the Moon’s surface:
U
ejecta
=
¸
m
2
v
2
¸
surface
−
¸
m
2
v
2
¸
R
M
+h
from which
v
surface
=
2(1.028 ×10
6
+2 ×10
4
) = 1448 m/s
214
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.76 A satellite in a circular orbit of
radius r around the earth has velocity v =
gR
2
E
/r,
where R
E
= 6370 km is the radius of the earth. Suppose
you are designing a rocket to transfer a 900kg
communication satellite from a circular parking orbit
with 6700km radius to a circular geosynchronous orbit
with 42,222km radius. How much work must the rocket
do on the satellite?
Solution: Denote the work to be done by the rocket by U
rocket
.
Denote R
park
= 6700 km, R
geo
= 42222 km. The work done by the
satellite’s weight as it moves from the parking orbit to the geosyn
chronous orbit is
U
transfer
=
R
geo
R
park
F ds =
R
geo
R
park
−mg
R
2
E
s
2
ds
=
¸
mg
R
2
E
s
R
geo
R
park
= mgR
2
E
1
R
geo
−
1
R
park
,
U
transfer
= −4.5 ×10
9
Nm. From the principle of work and energy:
U
transfer
+U
rocket
=
¸
1
2
mv
2
¸
geo
−
¸
1
2
mv
2
¸
park
.
from which
U
rocket
=
¸
1
2
mv
2
¸
geo
−
¸
1
2
mv
2
¸
park
−U
transfer
.
Noting
¸
1
2
mv
2
¸
geo
=
m
2
gR
2
E
R
geo
= 4.24 ×10
9
Nm,
¸
1
2
mv
2
¸
park
=
m
2
g
R
2
E
R
park
= 2.67 ×10
10
Nm,
from which U
rocket
= 2.25 ×10
10
Nm
Problem 15.77 The force exerted on a charged particle
by a magnetic ﬁeld is F = qv ×B, where q and v are the
charge and velocity of the particle and B is the magnetic
ﬁeld vector. Suppose that other forces on the particle are
negligible. Use the principle of work and energy to show
that the magnitude of the particle’s velocity is constant.
Solution: The force vector F is given by a cross product involving
v. This means that the force vector is ALWAYS perpendicular to the
velocity vector. Hence, the force ﬁeld does no work on the charged
particle  it only changes the direction of its motion. Hence, if work
is zero, the change in kinetic energy is also zero and the velocity of
the charged particle is constant.
215
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.78 The 10 box is released from rest at
position 1 and slides down the smooth inclined surface
to position 2.
(a) If the datum is placed at the level of the ﬂoor as
shown, what is the sum of the kinetic and potential
energies of the box when it is in position 1?
(b) What is the sum of the kinetic and potential ener
gies of the box when it is in position 2?
(c) Use conservation of energy to determine the mag
nitude of the box’s velocity when it is in position 2.
30Њ
1
2
2 m
Datum
M5 m
Solution:
(a) T
1
+V
1
= 0 +(10 N)(5 m) = 50 Nm
(b) T
1
+V
1
= T
2
+V
2
= 50 
(c) 50  =
1
2
10 N
2
v
2
2
+(10 N)(2 m) ⇒ v
2
=
Problem 15.79 The 0.45kg soccer ball is 1 m above
the ground when it is kicked upward at 12 m/s. Use
conservation of energy to determine the magnitude of
the ball’s velocity when it is 4 m above the ground.
Obtain the answer by placing the datum (a) at the level
of the ball’s initial position and (b) at ground level.
12 m/s
1 m
12 m/s
1 m
Datum
Datum
(a) (b)
Solution:
(a) T
1
=
1
2
(0.45 kg)(12 m/s)
2
, V
1
= 0
T
2
=
1
2
(0.45 kg)v
2
2
, V
2
= (0.45 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
)(3 m)
T
1
+V
1
= T
2
+V
2
⇒ v
2
= 9.23 m/s
(b) T
1
=
1
2
(0.45 kg)(12 m/s)
2
, V
1
= (0.45 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
)(1 m)
T
2
=
1
2
(0.45 kg)v
2
2
, V
2
= (0.45 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
)(4 m)
T
1
+V
1
= T
2
+V
2
⇒ v
2
= 9.23 m/s
216
N
N m
N m
9.81 m/s
7.67 m/s
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.80 The Lunar Module (LM) used in the
Apollo moon landings could make a safe landing if
the magnitude of its vertical velocity at impact was no
greater than 5 m/s. Use conservation of energy to deter
mine the maximum height h at which the pilot could
shut off the engine if the vertical velocity of the lander
is (a) 2 m/s downward and (b) 2 m/s upward. The accel
eration due to gravity at the moon’s surface is 1.62 m/s
2
.
h
Solution: Use conservation of energy Let state 1 be at the max
height and state 2 at the surface. Datum is at the lunar surface.
(a), (b)
1
2
mv
2
1
+mgh =
1
2
mv
2
2
+0
v
2
= 5 m/s g = 1.62 m/s
2
v
1
= ±2 m/s
(m cancels from the equation.)
h =
1
2g
(v
2
2
−v
2
1
)
(The sign of V
1
does not matter since v
2
1
is the only occurrence of v
1
in the relationship). Solving h = 6.48 m
Problem 15.81 The 0.4kg collar starts from rest at
position 1 and slides down the smooth rigid wire. The
y axis points upward. Use conservation of energy to
determine the magnitude of the velocity of the collar
when it reaches point 2.
(3, 0, 2) m
x
y
z
(5, 5, 2) m 1
2
0.4 kg
Solution: Assume gravity acts in the −y direction and that
y = 0 is the datum. By conservation of energy,
1
2
mv
2
+V =
constant where V = mgy. Thus,
1
2
mv
2
1
+mgy
1
=
1
2
mv
2
2
+mgy
2
m = 0.4 kg, g = 9.81 m/s
2
, v
1
= 0, y
2
= 0, and y
1
= 5 m. Thus
0 +(0.4)(9.81)(5) =
1
2
(0.4)v
2
2
+0
v
2
= 9.90 m/s
z
x
1 (5, 5, 2) m
0.4 kg
2 (3, 0, 2) m
y
217
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.82 At the instant shown, the 20kg mass
is moving downward at 1.6 m/s. Let d be the downward
displacement of the mass relative to its present position.
Use conservation of energy to determine the magnitude
of the velocity of the 20kg mass when d = 1 m.
20 kg
4 kg
Solution:
m
1
= 4 kg
m
2
= 20 kg
v
1
= 1.6 m/s
g = 9.81 m/s
2
d = 1 m
Energy for the system is conserved
1
2
m
1
v
2
1
+0
+
1
2
m
2
v
2
1
+0
=
1
2
m
1
v
2
2
+
1
2
m
2
v
2
2
+m
1
g(d) −m
2
g(d)
(m
1
+m
2
)v
2
1
= (m
1
+m
2
)v
2
2
+2(m
1
−m
2
)gd
Substituting known values and solving v
2
= 3.95 m/s
1.6
m
s
4 kg
A
A
B
B
20 kg
1.6 m/s
V
2
V
2
d
d
Datum
State (1)
State (2)
V
A
= V
B
= 0
Problem 15.83 The mass of the ball is m = 2 kg and
the string’s length is L = 1 m. The ball is released from
rest in position 1 and swings to position 2, where θ =
40
◦
.
(a) Use conservation of energy to determine the mag
nitude of the ball’s velocity at position 2.
(b) Draw graphs of the kinetic energy, the potential
energy, and the total energy for values of θ from
zero to 180
◦
.
L
m 2
1
u
Solution:
m = 2 kg
L = 1 m
Use conservation of energy State 1 θ = 0; State 2, 0 < θ < 180
◦
Datum: θ = 0, v
1
= 0, g = 9.81 m/s
2
1
2
mv
2
1
+mg(0) =
1
2
mv
2
2
+mg(−Lsin θ)
KE =
1
2
mv
2
2
V = −mgLsin θ for all θ.
Total energy is always zero (datum value).
(a) Evaluating at θ = 40
◦
, v
2
= 3.55 m/s
20
15
K
E
,
P
E
,
a
n
d
(
P
E
+
K
E
)
N

m
10
5
0
–5
–10
–15
–20
0 20 40 60 80
Theta (degrees)
Kinetic and Potential Energy vs
KE positive, PE negative, (KE + PE) zero
100 120 140 160 180
KE
PE
TOT
α
218
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.84 The mass of the ball is m = 2 kg and
the string’s length is L = 1 m. The ball is released from
rest in position 1. When the string is vertical, it hits the
ﬁxed peg shown.
(a) Use conservation of energy to determine the min
imum angle θ necessary for the ball to swing to
position 2.
(b) If the ball is released at the minimum angle θ deter
mined in part (a), what is the tension in the string
just before and just after it hits the peg?
m = 2 kg
L = 1 m
L
1
2
L
1
–
2
u
Solution: Energy is conserved. v
1
= v
2
= 0 Use θ = 90
◦
as the
datum.
(a)
1
2
mv
2
1
+mg(−Lcos θ
1
) =
1
2
mv
2
2
−mg
L
2
0 −mgLcos θ
1
= 0 −mg
L
2
cos θ
1
=
1
2
θ = 60
◦
(b) Use conservation of energy to determine velocity at the lowest
point, (state 3) (v
1
≡ 0)
1
2
mv
2
1
−mgLcos 60
◦
=
1
2
mv
2
3
−mgL
1
2
mv
2
3
= mgL −mgL/2
v
2
3
= gL = 9.81
m
2
s
2
v
3
= 3.13 m/s at θ = 0
◦
.
Before striking the peg
T
1
−mg = mv
2
3
/L
T
1
= (2)(9.81) +(2)(9.81)/(1)
T
1
= 39.2 N
After striking the peg.
T −mg = mv
2
3
/(L/2)
T = (2)(9.81) +2[(2)(9.81)/1]
T = 58.9 N
T
1
mg
mV
3
2
L
T
2
mg
(L/2)
mV
3
2
219
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.85 A small pellet of mass m = 0.2 kg
starts from rest at position 1 and slides down the
smooth surface of the cylinder to position 2. The radius
R = 0.8 m. Use conservation of energy to determine
the magnitude of the pellet’s velocity at position 2 if
θ = 45
◦
.
m
2
1
u
R
20Њ
Solution: Use the ground as the datum
T
1
= 0, V
1
= (0.2 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
)(0.8 m) cos 20
◦
T
2
=
1
2
(0.2 kg)v
2
2
, V
2
= (0.2 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
)(0.8 m) cos 45
◦
T
1
+V
1
= T
2
+V
2
⇒ v
2
= 1.91 m/s
Problem 15.86 In Problem 15.85, what is the value of
the angle θ at which the pellet loses contact with the
surface of the cylinder?
Solution: In position 2 we have
¸
F
: N —mg cos θ = −m
v
2
2
R
⇒ N = m
g cos θ −
v
2
2
R
When the pellet leaves the surface N = 0 ⇒ v
2
2
= Rg cos θ
Now do workenergy.
T
1
= 0, V
1
= mgR cos 20
◦
T
2
=
1
2
mv
2
2
=
1
2
mRg cos θ, V
2
= mgRcos θ
T
1
+V
1
= T
2
+V
2
⇒ 0 +mgRcos 20
◦
=
3
2
mgR cos θ
Solving we ﬁnd θ = cos
−1
2
3
cos 20
◦
= 51.2
◦
N
mg
θ
220
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.87 The bar is smooth. The 10kg slider at
A is given a downward velocity of 6.5 m/s.
(a) Use conservation of energy to determine whether
the slider will reach point C. If it does, what is the
magnitude of its velocity at point C?
(b) What is the magnitude of the normal force the bar
exerts on the slider as it passes point B?
B
1 m
1 m
A
2 m
10 kg
C D
Solution:
(a) Find the velocity at C.
1
2
mv
2
A
+0 =
1
2
mv
2
C
+mgh
v
C
=
v
2
A
−2gh =
(6.5 m/s)
2
−2(9.81 m/s
2
)(2 m)
This equation has a real solution, hence it is possible to reach
point C.
Yes, v
C
= 1.73 m/s.
(b) Find the velocity at point B
1
2
mv
2
A
+0 =
1
2
mv
2
B
−mgh,
v
B
=
v
2
A
+2gh =
(6.5 m/s)
2
+2(9.81 m/s
2
)(1 m) = 7.87 m/s.
Now ﬁnd the normal force
F
y
: N −mg = m
v
2
B
ρ
N = m
g +
v
2
B
ρ
= (10 kg)
[9.81 m/s
2
] +
[7.87 m/s]
2
1 m
N = 717 N.
221
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.88 The bar is smooth. The 10kg slider at
A is given a downward velocity of 7.5 m/s.
(a) Use conservation of energy to determine whether
the slider will reach point D. If it does, what is the
magnitude of its velocity at point D?
(b) What is the magnitude of the normal force the bar
exerts on the slider as it passes point B?
B
1 m
1 m
A
2 m
10 kg
C D
Solution:
(a) We will ﬁrst ﬁnd the velocity at the highest point (half way
between C and D).
1
2
mv
2
A
+0 =
1
2
mv
2
D
+mgh
v
D
=
v
2
A
−2gh =
(7.5 m/s)
2
−2(9.81 m/s
2
)(3 m)
v
D
=
√
−2.61 m/s.
This equation does not have a solution in terms of real numbers
which means that it cannot reach the highest point.
No.
(b) Find the velocity at point B
1
2
mv
2
A
+0 =
1
2
mv
2
B
−mgh,
v
B
=
v
2
A
+2gh =
(7.5 m/s)
2
+2(9.81 m/s
2
)(1 m) = 8.71 m/s.
Now ﬁnd the normal force
F
y
: N −mg = m
v
2
B
ρ
N = m
g +
v
2
B
ρ
= (10 kg)
[9.81 m/s
2
] +
[8.71 m/s]
2
1 m
N = 857 N.
Problem 15.89 In Active Example 15.7, suppose that
you want to increase the value of the spring constant k
so that the velocity of the hammer just before it strikes
the workpiece is 4 m/s. Use conservation of energy to
determine the required value of k.
400
mm
300 mm
2
1
k k
Workpiece
Hammer
Solution:
2
1
2
ks
2
+mgh =
1
2
mv
2
k =
m(v
2
−2gh)
2s
2
k =
(40 kg)([4 m/s]
2
−2[9.81 m/s
2
][0.4 m])
2([0.5 m] −[0.3 m])
2
k = 4080 N/m.
222
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.90 A rock climber of weight W has a rope
attached a distance h below him for protection. Suppose
that he falls, and assume that the rope behaves like a lin
ear spring with unstretched length h and spring constant
k = C/h, where C is a constant. Use conservation of
energy to determine the maximum force exerted on the
climber by the rope. (Notice that the maximum force
is independent of h, which is a reassuring result for
climbers: The maximum force resulting from a long fall
is the same as that resulting from a short one.)
h
Solution: Choose the climber’s center of mass before the fall as
the datum. The energy of the climber before the fall is zero. As the
climber falls, his energy remains the same:
0 =
1
2
mv
2
−Wy,
where y is positive downward. As the rope tightens, the potential
energy stored in the rope becomes
V
rope
=
1
2
k(y −2h)
2
.
At maximum extension the force on the climber is
F = −
∂V
∂y
= −k(y −2h).
When the velocity of the falling climber is zero, 0 = −Wy +
1
2
k(y −
2h)
2
, from which: y
2
+2by +c = 0, where
b = −
2h +
W
k
,
and c = +4h
2
. The solution is
y =
2h +
W
k
±
W
k
4 kh
W
+1.
Substitute:
F = −W
1 ±
1 +
4C
W
.
The positive sign applies, and the force is
F = −W
1 +
1 +
4C
W
(directed upward).
223
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.91 The collar A slides on the smooth hori
zontal bar. The spring constant k =40 N/m. The weights
are W
A
= 30 N and W
B
= 60 N. As the instant shown,
the spring is unstretched and B is moving downward
at 4 m/s. Use conservation of energy to determine the
velocity of B when it has moved downward 2 m from
its current position. (See Example 15.8.)
A
B
k
Solution: Notice that the collars have the same velocity
1
2
W
A
+W
B
g
v
2
1
+W
B
h =
1
2
W
A
+W
B
g
v
2
2
+
1
2
kh
2
v
2
=
v
2
1
+
2 W
B
h −kh
2
W
A
+W
B
g
v
2
=
(4 m/s)
2
+
2[60 N][2 m] −[40 N/m][2 m]
2
90 N
(
2
)
v
2
= /s.
Problem 15.92 The spring constant k = 700 N/m. The
masses m
A
= 14 kg and m
B
= 18 kg. The horizontal bar
is smooth. At the instant shown, the spring is unstretched
and the mass B is moving downward at 1 m/s. How fast
is B moving when it has moved downward 0.2 m from
its present position?
A
k
B
0.15 m
0.3 m
Solution: The unstretched length of the spring is
δ =
(0.3 m)
2
+(0.15 m)
2
= 0.335 m.
When B has moved 0.2 m, the length of the spring is
=
(0.5 m)
2
+(0.15 m)
2
= 0.522 m.
Conservation of energy is
1
2
(m
A
+m
B
)v
2
1
=
1
2
(m
A
+m
B
)v
2
2
−m
B
gh +
1
2
k(−δ)
2
v
2
=
v
2
1
+
2m
B
gh −k(−δ)
2
m
A
+m
B
v
2
=
(1 m/s)
2
+
2(18 kg)(9.81 m/s
2
)(0.2 m) −(700 N/m)(0.187 m)
2
32 kg
v
2
= 1.56 m/s.
224
9.81 m/s
4.97 m
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.93 The semicircular bar is smooth. The
unstretched length of the spring is 0.254 m. The 5N
collar at A is given a downward velocity of 6 m/s, and
when it reaches B the magnitude of its velocity is 15 m/s.
Determine the spring constant k.
A
B
k
0.05 m
0.305 m
0.13 m
Solution: The stretch distances for the spring at A and B are
δ
A
= 0.
δ
B
= 0.
Conservation of energy gives
1
2
mv
2
A
+
1
2
kδ
2
A
+mgh =
1
2
mv
2
B
+
1
2
kδ
2
B
k =
m[v
2
B
−v
2
A
−2gh]
δ
2
A
−δ
2
B
k =
5 N
2
¸
(15 m/s)
2
−(6 m/s)
2
−2(
2
)( )
(0. )
2
−(0. )
2
k =
225
226 m
098 m
9.81 m/s
9.81 m/s 0.305 m
226 m 098 m
2249 N/m.
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.94 The mass m = 1 kg, the spring con
stant k = 200 N/m, and the unstretched length of the
spring is 0.1 m. When the system is released from rest
in the position shown, the spring contracts, pulling the
mass to the right. Use conservation of energy to deter
mine the magnitude of the velocity of the mass when
the string and spring are parallel.
k
0.3 m
0.15 m
0.25 m
Solution: The stretch of the spring in position 1 is
S
1
=
(0.15)
2
+(0.25)
2
−0.1 = 0.192 m.
The stretch in position 2 is
S
2
=
(0.3 +0.15)
2
+(0.25)
2
−0.3 −0.1 = 0.115 m.
The angle β = arctan(0.25/0.45) = 29.1
◦
. Applying conservation of
energy,
1
2
mv
2
1
+
1
2
kS
2
1
−mg(0.3) =
1
2
mv
2
2
+
1
2
kS
2
2
−mg(0.3 cos β):
0 +
1
2
(200)(0.192)
2
−(1)(9.81)(0.3) =
1
2
(1)v
2
2
+
1
2
(200)(0.115)
2
−(1)(9.81)(0.3 cos 29.1
◦
).
Solving, v
2
= 1.99 m/s
0.3 m
0.15 m
0.25 m
2
1
Datum
β
Problem 15.95 In problem 15.94, what is the tension
in the string when the string and spring are parallel?
Solution: The free body diagram of the mass is: Newton’s second
law in the direction normal to the path is
T −kS
2
−mg cos β = ma
n
:
T −(200)(0.115) −(1)(9.81) cos 29.1
◦
= (1)(v
2
2
/0.3).
We obtain, T = 44.7 N.
226
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.96 The force exerted on an object by
a nonlinear spring is F = −[k(r −r
0
) +q(r −r
0
)
3
]e
r
,
where k and q are constants and r
0
is the unstretched
length of the spring. Determine the potential energy of
the spring in terms of its stretch S = r −r
0
.
k
θ
r
Solution: Note that dS = dr. The work done in stretching the
spring is
V = −
F · dr +C = −
F · (dre
r
+rdθe
θ
) +C
=
[k(r −r
0
) +q(r −r
0
)
2
] dr +C,
V =
[kS +qS
3
] dS +C.
Integrate:
V =
k
2
S
2
+
q
4
S
4
,
where C = 0, since F = 0 at S = 0.
Problem 15.97 The 20kg cylinder is released at
the position shown and falls onto the linear spring
(k = 3000 N/m). Use conservation of energy to
determine how far down the cylinder moves after
contacting the spring. 2 m
1.5 m
Solution: Choose the base of the cylinder as a datum. The potential
energy of the piston at rest is V
1
= mg(3.5) = 686.7 Nm. The conser
vation of energy condition after the spring has compressed to the point
that the piston velocity is zero is mgh +
1
2
k(h −1.5)
2
= mg(3.5),
where h is the height above the datum. From which h
2
+2bh +c = 0,
where
b = −
3
2
−
mg
k
and c = 2.25 −
7 mg
k
.
The solution is h = −b ±
√
b
2
−c = 1.95 m, n = 0.919 m. The value
h = 1.95 m has no physical meaning, since it is above the spring. The
downward compression of the spring is
S = 1.5 −0.919 = 0.581 m
227
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.98 The 20kg cylinder is released at the
position shown and falls onto the nonlinear spring.
In terms of the stretch S of the spring, its potential
energy is V =
1
2
kS
2
+
1
2
qS
4
, where k = 3000 N/m and
q = 4000 N/m
3
. What is the velocity of the cylinder
when the spring has been compressed 0.5 m?
Solution: Note that S = 1.5 −h where h is the height above the
datum, from which h = 1.5 −S. Use the solution to Problem 15.97.
The conservation of energy condition when the spring is being
compressed is
1
2
mv
2
+V
spring
+mg(1.5 −S) = mg(3.5), from which
v =
7.0g −2g(1.5 −S) −2
V
spring
m
.
The potential energy in the spring is V
spring
=
1
2
(3000)(0.5
2
) +
1
4
(4000)(0.5
4
) = +437.5 Nm.
Substitute numerical values to obtain v = 2.30 m/s
Problem 15.99 The string exerts a force of constant
magnitude T on the object. Use polar coordinates to
show that the potential energy associated with this force
is V = T r.
T
θ
r
Solution:
dV = −F · dr
V = −
r
DATUM
−T e
r
· dre
r
V = T r
r
DATUM
V = T r −T r
DATUM
Let r
DATUM
= 0
V = T r
T
e
r
228
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.100 The system is at rest in the position
shown, with the 53.4 N collar A resting on the spring
( / ), when a constant force is applied to
the cable. What is the velocity of the collar when it has
risen ? (See Problem 15.99.)
A
k
133.4 N
0.91 m
0.61m
Solution: Choose the rest position as the datum. At rest, the com
pression of the spring is
S
1
=
−W
k
= −0. .
When the collar rises 0.31m the stretch is S
2
= S
1
+ = 0.
the collar rises 0.31 m the constant force on the cable has acted
through a distance
s =
√
2
+
2
−
( − )
2
= 0. .
The work done on the system is U
s
=
1
2
k(S
2
1
−S
2
2
) −mg(1) +Fs.
From the conservation of energy U
s
=
1
2
mv
2
from which
v =
k
m
(S
2
1
−S
2
2
) −2g +
2Fs
m
= /s.
Problem 15.101 A 1kg disk slides on a smooth hori
zontal table and is attached to a string that passes through
a hole in the table. A constant force T = 10 N is exerted
on the string. At the instant shown, r = 1 m and the
velocity of the disk in terms of polar coordinates is
v = 6e
θ
(m/s). Use conservation of energy to determine
the magnitude of the velocity of the disk when r = 2m.
(See Problem 15.99.)
r
T
Solution:
1
2
mv
2
1
+T r
1
=
1
2
mv
2
2
+T r
2
v
2
=
v
2
1
+2
T
m
(r
1
−r
2
) =
(6 m/s)
2
+2
10 N
1 kg
([1 m] −[2 m])
v
2
= 4 m/s.
229
292 N m 133.4 N
0.305
183 m
0.3 127 m
When
0.91 0.91 0.31 − 0.61
2
0.61 237 m
2.57 m
m
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.102 A 1kg disk slides on a smooth hori
zontal table and is attached to a string that passes through
a hole in the table. A constant force T = 10 N is exerted
on the string. At the instant shown, r = 1 m and the
velocity of the disk in terms of polar coordinates is
v = 8e
θ
(m/s). Because this is centralforce motion, the
product of the radial position r and the transverse com
ponent of velocity v
θ
is constant. Use this fact and con
servation of energy to determine the velocity of the disk
in terms of polar coordinates when r = 2m.
r
T
Solution: We have
1
2
mv
2
1
+T r
1
=
1
2
m(v
2
2r
+v
2
2θ
) +T r
2
, r
1
v
1
= r
2
v
2θ
Solving we ﬁnd
v
2θ
=
r
1
r
2
v
1
=
1 m
2 m
(8 m/s) = 4 m/s
v
2r
=
v
2
1
−v
2
2θ
+2
T
m
(r
1
−r
2
)
=
(8 m/s)
2
−(4 m/s)
2
+2
10 N
1 kg
([1 m] −[2 m]) = 5.29 m/s.
v = (5.29e
r
+4e
θ
) m/s.
