HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

INTRODUCTION : The human resource is the most significant and the only active factor of the production. All over the factors like capital, materials, buildings, plant & machine etc. remain inactive unless there are competent people to utilize them for producing goods & services desired by the society. Human brain which is he creation of nature has limit less energy to think and art. The goal of achieving, greater quality and higher productivity depend on the skill of the people.

Developing human resource , upgrading their skills and extending their knowledge and competencies would lead to organizational development. Therefore, human resource development is the key to entangling the effecting utilization of intellectual, technological and entrepreneurial skills of human resource

The concept of Human Resource Development is comparatively of recent origin and is now used at both macro and micro levels. At the macro level human resource development is the core of all developmental efforts in the sense the organizational level human resource development

connotes the improvement in the quality of managers and workers so as to achieve greater quality and higher levels of productivity. However are shall concentrate on the micro view of Human Resource Development and study the mechanisms and processes of Human resource development.

Significance of Human Resource Development : As stated earlier the term human resource refers to the knowledge skills, creative abilities, talents, aptitude, values and believes of an organisations workforce. The most important aspects of human resources are aptitudly values attitudes and beliefs. But in given situation if these vital aspects remain same, the other aspects of human resource like knowledge, skill, creative abilities and talents play an workforce. However enhancement of utilization value of human resource depends upon improvement of the human resource aspects like skill, knowledge, creative liabilities and talents and moulding of other aspects like, values, beliefs aptitude and attitude in accordance with the changing requirements of groups, organisation and society at large. This process is the essence of human resource development improves the human resource development improves the utilization values of anorganisation. The effective performance of an organisation depends not just on the available resources but its quality and conference as required by the

organisation from time to time. The difference between two nations largely depends upon the level of quality of human resources.

Similarly, the difference in the level of performance of two organisations also depends on utilization value of human resources. Moreover the efficiency of production process and various area of management depend to a greater extent on the level of human resources development.

HRD assumes significance on view of the fast changing organisational environment and used of the organisations to adopt new techniques on order to respond to the environmental changes. The

changes environmental factors include. Unprecedented increase in competition within and outside the country consequent upon the enouncement and implementation of economic libations. Trends toward market economy are move prevalent in most of the countries including the while communist countries

These trends towards marketing economy resulting in severe competition not only among the industries in the globe but also industries within the nation. This competition allows only the industries *** in all respects to continue in the market and the other industries are forced to

withdraw from the market. The vitality of human resources to a nation and to industry depends upon the level of its development. Organisations to be dynamic growth oriented and fast changing should develop their human resources. It is needless to say that the organisation possessing competent human resources grow faster and can dynamic. Through the positive personnel policies and programmes motivation the employees, but their commitment and loyalty but these effort cannot keep the organisation dynamic and fast changing. It is need less to say that the organisation possessing competent human resources grow faster and can dynamic. Though the positive personnel policies and programmes motivation the employees, but their commitment and loyalty but these efforts cannot kept the organisation dynamic and fast changing.

THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
HRD is mainly concerned with developing the skill, knowledge and competencies of people and it is people oriented concept when we call it is a people oriented concept when we call it as a people oriented concept the questions of people be developed in the larger or national context or in the smaller organisational context is it different at the macro level.

HRD can be applied both for the nation level and organisational level. The concept of HRD is not yet we conceived by various authors though they have defined the term from their approach as it is of recent origin and still is in the conceptualizing stage. It is an understanding of the terms; i.e. new or rather was new. HRD is not training and development. But many personal manager and organisations view HRD as synonymous to paining and development. Any organisations in the country renames heir training departments as HRD departments. Some educational institutions starting awarding degrees and diplomas in HRD even though the concept in HUF yet crystal clear. The concept of HRD was formally introduction by Leonard Nadlering 1969 in a conference organized by the American society for frainent and development. Leonard

V infantries wara Rao worked extensive on HRD. . ii. Among the Indian authors T. Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles. term work and collaboration among subunits are strong will-having. Development an organisational culture in which superior subordinals retations hip. The define HRD is the organisational context as a process by which the employees of an organisation are helped in a continuous. The terms learning experience refers to purpose full or international learning not incidental learning.Nadler defined HRD as those learning experiences which are organized for a specified time and designed to bring about the possibility of behavioral change. Development their funeral capabilities as individual and discover and exploit their own inner potentials for tour own and /or organisational development purposed. iii. motivation and pride employee. planned way to:- i.