Problem 15.103 A satellite initially is inserted into
orbit at a distance r
0
= 8800 km from the center of
the earth. When it is at a distance r = 18,000 km from
the center of the earth, the magnitude of its velocity is
v = 7000 m/s. Use conservation of energy to determine
its initial velocity v
0
. The radius of the earth is 6370 km.
(See Example 15.9.)
v
v
0
r
0
r
R
E
Solution:
1
2
mv
2
0
−
mgR
2
E
r
0
=
1
2
mv
2
−
mgR
2
E
r
v
0
=
v
2
+2gR
2
E
1
r
0
−
1
r
v
0
=
(7000 m/s)
2
+2(9.81 m/s
2
)(6.37×10
6
m)
2
1
8.8×10
6
m
−
1
18×10
6
m
v
0
= 9760 m/s.
230
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.104 Astronomers detect an asteroid
100,000 km from the earth moving at 2 km/s relative to
the center of the earth. Suppose the asteroid strikes the
earth. Use conservation of energy to determine the mag
nitude of its velocity as it enters the atmosphere. (You
can neglect the thickness of the atmosphere in compari
son to the earth’s 6370km radius.)
Solution: Use the solution to Problem 15.103. The potential
energy at a distance r is
V = −
mgR
2
E
r
.
The conservation of energy condition at
r
0
:
1
2
mv
2
0
−
mgR
2
E
r
0
=
1
2
mv
2
−
mgR
2
E
r
.
Solve:
v =
v
2
0
+2gR
2
E
1
r
−
1
r
0
.
Substitute: r
0
= 1 ×10
8
m, v
0
= 2 ×10
3
m/s, and r = 6.37 ×10
6
m.
The velocity at the radius of the earth is
v = 11 km/s
Problem 15.105 A satellite is in the elliptic earth orbit
shown. Its velocity in terms of polar coordinates when
it is at the perigee A is v = 8640e
θ
(m/s). Determine the
velocity of the satellite in terms of polar coordinates
when it is at point B.
B
A
C
8000 km 8000 km
16,000 km
13,900 km
Solution: We have
r
A
= 8000 km = 8×10
6
m
r
B
=
13, 900
2
+8000
2
km = 1.60×10
7
m.
Energy and angular momentum are conserved. Therefore
1
2
mv
2
A
−
mgR
2
E
r
A
=
1
2
m(v
2
Br
+v
2
Bθ
) −
mgR
2
E
r
B
, r
A
v
A
= r
B
v
Bθ
Solving we have
v
Bθ
=
r
A
r
B
v
A
=
8×10
6
m
1.60×10
7
m
(8640 m/s) = 4310 m/s,
v
Br
=
v
2
A
−v
2
Bθ
+2gR
2
E
1
r
B
−
1
r
A
= 2480 m/s.
v = (2480e
r
+4310e
θ
) m/s.
231
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.106 Use conservation of energy to deter
mine the magnitude of the velocity of the satellite in
Problem 15.105 at the apogee C. Using your result, con
ﬁrm numerically that the velocities at perigee and apogee
satisfy the relation r
A
v
A
= r
C
v
C
.
Solution: From Problem 15.105, r
A
= 8000 km, r
C
= 24000 km,
v
A
= 8640 m/s, g = 9.81 m/s
2
, R
E
= 6370 km.
From conservation of energy,
1
2
mv
2
A
−
mgR
2
E
r
A
=
1
2
mv
2
c
−
mgR
2
E
r
c
Factor m out of the equation, convert all distances to meters, and solve
for v
c
. Solving, v
C
= 2880 m/s
Does r
A
v
A
= r
C
v
C
Substituting the known values, we have
r
A
v
A
= r
C
v
C
= 6.91 ×10
10
m
2
/s
Problem 15.107 The Voyager and Galileo spacecraft
have observed volcanic plumes, believed to consist of
condensed sulfur or sulfur dioxide gas, above the sur
face of the Jovian satellite Io. The plume observed above
a volcano named Prometheus was estimated to extend
50 km above the surface. The acceleration due to gravity
at the surface is 1.80 m/s
2
. Using conservation of energy
and neglecting the variation of gravity with height, deter
mine the velocity at which a solid particle would have
to be ejected to reach 50 km above Io’s surface.
Solution: Conservation of energy yields: T
1
+V
1
= T
2
+V
2
:
Using the forms for a constant gravity ﬁeld, we get
1
2
mv
2
1
+0 =
0 +mgy
2
Evaluating, we get
1
2
v
2
1
= (1.8)(50,000), or v
1
= 424 m/s
Problem 15.108 Solve Problem 15.107 using conser
vation of energy and accounting for the variation of
gravity with height. The radius of Io is 1815 km.
Solution: Conservation of energy yields: T
1
+V
1
= T
2
+V
2
:
Only the form of potential energy changes from that used in Problem
15.107. Here we get
1
2
mv
2
1
−
mgR
2
I
R
I
= 0 −
mgR
2
I
r
I
.
Evaluating,
1
2
v
2
1
−
(1.8)(1,815,000)
2
1,815,000
= −
(1.8)(1,815,000)
2
1,815,000 +50,000
.
or v
1
= 419 m/s
232
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.109* What is the relationship between
Eq. (15.21), which is the gravitational potential energy
neglecting the variation of the gravitational force
with height, and Eq. (15.23), which accounts for the
variation? Express the distance from the center of the
earth as r = R
E
+y, where R
E
is the earth’s radius and
y is the height above the surface, so that Eq. (15.23) can
be written as
V = −
mgR
E
1 +
y
R
E
.
By expanding this equation as a Taylor series in terms
of y/R
E
and assuming that y/R
E
1, show that you
obtain a potential energy equivalent to Eq. (15.21).
Solution: Deﬁne y/R
E
= ε
V = −
mgR
E
2
r
= −
mgR
E
2
R
E
+y
= −
mgR
E
1 +
y
R
E
= −
mgR
E
1 +ε
V = V
ε=0
+
dV
dε
ε=0
ε +· · ·
V = −mgR
E
+
mgR
E
(1 +ε)
2
ε=0
ε = −mgR
E
+mgR
E
y
R
E
= −mgR
E
+mgy QED
Problem 15.110 The potential energy associated with
a force F acting on an object is V = x
2
+y
3
Nm, where
x and y are in meters.
(a) Determine F.
(b) Suppose that the object moves from position 1 to
position 2 along path A, and then moves from posi
tion 1 to position 2 along path B. Determine the
work done by F along each path.
y
x
1
B
A
2
(1, 1) m
Solution:
(a) F
x
= −
dV
dx
= −2x, F
y
= −
dV
dy
= −3y
2
F = −2xi −3y
2
j N.
(b)
W
12A
=
1
0
(−3y
2
) dy +
1
0
(−2x) dx = −(1)
3
−(1)
2
= −2 Nm
W
12B
=
1
0
(−2x) dx +
1
0
(−3y
2
) dy = −(1)
2
−(1)
3
= −2 Nm
W
12A
= W
12B
= −2 Nm.
233
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.111 An object is subjected to the force
F = yi −xj (N), where x and y are in meters.
(a) Show that F is not conservative.
(b) Suppose the object moves from point 1 to point 2
along the paths A and B shown in Problem 15.110.
Determine the work done by F along each path.
Solution:
(a) A necessary and sufﬁcient condition that F be conservative is
∇ ×F = 0.
∇ ×F =
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
∂
∂x
∂
∂y
∂
∂z
y −x 0
= i0 −j0 +(−1 −1)k
= −2k = 0.
Therefore F is non conservative.
(b) The integral along path B is
U
B
=
1
0
(yi −xj)
y=0
· i dx +
1
0
(yi −xj)
x=1
· j dy
= 0 −1 = −1 Nm
.
Along path A:
U
A
=
1
0
(yi −xj)
x=0
· j dy +
1
0
(yi −xj)
y=1
· i dx
= 0 +1 = +1 Nm
Problem 15.112 In terms of polar coordinates, the
potential energy associated with the force F exerted on
an object by a nonlinear spring is
V =
1
2
k(r −r
0
)
2
+
1
4
q(r −r
0
)
4
,
where k and q are constants and r
0
is the unstretched
length of the spring. Determine F in terms of polar
coordinates. (See Active Example 15.10.)
Solution: The force is given by
F = −∇V = −
∂
∂r
e
r
+
1
r
∂
∂θ
e
θ
1
2
k(r −r
0
)
2
+
1
4
q(r −r
0
)
4
= −[k(r −r
0
) +q(r −r
0
)
3
]e
r
Problem 15.113 In terms of polar coordinates, the
force exerted on an object by a nonlinear spring is
F = −(k(r −r
0
) +q(r −r
0
)
3
)e
r
,
where k and q are constants and r
0
is the unstretched
length of the spring. Use Eq. (15.36) to show that F is
conservative. (See Active Example 15.10.)
Solution: A necessary and sufﬁcient condition that F be conser
vative is ∇ ×F = 0.
∇ ×F =
1
r
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
r
re
θ
e
z
∂
∂r
∂
∂θ
∂
∂z
−[k(r −r
0
) +q(r −r
0
)
3
] 0 0
=
1
r
[0e
r
−0re
θ
+0e
z
] = 0. F is conservative.
234
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.114 The potential energy associated with
a force F acting on an object is V = −r sin θ +
r
2
cos
2
θ  , where r is in e .
(a) Determine F.
(b) If the object moves from point 1 to point 2 along
the circular path, how much work is done by F?
y
x
1
2
1 m
Solution: The force is
F = −∇V = −
∂
∂r
e
r
+
1
r
∂
∂θ
e
θ
(−r sin θ +r
2
cos
2
θ).
F = (sin θ −2r cos
2
θ)e
r
+(cos θ +2r sin θ cos θ)e
θ
.
The work done is U
1,2
=
1,2
F · dr,
where dr = e
r
dr +re
θ
dθ. Since the path is everywhere normal to e
r
,
the radial term does not contribute to the work. The integral is
U
1,2
=
π
2
0
(cos θ +2r cos θ sin θ)rdθ =
¸
r sin θ −r
2
cos
2
θ
¸
π
2
0
= 1 +1 = 2 
Check: Since the force is derivable from a potential, the system is con
servative. In a conservative system the work done is U
1,2
= −(V
2
−
V
1
), where V
1
, V
2
are the potentials at the beginning and end of the
path. At r = 1, θ = 0, V
1
= 1 Nm. At r = 1 m. θ =
π
2
, V
1
= −1,
from which U
1,2
= −(V
2
−V
1
) = 2  . check.
Problem 15.115 In terms of polar coordinates, the
force exerted on an object of mass m by the gravity
of a hypothetical twodimensional planet is
F = −
mg
T
R
T
r
e
r
,
where g
T
is the acceleration due to gravity at the surface,
R
T
is the radius of the planet, and r is the distance from
the center of the planet.
(a) Determine the potential energy associated with this
gravitational force.
(b) If the object is given a velocity v
0
at a distance r
0
,
what is its velocity v as a function of r?
R
T
r
0
0
Solution:
(a) The potential is
V = −
F · dr +C =
mg
T
R
T
r
e
r
· (e
r
dr) +C
= mg
T
R
T
ln(r) +C,
where C is the constant of integration. Choose r = R
T
as the
datum, from which C = −mg
T
R
T
ln(R
T
), and
V = mg
T
R
T
ln
r
R
T
(Note: Alternatively, the choice of r = 1 lengthunit as the datum,
from which C = mg
M
R
T
ln(1), yields V = mg
T
R
T
ln
r
1
=
mg
T
R
T
ln(r).)
(b) From conservation of energy,
1
2
mv
2
+mg
T
R
T
ln
r
R
T
=
1
2
mv
2
0
+mg
T
R
T
ln
r
0
R
T
.
Solve for the velocity
v =
v
2
0
+2
g
T
ln
r
0
r
235
N m m tre
N m
N m
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.116 By substituting Eqs. (15.27) into
Eq. (15.30), conﬁrm that ∇ ×F = 0 if F is conservative.
Solution: Eq. 15.30 is
∇ ×F =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
∂
∂x
∂
∂y
∂
∂z
−
∂V
∂x
−
∂V
∂y
−
∂V
∂z
= i
−
∂
2
V
∂y∂z
+
∂
2
V
∂y∂z
−j
∂
2
V
∂x∂z
−
∂
2
V
∂x∂z
+k
∂
2
V
∂x∂y
−
∂
2
V
∂x∂y
= 0
Thus, F is conservative.
Problem 15.117 Determine which of the following are
conservative.
(a) F = (3x
2
−2xy)i −x
2
j;
(b) F = (x −xy
2
)i +x
2
yj;
(c) F = (2xy
2
+y
3
)i +(2x
2
y −3xy
2
)j.
Solution: Use Eq. (15.30)
(a) ∇ ×F =
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
∂
∂x
∂
∂y
∂
∂z
3x
2
−2xy −x
2
0
= i(0) −j(0) +k(−2x +2x) = 0.
Force is conservative.
(b) ∇ ×F =
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
∂
∂x
∂
∂y
∂
∂z
x −xy
2
x
2
y 0
= i(0) −j(0) +k(2xy +2xy) = k(4xy) = 0
Force is nonconservative.
(c) ∇ ×F =
¸
¸
¸
¸
i j k
∂
∂x
∂
∂y
∂
∂z
2xy
2
+y
3
2x
2
y −3xy
2
0
= i(0) −j(0) +k(4xy −3y
2
−4xy −3y
2
)
= k(−6y
2
) = 0.
Force is nonconservative.
236
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.118 The driver of a 12000 N car moving at
40 km/h applies an increasing force on the brake pedal.
The magnitude of the resulting frictional force exerted
on the car by the road is f = 250 +6s , where s is the
car’s horizontal position (in feet) relative to its position
when the brakes were applied. Assuming that the car’s
tires do not slip, determine the distance required for the
car to stop
(a) by using Newton’s second law and
(b) by using the principle of work and energy.
Solution:
(a) Newton’s second law:
W
g
dv
dt
= −f,
where f is the force on the car in opposition to the motion. Use
the chain rule:
W
g
v
dv
ds
= −f = −(250 +6s).
Integrate and rearrange:
v
2
= −
2g
W
(250s +3s
2
) +C.
At s = 0, v(0) = 4 1000/ 3600 0 = /s,
from which C = ( .
2
) = v
2
1
. The velocity is
v
2
= −
2g
W
(250s +3s
2
) +v
2
1
( )
2
.
At v = 0, s
2
+2bs +c = 0, where
b =
125
3
= 41.67, c = −
Wv
2
1
6g
= − .
The solution: s = −b ±
√
b
2
−c = . , from
which s = 122.2 m .
(b) Principle of work and energy: The energy of the car when the
brakes are ﬁrst applied is
1
2
W
g
v
2
1
=  .
The work done is
U =
s
0
f ds = −
s
0
(250 +6s) ds = −(250s +3s
2
).
From the principle of work and energy, after the brakes are
applied,
U =
1
2
W
g
v
2
2
−
1
2
W
g
v
2
1
.
Rearrange:
.
1
2
W
g
v
2
2
= .
1
2
W
g
v
2
1
−(250s +3s
2
).
When the car comes to a stop, v
2
= 0, from which
.0 = .
1
2
W
g
v
2
1
−(250s +3s
2
).
Reduce: s
2
+2bs +c = 0, where
b =
125
3
= 41.67, c = −
Wv
2
1
6g
= − .
The solution s = −b ±
√
b
2
−c = from
which s = 122.2 m .
Problem 15.119 Suppose that the car in Prob
lem 15.118 is on wet pavement and the coefﬁcients of
friction between the tires and the road are µ
s
= 0.4 and
µ
k
= 0.35. Determine the distance for the car to stop.
Solution: The initial velocity of the vehicle is v
1
= 40 km/h =
. f = 250 + 6s lb applies until the
tire slips. Slip occurs when f = 250 +6s = µ
s
W, from which s
slip
=
58.3 . The work done by the friction force is
U
f
=
s
slip
0
−f ds +
s
stop
s
slip
−µ
k
W = −(250s
slip
+3s
slip
2
)
−µ
k
W(s
stop
−s
slip
) = 1. − (s
stop
).
From the principle of work and energy:
U
f
= 0 −
1
2
mv
2
1
= −6789 Nm,
from which s
stop
= 8 m .
237
N
× 11.1 m
11 1
m/s
25119
122 2 m
6789 N m
25119
122.2 m,
11 1 m/s (a) Assume that the force
7 m
27 10 4200 ×
300.
6
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.120 An astronaut in a small rocket vehicle
(combined mass = 450 kg) is hovering 100 m above the
surface of the moon when he discovers that he is nearly
out of fuel and can exert the thrust necessary to cause
the vehicle to hover for only 5 more seconds. He quickly
considers two strategies for getting to the surface:
(a) Fall 20 m, turn on the thrust for 5 s, and then fall
the rest of the way;
(b) fall 40 m, turn on the thrust for 5 s, and then fall
the rest of the way.
Which strategy gives him the best chance of surviving?
How much work is done by the engine’s thrust in each
case? (g
moon
= 1.62 m/s
2
)
Solution: Assume g = 1.62 m/s
2
and that the fuel mass is neg
ligible. Since the thruster causes the vehicle to hover, the thrust is
T = mg. The potential energy at h
1
= 100 m is V
1
= mgh.
(a) Consider the ﬁrst strategy: The energy condition at the end of
a 20 m fall is mgh =
1
2
mv
2
2
+mgh
2
, where h
2
= h
1
−20 =
80 m, from which
1
2
mv
2
2
= mg(h
1
−h
2
), from which v
2
=
√
2g(h
1
−h
2
) = 8.05 m/s. The work done by the thrust is
U
thrust
= −
h
3
h
2
F dh = −mg(h
3
−h
2
),
where F = mg, acting upward, h
3
is the altitude at the end of
the thrusting phase. The energy condition at the end of the thrust
ing phase is mgh =
1
2
mv
2
3
+mgh
3
+U
thrust
, from which mgh =
1
2
mv
2
3
+mgh
2
. It follows that the velocities v
3
= v
2
= 8.05 m/s,
that is, the thruster does not reduce the velocity during the time
of turnon. The height at the end of the thruster phase is h
3
=
h
2
−v
3
t = 80 −(8.04)(5) = 39.75 m. The energy condition at
the beginning of the free fall after the thruster phase is
1
2
mv
2
3
+
mgh
3
= 43558.3 Nm, which, by conservation of energy is also
the energy at impact: is
1
2
mv
2
4
=
1
2
mv
2
3
+mgh
3
= 43558.3 Nm,
from which
v
4
=
2(43558.3)
m
= 13.9 m/s at impact.
(b) Consider strategy (b): Use the solution above, with h
2
= h
1
−
40 = 60 m The velocity at the end of the free fall is v
2
=
2 g(h
1
−h
2
) = 11.38 m/s. The velocity at the end of the
thruster phase is v
3
= v
2
. The height at the end of the
thruster phase is h
3
= h
2
−v
2
t = 3.08 m. The energy condition
at impact is:
1
2
mv
2
4
=
1
2
mv
2
3
+mgh
3
= 31405 Nm. The impact
velocity is
v
4
=
2(31405)
m
= 11.8 m/s
.
He should choose strategy (b) since the impact velocity is reduced
by v = 13.91 −11.81 = 2.1 m/s. The work done by the engine
in strategy (a) is
U
thrust
=
h
3
h
3
F dh = mg(h
3
−h
2
) = −29.3 kNm.
The work done by the engine in strategy (b) is
U
thrust
=
h
3
h
2
F dh = mg(h
3
−h
2
) = −41.5 kNm
238
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.121 The coefﬁcients of friction between
the 20kg crate and the inclined surface are µ
s
= 0.24
and µ
k
= 0.22. If the crate starts from rest and the hor
izontal force F = 200 N, what is the magnitude of the
velocity of the crate when it has moved 2 m?
30°
F
Solution:
F
y
= N −F sin 30
◦
−mg cos 30
◦
= 0,
so N = F sin 30
◦
+mg cos 30
◦
= 270 N.
The friction force necessary for equilibrium is
f = F cos 30
◦
−mg sin 30
◦
= 75.1 N.
Since µ
s
N = (0.24)(270) = 64.8 N, the box will slip up the plane and
f = µ
k
N. From work and energy,
(F cos 30
◦
−mg sin 30
◦
−µ
k
N)(2m) =
1
2
mv
2
2
−0,
we obtain v
2
= 1.77 m/s.
F
N
y
x
30°
mg
f
Problem 15.122 The coefﬁcients of friction between
the 20kg crate and the inclined surface are µ
s
= 0.24
and µ
k
= 0.22. If the crate starts from rest and the hor
izontal force F = 40 N. What is the magnitude of the
velocity of the create when it has moved 2 m?
Solution: See the solution of Problem 15.121. The normal force is
N = F sin 30
◦
+mg cos 30
◦
= 190 N.
The friction force necessary for equilibrium is
f = F cos 30
◦
−mg sin 30
◦
= −63.5 N.
Since µ
s
N = (0.24)(190) = 45.6 N, the box will slip down the plane
and the friction force is µ
k
N up the plane.
From work and energy,
(mg sin 30
◦
−F cos 30
◦
−µ
k
N)(2m) =
1
2
mv
2
2
−0,
we obtain v
2
= 2.08 m/s.
Problem 15.123 The Union Paciﬁc Big Boy locomo
tive weighs 5.29 million lb, and the traction force (tan
gential force) of its drive wheels is 600480 N. If you
neglect other tangential forces, what distance is required
for the train to accelerate from zero to 6
Solution: The potential associated with the force is
V = −
s
0
F ds = −Fs.
The energy at rest is zero. The energy at v = =
0 =
1
2
W
g
v
2
+V,
from which s =
1
2
W
gF
v
2
=
239
9 .5 km/h?
96.5 km/h 26.8 m/s is
323.4 m
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.124 In Problem 15.123, suppose that the
acceleration of the locomotive as it accelerates from
zero to 96.5 km/h is (F
0
/m) (1 −v/88), where F
0
=
0 N, m is the mass of the locomotive, and v is
its velocity in metre per second.
(a) How much work is done in accelerating the train
to 96.5 km/h?
(b) Determine the locomotive’s velocity as a function
of time.
Solution: [Note: F is not a force, but an acceleration, with the
dimensions of acceleration.]
(a) The work done by the force is equal to the energy acquired by the
locomotive in attaining the ﬁnal speed, in the absence of other
tangential forces. Thus the work done by the traction force is
U =
1
2
mv
2
=
1
2
W
g
(88
2
) = ×10
8

(b) From Newton’s second law m
dv
dt
= mF, from which
dv
dt
=
F
0
m
1 −
v
88
.
Separate variables:
dv
1 −
v
88
=
F
0
m
dt.
Integrate:
ln
1 −
v
88
= −
F
0
88m
t +C
1
.
Invert:
v(t ) = 88
¸
1 −Ce
−F
0
88m
t
.
At t = 0, v(0) = 0, from which C = 1. The result:
v(t ) = 88
¸
1 −e
−8F
0
88W
t
Check: To demonstrate that this is a correct expression, it is used
to calculate the work done: Note that
U =
s
0
mF ds =
T
0
mF
ds
dt
dt =
T
0
mFv dt.
For brevity write K =
gF
0
88W
.
Substitute the velocity into the force:
mF = F
0
1 −
v
88
= F
0
e
−Kt
.
The integral
U =
T
0
mFv dt =
T
0
88F
0
e
Kt
(1 −e
−Kt
) dt
U = 88F
0
T
0
(e
−Kt
−e
−2Kt
) dt
= −
88F
0
K
¸
e
−Kt
−
1
2
e
−2Kt
¸
T
0
= −
88F
0
K
¸
e
−KT
−
e
−2KT
2
−
1
2
¸
.
The expression for the velocity is asymptotic in time to the lim  it
ing value of 6
tenths of percent of 96.5 km/h within the ﬁrst few minutes.
Take the limit of the above integral:
lim
T →∞
T
0
mFv dt = lim
T →∞
−
88F
0
K
¸
e
−KT
−
e
−2KT
2
−
1
2
¸
=
88F
0
2K
=
1
2
W
g
(88
2
) ≡ kinetic energy,
which checks, and conﬁrms the expression for the velocity. check.
240
60048
20. 88 N m
9 .5 km/h: in strict terms the velocity never reaches
96.5 km/h; in practical terms the velocity approaches within a
few
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.125 A car traveling 6 m/h hits the
crash barrier described in Problem 15.14. Determine the
max  imum deceleration to which the passengers are sub
jected if the car weighs (a) 0 and (b)
s
Solution: From Problem 15.14 we know that the force in the crash
barrier is given by
F = −(120s +40s
3
)
The maximum deceleration occurs when the spring reaches its maxi
mum deﬂection. Using work and energy we have
1
2
mv
2
+
s
0
Fds = 0
1
2
mv
2
−
s
0
(120s +40s
3
) ds = 0
1
2
mv
2
= 60s
2
+10s
4
This yields an equation that we can solve for the distance s at which
the car stops.
(a) Using m =
2
and solving, we ﬁnd that
s = 1 . , a =
F
m
=
120s +40s
3
m
= 113.2 m/s
2
(b) Using m =
5000 N
2
and solving, we ﬁnd that
s = 12 , a =
F
m
=
120s +40s
3
m
= 138.4 m/s
2
(a) 113.2 m/s
2
, (b) 138.4 m/s
2
.
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.05 0.1
x, m
0.15
,
m
/
s
v
241
104. k
1112 N 22240 N.
N.
11120 N
9.81 m/s
4 68 m
9.81 /s m
m
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.126 In a preliminary design for a mail
sorting machine, parcels moving at 2 m/s slide down a
smooth ramp and are brought to rest by a linear spring.
What should the spring constant be if you don’t want the
10N parcel to be subjected to a maximum deceleration
greater than 10g’s?
2 m/s
3 m
k
Solution: From Newton’s second law, the acceleration after con
tact with the spring is given by:
W
g
dv
dt
= −F = −kS,
where k is the spring constant and S is the stretch of the spring.
Rearrange:
dv
dt
= −
gk
W
S.
This expression has two unknowns, k and S. S is determined as fol
lows: Choose the bottom of the ramp as the datum. The energy at the
top of the ramp is
1
2
W
g
v
2
+V,
where V is the potential energy of the package due to gravity: V = Wh
where h = 3 m. The conservation of energy condition after contact
with the spring is
1
2
W
g
v
2
0
+Wh =
1
2
W
g
v
2
1
+
1
2
kS
2
.
When the spring is fully compressed the velocity is zero, and
S =
W
gk
v
2
0
+2
W
k
h.
Substitute into the expression for the acceleration:
dv
dt
= −
√
k
gv
2
0
W
+
2g
2
h
W
(where the negative sign appears because
dv
dt
= −10 g), from which
k =
dv
dt
2
gv
2
0
W
+
2g
2
h
W
.
Substitute numerical values: v
0
= 2 m/s, W = 10 N, h = 3 m,
dv
dt
= −10 g m/s , from which
2
k = 156.1 N/m
242
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.127 When the 1kg collar is in position 1,
the tension in the spring is 50 N, and the unstretched
length of the spring is 260 mm. If the collar is pulled
to position 2 and released from rest, what is its velocity
when it returns to position 1? 300 mm
600 mm
1 2
Solution: The stretched length of the spring in position 1 is S
1
=
0.3 −0.26 = 0.04 m. The stretched length of the spring in position 2
is S
2
=
√
0.3
2
+0.6
2
−0.26 = 0.411 m. The spring constant is
k =
50
S
1
= 1250 N/m.
The potential energy of the spring in position 2 is
1
2
kS
2
2
. The potential
energy of the spring in position 1 is
1
2
kS
2
1
. The energy in the collar at
position 1 is
1
2
kS
2
2
=
1
2
mv
2
1
+
1
2
kS
2
1
, from which
v
1
=
k
m
(S
2
2
−S
2
1
) = 14.46 m/s
300 mm
600 mm
1 2
Problem 15.128 When the 1kg collar is in position 1,
the tension in the spring is 100 N, and when the collar
is in position 2, the tension in the spring is 400 N.
(a) What is the spring constant k?
(b) If the collar is given a velocity of 15 m/s at position
1, what is the magnitude of its velocity just before
it reaches position 2?
Solution:
(a) Assume that the dimensions deﬁning locations 1 and 2 remain
the same, and that the unstretched length of the spring changes
from that given in Problem 15.141. The stretched length of the
spring in position 1 is S
1
= 0.3 −S
0
, and in position 2 is S
2
=
√
0.3
2
+0.6
2
−S
0
. The two conditions:
√
0.6
2
+0.3
2
−S
0
=
400
k
, 0.3 −S
0
=
100
k
.
Subtract the second from the ﬁrst, from which k = 809 N/m.
Substitute and solve: S
0
= 0.176 m, and S
1
= 0.124 m, S
2
=
0.494 m.
(b) The energy at the onset of motion at position 1 is
1
2
mv
2
1
+
1
2
kS
2
1
.
At position 2:
1
2
mv
2
1
+
1
2
kS
2
1
=
1
2
mv
2
2
+
1
2
kS
2
2
,
from which
v
2
=
v
2
1
+
k
m
(S
2
1
−S
2
2
) = 6.29 m/s
243
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.129 The 30N weight is released from
rest with the two springs (k
A
= 30 N/m, k
B
= 15 N/m)
unstretched.
(a) How far does the weight fall before rebounding?
(b) What maximum velocity does it attain?
k
A
k
B
Solution: Choose the datum as the initial position.
(a) The work done as the weight falls is: for the springs
U
spring
=
−S
A
0
k
A
s ds +
−S
B
0
k
B
s ds = −
1
2
k
A
S
2
A
−
1
2
k
B
S
2
B
.
For the weight
U
weight
=
−(S
A
+S
B
)
0
−W ds = W(S
A
+S
B
).
From the principle of work and energy: U
springs
+U
weight
=
(mv
2
/2). At the juncture of the two springs the sum of the forces
is k
A
S
A
−k
B
S
B
= 0, from which S
B
=
k
A
k
B
S
A
, from which
−
1
2
k
A
S
2
A
1 +
k
A
k
B
+WS
A
1 +
k
A
k
B
=
1
2
mv
2
At the maximum extension the velocity is zero, from which
S
A
=
2W
k
A
= 2 m, S
B
=
k
A
k
B
s
A
= 4 .
The total fall of the weight is S
A
+S
B
= 6
(b) The maximum velocity occurs at
d
dS
A
1
2
mv
2
=
d
dS
A
(U
spring
+U
weight
)
= −k
A
S
A
1 +
k
A
k
B
+W
1 +
k
A
k
B
= 0,
from which
[S
A
]
v max
=
W
k
A
= 1 m.
The maximum velocity is
v
max
 =
¸
2(U
spring
+U
weight
)
m
s
A
=1
= 9.82 /s
Check: Replace the two springs with an equivalent spring of
stretch S = S
A
+S
B
, with spring constant k
eq
, from which
S =
F
k
A
+
F
k
B
=
F
k
eq
from which
k
eq
=
F
S
=
F
S
A
+S
B
=
F
F
k
A
+
F
k
A
=
k
A
+k
B
k
A
k
B
= 10 / .
From conservation of energy 0 = mv
2
/2 +k
eq
S
2
/2 −WS. Set
v = 0 and solve: S = 2W/k
eq
= 6 m is the maximum stretch.
check. The velocity is a maximum when
d
dS
1
2
mv
2
= W −k
eq
S = 0,
from which [S]
v=mv
max
= 3 m, and the maximum velocity is v =
9.82 /s. check.
244
m
m
m
N m
m
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.130 The piston and the load it supports
are accelerated upward by the gas in the cylinder. The
total weight of the piston and load is 1000 N. The cylin
der wall exerts a constant 50N frictional force on the
piston as it rises. The net force exerted on the piston
by pressure is (p
2
−p
atm
)A, where p is the pressure of
the gas, p
atm
= 2117 N/m
2
is the atmospheric pressure,
and A = 1 m
2
is the crosssectional area of the piston.
Assume that the product of p and the volume of the
cylinder is constant. When s = 1 m, the piston is sta
tionary and p = 5000 N/m . What is the velocity of the
2
piston when s = 2 ?
s
Piston
Gas
Solution: At the rest position, p
0
As = p
0
V = K, where V =
1 ft
3
, from which K = p
0
. Denote the datum: s
0
= 1 ft. The potential
energy of the piston due to the gas pressure after motion begins is
V
gas
= −
s
s
0
F ds = −
s
s
0
(p −p
atm
)Ads
= p
atm
A(s −s
0
) −
s
s
0
pAds.
From which
V
gas
= p
atm
A(s −s
0
) −K
s
s
0
ds
s
= p
atm
A(s −s
0
) −K ln
s
s
0
.
The potential energy due to gravity is
V
gravity
= −
s
s
0
(−W) ds = W(s −s
0
).
The work done by the friction is
U
friction
=
s
s
0
(−f ) ds = −f (s −s
0
), where f = 50 .
From the principle of work and energy:
U
friction
=
1
2
W
g
v
2
+V
gas
+V
gravity
Rearrange:
1
2
W
g
v
2
= U
friction
−V
gas
−V
gravity
. At s = 2 m,
1
2
W
g
v
2
= −(−1348.7) −(1000) −50 = 298.7 Nm,
from which v =
2(298.7)g
W
= . /s
Problem 15.131 When a 22,000kg rocket’s engine
burns out at an altitude of 2 km, the velocity of the
rocket is 3 km/s and it is traveling at an angle of 60
◦
relative to the horizontal. Neglect the variation in the
gravitational force with altitude.
(a) If you neglect aerodynamic forces, what is the
magnitude of the velocity of the rocket when it
reaches an altitude of 6 km?
(b) If the actual velocity of the rocket when it reaches
an altitude of 6 km is 2.8 km/s, how much work is
done by aerodynamic forces as the rocket moves
from 2 km to 6 km altitude?
Solution: Choose the datum to be 2 km altitude.
(a) The energy is
1
2
mv
2
0
at the datum. The energy condition of the
rocket when it reaches 6 km is
1
2
mv
2
0
=
1
2
mv
2
+mgh, where
h = (6 −2) ×10
3
= 4 ×10
3
m. Rearrange the energy expres
sion: v
2
= v
2
0
−2gh, from which the velocity at 6 km is v =
v
2
0
−2gh = 2.987 km/s
(b) Deﬁne U
aero
to be the work done by the aerodynamic forces. The
energy condition at 6 km is
1
2
mv
2
0
=
1
2
mv
2
+mgh −U
aero
.
Rearrange:
U
aero
= +
1
2
mv
2
+mgh −
1
2
mv
2
0
= −1.19 ×10
10
Nm
245
m
N
2 42 m
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.132 The 12kg collar A is at rest in the
position shown at t = 0 and is subjected to the tangen
tial force F = 24 −12t
2
N for 1.5 s. Neglecting friction,
what maximum height h does the collar reach?
h
2 m
A
F
Solution: Choose the datum at the initial point. The strategy is to
determine the velocity at the end of the 1.5 s and then to use work
and energy methods to ﬁnd the height h. From Newton’s second law:
m
dv
dt
= F = 24 −12t
2
.
Integrating:
v =
1
m
1.5
0
(24 −12t
2
) dt =
1
m
[24t −4t
3
]
1.5
0
= 1.875 m/s.
[Note: The displacement during this time must not exceed 2 m. Inte
grate the velocity:
s =
1
m
1.5
0
(24t −4t
3
) dt
=
1
m
[12t
2
−t
4
]
1.5
0
= 1.82 m < 2 m,
so the collar is still at the datum level at the end of 1.5 s.] The energy
condition as the collar moves up the bar is
1
2
mv
2
0
=
1
2
mv
2
+mgh.
At the maximum height h, the velocity is zero, from which
h =
v
2
0
2g
= 0.179 m
Problem 15.133 Suppose that, in designing a loop for
a roller coaster’s track, you establish as a safety criterion
that at the top of the loop the normal force exerted on a
passenger by the roller coaster should equal 10 percent of
the passenger weight. (That is, the passenger’s “effective
weight” pressing him down into his seat is 10 percent
of his actual weight.) The roller coaster is moving at
instantaneous radius of curvature ρ of the track at the
top of the loop?
ρ
15.24 m
Solution: The energy at the top of the loop is
1
2
mv
2
0
=
1
2
mv
2
top
+mgh,
where v
0
= /s, h = 5 , and g =
2
v
top
=
v
2
0
−2gh = /s. From Newton’s second law:
m
v
2
top
ρ
= (1.1) mg,
from which
ρ =
v
2
top
1.1 g
=
246
18.9 m/s when it enters the loop. What is the necessary
18.9 m 1 . 24 m 9.81 m/s , from which
7.62 m
5.39 m
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.134 A 800.6 N student runs at 4.57 m/s,
grabs a rope, and swings out over a lake. He releases
the rope when his velocity is zero.
(a) What is the angle θ when he releases the rope?
(b) What is the tension in the rope just before he
release it?
(c) What is the maximum tension in the rope?
θ
9.1 m
Solution:
(a) The energy condition after the seizure of the rope is
1
2
mv
2
0
=
1
2
mv
2
+mgL(1 −cos θ),
where v
0
= L =
v
2
0
= 2gL(1 −cos θ), from which
cos θ = 1 −
v
2
0
2gL
= 0.883, θ = 27.9
◦
(b) From the energy equation v
2
= v
2
0
−2gL(1 −cos θ). From New
ton’s second law, (W/g)(v
2
/L) = T −W cos θ, from which
T =
W
g
v
2
L
+W cos θ = . .
(c) The maximum tension occurs at the angle for which
dT
dθ
= 0 = −2W sin θ −W sin θ,
from which θ = 0, from which
T
max
= W
v
2
0
gL
+1
=
Problem 15.135 If the student in Problem 15.134
releases the rope when θ = 25
◦
, what maximum height
does he reach relative to his position when he grabs the
rope?
Solution: Use the solution to Problem 15.134. [The height when
he releases the rope is h
1
= L(1−cos 25
◦
) =
releases the rope, the total energy is
1
2
W
g
v
2
0
−WL =
1
2
W
g
v
2
−WLcos θ.
Substitute v
0
= θ = 25
◦
and solve: v =
tal component of velocity is v cos θ =
of energy:
W( .856) +
1
2
m(
2
) = Wh +
1
2
m(
2
)
from which h = 93 .
247
4.57 m/s, 9.1 m. When the velocity is zero,
707 2 N
987.5 N
0.856 m.] Before he
4.57 m/s, 2.02 m/s. The hori
zon

1.83 m/s. From conservation
0 2. 02 1.83
0.8 m
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.136 A boy takes a running start and jumps
on his sled at position 1. He leaves the ground at
position 2 and lands in deep snow at a distance of
b =
1
1.52 m
2
4.57 m
35°
b Solution: The components of velocity at the point of leaving
the ground are v
y
= v
2
sin θ and v
x
= v
2
cos θ, where θ = 35
◦
. The
path is
y = −
8
2
t
2
+(v
2
sin θ)t +h,
where h = x =(v
2
cos θ)t . At impact y =0, from which
t
2
impact
+2bt
impact
+c = 0, where b =
v
2
sin θ
g
[not to be confused
with the b in the drawing], c = −
2h
g
. From which, since the time
is positive, the time of impact is
(1) t
impact
=
v
2
sin θ
g
1 +
1 +
2gh
v
2
2
sin
2
θ
.
The range is (2) x(v
1
) = b = (v
2
cos θ)t
impact
.
The velocity v
2
is found in terms of the initial velocity from the energy
conditions: Choose the datum at the point where he leaves the ground.
The energy after motion begins but before descent is under way is
1
2
mv
2
1
+mgh
1
, where h
1
is the height above the point where he leaves
the ground, h
1
= − =
1
2
mv
2
1
+mgh
1
=
1
2
mv
2
2
, from which (3) v
2
=
v
2
1
+2gh
1
.
The function x(v
1
) = (v
2
cos θ)t
impact
− b, where b =
function of initial velocity, using the equations (2) and
(3) above, to ﬁnd the zero crossing. The value was reﬁned by
iteration to yield v
1
= v
2
=
air before impact was t
impact
= 1.182 s. Check: An
analytical solution is found as follows: Combine (1) and (2)
b =
v
2
2
sin θ cos θ
g
1 +
1 +
2gh
v
2
2
sin
2
θ
.
Invert this algebraically to obtain
v
2
= b
g
2 cos θ(b sin θ +hsin θ)
= .86
Use v
2
1
= v
2
2
= v
2
2
−2g(h
1
−h
2
), from which v
1
= check.
Problem 15.137 In Problem 15.136, if the boy starts at
1 going 4.57m/s, what distance b does he travel through
the air?
Solution: Use the solution to Problem 15.136. The distance b =
(v
2
cos θ)t
impact
, where
t
impact
=
v
2
sin θ
g
1 +
1 +
2gh
v
2
2
sin
2
θ
,
and v
2
=
v
2
1
+2gh
1
. Numerical values are: h= θ =35
◦
, h
1
=
v
1
= Substituting, b =
248
7. 62 m. How fast was he going at 1?
1.52 m, and
4. 57 1. 52 3. 05 m. The energy as he leaves the
ground is
7.62 m, was
graphed as a
1.44 m/s. The other values were 7.86 m/s,
and the time in the
7 .
1.44 m/s.
/s m
1.52m,
3.05 m, 4.57 m/s. 9.51 m.
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.138 The 1kg collar A is attached to the
linear spring (k = 500 N/m) by a string. The collar starts
from rest in the position shown, and the initial tension in
the spring is 100 N. What distance does the collar slide
up the smooth bar?
A
k
Solution: The deﬂection of the spring is
S =
100
k
= 0.2 m.
The potential energy of the spring is V
spring
=
1
2
kS
2
. The energy
condition after the collar starts sliding is V
spring
=
1
2
mv
2
+mgh. At
the maximum height, the velocity is zero, from which
h =
V
spring
mg
=
k
2mg
S
2
= 1.02 m
Problem 15.139 The masses m
A
= 40 kg and m
B
=
60 kg. The collar A slides on the smooth horizontal bar.
The system is released from rest. Use conservation of
energy to determine the velocity of the collar A when it
has moved 0.5 m to the right.
A
B
Solution: Placing the datum for B at its initial position,
conservation of energy gives T
1
+V
1
= T
2
+V
2
: Evaluating, we get
0 +0 =
1
2
(40)v
2
+
1
2
(60)v
2
−(60)(9.81)(0.5) or v = 2.43 m/s.
249
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.140 The spring constant is k = 850 N/m,
m
A
= 40 kg, and m
B
= 60 kg. The collar A slides on
the smooth horizontal bar. The system is released from
rest in the position shown with the spring unstretched.
Use conservation of energy to determine the velocity of
the collar A when it has moved 0.5 m to the right.
A
k
0.4 m
0.9 m
B
Solution: Let v
A
and v
B
be the velocities of A and B when A has
moved 0.5 m. The component of A
s velocity parallel to the cable
equals B
s velocity: v
A
cos 45
◦
= v
B
. B
s downward displacement
during A
s motion is
(0.4)
2
+(0.9)
2
−
(0.4)
2
+(0.4)
2
= 0.419 m.
Conservation of energy is T
1
+V
2
= T
2
+V
2
:
0 +0 =
1
2
(40)v
A
2
+
1
2
(60)(v
A
cos 45
◦
)
2
+
1
2
(850)(0.5)
2
−(60)(9.81)(0.419).
Solving, v
A
= 2.00 m/s.
Problem 15.141 The y axis is vertical and the curved
bar is smooth. If the magnitude of the velocity of the
4N slider is 6 m/s at position 1, what is the magnitude
of its velocity when it reaches position 2?
y
x
1
2
2 m
4 m
Solution: Choose the datum at position 2. At position 2, the
energy condition is
1
2
W
g
v
2
1
+Wh =
1
2
W
g
v
2
2
,
where h = 2, from which
v
2
=
v
2
1
+2 gh =
6
2
+2 g(2) = /s
250
8. 67 m
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.142 In Problem 15.141, determine the
magnitude of the velocity of the slider when it reaches
position 2 if it is subjected to the additional force F =
3xi −2j ( ) during its motion.
Solution:
U =
F · dr =
0
2
(−2) dy +
4
0
3x dx
= [−2y]
0
2
+
¸
3
2
x
2
¸
4
0
= 4 +24 = 28 Nm.
From the solution to Problem 15.141, the energy condition at posi
tion 2 is
1
2
W
g
v
2
1
+Wh +U =
1
2
W
g
v
2
2
,
from which
v
2
=
v
2
1
+2gh +
2g(28)
W
=
6
2
+2g(2) +
2g(28)
4
= 4. /s
Problem 15.143 Suppose that an object of mass m is
beneath the surface of the earth. In terms of a polar
coordinate system with its origin at the earth’s center, the
gravitational force on the object is −(mgr/R
E
)e
r
, where
R
E
is the radius of the earth. Show that the potential
energy associated with the gravitational force is V =
mgr
2
/2R
E
.
Solution: By deﬁnition, the potential associated with a force F is
V = −
F · dr.
If dr = e
r
dr +re
θ
dθ, then
V = −
−
mgr
R
E
e
r
· e
r
dr −
−
mgr
R
E
e
r
· e
θ
r dθ
= −
−
mgr
R
E
dr =
mgr
2
2R
E
251
N
1 24 m
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.144 It has been pointed out that if tunnels
could be drilled straight through the earth between points
on the surface, trains could travel between these points
using gravitational force for acceleration and decelera
tion. (The effects of friction and aerodynamic drag could
be minimized by evacuating the tunnels and using mag
netically levitated trains.) Suppose that such a train travels
from the North Pole to a point on the equator. Determine
the magnitude of the velocity of the train
(a) when it arrives at the equator and
(b) when it is halfway from the North Pole to the equa
tor. The radius of the earth is R
E
=
N
(See Problem 15.143.)
Solution: The potential associated with gravity is
V
gravity
=
mgr
2
2R
E
.
With an initial velocity at the North Pole of zero, from conservation
of energy, at any point in the path
mgr
2
2R
E
NP
=
1
2
mv
2
+
mgr
2
2R
E
.
(a) At the equator, the conservation of energy condition reduces to
mgR
E
2
=
1
2
mv
2
EQ
+
mgR
E
2
,
from which v
EQ
= 0
(b) At the midway point, r = R
E
sin 45
◦
=
R
E
√
2
, and from conserva
tion of energy
mgR
E
2
=
1
2
mv
2
M
+
mgR
E
4
,
from which v
M
=
gR
E
2
= =
Problem 15.145 In Problem 15.123, what is the max
imum power transferred to the locomotive during its
acceleration?
Solution: From Problem 15.123, the drive wheel traction force
F = 135,000 lb is a constant, and the ﬁnal velocity is v = 60 mi/h =
88 ft/s. The power transferred is P = Fv, and since the force is a
constant, by inspection the maximum power transfer occurs at the
maximum velocity, from which P = Fv = (135000)(88) = 11.88 ×
10
6
ftlb/ sec = 21,600 hp.
252
6372 km.
5590.6 /s m 20126 km/h.
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.146 Just before it lifts off, the 10,500kg
airplane is traveling at 60 m/s. The total horizontal force
exerted by the plane’s engines is 189 kN, and the plane
is accelerating at 15 m/s
2
.
(a) How much power is being transferred to the plane
by its engines?
(b) What is the total power being transferred to the
plane?
Solution:
(a) The power being transferred by its engines is
P = Fv = (189 ×10
3
)(60) = 1.134 ×10
7
Joule/s = 11.3 MW.
(b) Part of the thrust of the engines is accelerating the airplane:
From Newton’s second law,
m
dv
dt
= T = (10.5 ×10
3
)(15) = 157.5 kN.
The difference (189 −157.5) = 31.5 kN is being exerted to
overcome friction and aerodynamic losses.
(b) The total power being transferred to the plane is
P
t
= (157.5 ×10
3
)(60) = 9.45 MW
Problem 15.147 The “Paris Gun” used by Germany in
World War I had a range of 120 km, a 37.5m barrel, a
muzzle velocity of 1550 m/s and ﬁred a 120kg shell.
(a) If you assume the shell’s acceleration to be
constant, what maximum power was transferred to
the shell as it traveled along the barrel?
(b) What average power was transferred to the shell?
Solution: From Newton’s second law, m
dv
dt
= F, from which, for
a constant acceleration,
v =
F
m
t +C.
At t = 0, v = 0, from which C = 0. The position is
s =
F
2m
t
2
+C.
At t = 0, s = 0, from which C = 0. At s = 37.5 m, v = 1550 m/s,
from which F = 3.844 ×10
6
N and t = 4.84 ×10
−2
s is the time
spent in the barrel.
The power is P = Fv, and since F is a constant and v varies
monotonically with time, the maximum power transfer occurs
just before the muzzle exit: P = F(1550) = 5.96 ×10
9
joule/s =
5.96 GW. (b) From Eq. (15.18) the average power transfer is
P
ave
=
1
2
mv
2
2
−
1
2
mv
2
1
t
= 2.98 ×10
9
W= 2.98 GW
253
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior
to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Please purchase PDF SplitMerge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.
Problem 15.3 The 20 N box is at rest on the horizontal surface when the constant force F = 5 N is applied. The coefﬁcient of kinetic friction between the box and the surface is µk = 0.2. Determine how fast the box is moving when it has moved 2 m from its initial position (a) by applying Newton’s second law; (b) by applying the principle of work and energy. Solution:
(a) The equations of motion can be used to ﬁnd the acceleration Fx : F − f = f = µk N Solving we have a=g F − µk W = (9.81m/s2 ) 5N − 0.2 = 0.49 m/s2 20 N W a, Fy : N − W = 0, g
F
Now we integrate to ﬁnd the velocity at the new position a=v dv ⇒ ds
v 0
vdv =
0
2 m
ads ⇒
v2 = a(2 m) = (0.49 m/s 2)(2 m ) 2
v = 1 .4 m /s (b) Using the principle of work and energy we have (recognizing that N = W ) U12 = T2 − T1 (F − µk N)d = 1 2 W g v2 − 0
v 2 = 2g
F 5N − µk d = 2(9.81 m/s 2) − 0.2 (2 m) W 20 N
v = 1.4 m /s
Problem 15.4 At the instant shown, the 30N box is moving up the smooth inclined surface at 2 m/s. The constant force F = 15 N. How fast will the box be moving when it has moved 1 m up the surface from its present position?
F
20
Solution:
U12 = T2 − T1 [(15 N) cos 20 − (30 N) sin 20 ](1 m) = 1 2 30 N 9.81 m/s2 v2 − 1 2 30 N 9.81 m/s2 (2 m/s)2
◦ ◦
Solving we ﬁnd v = 2.55 m/s.
180
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Problem 15.5 The 0.45kg soccer ball is 1 m above the ground when it is kicked straight upward at 10 m/s. By using the principle of work and energy, determine: (a) how high above the ground the ball goes, (b) the magnitude of the ball’s velocity when it falls back to a height of 1 m above the ground, (c) the magnitude of the ball’s velocity immediately before it hits the ground.
12 m/s
1m
Solution:
(a) Find the height above the ground mg(1 m − h) = 0 − 1 2 mv0 , 2
h= (b)
(10 m/s)2 v0 2 +1 m= + 1 m = 6.10 m 2g 2(9.81 m/s2 )
When the ball returns to the same level, the velocity must be equal to the initial velocity (but now it is moving downward) because the net work is zero v = 10 m/s ↓
(c)
The velocity just before it hits the ground mg(1 m) = 1 1 mv 2 − mv0 2 2 2
v 2 = v0 2 + 2g(1 m) = (10 m/s)2 + 2(9.81 m/s2 )(1 m) v = 10.9 m/s. ↓ (a) h = 6.10 m, (b) v = 10.0 m/s, (c) v = 10.9 m/s.
Problem 15.6 Assume that the soccer ball in Problem 15.5 is stationary the instant before it is kicked upward at 12 m/s. The duration of the kick is 0.02 s. What average power is transferred to the ball during the kick?
Solution:
U12 = 1 (0.45 kg)(12 m/s)2 − 0 = 32.4 Nm 2 U12 32.4 Nm = = 1.62 kW t 0.02 s
Power =
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
181
. (b) 1. The average power is equal to the change in kinetic energy divided by the time. storage in a retrieval system. Solution: (a) The work is equal to the change in kinetic energy. mechanical.524 seconds and crosses the ﬁnish line traveling at 325.81 m/s 2 (325.77 km/h) 4. electronic.77 km/h. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Solution: From problem 15. U= 1 1 mv 2 = 2 2 2000 N 9. It completes the course in 4.kilometr e course. It completes the cours in 4. All rights reserved.7 we know that the force is (a) The maximum power occurs when the car has reached its maximum velocity P = F v = (3339 N )(325.02 ×10 5 Nm/s. Determine (a) the maximum power and (b) the average power transferred to the car as it travels the quarterkilometre course.81 m/s 2 2 e (325.8 The 2000 N drag racer starts from rest and travels a quarter. (a) 3.77 km/h) (b) 1000 3600 = 3.02 ×10 5 Nm/s. 1 2 Pave = mv 2 t = 1 2 2000 N 9.kilometr e course. or transmission in any form or by any means. 182 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.845 × 10 5 Nm/s.77 km/h. Assume that the horizontal force exerted on the car is constant. photocopying.35 ×105 Nm (b) The work is equal to the force times the distance U = Fd ⇒ F = U 8.8 4 5 × 10 5 Nm/s.7 The 2000N drag racer starts from rest and travels a quarter.35×10 5 Nm = 3339 N = 1 d 4 (1000 m) F = 3339 N Problem 15.524 seconds and crosses the ﬁnish line traveling at 325 .524 s 1000 3600 2 = 1.Problem 15. recording or likewise.77 km/h) 1000 3600 U = 8. (a) How much work is done on the car as it travels the course? (b) Assume that the horizontal force exerted on the car is constant and use the principle of work and energy to determine it.
000 N) 200 km/h (b) 1000 = 2. (a) 2.000 N.9 As the 32. c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.5 × 10 6 Nm/s .000 N) 1000 3600 2 = 112 m. the tangential component of force exerted on it by its engines is Ft = 45. or transmission in any form or by any means.000 N 32. 2 Pave = 1. the average power is the change in kinetic energy divided by the time 1000 1 32.8 m/s 2 = 13. d = 112 m Problem 15.000 N d= 9.8 m/s 2 v v = at ⇒ t = = a Now. photocopying. use the principle of work and energy to determine how much runway is required for its velocity to reach 200 km /h. mechanical. electronic.5 × 10 6 Nm/s. determine (a) the maximum power and (b) the average power transferred to the airplane as its velocity increases from zero to 200 km /h. 183 .03 s.03 s t (b) 1.000N airplane takes off.Problem 15.000 N. Solution: (a) The maximum power occurs when the velocity is a maximum P = F v = (45.000 N 1 200 km/h mv 2 3600 2 9. 3600 To ﬁnd the average power we need to know the time that it takes to reach full speed a= F = m 45. Solution: U12 = 1 1 mv 2 mv 2 ⇒ F d = mv 2 ⇒ d = 2 2 2F 32. All rights reserved.10 As the 32. 13.81 m/s 2 200 km/h 1000 3600 = 4. the tangential component of force exerted on it by its engines is Ft = 45.25 × 10 6 Nm/s. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.81 m/s 2 = = 2 4. storage in a retrieval system.81 m/s2 (200 km/h) 2(45.000 N 9. Neglecting other forces on the airplane.25 × 10 6 Nm/s . Neglecting other forces on the airplane.000N airplane takes off. recording or likewise.
8 Nm. 184 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.11 The 32. All rights reserved. Problem 15. The 5kg cart is moved to the position s = −1 m and released from rest.000N airplane takes off from rest in the position s = 0.000 − 5.27 m/s. mechanical.81 m/s2 ) sin 20 (1 m) 2 = 26. photocopying. storage in a retrieval system.2s. Now using work and energy U12 = 1 mv 2 ⇒ v = 2 2U12 = m 2(26. we ﬁnd v = 157. Use the principle of work and energy to determine how fast the airplane is traveling when its position is s = 950 m .4 × 106 Nm 2 v2 = (45. What is the magnitude of its velocity when it is in the position s = 0? k s 20 Solution: First we calculate the work done by the spring and by gravity U12 = 0 −1 m (−ks + mg sin 20 ) d s ◦ = = 1 ◦ k(−1 m)2 + mg sin 20 (1 m) 2 1 ◦ (20 N/m)(−1 m)2 + (5 kg)(9.4 m/s. The total tangential force exerted on it by its engines and aerodynamic drag (in Newtons) is given as a function of its position s by Ft = 45. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.2)(950)2 = 40.12 The spring (k = 20 N/m) is unstretched when s = 0. or transmission in any form or by any means.81 m/s2 Solving. Solution: U12 = 0 950 (45. 5 kg v = 3.Problem 15.000 N 9. .27 m/s. recording or likewise.000 − 5.2s) d s 1 (5.8 Nm) = 3. electronic. 000)(950) − U12 = 1 1 mv 2 = 2 2 32.
07 × 106 Nm. Problem 15.81 m/s2 ) sin 20 (s − [−1 m]) = 0 2 This is a quadratic equation that has the two solutions s1 = −1 m. storage in a retrieval system. electronic.68 m. and when it reaches the maximum position. we have U12 = 0 − 1 mv 2 2 1 2 5000 N 9. 2 4 Using work and energy.68 m. The effective length of the barrier is 18 m .Problem 15. s2 = 2. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. All rights reserved. it is again at rest.81 m/s 2 v2 − 1. where s is the distance in metre from the initial contact. The distance relative to the initial is s = s2 + 1 m.14 The force exerted on a car by a prototype crash barrier as the barrier crushes is F = −(120s + 40s 3) N. recording or likewise. What maximum distance down the sloped surface does the cart move relative to its initial position? k s 20 Solution: The cart starts from a position of rest. Therefore. photocopying.13 The spring (k = 20 N/m) is unstretched when s = 0. the total work must be zero. How fast can a 5000N car be moving and be brought to rest within the effective length of the barrier? Solution: The barrier can provide a maximum amount of work given by U12 = 0 18 s −(120s + 40s 3 ) d s 1 1 = − (120)(18)2 − (40)(18)4 = −1.8 m/s . 185 . or transmission in any form or by any means. mechanical.07 × 106 Nm = − Solving for the velocity. s = 3. U12 = s −1 m (−ks + mg sin 20 ) d s ◦ 1 ◦ = − k(s 2 − [−1 m]2 ) + mg sin 20 (s − [−1 m]) 2 1 ◦ = − (20 N/m)(s 2 − [−1 m]2 ) + (5 kg)(9. we ﬁnd v = 64. The 5kg cart is moved to the position s = −1 m and released from rest. c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
storage in a retrieval system.6 m /s Ft = [30 − 0. (b) Determine the magnitude of the total horizontal force exerted on the car’s tires by the road when it is at the position s = 120 m.Problem 15. Solution: (a) U= 0 120 m (a) [30 − 0.11 seconds.81 m/s2 v 2 ⇒ v = 9. The total tangential component of force on the car is Ft = 30 − 0.39 N 186 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. What average power is transferred from the car during the impact? s Solution: The average power is equal to the change in kinetic energy divided by the time 1 2 P = mv 2 t = 1 2 5000 N 9.2(120)] = 6 N Fn = m v2 = ρ 460 N 9. mechanical.14 ×106 Nm/s. starts from rest. or transmission in any form or by any means.16 A group of engineering students constructs a sunpowered car and tests it on a circular track with a 1000m radius. where s is the distance (in ft) the car travels along the track from the position where it starts. P = 1.11 s 1000 3600 2 = 1. with a weight of 460 N including its occupant. Determine the work done on the car when it has gone a distance s = 120 m. electronic.81 m/s2 80 km/h 0. photocopying.15 A 5000N car hits the crash barrier at 80 km/h and is brought to rest in 0. The car. Problem 15. recording or likewise.2 s] N ds = 2160 Nm (b) 2160 Nm = 1 2 460 N 9. All rights reserved. .14 ×10 6 Nm/s.2s N.32 N)2 = 7.32 N F = Ft 2 + F n 2 = (6 N) 2 + (4.81 m/s 2 (9.6 m/s) 1000 m 2 = 4. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.
5 m above the ground.5 Ncm. recording or likewise.31 m/s.8 y 2 ) dy (4)3 = 780 N m .8 Let ymax be his maximum height above the ground. or transmission in any form or by any means. 9. storage in a retrieval system.81 Problem 15. As his pole straightens. when he releases the pole. where y is the vertical position of his center of mass relative to its position at the instant shown. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.81 m/s2 v2 Solving for the velocity we ﬁnd v = 0.8y 2 N. ymax = 14. or Uweight + Upole 2 2 = mv2 /2 − mv1 /2 780 − 160(ymax − 8. This force is exerted on him from y = 0 to y = 4 m. how much work has been done on it by each spring? What is the magnitude of the velocity of the weight when it has fallen 1 cm ? k s k Solution: (a) The work done by each spring U12 = 0 1 cm 1 −ksds = − (25 N/cm)(1cm)2 = −12. What is the maximum height above the ground reached by the vaulter’s center of mass? Solution: The work done on him by the pole is Upole = 0 4 (180 + 2.18 The springs (k = 25 N /cm ) are unstretched when s = 0. 2 (b) The velocity is found from the workenergy equation. and the vertical component of his velocity is 4 m/s. (a) −12. it exerts a vertical force on the vaulter of magnitude 180 + 2. c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.31 m/s.5) = 0 − Solving. The total work includes the work done by both springs and by gravity U12 = (50 N)(1 cm) − 2(12. photocopying. U12 = 1 1 mv 2 = 2 2 50 N 9. All rights reserved.2 m 1 2 160 (4)2 .5 Ncm) = 25 Ncm. (a) (b) When the weight has fallen 1 cm. The 50N weight is released from rest in the position s = 0.17 At the instant shown. 187 . The work done by his weight from the instant shown to the maximum height is −160(ymax − 8. 3 = 180(4) + 2.5 Ncm. mechanical.Problem 15. electronic. (b) 0. the 160N vaulter’s center of mass is 8.5) = Uweight .
From the principle of work and energy is Uweight + Uf = from which v= 6(T0 − mg(sin θ + µk cos θ)) m 1 2 mv . U = 1 mv 2 .1 = 1343. 2 v = 1.5 Nm.9 N.19.3 and µk = 0. and what is the resulting velocity of the crate? (a) Solution: (a) The tension is T0 = W sin θ + µs N.Problem 15. (b) The work done on the crate by (nonfriction) external forces is Uweight = 0 3 µs N (b) T0 ds − 0 3 (mg sin θ) ds = 932. from which 2 2U = 2.9 = 509. What tension T0 must the winch exert to start the crate moving up the ramp? (b) If the tension remains at the value T0 after the crate starts sliding. photocopying.19. electronic. storage in a retrieval system. if the winch exerts a tension T = T0 (1 + 0.1s) after the crate starts sliding.05s 2 3 0 − (mg sin θ)(3) − µk (mg cos θ)(3).52 m/s m T ds − 0 3 (mg sin θ) ds − µk 0 3 (mg cos θ) ds. or transmission in any form or by any means. mechanical.9(3) − 1455. what total work is done on the crate as it slides a distance s = 3 m up the ramp.9 Nm. The work done on the crate by friction is Uf = 0 3 (−µk N) ds = −3µk mg cos θ = −1253.20 In Problem 15. and what is the resulting velocity of the crate? Solution: The work done on the crate is U= 0 3 From the principle of work and energy. from which the total work done is U = 3218. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 188 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. from which 18° s T0 mg mg N (a) µk N T0 N T0 = mg(sin θ + µs cos θ) = 932.9 Nm. recording or likewise.06 m/s Problem 15. what total work is done on the crate as it slides a distance s = 3 m up the ramp. All rights reserved. .36 Nm.1 − 1253. From the solution to Problem 15.28.4 − 1455.19 The coefﬁcients of friction between the 160kg crate and the ramp are µs = 0. T0 = 932. v= from which U = T0 s + 0.
what is the velocity of the projectile when it has returned to its original position? constant is K = pV = 1 × 105 (1)(0. s Gas Projectile F 1m Solution: The From the principle of work and energy. storage in a retrieval system.4 1. photocopying.0 0.Problem 15. electronic. moving the projectile 0.5 F ds = 1. On the left of the projectile.21. if you assume that the pressure of the gas is related to its volume by pV = constant while it is compressed (an isothermal process) and by pV 1. The force F is slowly increased. mechanical.4 s −1.5) From the principle of work and energy. A(0.4 s −1.21. recording or likewise. 189 . (As)1. the tube contains gas with pressure p0 = 1 × 105 P a (N/m2 ). The volume is V = As. the work done is equal to the gain in kinetic energy.1)2 π = 3141.4 = constant while it is expanding (an isentropic process). 2 The isentropic expansion constant is Ke = pV 1. The work done by the gas during expansion is U= 1.6 Nm from the solution to Problem 15.5 K ds = [K ln(s)]1.5 = 1901.5 m to the left from the position shown.6 Nm. 1 0.4 s −0.22 In Problem 15.4 .4 ) = 596. and v 2 = ln(2).4 ds = Ke A−0.0 0. The pressure at the leftmost position is p= K = 2 × 105 N/m2 .8 Nm. The force is F = pA. m v= The force is F = pA = Ke A−0.4 . All rights reserved.5 x Note: The argument of ln(2) is dimensionless. The force is then removed and the projectile accelerates to the right. Problem 15.4 A from which the velocity is 2(1901.4 = (2 × 105 )(A1.8) = 21. 0.5 Nm The pressure during expansion is p= Ke Ke = 1. the work done by the gas is equal to the gain in kinetic energy: K ln(2) = 2K 1 2 mv .51. from K .4 )(0. what is the velocity of the projectile when it has returned to its original position? Solution: The isothermal constant is K = 3141. c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.0 = K ln(2).33 m/s m F ds = 1 0.21 The 200mmdiameter gas gun is evacuated on the right of the 8kg projectile.8 m/s .5 v= 2K ln(2) = 23.5 F ds = 1 2 mv . since it is ratio of two distances.5 Ke A−0.4 s −1. If you neglect friction and assume that the pressure of the gas is related to its volume by pV = constant.0 0. or transmission in any form or by any means.4 −0. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 2 m The work done by the gas is U= 1 0. from which which the pressure varies as the inverse distance: p = As K F = .
4) = Solving for the velocity we ﬁnd v2 = 2.81 m/s2 )(1 m) = 1 (24 kg)v2 ⇒ 2 v = 4.24 The system is released from rest. .4.Problem 15.24 N (4 kg)(9. What is the magnitude of the velocity of the crates when they have moved 400 mm? v A Solution: Doing work–energy for the system 0. The 4kg mass slides on the smooth horizontal surface. Solution: Fy : N − (4 kg)(9. electronic.24 m/s. recording or likewise. mechanical. 1 2 (70)v2 2 Problem 15.24 N)](1 m) = 180. photocopying.81)(0.2. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.5 Nm 180. By using the principle of work and energy. determine the magnitude of the velocity of the masses when the 20kg mass has fallen 1 m.81 m/s2) T Write workenergy for system 0.4(39.81 m/s2 ) = 0 ⇒ N = 39. 4 kg 20 kg Solution: Write workenergy for system U = (20 kg)(9.04 m/s Problem 15.5 Nm = 1 (24 kg)v2 ⇒ 2 v = 3.4 N U = [(20 kg)(9. All rights reserved.25 Solve Problem 15.23 In Example 15. storage in a retrieval system. or transmission in any form or by any means.15)(40) cos 30 + 30](9. suppose that the angle between the inclined surface and the horizontal is increased from 20◦ to 30◦ .4 0 20 B v 1 ◦ ◦ 2 (mA g sin 30 − µk mA g cos 30 + mB g) d s = (mA + mB )v2 2 ◦ ◦ [40 sin 30 − (0.24 if the coefﬁcient of kinetic friction between the 4kg mass and the horizontal surface is µk = 0.81 m/s2 ) − 0.88 m/s N 190 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
3 N Workenergy for the system U = (50 N sin 45 )(1 m ) − (0.36 Nm = 1 2 100 N 9.05. or transmission in any form or by any means.26 if the coefﬁcient of kinetic friction between the boxes and the inclined surfaces is µk = 0. electronic. Solution: F F : N1 − (50 N) sin 45 = 0 : N2 − (50 N) cos 30 = 0 ◦ ◦ 50 N 50 N 0.3 N)(1 m) = 6. photocopying. storage in a retrieval system. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. All rights reserved.27 Solve Problem 15. 30° 45° Solution: Write workenergy for the system U = (50 N sin 45 )(1 m) − (50 N sin 30 )(1 m) = 10. The system is released from rest.43 m/s ◦ ◦ Problem 15.05 N2 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.26 Each box weighs 50 N and the inclined surfaces are smooth. Determine the magnitude of the velocities of the boxes when they have moved 1 m.Problem 15.4 N )(1 m ) − (50 N sin 30)(1 m) − (0. N2 = 43.81 m/s2 v 2 ⇒ v = 1.05 N1 N1 = 35. 191 .4 N.42 Nm 6.81 m/s2 v 2 ⇒ v = 1. recording or likewise.36 Nm 10. mechanical.05)(43.05)(35.42 Nm = 1 2 100 N 9.12 m/s ◦ N1 N2 0.
Friction is negligible. Since the pulley is onetoone.29 Solve Problem 15. Neglect the mass of the bar holding C in place.28 by applying the principle of work and energy to the system consisting of A.5 m. electronic. recording or likewise. denote vA  = vB  = v.72 m/s (mA + mB ) Problem 15. mechanical. C B A 45 Solution: Denote b = 0. (mA + mB ) 192 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. NBC xA 0 mA g sin θ ds + 0 xB 1 1 2 2 mB g sin θ ds = mA vA + mB vB . photocopying. From the principle of work and energy the work done by the external forces on the complete system is equal to the gain in kinetic energy. Differentiate to obtain vA = −vB . xA = −xB . storage in a retrieval system.28 The masses of the three blocks are mA = 40 kg. mB = 16 kg. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.5 m. Since the pulley is onetoone. B.Problem 15. and the pulley.72 m/s. or transmission in any form or by any means. . 2 Solve: vA  = vB  = 2(mA − mB )gb sin θ = 1. 2 2 mBg mAg NA from which 2 (mB − mA )gb sin θ = 1 (mA + mB )vA 2 and vA  = vB  = (mA − mB ) 2gb sin θ = 1. All rights reserved. 2 Add the two equations: (mA − mB )gb sin θ = 1 (mA + mB )v 2 . Solution: Choose a coordinate system with the origin at the pulley axis and the positive x axis parallel to the inclined surface. and mC = 12 kg. determine the magnitude of their velocity when they have moved 500 mm. 2 and for weight B 0 1 (T − mB g sin θ) ds = mB v 2 . By applying the principle of work and energy to A and B individually. the cable connecting them. The principle of work and energy for weight A is b 0 b T T mBg NAB NAB mAg NA NBC (mA g sin θ − T ) ds = 1 mA v 2 . Denote b = 0.
3. we get ([mA − mB ]g sin θ − µk [NA + 2NAB + NBC ])b = The normal forces are NA = (mA + mB + mC )g cos θ. (See Example 15. and mC = 12 kg. recording or likewise. mB = 16 kg.31 In Example 15. photocopying. All rights reserved. 1 2 1 2 mv − mv 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 mv − m(20)2 2 2 2 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.Problem 15. suppose that the skier is moving at 20 m/s when he is in position 1.1. Substitute and solve ⇒ v = 1.81)(0 − 20) = Solving for v2 we ﬁnd v2 = 28.14 m/s. The coefﬁcient of kinetic friction between all surfaces is µk = 0. b 0 b 0 B A (mA g sin θ − T − µk NA − µk NAB ) d s = 1 mA v 2 . 1 3 2 Solution: U12 = −mg(y2 − y1 ) = − m(9. mechanical. 1 (mA + mB )v 2 2 Problem 15. or transmission in any form or by any means.1 m/s. Determine the horizontal component of his velocity when he reaches position 2.30 The masses of the three blocks are mA = 40 kg. 20 m below position 1. electronic. NBC = (mC )g cos θ.5. NAB = (mB + mC )g cos θ.) C Solution: We will apply the principles of work — energy to blocks A and B individually in order to properly account for the work done by internal friction forces. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 2 1 mB v 2 . storage in a retrieval system. 193 . 2 45 (T − mB g sin θ − µk NBC − µk NAB ) d s = Adding the two equations. Determine the magnitude of the velocity of blocks A and B when they have moved 500 mm.
) 1 1 2m Solution: The work is independent of the path. recording or likewise. 2m 1 1 Solution: The work done by the weight is the same in both cases. (In case (b).81 m/s2 )(0 − 2 m) −(0. photocopying.81 m/s2 ) cos 60◦ ] U= (b) 1 1 mv2 2 − m(1 m/s)2 ⇒ 2 2 2m sin 60◦ v2 = 5. storage in a retrieval system. 1 1 mv 2 − m(9.33 The 30kg box is sliding down the smooth surface at 1 m/s when it is in position 1. mechanical. electronic.81 m/s2 )(0 − 2 m) −(0.35 In case (a). 1 U = −m(9. use the principle of work and energy to determine the magnitude of the velocity of the rock just before it hits the ground in each case.2)[m(9.2)[m(9.81m/s 2 )(0 − 2 m) = mv2 2 − 0 ⇒ v2 = 6.56 m/s Problem 15. Determine the magnitude of the box’s velocity at position 2 in each case.33 if the coefﬁcient of kinetic friction between the box and the inclined surface is µk = 0.81 m/s 2 )(61 m ) = ⇒ v = 35. use the principle of work and energy to determine the magnitude of the ball’s velocity at position 2. the work done by friction is different. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. All rights reserved.1 m/s in the three directions shown. Solution: The work done by the weight is the same. a 5N ball is released from rest at position 1 and falls to position 2.81 m/s2 ) cos 40◦ ] U= 1 1 mv2 2 − m(1 m/s)2 ⇒ 2 2 2m sin 40◦ v2 = 5.32 Suppose that you stand at the edge of a 61 m cliff and throw rocks at 9. For each case.7 m/s Note that the answer does not depend on the initial angle.81 m/s2 )(0 − 2 m) = ⇒ v = 6. U = −m(9.Problem 15. so both cases are the same. Neglecting aerodynamic drag.98 m/s U = −m(9. In case (b).1 m/s)2 2 2 (a) 30 30 (c) 61 m (b) Problem 15. the ball is released from rest at position 1 and swings to position 2.34 Solve Problem 15. (a) U = −m(9.2.34 m/s 1 1 mv2 2 − m(1 m/s)2 2 2 2 60° (a) (b) 40° 2 Problem 15.26 m/s 2 2 2 (a) (b) 194 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. however. notice that the force exerted on the ball by the string is perpendicular to the ball’s path. . or transmission in any form or by any means. Solution: U = m(9.
55 m/s Problem 15.61 v2 = 3. v2 = 3.55 m/s T = mg cos 50◦ + mv 2 /L T = 37. storage in a retrieval system. mechanical.61 Nm L SIN α 1m 2 2 2 U12 = 1 mv2 − 1 mv1 2 2 1 2 2 (2)v2 v1 ≡ 0 = 12. The length of the string is L = 1 m. or transmission in any form or by any means. recording or likewise.8 N er 50° eθ mg c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. photocopying. electronic.Problem 15. Solution: m = 2 kg Fr : 2 − T + mg cos 50◦ = −mv2 /L 40° T From Problem 15.81)(1) sin 40 U12 = 12.36. 195 . What is the tension in the string when the ball is in position 2? Strategy: Draw the freebody diagram of the ball when it is in position 2 and write Newton’s second law in terms of normal and tangential components.36 The 2kg ball is released from rest in position 1 with the string horizontal. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. The length of the string is L = 1 m.37 The 2kg ball is released from rest in position 1 with the string horizontal. What is the magnitude of the ball’s velocity when it is in position 2? 1 40 L 2 Solution: U12 = − 0 −L sin α 2 kg 1 mgj · dsj ◦ L=1m α U12 = −mg(−L sin α) = (2)(9.
Solution: From the solution to Problem 15. .75 m/s Problem 15. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. what is the maximum tension in the cable as the ball swings from position 1 to position 2? v2 . mechanical.39 The 400N wrecker’s ball swings at the end of a 25m cable.38 The 400N wrecker’s ball swings at the end of a 25m cable. If the magnitude of the ball’s velocity at position 1 is 4 m/s. what is the magnitude of its velocity just before it hits the wall at position 2? 65° 95° 1 2 Solution: U = −(400 N)(−25 m sin 95 − [−25 m sin 65 ]) U= 1 2 400 N 9. the tension in the 196 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. from which cable is T = mg sin α + m T = 3 mg sin 90◦ − 2 mg sin 65◦ = 474. The maximum tension occurs when sin α is a maximum in the interval (65◦ ≤ α ≤ 95◦ ). From the solution to Problem 15.9516 N. or transmission in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. from which T = 3 mg sin v α − 2 mg sin 65◦ .37.81 m/s2 (v2 2 − [4 m/s]2 ) ◦ ◦ ⇒ v2 = 7. If the magnitude of the ball’s velocity at position 1 is 4 m/s. L 2 = 2gL[sin α − sin 65◦ ](65◦ ≤ α ≤ 95◦ ). photocopying.38. electronic. storage in a retrieval system. recording or likewise.Problem 15.
41 The 2kg collar starts from rest at position 1 and slides down the smooth rigid wire. Determine the minimum velocity v0 at which the car can enter the loop and coast through without losing contact with the track.00 m/s V0 Now ﬁnd V0 using workenergy U0T = 0 10 0 10 − mgj · (dxi + dyj) N − mg dy = −mgy U0T = et U0T = −98. What is the magnitude of the velocity of the collar when it reaches position 2? y 1 (5.68 m/s Problem 15. 3) m Solution: The work done by the weight is Uweight = mgh. let us ﬁnd VT 2 Fn : N + mg = mVT /R VTOP = VT For minimum velocity. photocopying. mechanical. What is the car’s velocity at the top of the loop? R 0 Solution: First. 5. 2) m 2 kg x 2 z (3. 197 . From the principle of work and energy.40 A stunt driver wants to drive a car through the circular loop of radius R = 5 m. mgh = 1 mv 2 . –1. storage in a retrieval system.1)(2) V0 = 15. All rights reserved. The yaxis points upward.1m (Nm) 2 2 mg Solving for V0 (VT = 7.85 m/s c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. U0T = 1 mVT − 1 mV02 = −98.1m (Nm) en 2 Also. or transmission in any form or by any means. electronic. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. recording or likewise.00 m/s) 2 V02 = VT + (98. where h = y1 − y2 = 5 − (−1) = 6 m. N → 0 mg = VT = 2 mVT /R ds = dxi + dyj R √ Rg = 7. from which 2 v= √ 2 gh = 10.Problem 15.
which are parallel to the airplane’s path. the magnitude of its velocity decreases from 244 m/s to 183 m /s. mechanical. U = UL+D − (125000 N )(3048 − 914 ) m U= 1 2 125000 N ([183 m/s] 2 − [244 m/s]2 ) 9. The airplane climbs from an altitude of 914 m to an altitude of 3048 m. which is perpendicular to the path.81 m/s2 (a) W (b) ⇒ UL+D = 10.81 m/s2 2 ([24 m/s]2 − v1 ) Problem 15. 6. the lift L. When it reaches position 2. storage in a retrieval system. . What was the magnitude of its velocity at position 1? 1 y ( 2.Problem 15. photocopying. During the climb. 4) m 4N x z 2 (4nN. and the weight W . 4) m Solution: U = (4 N)(6 − [−1]) m = ⇒ v1 = 20. recording or likewise. or transmission in any form or by any means. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. All rights reserved.9 m/s 1 2 4N 9. the magnitude of its velocity is 24 m/s.42 The 4N collar slides down the smooth rigid wire from position 1 to position 2. D L T What work is done on the airplane by its lift during the climb? (b) What work is done by the thrust and drag combined? Solution: (a) The work due to the lift L is zero since it acts perpendicular to the motion.07 × 10 7 Nm 198 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. 1.43 The forces acting on the 125 kN airplane are the thrust T and drag D. electronic.
the car of h = 8 .6 (30 ◦) π π + 30. the work done by gravity is Ugravity = −95903 .1 m /s = 57 .5 m Solution: The initial velocity is v1 = 6 4.1) = 62468.5 (30 ◦ ) 180◦ 180◦ = 35.9 Nm . recording or likewise.78 kN tangential force on the car in the direction of its motion. If the combined effect of aerodynamic drag on the car and the tangential force exerted on its .7 kN car is traveling 64.7 kN car is traveling 64. photocopying.96 m /s W The work done by gravity is Ugravity = 0 h (−W ) ds = −W h = −10700(h) = −95903.6 m 30° 2 1 30° 30. wheels by the road is that they exert a constant 1. from which h = 36. what is the magnitude of the car’s velocity at position 2? 36. 9 m /s The change in elevation of the car is From the principle of work and energy the work done is equal to the gain in kinetic energy: Ugravity = 1 2 W g 2 v2 − 1 2 W g 2 v1 . what is the magnitude of the car’s velocity at position 2? Solution: From the solution to Problem 15.5 (1 − cos 30 ◦) = 67.1 (1 − cos 30 ◦) = 8. 199 .9 + 173895) = 11. storage in a retrieval system. or transmission in any form or by any means.5 + 173895 ) 2400 From the principle of work and energy Ugravity + Utgt = from which 1 2 W g 2 v2 − 1 2 W g 2 v1 .4 km/h at position 1.45 The 10.4 km/h at position 1. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. mechanical. electronic. All rights reserved.6 (1 − cos 30◦ ) + 30.9 + 62468.9 Nm due to the change in elevation of 1 W 2 v1 = 173895 Nm. Problem 15.98 m.1 m .5 N m . and 2 g The length of road between positions 1 and 2 is s = 36.81)(−95903.9 km/ h c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.98 m The initial kinetic energy is 1 2 W g 2 v1 = 173895 N v2 = 2g(−95903.44. v= 2(9. If the combined effect of the aerodynamic drag on the car and the tangential force exerted on its wheels by the road is that they exert no net tangential force on the car.Problem 15. The work done by the tangential force is Utgt = 0 s 1780 ds = 1780 (35.44 The 10. 4 km/h = 17. = 16 .
6 2.6 m x 18.1).60 m above the ground and travels a horizontal distance of 18. Using the chain rule.1)2 − 0.47 A bioengineer interested in energy requirements of sports determines from videotape that when the athlete begins his motion to throw the 7. The shot reaches a maximum height of 4. vx0 4.25)(13. mechanical. Its engine has a constant thrust of 45 kN. the shot is 2. At the instant the athlete releases it (Fig. How much work does the athlete do on the shot from the beginning of his motion to the instant he releases it? Solution: Let vx0 and vy0 be the velocity components at the instant of release. storage in a retrieval system. photocopying. ay = dvy dy dvy dvy = = vy = −g. The magnitude of the shot’s velocity at release is U2 = vx0 2 + vy0 2 = 13.Problem 15.81 m/s2 )(2. .1 + vy0 x vx0 − 1 g 2 x vx0 Setting x = 18.66 m 2.66 m.46 The mass of the rocket is 250 kg. Let UA be the work he does UA − mg(y2 − y1 ) = 1 mv2 2 − 1 mv1 2 2 2 UA − (7.1 m/s.1 + vy0 t − 1 gt 2 . The shot’s x and y coordinates are given by x = vx0 t. 2 y = 2. recording or likewise. a). The length of the launching ramp is 10 m.50 m above the ground.1 m dy. or transmission in any form or by any means. we ﬁnd that vy0 = 7. dt dy dt dy (a) (b) y vy0 and integrating.6 − 2. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.1 m/s.10 m above the ground. All rights reserved.00 m/s. Solv2 ing the ﬁrst equation for t and substituting it into the second.5) = 1 (7.1 − 1. 2 or UA = 666 Nm 200 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. b).25 kg)(9. If the magnitude of the rocket’s velocity when it reaches the end of the ramp is 52 m/s.66 m from the point where it was released. the shot is stationary and 1.81 m/s2 )(2 m) U= 1 (250 kg)(52 m/s)2 2 2m UF r+Dr = −107 kNm Problem 15. electronic. how much work is done on the rocket by friction and aerodynamic drag? Solution: U = UF r+Dr + (45 kN)(10 m) − (250 kg)(9.1 1 − 2 vy0 2 = −g(4. y = 0 in this equation and solving for vx0 gives vx0 = 11. y = 2. 0 vy0 vy dvy = −g 4.25kg shot (Fig.
Problem 15.48 A small pellet of mass m = 0.2 kg starts from rest at position 1 and slides down the smooth surface of the cylinder to position 2, where θ = 30◦ . (a) What work is done on the pellet as it slides from position 1 to position 2? (b) What is the magnitude of the pellet’s velocity at position 2?
1 2 m
0.8 m
u
Solution:
v1 = 0 U12 = R = 0.8 m
R R cos 30°
1 2 30°
1 2 1 2 mv − mv 2 2 2 1
2 2 U12 = (0.5)(0.2)v2 = 0.1v2
The work is U12 = (0.2)(9.81)(0.8 − 0.8 cos 30◦ ) = 0.210 Nm. (a) (b) U12 = 0.210 (Nm)
2 0.1v2 = 0.210 (Nm)
v2 = 1.45 m/s
Problem 15.49 In Active Example 15.4, suppose that you want to increase the value of the spring constant k so that the velocity of the hammer just before it strikes the workpiece is 4 m/s. what is the required value of k?
1
Hammer
k
k 2
Solution: The 40kg hammer is released from rest in position 1.
The springs are unstretched when in position 2. Neglect friction. 1 1 2 U12 = mgh + 2 kd 2 = mv2 2 2 k= m d2
2 v2
400 mm
Workpiece
2
− gh
300 mm
[4 m]2 − [9.81m/s2 ][0.4m] 2
k=
40 kg (0.2 m)2
k = 4080 N/m.
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
201
Problem 15.50 Suppose that you want to design a bumper that will bring a 50N. package moving at 10 m /s to rest 152.4 mm from the point of contact with bumper. If friction is negligible, what is the necessary spring constant k?
10 m/s k
Solution: From the principle of work and energy, the work done
on the spring must equal the change in kinetic energy of the package within the distance 152.4 m. 1 1 2 kS = 2 2 from which W g v S
2
W g
v2
k=
=
50 9.81
10 0.152
2
= 22060 N/m
Problem 15.51 In Problem 15.50, what spring constant is necessary if the coefﬁcient of kinetic friction between the package and the ﬂoor is µk = 0.3 and the package contacts the bumper moving at 10 m/s? Solution: The work done on the spring over the stopping distance is US =
0 S S 0
F ds =
ks ds =
1 2 kS . 2
The work done by friction over the stopping distance is Uf =
0 S
F ds =
0
S
µk W ds = µk W S.
From the principle of work and energy the work done must equal the kinetic energy of the package: 1 1 2 kS + µk W S = 2 2 W g v2 ,
from which, for S = 0.152 m, W g (v 2 − 2 gµk S) = 21863 N/m S2
k=
202
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
Problem 15.52 The 50N package starts from rest, slides down the smooth ramp, and is stopped by the spring. If you want the package to be brought to rest 0.5 m from the point of contact, what is the necessary spring constant k? (b) What maximum deceleration is the package subjected to?
30
4m
(a)
k
Solution:
(a) Find the spring constant U12 = mgh − k= 1 2 kx = 0 2
N
2(50 N)(4.5 m)sin 30 ◦ 2mgh = x2 (0.5 m)2
k = 900 N/m (b) The maximum deceleration occurs when the spring reaches the maximum compression (the force is then the largest). kx − mg sin θ = ma a= a= k x − g sin θ m (900 N/m) ◦ (0.5 m ) − (9.81m/s 2) sin 30 50 N 9.81 m/s2 a = 83.4 m/s2
Problem 15.53 The 50N package starts from rest, slides down the smooth ramp, and is stopped by the spring. The coefﬁcient of static friction between the package and the ramp is µ k = 0.12. If you want the package to be brought to rest 0.5 m from the point of contact, what is the necessary spring constant k?
4m
k
30
Solution: Find the spring constant
U12 = mgd sin θ − µk mg cos θ d − k= k= 2mgd (sin θ − µk cos θ ) x2 2(50 N)(4.5 m) ◦ ◦ (sin 30 − 0.12 cos 30 ) (0.5 m) 2 1 2 kx = 0 2
k = 713 N /m .
c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or likewise.
203
we get V = 2. The spring constant k = 200 N/m. the smaller mass rises 1 m and the spring stretches 1 m. All rights reserved. recording or likewise. mechanical.81) + (20)(9. U12 = 0 1 0 1 (−ks) ds + 0 1 (−m1 g) ds + 0 1 0 1 m2 g ds U12 = − 1 ks 2 2 − m1 gs 1 0 + m2 gs m1 U12 = − 1 k − 4(9.81) 2 U12 = 56. Setting these equal. and the cable. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 1 U12 = − Ks 2 + (m2 − m1 )gs 2 and U12 1 = (m1 + m2 )V 2 2 Solve for dv dv and set to zero ds ds 1 dv (m1 + m2 )2v = (m2 − m1 )g − Ks = 0 2 ds The extreme value for V occurs at S= (m2 − m1 )g = 0.785 m K For all s.27 m/s 204 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. For the system of two masses.55 The system is released from rest with the spring unstretched. electronic. we get 1 1 (m1 + m2 )V 2 = (m2 − m1 )gs − Ks 2 2 2 (1) Substituting this back into (1) and solving. 4 kg 20 kg k Solution: When the larger mass falls 1 m. storage in a retrieval system. photocopying. Determine the magnitude of the velocity of the masses when the right mass has fallen 1 m.54. What maximum downward velocity does the right mass attain as it falls? Solution: From the solution to Problem 15.54 The system is released from rest with the spring unstretched. or transmission in any form or by any means. . springs. The spring constant k = 200 N/m.18 m/s m2 20 kg 4 kg k Problem 15.Problem 15.96 Nm Also U12 = 1 (m1 + m2 )Vf2 − 0 2 Solving Vf = 2.
and the tension in the spring when the system is released is 50 N.Problem 15. The 4kg mass slides on the smooth horizontal surface. recording or likewise.5 m U = (20 kg)(9.59 m/s c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.81 m/s2 )(1 m) − 1 (100 N/m)([1.4.5 m]2 − [0. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.5 m]2 − [0.81 m/s2 )(1 m) − U= 1 (24 kg)(v2 2 − 0) 2 1 (100 N/m)([1.5 m]2 ) 2 − (0. k 4 kg 20 kg Solution: 50 N = (100 N/m)x1 ⇒ x1 = 0.5 m U = (20 kg)(9. 205 . determine the magnitude of the velocity of the masses when the 20kg mass has fallen 1 m.57 Solve Problem 15.81 m/s2 )(1 m) U= 1 (24 kg)(v2 2 − 0) 2 v2 = 2. The spring constant is k = 100 N/m.56 if the coefﬁcient of kinetic friction between the 4kg mass and the horizontal surface is µk = 0. or transmission in any form or by any means. By using the principle of work and energy. photocopying. All rights reserved.4)(4 kg)(9. mechanical. storage in a retrieval system.56 The system is released from rest. Solution: 50 N = (100 N/m)x1 ⇒ x1 = 0.83 m/s Problem 15. electronic.5 m]2 ) 2 v2 = 2.
How far down the inclined surface does the crate slide before it stops? (b) What maximum velocity does the crate attain on its way down? (a) k 30 Solution: At an arbitrary distance s down the slope we have: U = (40 N)(s sin 30 ) − ◦ 1 1 (8 N/m)s 2 = 2 2 40 N 9.5 m ds vmax = 3. we set v = 0 and solve for Solving for v2 .63 m Using s = 1. mechanical. we have v 2 = 0.58 if the coefﬁcient of kinetic friction between the 4kg mass and the horizontal surface is µk = 0. All rights reserved.81 m/s 2 ◦ 1 ◦ (8 N/m)s 2 − (0. Solution: At an arbitrary distance s down the slope we have: U = (40 N)(s sin 30 ) − = 1 2 40 N 9.59 Solve Problem 15.5 m ⇒ s=5m dv 2 = 0 .07 − 8s) = 0 ds 206 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. recording or likewise.Problem 15.58 The 40 N crate is released from rest on the smooth inclined surface with the spring unstretched. .2)(40 N cos 30 )s 2 v2 (a) (b) When it stops. The spring constant is k = 8 N /m .2. storage in a retrieval system.27 m dv 2 = 0. or transmission in any form or by any means.491(20s − 4s 2) ⇒ Using s = 2. we have v 2 = 0. electronic.07s − 4s 2) ⇒ ⇒ s = 1.491 (13. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.491 (20 − 8s) = 0 ⇒ s = 2.49 1(13. we set v = 0 and solve for Solving for v2 .63 m ⇒ vmax = 2. photocopying.5 m /s Problem 15.29 m/s s = 3.81 m/s2 v2 (a) (b) When it stops.
mechanical.60 The 4kg collar starts from rest in position 1 with the spring unstretched.785 m. recording or likewise. 207 . The spring constant is k = 100 N/m. photocopying. storage in a retrieval system. All rights reserved. How far does the collar fall relative to position 1? k 1 Solution: V0 = Vf = 0 Let position 2 be the location where the collar comes to rest U12 = − Ks 2 + mgs 2 ks k 2 Also U12 = 1 mVf2 − 1 mV0 = 0 2 2 s 1 Thus 0 = mgs − Ks 2 2 mg s(2mg − Ks) = 0 Solving.Problem 15. or transmission in any form or by any means. s = 0. electronic. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
How far does the collar fall relative to position 1? Solution: For this problem. (the initial stretch) In this case.2 0. The spring constant is k = 100 N/m.2 + mgs s+0. All rights reserved. If the tension in the spring is 20 N T = kδ0 and K = 100 N/m δ0 = 0.2)2 + + mg(s + 0. The tension in the spring in position 1 is 20 N. or transmission in any form or by any means.392 m Solving (1) for V2 we get V2 = 2.2 0. What maximum downward velocity does the collar attain as it falls? Solution: The work is U12 = − Also.2 m.2)2 K(s + 0. and setting it to zero. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. we get s = 0. The spring constant is k = 100 N/m.20 m/s Problem 15. photocopying.2 Also V0 = Vf = 0 0=− ∴U12 = 0 K(0.62 The 4kg collar starts from rest in position 1 on the smooth bar. ds (1) 1 mV2 dV2 = −Ks + mg = 0 ds s = mg/k = 0. we have U12 = − Ks 2 2 s+0.61 In position 1 on the smooth bar.385 m 208 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. recording or likewise. mechanical. U12 = 1 1 2 mV2 − mV12 2 2 Ks 2 + mgs 2 k where m = 4 kg and V1 = 1 m/s Thus.2) − mg(0.Problem 15.2) 2 2 Solving. the 4kg collar has a downward velocity of 1 m/s and the spring is unstretched. storage in a retrieval system. . electronic. 1 1 Ks 2 mV22 − mV12 = − + mgs 2 2 2 Finding dV2 . we need a new reference for the spring.
The work done by the spring is Uspring = S2 S1 (−ks) ds = 1 2 2 k(S1 − S2 ) = 88. 209 .125 = √ 0. h = 250 mm. The spring constant is k = 4 kN/m. What is the velocity of the collar when it has fallen to position 2? Solution: Denote d = 200 mm.2 − 0. From the principle of work and energy is Uspring + Ugravity = 1 mv 2 . storage in a retrieval system. The stretch of the spring at position 2 is S2 = 500 T = = 0. mechanical. k 4000 The unstretched length of the spring is L = d − S2 = 0. or transmission in any form or by any means.075 m. The work done by the spring on the collar is Uspring = 1 (−ks) ds = − ks 2 2 0.03 m/s m c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.95 Nm.120 m and at 2 S2 = 0. h = 250 mm. from which 2 v= 2(Uspring + Ugravity ) = 7. recording or likewise.12 0 0 Solution: Denote d = 200 mm.Problem 15.63 The 4kg collar is released from rest at position 1 on the smooth bar.120 2 200 mm The work done by gravity is Ugravity = 0 −h (−mg) ds = mgh = 9.64 The 4kg collar is released from rest in position 1 on the smooth bar. The stretch of the √ 250 mm = 43. From the principle of work and energy Uspring + Ugravity = 1 mv 2 .31 Nm.15 m/s m Problem 15.81 Nm.245 m.125 m. electronic. The tension in the spring in position 2 is 500 N. 2 The work done by gravity is Ugravity = mgh = 9. from 2 which v= 2 (Uspring + Ugravity ) = 5. what is the velocity of the collar when it has fallen to position 2? 1 k spring in position 1 is S1 = h2 + d 2 − d = 0. 0. If the spring constant is k = 6 kN/m and the spring is unstretched in position 2. photocopying.81 Nm. All rights reserved. The stretch of the spring at position 1 is S1 = h2 + d 2 − L = 0.
electronic. 4. Its velocity when it has fallen to position 2 is 4 m/s. 1) m 1 (1.66 The 10kg collar starts from rest at position 1 and slides along the smooth bar. What is the velocity of the collar when it reaches position 2? y 2 (4. Sub2 stitute and solve: k= 2 1 2 2 mv − Ugravity 2 S1 = 3082 N/m Problem 15. storage in a retrieval system. recording or likewise. Uspring + Ugravity = 1 mv 2 .8 Nm. . 2 210 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. From the principle of work and energy: Uspring + Ugravity = from which v= 2(Uspring + Ugravity ) = 5. the stretch of the spring in posi√ tion 1 is S1 = h2 + d 2 − d = 0. The spring constant is k = 100 N/m and the unstretched length of the spring is 2 m.65 The 4kg collar starts from rest in position 1 on the smooth bar.2 m. 2 1 The work done by gravity is Ugravity = mgh = 9.63. All rights reserved.120 m.77 m/s m 1 2 mv . 2 From the solution to Problem 15.81)(4 − 1) = −294. or transmission in any form or by any means.3 Nm. From the principle of work of work and energy. The potential of the spring is Uspring = 0 S1 (−ks) ds = 1 2 kS . The spring is unstretched when the collar is in position 2. 2 The work done by gravity is Ugravity = 0 h (−mg) ds = −mgh = −(10)(9. The yaxis points upward.81 Nm. photocopying. mechanical. 2) m (6. x z The stretch of the spring at position 2 is S2 = (6 − 4)2 + (2 − 4)2 + (1 − 2)2 − 2 = 1 m. 1. 2. The work done by the spring is Uspring = S2 S1 (−ks) ds = 1 2 2 k(S1 − S2 ) = 460. What is the spring constant k? Solution: The kinetic energy at position 2 is 1 mv 2 = 32 Nm. 0) m Solution: The stretch of the spring at position 1 is S1 = (6 − 1)2 + (2 − 1)2 + (1 − 0)2 − 2 = 3. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.Problem 15.
67 to throw the package to a height of 45.61m ) 2 ]−(44. Solving. determine the necessary spring constant. The package starts from rest with the spring compressed to a length of 152. electronic. mg(45. mechanical.61 sin 60◦ ) = 1 m(v2 sin 60◦ )2 . 2 Work and energy inside the barrel is −1 k[0−(0 . This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.81)v 2 − 0. Problem 15.7 m. The force exerted on the object can be expressed in terms of polar coordinates as F = −T er . All rights reserved.3 m /s. c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. we obtain v2 = 3 9. Show that the work done on the object as it moves along an arbitrary plane path from a radial position r1 to a radial position r2 is U12 = −T (r1 − r2 ). Solution: See the solution of Problem 15.5/9.67 A springpowered mortar is used to launch 44. 2 2 2 2 − 1 k(S2 − S1 ) − mg(y2 − y1 ) = 1 mv2 − 1 mv1 : 2 2 2 2 − 1 (1762 )[0 − (0.5 N packages of ﬁreworks into the air.5 )(0. 4 mm.5/ 9. The unstretched length of the spring is 762 mm. r θ Solution: The work done on the object is U= r2 r1 T F · ds. To reach 45.61sin 60 ◦ m )= 1 (44.5)( 0.4 mm 60° Solving. 2 2 which gives k = 14549 N/m. Let v2 be the velocity as the package leaves the barrel.68 Suppose that you want to design the mortar in Problem 15.4)2−0.81)(34. storage in a retrieval system. 2 2 152.61sin 60 ◦ ft) = 1 (44.7 m above its initial position. recording or likewise. Neglecting friction and drag. we obtain v2 = 34. or transmission in any form or by any means. Suppose that the arbitrary path is deﬁned by dr = (drer + rdθeθ ). 6 1m )2 ]−(44. and the work done is U= r2 r1 r2 r1 F · dr = r2 r1 − T (er · er ) dr + r2 r1 T (rer · eθ )rdθ =− T dr = −T (r2 − r1 ) since er · es = 0 by deﬁnition. If the spring constant is k =1762 N/m.7− 0.69 Suppose an object has a string or cable with constant tension T attached as shown.4 m/s.67.Problem 15. what is the magnitude of the velocity of the package as it leaves the mortar? 762 mm Solution: Equating the work done to the change in the kinetic energy. 211 . photocopying. Problem 15.
3 Nm.22 − 0. 2) m (6.85 Nm.69. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. The work done by gravity on the collar is Ugravity = 0 h Solution: The constant force on the end of the string acts through √ 500 mm 100 N (−mg) ds = −mgh = −(2)(9. and the y axis points upward.2 = 0.90 m/s m from which v= Problem 15. 0) m 200 N Solution: The constant force moves a distance s= − (6 − 1)2 + (2 − 1)2 + (1 − 0)2 x z (6 − 4)2 + (2 − 4)2 + (1 − 2)2 = 2.38 m/s 10 v= 212 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.5) 1 = −9. From the principle of work and energy: UF + Ugravity = 1 2 mv .71 The 10kg collar starts from rest at position 1.Problem 15.81)(0. All rights reserved.52 + 0.81)(3) = −294. The work done by gravity is Ugravity = 0 h (−mg) ds = −mgh = −(10)(9.2 Nm. A constant 100N force is applied to the string.70 The 2kg collar is initially at rest at position 1. 1.3385 m. 4. recording or likewise. 2. or transmission in any form or by any means. The work done by the constant force is UF = F s = 33. The tension in the string is 200 N. electronic. The work done by the constant force is UF = 0 s F ds = F s = 439. . causing the collar to slide up the smooth vertical bar. what is the magnitude of the velocity of the collar when it reaches position 2? (See Problem 15.2 m. 1) m 1 (1. What is the velocity of the collar when it reaches position 2? (See Problem 15. storage in a retrieval system.81 Nm. photocopying.) 2 200 mm a distance s = 0. If friction is negligible. from 2 which 2(UF + Ugravity ) = 5. mechanical. From the principle of work and energy UF + Ugravity = 1 mv 2 .69.) y 2 (4. 2 2(UF + Ugravity ) = 4.
bringing the 115. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.690.600 km.900 m/s)2 2(9. electronic. recording or likewise.69. mechanical.1 m B T = 858.73 If the airplane in Problem 15. c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.6 kN airplane to rest at a distance of 22 m. 213 .81 m/s2 (0 − [64 m/s]2) A 20.72 lands at 73.1 m ) C = 1 2 115600 N 9.900 m/s.) 22 m Solution: U = −2T ( (22 m)2 + (10.72 As the F/A . (See Example 15. what distance does it roll before the arresting system brings it to rest? Solution: U = −2(858500)( s 2 + (10. the cable from A to B engages the airplane’s arresting hook at C.Problem 15.000 m −1 r2 = 26.61 m Solving we ﬁnd Problem 15.2 m/s.) Solution: 2 U12 = mgRE vesc 320 km 1 1 − r2 r1 1 r1 −1 = 1 1 2 2 mv2 − mv1 2 2 r2 = 2 2 v2 − v1 2 2gRE + r2 = (5450 m/s)2 − (10.370. storage in a retrieval system.74 A spacecraft 320 km above the surface of the earth is moving at escape velocity vesc = 10. What is the tension in the cable? (See Problem 15. or transmission in any form or by any means.6.000 m)2 2 + 1 6.18 lands at 64 m/s. The arresting mechanism maintains the tension in the cable at a constant value.1 m ) = 1 2 115600 9.5 kN Problem 15. photocopying.1 m)2 − 10.1 m) 2 − 10.81 m/s 2 (0 − [64 m/s]2) s = 26. What is its distance from the center of the earth when its velocity is 50 percent of its initial value? The radius of the earth is 6370 km.81 m/s )(6. All rights reserved.
storage in a retrieval system. What is the magnitude of its velocity just before it strikes the moon’s surface? The acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the moon is 1. Solution: The kinetic energy at h = 1000 km is m 2 v 2 RM +h 1000 km 200 m/s = 2 × 104 Nm.028 × 106 + 2 × 104 ) = 1448 m/s 214 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. RM + h Uejecta = 1.028 m × 106 Nm.Problem 15. .75 A piece of ejecta is thrown up by the impact of a meteor on the moon. electronic.62 m/s2 . photocopying. or transmission in any form or by any means. When it is 1000 km above the moon’s surface. The work done on the ejecta as it falls from 1000 km is Uejecta = RM RM+h RM (−Wejecta ) ds = RM RM +h −mgM 2 RM ds s2 = mgM 2 RM s = mgM RM RM +h h . The moon’s radius is 1738 km. All rights reserved. at the Moon’s surface: Uejecta = m 2 v 2 − m 2 v 2 surface RM +h from which vsurface = 2(1. recording or likewise. the magnitude of its velocity (relative to a nonrotating reference frame with its origin at the center of the moon) is 200 m/s. mechanical. From the principle of work and energy. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.
Solution: The force vector F is given by a cross product involving v. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. storage in a retrieval system.24 × 109 Nm. The work done by the satellite’s weight as it moves from the parking orbit to the geosynchronous orbit is Utransfer = Rgeo Rpark Rgeo 2 = mgRE Rpark F ds = Rgeo Rpark −mg 2 RE ds s2 = mg 2 RE s 1 1 − Rgeo Rpark . c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. if work is zero. How much work must the rocket do on the satellite? Solution: Denote the work to be done by the rocket by Urocket .Problem 15. Rgeo = 42222 km. Hence.77 The force exerted on a charged particle by a magnetic ﬁeld is F = qv × B. park m 2 m 2 2 gRE Rgeo = 4. Hence. park 1 2 mv 2 − geo 1 2 mv 2 − Utransfer . electronic. 215 . photocopying.it only changes the direction of its motion.25 × 1010 Nm Problem 15.222km radius.5 × 109 Nm.67 × 1010 Nm. This means that the force vector is ALWAYS perpendicular to the velocity vector. recording or likewise. = park g 2 RE Rpark = 2. All rights reserved. the force ﬁeld does no work on the charged particle . From the principle of work and energy: Utransfer + Urocket = from which Urocket = Noting 1 2 mv 2 1 2 mv 2 = geo 1 2 mv 2 − geo 1 2 mv 2 . where RE = 6370 km is the radius of the earth. the change in kinetic energy is also zero and the velocity of the charged particle is constant. Suppose you are designing a rocket to transfer a 900kg communication satellite from a circular parking orbit with 6700km radius to a circular geosynchronous orbit with 42. from which Urocket = 2. Denote Rpark = 6700 km.76 A satellite in a circular orbit of 2 radius r around the earth has velocity v = gRE /r. Utransfer = −4. or transmission in any form or by any means. where q and v are the charge and velocity of the particle and B is the magnetic ﬁeld vector. Suppose that other forces on the particle are negligible. Use the principle of work and energy to show that the magnitude of the particle’s velocity is constant. mechanical.
23 m/s T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 ⇒ T1 = T2 = (b) 1 (0. storage in a retrieval system. what is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the box when it is in position 1? (b) What is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the box when it is in position 2? (c) Use conservation of energy to determine the magnitude of the box’s velocity when it is in position 2.78 The 10N box is released from rest at position 1 and slides down the smooth inclined surface to position 2.45 kg)(12 m/s)2 . .23 m/s T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 ⇒ 216 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.79 The 0. recording or likewise.Problem 15. V1 = (0. photocopying. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. V2 = (0.45kg soccer ball is 1 m above the ground when it is kicked upward at 12 m/s.81 m/s2 )(1 m) 2 1 (0.81 m/s2 v2 2 + (10 N)(2 m) ⇒ v2 = 7.81 m/s2 )(3 m) 2 v2 = 9.67 m/s 1 (a) 2 30 2m M5 m Datum (c) Problem 15.45 kg)(9. 12 m/s Datum 1m 12 m/s 1m Datum (a) (b) Solution: (a) T1 = T2 = 1 (0. electronic. V2 = (0. mechanical. If the datum is placed at the level of the ﬂoor as shown. All rights reserved.45 kg)v2 2 .45 kg)v2 2 . Solution: (a) (b) T1 + V1 = 0 + (10 N)(5 m) = 50 Nm T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 = 50 N m 50 Nm = 1 2 10 N 9. V1 = 0 2 1 (0. or transmission in any form or by any means.45 kg)(9. Use conservation of energy to determine the magnitude of the ball’s velocity when it is 4 m above the ground.45 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(4 m) 2 v2 = 9. Obtain the answer by placing the datum (a) at the level of the ball’s initial position and (b) at ground level.45 kg)(12 m/s)2 .
2) m m = 0. By conservation of energy. h Solution: Use conservation of energy Let state 1 be at the max height and state 2 at the surface. photocopying. Use conservation of energy to determine the magnitude of the velocity of the collar when it reaches point 2. y2 = 0. g = 9. 217 . The y axis points upward. 5. 1 2 2 mv1 2 + mgy1 = 1 mv2 + mgy2 2 y 1 (5.Problem 15. Thus 2 0 + (0.62 m/s2 . 2 2 (a).81 m/s2 . This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. All rights reserved. The acceleration due to gravity at the moon’s surface is 1. v1 = 0.4 kg v2 = 9.81 The 0.4)v2 + 0 2 0.4kg collar starts from rest at position 1 and slides down the smooth rigid wire.80 The Lunar Module (LM) used in the Apollo moon landings could make a safe landing if the magnitude of its vertical velocity at impact was no greater than 5 m/s.48 m Problem 15. electronic.4)(9.90 m/s x 2 z (3.81)(5) = 1 (0. recording or likewise.62 m/s2 v1 = ±2 m/s (m cancels from the equation. 0 . and y1 = 5 m. 5. 0. 2) m c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.4 kg. Solving h = 6.4 kg x 2 z (3.) h= 1 2 2 (v − v1 ) 2g 2 2 (The sign of V1 does not matter since v1 is the only occurrence of v1 in the relationship). mechanical. (b) 1 mv1 + mgh = 1 mv2 + 0 2 2 v2 = 5 m/s g = 1. Datum is at the lunar surface. Use conservation of energy to determine the maximum height h at which the pilot could shut off the engine if the vertical velocity of the lander is (a) 2 m/s downward and (b) 2 m/s upward. 1 mv 2 + V = 2 constant where V = mgy. storage in a retrieval system. y 1 (5. or transmission in any form or by any means. 2) m Solution: Assume gravity acts in the −y direction and that y = 0 is the datum. 2) m 0. Thus.
the 20kg mass is moving downward at 1. 0 < θ < 180◦ Datum: θ = 0. The ball is released from rest in position 1 and swings to position 2. State 2. storage in a retrieval system. where θ = 40◦ .82 At the instant shown. v1 = 0.81 m/s2 d=1m Energy for the system is conserved 1 2 2 m1 v1 4 kg 20 kg V2 1. electronic. recording or likewise. the potential energy.83 The mass of the ball is m = 2 kg and the string’s length is L = 1 m. g = 9. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.55 m/s 218 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.6 m s 1. (a) (b) Use conservation of energy to determine the magnitude of the ball’s velocity at position 2. PE negative. Draw graphs of the kinetic energy. PE. Use conservation of energy to determine the magnitude of the velocity of the 20kg mass when d = 1 m.95 m/s Problem 15. Solution: m1 = 4 kg m2 = 20 kg v1 = 1. photocopying. All rights reserved. Let d be the downward displacement of the mass relative to its present position.Problem 15. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Theta (degrees) 140 160 180 (a) Evaluating at θ = 40◦ . 2 Total energy is always zero (datum value). (KE + PE) zero KE PE TOT 2 KE = 1 mv2 V = −mgL sin θ for all θ. mechanical.81 m/s2 1 2 2 mv1 2 + mg(0) = 1 mv2 + mg(−L sin θ) 2 20 15 10 5 0 –5 –10 –15 –20 Kinetic and Potential Energy vs α KE positive. .6 m/s. v2 = 3. 1 u L m 2 Solution: KE.6 m/s g = 9. and (PE + KE) Nm m = 2 kg L=1m Use conservation of energy State 1 θ = 0. or transmission in any form or by any means. and the total energy for values of θ from zero to 180◦ .6 m/s 20 kg d A V2 4 kg A B +0 + 1 2 2 m2 v1 2 2 + 0 = 1 m1 v2 + 1 m2 v2 2 2 + m1 g(d) − m2 g(d) 2 2 (m1 + m2 )v1 = (m1 + m2 )v2 + 2(m1 − m2 )gd Datum State (1) VA = VB = 0 B State (2) d Substituting known values and solving v2 = 3.
recording or likewise.81 L u 1L – 2 2 1 T1 mV3 L 2 L 2 1 2 mg T2 mV3 (L /2) 2 m2 s2 v3 = 3.9 N c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.Problem 15. electronic.13 m/s at θ = 0◦ . photocopying.81) + 2[(2)(9.2 N After striking the peg.81) + (2)(9.84 The mass of the ball is m = 2 kg and the string’s length is L = 1 m. (a) 1 2 L 1 2 mv + mg(−L cos θ1 ) = mv2 − mg 2 1 2 2 0 − mgL cos θ1 = 0 − mg cos θ1 = θ = 60◦ (b) Use conservation of energy to determine velocity at the lowest point. 219 . it hits the ﬁxed peg shown. All rights reserved. When the string is vertical. (state 3) (v1 ≡ 0) 1 2 1 2 mv − mgL cos 60◦ = mv3 − mgL 2 1 2 1 2 mv = mgL − mgL/2 2 3 2 v3 = gL = 9.81)/(1) T1 = 39. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. or transmission in any form or by any means. v1 = v2 = 0 Use θ = 90◦ as the datum.81)/1] T = 58. storage in a retrieval system. (a) Use conservation of energy to determine the minimum angle θ necessary for the ball to swing to position 2. Before striking the peg 2 T1 − mg = mv3 /L mg T1 = (2)(9. what is the tension in the string just before and just after it hits the peg? m = 2 kg L =1m Solution: Energy is conserved. The ball is released from rest in position 1. (b) If the ball is released at the minimum angle θ determined in part (a). mechanical. 2 T − mg = mv3 /(L/2) T = (2)(9.
2◦ 220 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. V2 = mgR cos θ 2 2 ◦ T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 ⇒ 0 + mgR cos 20 = Solving we ﬁnd θ = cos−1 2 cos 20◦ 3 3 mgR cos θ 2 = 51. photocopying.2 kg)(9. mechanical.8 m) cos 45 2 v2 = 1.85 A small pellet of mass m = 0.8 m) cos 20 T2 = ◦ 1 ◦ (0. storage in a retrieval system. what is the value of the angle θ at which the pellet loses contact with the surface of the cylinder? Solution: In position 2 we have F : N — mg cos θ = −m v2 2 v2 2 ⇒ N = m g cos θ − R R 2 When the pellet leaves the surface N = 0 ⇒ v2 = Rg cos θ θ mg N Now do workenergy.8 m. T1 = 0.81 m/s2 )(0.2 kg)v2 2 . All rights reserved.91 m/s T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 ⇒ Problem 15. V2 = (0. recording or likewise. V1 = mgR cos 20 T2 = ◦ 1 1 mv2 2 = mRg cos θ. V1 = (0.Problem 15. electronic. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. or transmission in any form or by any means.85.2 kg)(9.81 m/s2 )(0. .86 In Problem 15. The radius R = 0. 1 20 2 R u m Solution: Use the ground as the datum T1 = 0.2 kg starts from rest at position 1 and slides down the smooth surface of the cylinder to position 2. Use conservation of energy to determine the magnitude of the pellet’s velocity at position 2 if θ = 45◦ .
81 m/s2 )(1 m) = 7. photocopying. 1 1 2 2 mvA + 0 = mvC + mgh 2 2 vC = 2 vA − 2gh = (6.87 m/s. 221 . All rights reserved. hence it is possible to reach point C. The 10kg slider at A is given a downward velocity of 6. vC = 1.5 m/s.81 m/s2 ] + [7. Y es. 1m (a) (b) Use conservation of energy to determine whether the slider will reach point C. electronic. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.73 m/s. If it does.87 The bar is smooth.81 m/s2 )(2 m) This equation has a real solution. recording or likewise. c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. Now ﬁnd the normal force Fy : N − mg = m 2 vB ρ 2 vB ρ N =m g+ = (10 kg) [9. what is the magnitude of its velocity at point C? What is the magnitude of the normal force the bar exerts on the slider as it passes point B? 10 kg A 1m C D 2m B Solution: (a) Find the velocity at C.Problem 15.5 m/s)2 − 2(9.87 m/s]2 1m N = 717 N. mechanical. 2 2 vB = 2 vA + 2gh = (6.5 m/s)2 + 2(9. storage in a retrieval system. or transmission in any form or by any means. (b) Find the velocity at point B 1 1 2 2 mvA + 0 = mvB − mgh.
(b) Find the velocity at point B 1 1 2 2 mvA + 0 = mvB − mgh.5 m/s)2 − 2(9. storage in a retrieval system. what is the magnitude of its velocity at point D? (b) What is the magnitude of the normal force the bar exerts on the slider as it passes point B? 10 kg A 1m (a) C D 2m Solution: (a) We will ﬁrst ﬁnd the velocity at the highest point (half way between C and D).3 m])2 Hammer 1 k 2 k 400 mm Workpiece k= 300 mm k = 4080 N/m. mechanical. The 10kg slider at A is given a downward velocity of 7.89 In Active Example 15.61 m/s. Now ﬁnd the normal force Fy : N − mg = m 2 vB ρ 2 vB ρ N =m g+ = (10 kg) [9. suppose that you want to increase the value of the spring constant k so that the velocity of the hammer just before it strikes the workpiece is 4 m/s. If it does.71 m/s]2 1m N = 857 N. . This equation does not have a solution in terms of real numbers which means that it cannot reach the highest point. 1 1 2 2 mvA + 0 = mvD + mgh 2 2 vD = vD = 2 vA − 2gh = B (7.5 m/s)2 + 2(9. 1m Use conservation of energy to determine whether the slider will reach point D. All rights reserved.5 m] − [0. photocopying.Problem 15.7. recording or likewise. Problem 15.81 m/s2 ] + [8.81 m/s2 ][0. Solution: 1 1 2 ks + mgh = mv 2 2 2 2 k= m(v 2 − 2gh) 2s 2 (40 kg)([4 m/s]2 − 2[9. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.81 m/s2 )(1 m) = 8.81 m/s2 )(3 m) √ −2. Use conservation of energy to determine the required value of k. electronic. 2 2 vB = 2 vA + 2gh = (7. or transmission in any form or by any means. No.88 The bar is smooth. 222 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.4 m]) 2([0.71 m/s.5 m/s.
90 A rock climber of weight W has a rope attached a distance h below him for protection. W k ± W k 4 kh + 1. (Notice that the maximum force is independent of h. where C is a constant. mechanical. the potential energy stored in the rope becomes Vrope = 1 k(y − 2h)2 . The energy of the climber before the fall is zero. and assume that the rope behaves like a linear spring with unstretched length h and spring constant k = C/ h. Suppose that he falls. The solution is y = 2h + Substitute: F = −W 1 ± 1+ 4C W . and c = +4h2 . and the force is 4C W F = −W 1 + 1+ (directed upward). electronic. 2 where y is positive downward.) h Solution: Choose the climber’s center of mass before the fall as the datum. recording or likewise. photocopying. from which: y 2 + 2by + c = 0. Use conservation of energy to determine the maximum force exerted on the climber by the rope. which is a reassuring result for climbers: The maximum force resulting from a long fall is the same as that resulting from a short one. or transmission in any form or by any means. c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. 2 At maximum extension the force on the climber is F =− ∂V = −k(y − 2h). All rights reserved. storage in a retrieval system. where b = − 2h + W k . As the climber falls. W The positive sign applies. ∂y When the velocity of the falling climber is zero. 223 . 0 = −Wy + 1 k(y − 2 2h)2 . his energy remains the same: 0 = 1 mv 2 − Wy. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. As the rope tightens.Problem 15.
The masses mA = 14 kg and mB = 18 kg. As the instant shown. 224 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.15 m A Solution: The unstretched length of the spring is δ= (0. the spring is unstretched and B is moving downward at 4 m/s.56 m/s.2 m.335 m. (See Example 15.522 m.Problem 15.2 m) − (700 N/m)(0.81 m/s2) 90 N v2 = 4. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. photocopying.15 m)2 = 0. The horizontal bar is smooth. How fast is B moving when it has moved downward 0. The spring constant k = 40 N/m.81 m/s2 )(0. Use conservation of energy to determine the velocity of B when it has moved downward 2 m from its current position. or transmission in any form or by any means.5 m)2 + (0. The weights are WA = 30 N and W B = 60 N. When B has moved 0. B Conservation of energy is 1 1 1 2 2 (mA + mB )v1 = (mA + mB )v2 − mB gh + k( 2 2 2 v2 = 2 v1 + − δ)2 2mB gh − k( − δ)2 mA + mB 2(18 kg)(9. storage in a retrieval system.2 m from its present position? 0.3 m)2 + (0. . the length of the spring is = (0. At the instant shown. recording or likewise.187 m)2 32 kg v2 = (1 m/s)2 + v2 = 1. mechanical.) k A B Solution: Notice that the collars have the same velocity 1 2 WA + WB g 2 v1 + WB h = 1 2 WA + WB g 2 v2 + 1 2 kh 2 v2 = 2 v1 + 2 WB h − kh2 WA + WB g v2 = (4 m/s)2 + 2[60 N][2 m] − [40 N/m][2 m] 2 (9. Problem 15.92 The spring constant k = 700 N/m.97 m/s. electronic. All rights reserved.8.15 m)2 = 0.3 m k 0.91 The collar A slides on the smooth horizontal bar. the spring is unstretched and the mass B is moving downward at 1 m/s.
electronic. The 5N collar at A is given a downward velocity of 6 m/s.305 m) (0. storage in a retrieval system.254 m. or transmission in any form or by any means. The unstretched length of the spring is 0.05 m A k 0. photocopying. 0.098 m) 2 k = 2249 N/m.098 m Conservation of energy gives 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 mvA + kδA + mgh = mvB + kδB 2 2 2 2 k= 2 2 m[vB − vA − 2gh] 2 2 δA − δB k= 5N 9. recording or likewise. and when it reaches B the magnitude of its velocity is 15 m/s.305 m B Solution: The stretch distances for the spring at A and B are δA = 0. All rights reserved. mechanical. c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.Problem 15.93 The semicircular bar is smooth.226 m δB = 0.13 m 0. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.81 m/s 2)(0. 225 .81 m/s 2 (15 m/s)2 − (6 m/s)2 − 2(9. Determine the spring constant k.226 m)2 − (0.
Applying conservation of energy.25)2 − 0. storage in a retrieval system.3) = 1 mv2 + 1 kS2 − mg(0. We obtain.25 m Solution: The stretch of the spring in position 1 is Datum S1 = (0.115) − (1)(9. 1 2 2 mv1 2 2 2 + 1 kS1 − mg(0.95 In problem 15.81)(0. what is the tension in the string when the string and spring are parallel? Solution: The free body diagram of the mass is: Newton’s second law in the direction normal to the path is T − kS2 − mg cos β = man : 2 T − (200)(0.1◦ = (1)(v2 /0. 226 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.7 N. Use conservation of energy to determine the magnitude of the velocity of the mass when the string and spring are parallel. .81)(0.3 − 0.25 m − (1)(9. photocopying.3 m k 0.45) = 29.Problem 15. the spring constant k = 200 N/m.25)2 − 0.15)2 + (0. 0.15)2 + (0.1 = 0.1 m. the spring contracts.3 cos 29.99 m/s Problem 15. v2 = 1. and the unstretched length of the spring is 0. When the system is released from rest in the position shown. or transmission in any form or by any means. The stretch in position 2 is S2 = (0.25/0.3 m 1 0. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.192)2 − (1)(9. pulling the mass to the right.3). recording or likewise.15 m 0. Solving.192 m.1◦ . T = 44. electronic.115)2 2 2 2 0.3) = 1 (1)v2 + 1 (200)(0.3 cos β): 2 2 2 2 0 + 1 (200)(0.15 m β 2 The angle β = arctan(0. mechanical.94 The mass m = 1 kg. 0.1 = 0.94. All rights reserved.115 m.1◦ ).3 + 0.81) cos 29.
Determine the potential energy of the spring in terms of its stretch S = r − r0 . All rights reserved. The conservation of energy condition after the spring has compressed to the point that the piston velocity is zero is mgh + 1 k(h − 1. The value h = 1.581 m c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.5)2 = mg(3. From which h2 + 2bh + c = 0.95 m. The potential energy of the piston at rest is V1 = mg(3. where k and q are constants and r0 is the unstretched length of the spring.5 − 0. Integrate: V = k 2 q 4 S + S . mechanical. 2 4 where C = 0. n = 0. The downward compression of the spring is S = 1.25 − √ The solution is h = −b ± b2 − c = 1.5) = 686. photocopying.7 Nm. 227 . The work done in stretching the spring is V = − F · dr + C = − F · (drer + rdθeθ ) + C = [k(r − r0 ) + q(r − r0 )2 ] dr + C. 2 where h is the height above the datum. V = [kS + qS 3 ] dS + C. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. since F = 0 at S = 0. since it is above the spring. where b=− mg 3 − 2 k 7 mg . recording or likewise. k 1.Problem 15. 2m Solution: Choose the base of the cylinder as a datum.5 m and c = 2. Use conservation of energy to determine how far down the cylinder moves after contacting the spring.97 The 20kg cylinder is released at the position shown and falls onto the linear spring (k = 3000 N/m).919 m. electronic. or transmission in any form or by any means. Problem 15.95 m has no physical meaning. storage in a retrieval system.919 = 0.96 The force exerted on an object by a nonlinear spring is F = −[k(r − r0 ) + q(r − r0 )3 ]er .5). r θ k Solution: Note that dS = dr.
5 − S) − 2 Vspring .5 − h where h is the height above the datum.5 ) = +437.5 Nm.5 − S) = mg(3. or transmission in any form or by any means. . mechanical. m The potential energy in the spring is Vspring = 1 (3000)(0. its potential energy is V = 1 kS 2 + 1 qS 4 .5 − S. where k = 3000 N/m and 2 2 q = 4000 N/m3 . In terms of the stretch S of the spring.5 m? Solution: Note that S = 1. Substitute numerical values to obtain v = 2.Problem 15. What is the velocity of the cylinder when the spring has been compressed 0. from which h = 1. photocopying. recording or likewise. from which 2 v= 7. Use polar coordinates to show that the potential energy associated with this force is V = T r. electronic. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. storage in a retrieval system.98 The 20kg cylinder is released at the position shown and falls onto the nonlinear spring.5). The conservation of energy condition when the spring is being compressed is 1 mv 2 + Vspring + mg(1.52 ) + 2 1 4 4 (4000)(0.99 The string exerts a force of constant magnitude T on the object.30 m/s Problem 15.0g − 2g(1. All rights reserved.97. r θ T Solution: er dV = −F · dr V =− V = Tr r DATUM r DATUM T − T er · drer V = T r − T rDATUM Let rDATUM = 0 V = Tr 228 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. Use the solution to Problem 15.
storage in a retrieval system.101 A 1kg disk slides on a smooth horizontal table and is attached to a string that passes through a hole in the table.4 N collar A resting on the spring (292 N /m ).61 2 − (0.31 m the stretch is S 2 = S 1 + 0.Problem 15.3 = 0. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 2 1 2 from which From the conservation of energy Us = 2 mv v= k 2 2F s 2 (S − S2 ) − 2g + = 2. or transmission in any form or by any means. k When the collar rises 0. 2 2 The work done on the system is Us = 1 k(S1 − S2 ) − mg(1) + F s.183 m . with the 53.57 m /s.) A 0. At the instant shown. At rest. photocopying.127 m When the collar rises 0.4 N 0. recording or likewise.31) 2 − 0. (See Problem 15. All rights reserved.100 The system is at rest in the position shown.99. 229 .) r T Solution: 1 1 2 2 mv1 + T r1 = mv2 + T r2 2 2 v2 = 2 v1 + 2 T (r1 − r2 ) = m (6 m/s)2 + 2 10 N ([1 m] − [2 m]) 1 kg v2 = 4 m/s. the compression of the spring is S1 = −W = −0.61m k 133.91 − 0. Use conservation of energy to determine the magnitude of the velocity of the disk when r = 2m.305 m? (See Problem 15. when a constant 133.99.31 m the constant force on the cable has acted through a distance s= √ 0. r = 1 m and the velocity of the disk in terms of polar coordinates is v = 6eθ (m/s).91 2 + 0. A constant force T = 10 N is exerted on the string. electronic.61 2 = 0.4 N force is applied to the cable.91 m Solution: Choose the rest position as the datum. What is the velocity of the collar when it has risen 0. mechanical.237 m . c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. m 1 m Problem 15.
Because this is centralforce motion.) r v v0 RE r0 Solution: 2 2 mgRE mgRE 1 1 2 = mv 2 − mv0 − 2 r0 2 r v0 = 2 v 2 + 2gRE 1 1 − r0 r 1 1 − 8.102 A 1kg disk slides on a smooth horizontal table and is attached to a string that passes through a hole in the table. . When it is at a distance r = 18.81 m/s2 )(6. Use conservation of energy to determine its initial velocity v0 . All rights reserved. the magnitude of its velocity is v = 7000 m/s.103 A satellite initially is inserted into orbit at a distance r0 = 8800 km from the center of the earth. photocopying.000 km from the center of the earth.9. mechanical.29 m/s. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 1 kg = (8 m/s)2 − (4 m/s)2 + 2 v = (5. At the instant shown. the product of the radial position r and the transverse component of velocity vθ is constant. r = 1 m and the velocity of the disk in terms of polar coordinates is v = 8eθ (m/s). Use this fact and conservation of energy to determine the velocity of the disk in terms of polar coordinates when r = 2m. storage in a retrieval system. Problem 15. T r Solution: We have 1 1 2 2 2 mv1 + T r1 = m(v2r + v2θ ) + T r2 . recording or likewise. The radius of the earth is 6370 km. or transmission in any form or by any means. electronic.29er + 4eθ ) m/s. 230 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.8×106 m 18×106 m v0 = (7000 m/s)2 + 2(9.37×106 m)2 v0 = 9760 m/s. (See Example 15. A constant force T = 10 N is exerted on the string.Problem 15. 2 2 Solving we ﬁnd v2θ = r1 1m (8 m/s) = 4 m/s v1 = r2 2m 2 2 v1 − v2θ + 2 r1 v1 = r2 v2θ v2r = T (r1 − r2 ) m 10 N ([1 m] − [2 m]) = 5.
C B 13. and r = 6. The potential energy at a distance r is V =− 2 mgRE .Problem 15. v0 = 2 × 103 m/s.60×107 m 2 2 2 vA − vBθ + 2gRE vBr = 1 1 − rB rA = 2480 m/s.37 × 106 m. 231 . storage in a retrieval system. The velocity at the radius of the earth is v = 11 km/s Problem 15. r r0 Substitute: r0 = 1 × 108 m.104 Astronomers detect an asteroid 100. Its velocity in terms of polar coordinates when it is at the perigee A is v = 8640eθ (m/s). v = (2480er + 4310eθ ) m/s. Determine the velocity of the satellite in terms of polar coordinates when it is at point B. recording or likewise. Use conservation of energy to determine the magnitude of its velocity as it enters the atmosphere.) Solution: Use the solution to Problem 15.103. rA vA = rB vBθ mvA − 2 rA 2 rB Solving we have vBθ = rA 8×106 m (8640 m/s) = 4310 m/s. Suppose the asteroid strikes the earth. Energy and angular momentum are conserved. Therefore 2 2 mgRE mgRE 1 1 2 2 2 = m(vBr + vBθ ) − .105 A satellite is in the elliptic earth orbit shown. c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. electronic.60×107 m.000 km 8000 km 8000 km Solution: We have rA = 8000 km = 8×106 m rB = 13. (You can neglect the thickness of the atmosphere in comparison to the earth’s 6370km radius. mechanical. 9002 + 80002 km = 1. = mv 2 − 2 0 r0 2 r r0 : Solve: v= 2 2 v0 + 2gRE 1 1 − . photocopying.900 km A 16. All rights reserved. or transmission in any form or by any means. vA = rB 1. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. r The conservation of energy condition at 2 2 mgRE 1 2 mgRE 1 mv − .000 km from the earth moving at 2 km/s relative to the center of the earth.
photocopying. Using your result.108 Solve Problem 15. Solution: From Problem 15. The radius of Io is 1815 km.107. storage in a retrieval system.815.815.80 m/s2 . 2 RI rI Evaluating. Here we get 2 2 mgRI 1 2 mgRI mv1 − =0− .000 or v1 = 419 m/s 232 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. conﬁrm numerically that the velocities at perigee and apogee satisfy the relation rA vA = rC vC .Problem 15. mechanical.815.107 using conservation of energy and accounting for the variation of gravity with height.815. or transmission in any form or by any means. Solving. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 2 1.81 m/s2 . The plume observed above a volcano named Prometheus was estimated to extend 50 km above the surface. All rights reserved. Solution: Conservation of energy yields: T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 : 2 Using the forms for a constant gravity ﬁeld. vA = 8640 m/s. . electronic. we have rA vA = rC vC = 6. and solve for vc .8)(1.000 1.105. believed to consist of condensed sulfur or sulfur dioxide gas. (1. rA = 8000 km.000). convert all distances to meters. RE = 6370 km. Using conservation of energy and neglecting the variation of gravity with height. From conservation of energy.106 Use conservation of energy to determine the magnitude of the velocity of the satellite in Problem 15.105 at the apogee C. rC = 24000 km. The acceleration due to gravity at the surface is 1. vC = 2880 m/s Does rA vA = rC vC Substituting the known values. we get 2 v1 = (1. determine the velocity at which a solid particle would have to be ejected to reach 50 km above Io’s surface.91 × 1010 m2 /s Problem 15. recording or likewise.000)2 1 2 (1. or v1 = 424 m/s Problem 15.000)2 v1 − =− . above the surface of the Jovian satellite Io.8)(1. g = 9.8)(50.000 + 50. 2 2 mgRE 1 2 1 2 mgRE mvA − = mvc − 2 rA 2 rc Factor m out of the equation. we get 1 mv1 + 0 = 2 1 2 0 + mgy2 Evaluating. Solution: Conservation of energy yields: T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 : Only the form of potential energy changes from that used in Problem 15.107 The Voyager and Galileo spacecraft have observed volcanic plumes.
so that Eq. where RE is the earth’s radius and y is the height above the surface. or transmission in any form or by any means.110 The potential energy associated with a force F acting on an object is V = x 2 + y 3 Nm.Problem 15.109* What is the relationship between Eq. photocopying. All rights reserved. (15. (a) (b) Determine F. 1) m A 1 B x Solution: (a) Fx = − dV dV = −2x. which accounts for the variation? Express the distance from the center of the earth as r = RE + y. and then moves from position 1 to position 2 along path B. recording or likewise. Determine the work done by F along each path. which is the gravitational potential energy neglecting the variation of the gravitational force with height. Fy = − = −3y 2 dx dy F = −2xi − 3y 2 j N. storage in a retrieval system. 233 . show that you obtain a potential energy equivalent to Eq. Solution: Deﬁne y/RE = ε V =− mgRE 2 mgRE mgRE 2 mgRE =− =− y =− 1+ε r RE + y 1+ RE dV dε ε + ··· ε=0 V = V ε=0 + V = −mgRE + mgRE (1 + ε)2 ε = −mgRE + mgRE ε=0 y RE = −mgRE + mgy QED Problem 15. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. (15. 1+ RE By expanding this equation as a Taylor series in terms of y/RE and assuming that y/RE 1. (b) W12A = 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 (−3y 2 ) d y + (−2x) d x = −(1)3 − (1)2 = −2 Nm W12B = (−2x) d x + (−3y 2 ) d y = −(1)2 − (1)3 = −2 Nm W12A = W12B = −2 Nm. y 2 (1.23).21). c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.23) can be written as mgRE V =− y . where x and y are in meters. electronic. Suppose that the object moves from position 1 to position 2 along path A. and Eq. mechanical. (15.21). (15.
112 In terms of polar coordinates. the potential energy associated with the force F exerted on an object by a nonlinear spring is V = 1 k(r − r0 )2 + 1 q(r − r0 )4 . (See Active Example 15.) Solution: The force is given by F = −∇V = − ∂ 1 ∂ er + eθ ∂r r ∂θ 1 1 k(r − r0 )2 + q(r − r0 )4 2 4 = −[k(r − r0 ) + q(r − r0 )3 ]er Problem 15. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.Problem 15. where x and y are in meters. the force exerted on an object by a nonlinear spring is F = −(k(r − r0 ) + q(r − r0 )3 )er . Therefore F is non conservative. 1 ∇ ×F= r er reθ ∂ ∂ ∂r ∂θ −[k(r − r0 ) + q(r − r0 )3 ] 0 ez ∂ ∂z 0 = 1 [0er − 0reθ + 0ez ] = 0.10. (See Active Example 15. or transmission in any form or by any means. = 0 − 1 = −1 Nm Along path A: 1 0 = −2k = 0. Determine F in terms of polar coordinates. storage in a retrieval system. (a) Show that F is not conservative. i ∂ ∇ ×F= ∂x y j ∂ ∂y −x k ∂ = i0 − j0 + (−1 − 1)k ∂z 0 (b) The integral along path B is 1 0 1 0 UB = (yi − xj)y=0 · i dx + (yi − xj)x=1 · j dy . Determine the work done by F along each path. electronic. mechanical. All rights reserved. 2 4 where k and q are constants and r0 is the unstretched length of the spring. r 234 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.10. F is conservative. (b) Suppose the object moves from point 1 to point 2 along the paths A and B shown in Problem 15. UA = (yi − xj)x=0 · j dy + 0 1 (yi − xj)y=1 · i dx = 0 + 1 = +1 Nm Problem 15. . where k and q are constants and r0 is the unstretched length of the spring. Use Eq. photocopying.113 In terms of polar coordinates.36) to show that F is conservative.111 An object is subjected to the force F = yi − xj (N).110. recording or likewise. Solution: (a) A necessary and sufﬁcient condition that F be conservative is ∇ × F = 0. (15.) Solution: A necessary and sufﬁcient condition that F be conservative is ∇ × F = 0.
F = (sin θ − 2r cos2 θ)er + (cos θ + 2r sin θ cos θ)eθ . Since the path is everywhere normal to er . The work done is U1. 2 from which U1.2 F · dr. photocopying. how much work is done by F? y 2 1m x 1 Solution: The force is F = −∇V = − 1 ∂ ∂ er + eθ (−r sin θ + r 2 cos2 θ). r from which C = mgM RT ln(1). (a) (b) Determine the potential energy associated with this gravitational force. If the object moves from point 1 to point 2 along the circular path. RT is the radius of the planet. In a conservative system the work done is U1. At r = 1 m. The integral is π π 2 (cos θ + 2r cos θ sin θ)rdθ = r sin θ − r 2 cos2 θ 2 0 U1. yields V = mgT RT ln = 1 mgT RT ln(r). θ = 0. where C is the constant of integration. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. the system is conservative. the choice of r = 1 lengthunit as the datum.Problem 15.2 = 0 = 1 + 1 = 2 Nm Problem 15. where dr = er dr + reθ dθ. and V = mgT RT ln r RT v= 2 v0 + 2gT ln c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. where r is in m etre . θ = . the force exerted on an object of mass m by the gravity of a hypothetical twodimensional planet is mgT RT F=− r r0 0 er . or transmission in any form or by any means. and r is the distance from the center of the planet. V1 = 1 Nm.2 = −(V2 − V1 ) = 2 N m . Solution: (a) The potential is V = − F · dr + C = = mgT RT ln(r) + C. RT where gT is the acceleration due to gravity at the surface. 235 . r 1 2 mv + mgT RT ln 2 RT Solve for the velocity r0 r = r0 1 2 mv + mgT RT ln 2 0 RT . the radial term does not contribute to the work.) mgT RT r er · (er dr) + C (b) From conservation of energy. mechanical. (a) (b) Determine F. Choose r = RT as the datum. recording or likewise. All rights reserved. what is its velocity v as a function of r? (Note: Alternatively.2 = −(V2 − V1 ).115 In terms of polar coordinates.114 The potential energy associated with a force F acting on an object is V = −r sin θ + r 2 cos2 θ Nm . check. V2 are the potentials at the beginning and end of the π path. electronic. ∂r r ∂θ Check: Since the force is derivable from a potential. where V1 . storage in a retrieval system. At r = 1. V1 = −1.2 = 1. from which C = −mgT RT ln(RT ). If the object is given a velocity v0 at a distance r0 .
Problem 15. mechanical. Force is conservative. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Solution: Eq.30 is i ∂ ∇ × F = ∂x ∂V − ∂x −j j ∂ ∂y ∂V − ∂y k ∂ ∂z ∂V − ∂z 2 2 =i −∂ V + ∂ V ∂y∂z ∂y∂z ∂ 2V ∂ 2V − ∂x∂y ∂x∂y ∂ 2V ∂ 2V − ∂x∂z ∂x∂z +k =0 Thus. electronic. (b) F = (x − xy 2 )i + x 2 yj. Solution: Use Eq.27) into Eq. or transmission in any form or by any means. F is conservative. i ∂ ∇×F= ∂x 2xy 2 + y 3 j ∂ ∂y 2x 2 y − 3xy 2 k ∂ ∂z 0 (c) = i(0) − j(0) + k(4xy − 3y 2 − 4xy − 3y 2 ) = k(−6y 2 ) = 0. . (15.30). Problem 15. recording or likewise. (15. (a) F = (3x 2 − 2xy)i − x 2 j. storage in a retrieval system. photocopying. All rights reserved. (c) F = (2xy 2 + y 3 )i + (2x 2 y − 3xy 2 )j. 236 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.116 By substituting Eqs.30) (a) ∇×F= i ∂ ∂x 3x 2 − 2xy j ∂ ∂y −x 2 k ∂ ∂z 0 = i(0) − j(0) + k(−2x + 2x) = 0. 15. (b) ∇×F= i ∂ ∂x x − xy 2 j ∂ ∂y x2y k ∂ ∂z 0 = i(0) − j(0) + k(2xy + 2xy) = k(4xy) = 0 Force is nonconservative.117 Determine which of the following are conservative. (15. Force is nonconservative. conﬁrm that ∇ × F = 0 if F is conservative.
electronic. . This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.2 m . from Problem 15. 2g v2 = − W 2 (250s + 3s 2 ) + v1 (m/s)2 . − f ds + sstop sslip − µk W = −(250sslip + 3sslip 2 ) from which sstop = 300. 2 from which C = (11 . When the car comes to a stop. U= 1 2 W g 2 v2 − Integrate and rearrange: v2 = − 2g W (250s + 3s 2 ) + C. Use the chain rule: W g v dv = −f = −(250 + 6s).1 m/s (a) Assume that the force f = 250 + 6s lb applies until the tire slips.1 m/s. From the principle of work and energy. dt The work done is where f is the force on the car in opposition to the motion.Problem 15.67.118 The driver of a 12000 N car moving at 40 km/h applies an increasing force on the brake pedal. 1 2 W g 2 v1 − (250s + 3s 2 ).27 × 1 0 6 − 4200 (sstop ). c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.3 m. Solution: (a) Newton’s second law: W g dv = −f. 237 .2 m . The magnitude of the resulting frictional force exerted on the car by the road is f = 250 + 6s N . Assuming that the car’s tires do not slip. after the brakes are applied. ds U= 0 s f ds = − 0 s (250 + 6s) ds = −(250s + 3s 2 ).4 and µk = 0. where b= 2 W v1 125 = 41. The velocity is 1 2 W g 2 v2 = . √ b2 − c = 122.118 is on wet pavement and the coefﬁcients of friction between the tires and the road are µs = 0. s 2 + 2bs + c = 0.2 m. − µk W (sstop − sslip ) = 1. 1 2 W g 2 v1 . from which sslip = 758.2 m . At v = 0. The work done by the friction force is Uf = 0 sslip From the principle of work and energy: Uf = 0 − 1 2 mv 2 1 = −6789 Nm. photocopying.12 ) = v1 . Solution: The initial velocity of the vehicle is v1 = 40 km/h = 11. determine the distance required for the car to stop (a) (b) by using Newton’s second law and by using the principle of work and energy. 1 2 W g 2 v1 − (250s + 3s 2 ). v2 = 0. 3 6g Reduce: s 2 + 2bs + c = 0. √ b2 − c = 122 .119 Suppose that the car in Problem 15.67.0 = . where 2 W v1 125 b= = 41. Slip occurs when f = 250 + 6s = µs W . Rearrange: At s = 0. where s is the car’s horizontal position (in feet) relative to its position when the brakes were applied. v(0) = 40 × 1000 / 3600 = 11. mechanical. recording or likewise. (b) Principle of work and energy: The energy of the car when the brakes are ﬁrst applied is 1 2 W g 2 v1 = 6789 Nm. All rights reserved. Determine the distance for the car to stop. or transmission in any form or by any means. from which . c = − = −25119 .35. storage in a retrieval system. from The solution s = −b ± which s = 122. 8 m . c = − = −25119 . 3 6g The solution: s = −b ± which s = 122.
The work done by the thrust is Uthrust = − h3 h2 (a) (b) Consider strategy (b): Use the solution above. m F dh = −mg(h3 − h2 ).120 An astronaut in a small rocket vehicle (combined mass = 450 kg) is hovering 100 m above the surface of the moon when he discovers that he is nearly out of fuel and can exert the thrust necessary to cause the vehicle to hover for only 5 more seconds. The height at the end of the thruster phase is h3 = h2 − v2 t = 3. the thruster does not reduce the velocity during the time of turnon.1 m/s. photocopying. The height at the end of the thruster phase is h3 = h2 − v3 t = 80 − (8. 2 3 2 2 mv3 that is. mechanical.91 − 11. Which strategy gives him the best chance of surviving? How much work is done by the engine’s thrust in each case? (gmoon = 1. which.08 m. Since the thruster causes the vehicle to hover. The velocity at the end of the thruster phase is v3 = v2 . from which v2 = 2 √ 2g(h1 − h2 ) = 8. and then fall the rest of the way.3 kNm. with h2 = h1 − 40 = 60 m The velocity at the end of the free fall is v2 = 2 g(h1 − h2 ) = 11.75 m.04)(5) = 39. storage in a retrieval system.38 m/s. The impact 2 2 velocity is 2(31405) = 11. where h2 = h1 − 20 = 2 2 80 m. (a) Consider the ﬁrst strategy: The energy condition at the end of 2 a 20 m fall is mgh = 1 mv2 + mgh2 . The work done by the engine in strategy (b) is h3 h2 Uthrust = v4 = F dh = mg(h3 − h2 ) = −41. h3 is the altitude at the end of the thrusting phase. turn on the thrust for 5 s. He quickly considers two strategies for getting to the surface: Fall 20 m. The energy condition 2 2 at impact is: 1 mv4 = 1 mv3 + mgh3 = 31405 Nm. The work done by the engine in strategy (a) is Uthrust = h3 h3 F dh = mg(h3 − h2 ) = −29.05 m/s. .62 m/s2 ) Solution: Assume g = 1. and then fall the rest of the way.3) = 13.8 m/s . acting upward.3 Nm.Problem 15. from which mgh = 2 1 2 + mgh . m He should choose strategy (b) since the impact velocity is reduced by v = 13. electronic.3 Nm. 2 2 from which 2(43558. recording or likewise. It follows that the velocities v = v = 8. by conservation of energy is also 2 2 the energy at impact: is 1 mv4 = 1 mv3 + mgh3 = 43558. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.05 m/s. turn on the thrust for 5 s. from which 1 mv2 = mg(h1 − h2 ). the thrust is T = mg. (b) fall 40 m. The energy condition at the end of the thrust2 ing phase is mgh = 1 mv3 + mgh3 + Uthrust .9 m/s at impact. The energy condition at 2 the beginning of the free fall after the thruster phase is 1 mv3 + 2 mgh3 = 43558. The potential energy at h1 = 100 m is V1 = mgh.81 = 2.5 kNm 238 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.62 m/s2 and that the fuel mass is negligible. or transmission in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. v4 = where F = mg.
photocopying. The friction force necessary for equilibrium is f = F cos 30◦ − mg sin 30◦ = −63.77 m/s. 239 . The energy at v = 96.Problem 15. Problem 15. What is the magnitude of the velocity of the create when it has moved 2 m? Solution: See the solution of Problem 15. so N = F sin 30◦ + mg cos 30◦ = 270 N. and the traction force (tangential force) of its drive wheels is 600 480 N.8 N.29 million lb.24)(190) = 45.22. y The friction force necessary for equilibrium is f = F cos 30◦ − mg sin 30◦ = 75. from which s= 1 2 W gF v 2 = 323. the box will slip up the plane and f = µk N. If the crate starts from rest and the horizontal force F = 200 N. the box will slip down the plane and the friction force is µk N up the plane. The normal force is N = F sin 30◦ + mg cos 30◦ = 190 N.24 and µk = 0.8 m/s is 0= 1 2 W g v2 + V . or transmission in any form or by any means. If you neglect other tangential forces. ◦ ◦ 1 2 2 mv2 mg F N f 30° x − 0. electronic. Since µs N = (0. storage in a retrieval system. Since µs N = (0.123 The Union Paciﬁc Big Boy locomotive weighs 5.121. what distance is required for the train to accelerate from zero to 9 6. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. what is the magnitude of the velocity of the crate when it has moved 2 m? 30° F Solution: Fy = N − F sin 30◦ − mg cos 30◦ = 0.6 N.122 The coefﬁcients of friction between the 20kg crate and the inclined surface are µs = 0. From work and energy.121 The coefﬁcients of friction between the 20kg crate and the inclined surface are µs = 0. mechanical. 2 (mg sin 30◦ − F cos 30◦ − µk N)(2m) = 1 mv2 − 0.5 km/h? Solution: The potential associated with the force is V =− 0 s F ds = −F s.24 and µk = 0.1 N.08 m/s. All rights reserved. The energy at rest is zero.4 m c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. Problem 15. recording or likewise. From work and energy.22. 2 we obtain v2 = 2.24)(270) = 64. If the crate starts from rest and the horizontal force F = 40 N.5 km/h = 26. (F cos 30 − mg sin 30 − µk N)(2m) = we obtain v2 = 1.5 N.
88 88m =− 88F0 −Kt 1 − e−2Kt e K 2 1 88F0 −KT e−2KT − − e .123. in practical terms the velocity approaches within a few tenths of percent of 96. v(0) = 0. it is used to calculate the work done: Note that U= 0 s (a) mF ds = 0 T mF ds dt dt = 0 T mF v dt.124 In Problem 15.5 km/h is (F0 /m) (1 − v/88). The result: −8F0 t 1 − e 88W v(t) = 88 F0 v =− t + C1 .] (a) The work done by the force is equal to the energy acquired by the locomotive in attaining the ﬁnal speed. K 2 2 The expression for the velocity is asymptotic in time to the lim it ing value of 96 . photocopying. recording or likewise. or transmission in any form or by any means. Take the limit of the above integral: T T →∞ 0 lim mF v dt = lim − T →∞ 1 88F0 −KT e−2KT − − e K 2 2 = 1W 88F0 = (882 ) ≡ kinetic energy. mechanical. with the dimensions of acceleration. in the absence of other tangential forces. check.5 km/h: in strict terms the velocity never reaches 96. where F0 = 600480 N. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. electronic. and conﬁrms the expression for the velocity. 88 mF = F0 1 − The integral U= 0 T v = F0 e−Kt . mF v dt = 0 T 0 T 88F0 eKt (1 − e−Kt ) dt U = 88F0 (e−Kt − e−2Kt ) dt T 0 Integrate: =− ln 1 − Invert: −F0 t v(t) = 88 1 − Ce 88m . For brevity write K = gF0 . 88W Substitute the velocity into the force: dv = mF .88 × 10 8 Nm Check: To demonstrate that this is a correct expression.5 km/h. but an acceleration. suppose that the acceleration of the locomotive as it accelerates from zero to 96. 88 Separate variables: dv 1− v 88 = F0 m dt. How much work is done in accelerating the train to 96. from which C = 1.Problem 15.5 km/h? (b) Determine the locomotive’s velocity as a function of time. At t = 0. Solution: [Note: F is not a force. from which From Newton’s second law m dt dv = dt F0 m 1− v . and v is its velocity in metre per second. 2K 2 g which checks. m is the mass of the locomotive. . Thus the work done by the traction force is 1 1 U = mv 2 = 2 2 (b) W g (882 ) = 20.5 km/h within the ﬁrst few minutes. All rights reserved. 240 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. storage in a retrieval system.
storage in a retrieval system. a = (a) 113. c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.2 m/s 2 m m s = 14 . s Solution: From Problem 15.14 we know that the force in the crash barrier is given by F = −(120s + 40s 3 ) N.2 0. Determine the maximum deceleration to which the passengers are sub jected if the car weighs (a) 1112 0 N and (b) 22240 N.6 0. we ﬁnd that 120s + 40s 3 F = = 138. a = (b) Using m = 5000 N 9.Problem 15. (a) Using m = 11120 N 9. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. m 0.5 0.68 m . (b) 138.4 m/s 2 .1 The maximum deceleration occurs when the spring reaches its maximum deﬂection. recording or likewise. 241 .4 m/s 2 m m s = 12 m . All rights reserved. mechanical. we ﬁnd that 120s + 40s 3 F = = 113.4 0. electronic.1 0. Using work and energy we have 1 mv 2 + 2 1 mv 2 − 2 s 0 s 0 F ds = 0 (120s + 40s ) d s = 0 3 0 0 0. m/s 0. v. photocopying.3 0.81 m /s2 and solving.125 A car traveling 104. or transmission in any form or by any means.8 0.14.05 x.7 0.15 1 mv 2 = 60s 2 + 10s 4 2 This yields an equation that we can solve for the distance s at which the car stops.81 m/s2 and solving. 6 k m/h hits the crash barrier described in Problem 15.2 m/s2 .
Rearrange: dv dt =− gk S. 242 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.126 In a preliminary design for a mailsorting machine. What should the spring constant be if you don’t want the 10 N parcel to be subjected to a maximum deceleration greater than 10g’s? 2 m/s k 3m Solution: From Newton’s second law. from which dt k= This expression has two unknowns. Substitute into the expression for the acceleration: dv dt √ =− k 2 gv0 2g 2 h + W W where k is the spring constant and S is the stretch of the spring. Substitute numerical values: v0 = 2 m/s. electronic. The energy at the top of the ramp is 1 2 W g v2 + V . and W 2 W v +2 gk 0 k S= h. h = 3 m . W (where the negative sign appears because dv dt 2 dv = −10 g).Problem 15. The conservation of energy condition after contact with the spring is 1 2 W g 2 v0 + W h = 1 2 W g 2 v1 + 1 2 kS . the acceleration after contact with the spring is given by: W g dv dt = −F = −kS. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. S is determined as follows: Choose the bottom of the ramp as the datum. k and S. W = 10 N. 2 gv0 2g 2 h + W W . recording or likewise. dv = −10 g m/s 2. All rights reserved. mechanical. photocopying. storage in a retrieval system.1 N/m dt where V is the potential energy of the package due to gravity: V = W h where h = 3 m. parcels moving at 2 m/s slide down a smooth ramp and are brought to rest by a linear spring. from which k = 156. 2 When the spring is fully compressed the velocity is zero. . or transmission in any form or by any means.
recording or likewise.29 m/s m 1 Subtract the second from the ﬁrst. The two conditions: √ 0. and in position 2 is S2 = √ 0.128 When the 1kg collar is in position 1.494 m.26 = 0.32 + 0. and S1 = 0. and that the unstretched length of the spring changes from that given in Problem 15. v2 = 2 v1 + c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. 2 2 2 from which k 2 2 (S − S2 ) = 6. If the collar is pulled to position 2 and released from rest.62 − 0. or transmission in any form or by any means. and the unstretched length of the spring is 260 mm. (a) (b) What is the spring constant k? If the collar is given a velocity of 15 m/s at position 1. 2 Solution: (a) Assume that the dimensions deﬁning locations 1 and 2 remain the same. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. The spring constant is k= 50 = 1250 N/m. 0. All rights reserved. the tension in the spring is 50 N.46 m/s m 2 Problem 15. from which 2 2 2 1 600 mm 2 v1 = k 2 2 (S − S1 ) = 14. The energy in the collar at 2 2 2 2 position 1 is 1 kS2 = 1 mv1 + 1 kS1 . photocopying. electronic.124 m. storage in a retrieval system. and when the collar is in position 2. 243 .62 + 0.3 − S0 = . mechanical.176 m.411 m. the tension in the spring is 400 N.04 m.26 = 0.32 − S0 = 400 100 .141. The stretched length of the spring in position 1 is S1 = 0.Problem 15. from which k = 809 N/m. what is its velocity when it returns to position 1? 300 mm 1 600 mm 2 Solution: The stretched length of the spring in position 1 is S1 = 0. S1 300 mm 2 The potential energy of the spring in position 2 is 1 kS2 .3 − S0 . what is the magnitude of its velocity just before it reaches position 2? (b) The energy at the onset of motion at position 1 is 1 2 2 mv1 2 + 1 kS1 . Substitute and solve: S0 = 0.62 − S0 . the tension in the spring is 100 N. S2 = 0. The potential 2 2 energy of the spring in position 1 is 1 kS1 . The stretched length of the spring in position 2 √ is S2 = 0. k k At position 2: 1 2 2 mv1 2 2 2 + 1 kS1 = 1 mv2 + 1 kS2 .3 − 0.32 + 0.127 When the 1kg collar is in position 1.
from which [S]v=mvmax = 3 m. with spring constant keq . and the maximum velocity is v = 9. storage in a retrieval system. SB = kA kB sA = 4 m . from which S= F F F + = kA kB keq kA s ds + 0 −SB 1 1 2 2 kB s ds = − kA SA − kB SB . mechanical. The velocity is a maximum when d dS 1 2 mv 2 = W − keq S = 0. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. kA The maximum velocity is vmax  = 2(Uspring + Uweight ) m = 9. or transmission in any form or by any means. Set v = 0 and solve: S = 2W/keq = 6 m is the maximum stretch. F F F kA + kB = = = = 10 N /m .82 m /s sA =1 244 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. 2 2 from which For the weight Uweight = 0 −(SA +SB ) keq = − W ds = W (SA + SB ).82 m/s. The total fall of the weight is SA + SB = 6 m (b) The maximum velocity occurs at d dSA 1 2 mv 2 = d (Uspring + Uweight ) dSA kA kB +W 1+ kA kB = 0. F F S SA + SB kA kB + kA kA From the principle of work and energy: Usprings + Uweight = (mv 2 /2). photocopying. (a) (b) How far does the weight fall before rebounding? What maximum velocity does it attain? kA kB Solution: Choose the datum as the initial position. check. check. electronic. recording or likewise.129 The 30N weight is released from rest with the two springs (kA = 30 N/m. At the juncture of the two springs the sum of the forces kA is kA SA − kB SB = 0. All rights reserved. from which SA = 2W kA = 2 m. (a) The work done as the weight falls is: for the springs Uspring = 0 −SA Check: Replace the two springs with an equivalent spring of stretch S = SA + SB . kB = 15 N/m) unstretched. At the maximum extension the velocity is zero.Problem 15. from which SB = SA . = −kA SA 1 + from which [SA ]v max = W = 1 m. . from which kB − 1 kA 2 kA SA 1 + 2 kB + W SA 1 + kA kB = 1 2 mv 2 From conservation of energy 0 = mv2 /2 + keq S 2 /2 − W S.
The energy condition of the 2 2 rocket when it reaches 6 km is 1 mv0 = 1 mv 2 + mgh. (a) 2 The energy is 1 mv0 at the datum.131 When a 22. Rearrange the energy expresh = (6 − 2) × 10 2 = v 2 − 2gh.Problem 15. where p is the pressure of the gas. p0 As = p0 V = K.130 The piston and the load it supports are accelerated upward by the gas in the cylinder. photocopying. 2 Rearrange: 2 Uaero = + 1 mv 2 + mgh − 1 mv0 = −1. what is the magnitude of the velocity of the rocket when it reaches an altitude of 6 km? If the actual velocity of the rocket when it reaches an altitude of 6 km is 2. or transmission in any form or by any means.8 km/s.7 Nm.19 × 1010 Nm 2 2 − 2gh = 2. from which the velocity at 6 km is v = sion: v 0 2 v0 = 1 mv 2 + mgh − Uaero . from which v= The potential energy due to gravity is Vgravity = − s s0 (−W ) ds = W (s − s0 ). from which K = p0 . 1 2 W g v 2 + Vgas + Vgravity Vgas = − F ds = − s s0 (p − patm )A ds s = patm A(s − s0 ) − From which Vgas = patm A(s − s0 ) − K pA ds. the velocity of the rocket is 3 km/s and it is traveling at an angle of 60◦ relative to the horizontal. The potential energy of the piston due to the gas pressure after motion begins is s s0 Piston Gas s From the principle of work and energy: Ufriction = Rearrange: 1 2 1 2 W g W g v 2 = Ufriction − Vgas − Vgravity . (a) (b) If you neglect aerodynamic forces. mechanical. Problem 15. All rights reserved.7)g = 2 . s0 v 2 = −(−1348.7) − (1000) − 50 = 298. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. patm = 2117 N/m 2 is the atmospheric pressure. recording or likewise. how much work is done by aerodynamic forces as the rocket moves from 2 km to 6 km altitude? (b) Deﬁne Uaero to be the work done by the aerodynamic forces. The work done by the friction is Ufriction = s s0 (−f ) ds = −f (s − s0 ). The total weight of the piston and load is 1000 N. storage in a retrieval system. where f = 50 N .000kg rocket’s engine burns out at an altitude of 2 km.987 km/s c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. When s = 1 m. Denote the datum: s0 = 1 ft. the piston is stationary and p = 5000 N/m2 . The energy condition at 6 km is 1 2 2 mv0 Solution: Choose the datum to be 2 km altitude.42 m /s W s s0 ds s = patm A(s − s0 ) − K ln s s0 . where 2 2 3 = 4 × 103 m. electronic. At s = 2 m. The net force exerted on the piston by pressure is (p2 − patm )A. Neglect the variation in the gravitational force with altitude. What is the velocity of the piston when s = 2 m ? Solution: At the rest position. 245 . The cylinder wall exerts a constant 50N frictional force on the piston as it rises. Assume that the product of p and the volume of the cylinder is constant. 2(298. where V = 1 ft3 . and A = 1 m 2 is the crosssectional area of the piston.
5 0 (24t − 4t 3 ) dt = 1 [12t 2 − t 4 ]1.82 m < 2 m. what maximum height h does the collar reach? F A h 2m Solution: Choose the datum at the initial point.] The energy condition as the collar moves up the bar is 1 2 2 mv0 = 1 mv 2 + mgh. 2 At the maximum height h.5 0 (24 − 12t 2 ) dt = 1 [24t − 4t 3 ]1.179 m 2g v= 1 m 1. The strategy is to determine the velocity at the end of the 1.875 m/s. From Newton’s second law: dv = F = 24 − 12t 2 . or transmission in any form or by any means. From Newton’s second law: m ρ = (1. 2 where v0 = 18. Neglecting friction.24 m Solution: The energy at the top of the loop is 1 2 2 mv0 2 = 1 mvtop + mgh. from which ρ= 2 vtop 1. the passenger’s “effective weight” pressing him down into his seat is 10 percent of his actual weight.5 s and then to use work and energy methods to ﬁnd the height h. .1) mg.1 g = 5.9 m/s when it enters the loop. 0 m Problem 15.5 s. storage in a retrieval system. the velocity is zero. in designing a loop for a roller coaster’s track. h = 1 5 . photocopying.5 = 1. from which v top = 2 vtop 2 v0 − 2gh = 7. mechanical. 24 m .5 = 1. (That is. m dt Integrating: so the collar is still at the datum level at the end of 1. and g = 9. What is the necessary instantaneous radius of curvature ρ of the track at the top of the loop? ρ 15.62 m /s. you establish as a safety criterion that at the top of the loop the normal force exerted on a passenger by the roller coaster should equal 10 percent of the passenger weight. recording or likewise.5 s.39 m 246 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. from which h= 2 v0 = 0.Problem 15.) The roller coaster is moving at 18. 0 m [Note: The displacement during this time must not exceed 2 m. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.132 The 12kg collar A is at rest in the position shown at t = 0 and is subjected to the tangential force F = 24 − 12t 2 N for 1.133 Suppose that.81 m /s2. electronic. Integrate the velocity: s= 1 m 1. All rights reserved.9 m /s.
57 m/s. from which Tmax = W 2 v0 + 1 = 987. [The height when he releases the rope is h1 = L(1− cos 25◦ ) = 0. θ = 25 ◦ and solve: v = 2 . From conservation of energy: W (0 . All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. The horizontal component of velocity is v cos θ = 1 . The maximum tension occurs at the angle for which dT = 0 = −2W sin θ − W sin θ. photocopying.57 m/s.6 N student runs at 4. 247 .] Before he releases the rope. dθ from which θ = 0. c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.832 ) 2 2 from which h = 0. From Newton’s second law.02 m/s. from which T = (c) W g v2 L + W cos θ = 707 .57 m/s.856 m. (a) (b) (c) What is the angle θ when he releases the rope? What is the tension in the rope just before he release it? What is the maximum tension in the rope? θ 9.5 N gL Problem 15.02 2 ) = W h + 1 m(1. (W/g)(v2 /L) = T − W cos θ. grabs a rope.134 releases the rope when θ = 25◦ . 2 v 0 = 2gL(1 − cos θ). what maximum height does he reach relative to his position when he grabs the rope? Solution: Use the solution to Problem 15. recording or likewise.2 N .1 m Solution: (a) The energy condition after the seizure of the rope is 1 2 2 mv0 = 1 mv 2 + mgL(1 − cos θ).856) + 1 m(2. L = 9.135 If the student in Problem 15.9◦ 2gL 2 From the energy equation v2 = v0 − 2gL(1 − cos θ). When the velocity is zero. from which cos θ = 1 − (b) 2 v0 = 0.Problem 15. and swings out over a lake. Substitute v0 = 4. the total energy is 1 2 W g 2 v0 − W L = 1 2 W g v 2 − W L cos θ. or transmission in any form or by any means.883.134.83 m/s. mechanical. storage in a retrieval system. 2 where v0 = 4.1 m.134 A 800. He releases the rope when his velocity is zero. θ = 27. electronic.8 93 m .
Substituting. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.Problem 15.62 m.51 m. 2 where h = 1. where b = 7.44 m/s. How fast was he going at 1? 1 4.52m. electronic. was graphed as a function of initial velocity. From which. . Check: An analytical solution is found as follows: Combine (1) and (2) 2 v2 sin θ cos θ g b= 1+ 1+ 2gh 2 v2 sin2 θ . check. The other values were v2 = 7. v1 = 4. b = 9. h1 = 4. and x =(v 2 cos θ)t.136.137 In Problem 15. θ = 35 ◦. to ﬁnd the zero crossing. h1 = 3. Problem 15.57 m 2 1. All rights reserved.05 m. and the time in the air before impact was timpact = 1. from which (3) v2 = v1 + 2gh1 . from which v1 = 1.57 m/s.57 m/s.136. He leaves the ground at position 2 and lands in deep snow at a distance of b = 7. from which v2 sin θ 2 [not to be confused timpact + 2btimpact + c = 0.182 s. The path is 8 y = − t 2 + (v2 sin θ)t + h. The energy after motion begins but before descent is under way is 1 2 2 mv1 + mgh1 . photocopying. c = − . the time of impact is (1) timpact = v2 sin θ g 1+ 1+ 2gh 2 v2 sin2 θ b .52 m 35° Solution: The components of velocity at the point of leaving the ground are vy = v2 sin θ and vx = v2 cos θ. what distance b does he travel through the air? Solution: Use the solution to Problem 15. Invert this algebraically to obtain v2 = b g = 7 .44 m/s. storage in a retrieval system.52 m.86 m/s .86 m/s. where θ = 35◦ . using the equations (2) and (3) above. 2 cos θ(b sin θ + h sin θ) 2 2 2 Use v1 = v2 = v2 − 2g(h1 − h2 ).62 m. The velocity v2 is found in terms of the initial velocity from the energy conditions: Choose the datum at the point where he leaves the ground. or transmission in any form or by any means. mechanical.57 − 1. since the time g is positive. The value was reﬁned by iteration to yield v1 = 1. At impact y = 0.05 m. The range is (2) x(v1 ) = b = (v2 cos θ)timpact . Numerical values are: h= 1. where timpact = v2 sin θ g 1+ 1+ 2gh 2 v2 sin2 θ . 2 and v2 = v1 + 2gh1 . 2 2 The function x (v1 ) = (v2 cos θ)timpact − b. where b = g 2h with the b in the drawing]. where h1 is the height above the point where he leaves the ground.52 = 3. The energy as he leaves the 2 2 2 ground is 1 mv1 + mgh1 = 1 mv2 . if the boy starts at 1 going 4. The distance b = (v2 cos θ)timpact .136 A boy takes a running start and jumps on his sled at position 1. recording or likewise. 248 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
The collar A slides on the smooth horizontal bar.2 m. The collar starts from rest in the position shown.139 The masses mA = 40 kg and mB = 60 kg. photocopying.138 The 1kg collar A is attached to the linear spring (k = 500 N/m) by a string. At 2 the maximum height. The energy 2 condition after the collar starts sliding is Vspring = 1 mv 2 + mgh. All rights reserved. the velocity is zero. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. What distance does the collar slide up the smooth bar? k A Solution: The deﬂection of the spring is S= 100 = 0.02 m mg 2mg Problem 15.5) or v = 2. recording or likewise. Use conservation of energy to determine the velocity of the collar A when it has moved 0. mechanical.Problem 15. 2 2 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.81)(0. conservation of energy gives T1 + V1 = T2 + V2 : Evaluating. A B Solution: Placing the datum for B at its initial position.5 m to the right. from which h= Vspring k 2 = S = 1. 249 . we get 0 + 0 = 1 (40)v 2 + 1 (60)v 2 − (60)(9. storage in a retrieval system. or transmission in any form or by any means. The system is released from rest. electronic. k The potential energy of the spring is Vspring = 1 kS 2 .43 m/s. and the initial tension in the spring is 100 N.
The collar A slides on the smooth horizontal bar. where h = 2.Problem 15. B s downward displacement during A s motion is (0. mA = 40 kg.5 m to the right. At position 2.4)2 + (0.5)2 − (60)(9.141 The y axis is vertical and the curved bar is smooth. If the magnitude of the velocity of the 4N slider is 6 m/s at position 1.419). The system is released from rest in the position shown with the spring unstretched. k A 0. mechanical. . Conservation of energy is T1 + V2 = T2 + V2 : 0 + 0 = 1 (40)vA 2 + 1 (60)(vA cos 45◦ )2 2 2 + 1 (850)(0. what is the magnitude of its velocity when it reaches position 2? y 1 2m 2 x 4m Solution: Choose the datum at position 2.00 m/s.4)2 + (0. The component of A s velocity parallel to the cable equals B s velocity: vA cos 45◦ = vB . from which v2 = 2 v1 + 2 gh = 62 + 2 g(2) = 8. the energy condition is 1 2 W g 2 v1 + W h = 1 2 W g 2 v2 . All rights reserved. electronic. storage in a retrieval system. vA = 2. Use conservation of energy to determine the velocity of the collar A when it has moved 0.5 m.140 The spring constant is k = 850 N/m. photocopying.67 m /s 250 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.419 m.4)2 = 0. 2 Solving.81)(0. Problem 15.9)2 − (0. and mB = 60 kg.4 m B 0. or transmission in any form or by any means. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. recording or likewise.9 m Solution: Let vA and vB be the velocities of A and B when A has moved 0.
the energy condition at position 2 is 1 2 W g 2 v1 + W h + U = 1 2 W g 2 v2 . mechanical. then V =− − mgr er · er dr − RE mgr RE dr = mgr 2 2RE − mgr er · eθ r dθ RE =− − c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.141. Solution: By deﬁnition. the gravitational force on the object is −(mgr/RE )er . Show that the potential energy associated with the gravitational force is V = mgr 2 /2RE . storage in a retrieval system.141. In terms of a polar coordinate system with its origin at the earth’s center. All rights reserved. the potential associated with a force F is V = − F · dr. 251 . from which v2 = 2 v1 + 2gh + 2g(28) = W 62 + 2g(2) + 2g(28) 4 = 1 4. electronic. Solution: U= F · dr = 2 0 (−2) dy + 0 4 4 3x dx = [−2y]0 + 2 3 2 x 2 = 4 + 24 = 28 N m. recording or likewise.Problem 15. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. photocopying. or transmission in any form or by any means.24 m /s Problem 15.142 In Problem 15.143 Suppose that an object of mass m is beneath the surface of the earth. 0 From the solution to Problem 15. where RE is the radius of the earth. determine the magnitude of the velocity of the slider when it reaches position 2 if it is subjected to the additional force F = 3xi − 2j (N ) during its motion. If dr = er dr + reθ dθ.
Determine the magnitude of the velocity of the train (a) when it arrives at the equator and (b) when it is halfway from the North Pole to the equator. what is the maximum power transferred to the locomotive during its acceleration? Solution: From Problem 15.143.144 It has been pointed out that if tunnels could be drilled straight through the earth between points on the surface. The power transferred is P = F v. from which vM = gRE = 5590.6 m /s = 20126 km/h.88 × 106 ftlb/ sec = 21.123. and since the force is a constant. at any point in the path mgr 2 2RE (a) = NP 1 2 mv + 2 mgr 2 2RE . All rights reserved. by inspection the maximum power transfer occurs at the maximum velocity. from conservation of energy. the drive wheel traction force F = 135. mechanical.000 lb is a constant. storage in a retrieval system. 2RE N With an initial velocity at the North Pole of zero. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.123. r = RE sin 45◦ = √ . and from conserva2 tion of energy mgRE 2 = 1 2 mv + 2 M mgRE 4 . The radius of the earth is RE = 6372 km.Problem 15. trains could travel between these points using gravitational force for acceleration and deceleration. At the equator. photocopying.) Suppose that such a train travels from the North Pole to a point on the equator.) Solution: The potential associated with gravity is Vgravity = mgr 2 . or transmission in any form or by any means.145 In Problem 15. (The effects of friction and aerodynamic drag could be minimized by evacuating the tunnels and using magnetically levitated trains. 2 Problem 15. electronic. and the ﬁnal velocity is v = 60 mi/h = 88 ft/s. from which vEQ = 0 (b) RE At the midway point. 252 c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd. from which P = F v = (135000)(88) = 11. .600 hp. recording or likewise. (See Problem 15. the conservation of energy condition reduces to mgRE 2 = 1 2 mv + 2 EQ mgRE 2 .
(a) (b) If you assume the shell’s acceleration to be constant. the maximum power transfer occurs just before the muzzle exit: P = F (1550) = 5.5 × 103 )(60) = 9.134 × 107 Joule/s = 11. and the plane is accelerating at 15 m/s2 .500kg airplane is traveling at 60 m/s.Problem 15. a muzzle velocity of 1550 m/s and ﬁred a 120kg shell. At s = 37. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. recording or likewise.96 GW.84 × 10−2 s is the time spent in the barrel. (b) Part of the thrust of the engines is accelerating the airplane: From Newton’s second law. from which C = 0. s = 0. from which. and since F is a constant and v varies monotonically with time. v = 1550 m/s. v= F t + C. mechanical. The position is s= F 2 t + C.5m barrel. a 37. dt The difference (189 − 157. (b) The total power being transferred to the plane is Pt = (157.5 × 103 )(15) = 157. storage in a retrieval system.45 MW Problem 15.5 kN. from which F = 3. (15. (b) From Eq. or transmission in any form or by any means. the 10. (a) (b) How much power is being transferred to the plane by its engines? What is the total power being transferred to the plane? Solution: (a) The power being transferred by its engines is P = F v = (189 × 103 )(60) = 1.98 × 109 W = 2.5) = 31. 253 . The total horizontal force exerted by the plane’s engines is 189 kN. electronic.98 GW t Solution: From Newton’s second law. what maximum power was transferred to the shell as it traveled along the barrel? What average power was transferred to the shell? dv = F . from which C = 0.147 The “Paris Gun” used by Germany in World War I had a range of 120 km. m a constant acceleration.5 m. m At t = 0. v = 0.844 × 106 N and t = 4.3 MW. c 2008 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.146 Just before it lifts off. photocopying.96 × 109 joule/s = 5. for dt The power is P = F v. All rights reserved. 2m At t = 0.5 kN is being exerted to overcome friction and aerodynamic losses.18) the average power transfer is Pave = 1 2 2 mv2 2 − 1 mv1 2 = 2. m dv = T = (10.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.