fit for selection the candidate suitable for future development. interview etc. and also for development and motivates them to apply for jobs. These base factors influence the analysis . futures. Selection for HRD refers to designing the selection techniques like written test. HRD to be effective should essentially have a strong base of human resource planning. planning should plan for potentialities. Recruitment for HRD refers to searching for prospective employee having skill. These part features enable the organisation to develop its Human resources efficiently human resources planning for HRD should planfor human resources not only for the present and future jobs but also role. human resource. recruitment and selection based on effective un effective HRD requirement. selection test.HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT FRAME WORK Recent economic peralization announced by government of India lend forwards market and economic and started creating more dynamic environment in India then ever before HRA plays a significatn and crucial role in market economics under dynamic environment human resource development should be effective for the candidate who do not possess potentials to perform present and future roles in organisational in dynamic environment.

Process of HRD : Identification of Inputs Analysis of Rolls as Individual Member of Teams Member of Organisation ↓ Potential Appraisal ↓ Performance Appraisal ↓ Employees Present Capabilities and potentialities ↓ Capabilities to be acquired ↓ Input skills. knowledge. ← Forecasting manpower needs based on HRD ← Recruitment & selection based on HRD . values behaviour etc. The positive base factors exert portative influence on the analysis of role vice versa is true in case of negative facture. along with the ever changing environment.of roles of employees as individual as membe of terms and organisations.

performance and potentials more accurately. values aptitude. training. management development organizational development. Organizations plans including the plan for change. based on environmental oppurtunities and threats are the based to determine organizational requirement. beliefs.Analysis of roles employees as individuals.. Human resources to be acquired and developed are determined in terms of skills. number of ****** and number of organization helps the positive base factors exert portative influence on the analysis of role vice versa is true in case of negative facture. The difference between the employees present capabilities and future role requirement are the human resource to be acquired and development. performance appraisal potential appraisal. knowledge. Career . These techniques include. abilities. In turn are the based to determine the future requirement of various roles in the organization. Suitable technique is / of human resource development is / are to be selected depending upon the resource to be acquired and developed. In turn are the based to determine the future requirements of various roles in the organization. commitment etc. Future performance appraisal and appraisal techniques help to evaluate the present capabilities. members of and members of organizations helps the organizations know the member present capabilities and potential. Analysis of roles of employees as individuals. Organization requirement.

increase in collaboration and team effectiveness. increase in productivity and profitability. The HRD. it helps the society in the form of developing human resources and increased contribution of human resources to the society. worker participation in management quality circles and social and spiritual programmers. in allowing of potentials. also benefits the individuals. increase informations. The outcomes of HRD are four-fold. The HRD helps the groups in the form of increase in cooperation. fulfilling their needs and enhancing social and psychological status. to the organization. Further. adapt to change.planning and development. t o the individuals. viz. . enables the implementation of the programmes of total quality management maintenance of sound human relations . HRD benefits the organization by developing the employees and make them ready to accept responsibilities. welcome change. to the groups and to the society.

Discuss the steps the employee can take for improvement. Evaluate training efforts. 4. Develop in co. Discuss with the employee the difference between his self rating by the immediate superior. Determine the technical skills required for each job. . Determine the adiquacy of current manpower resources in relation to future needs. Wage administration 5. Determine the behavioural skills required for each job. Recruitment & placement. Organise specific programmes as welfare general development programmes with own and outside resources. Job redesigning ↓ Selection & Placement Use the criteria and measures developed for selection procedures and placements. list them. list them. Industrial Relation 1. Prepare training packages and modules. Forecast manpower needs based on the policies and strategies of the **** etc. Determine the managerial and other skills required for each job. Training 1. Search available outside training facilities. list them. 6.A SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM IN LARSEN AND TOUBRO LIMITED Manpower Planning 1. 3. 3. 3. internal search and manpower audit. Feedback and counselling 1. Complete manpower planning based on forecast. training strategy including pretraining and post training activities. Develop indicators of each of the attributes and valid methods of assessing and measuring them. Give critical and supporting feedback. Assess training needs of different groups of employees. 2. 4. Supervision 4. Job analysis 3. 2. 3. 2. → 2. Trade Union matters 6. 5. 2. Critical Attribute Analysis 1.

Supply files to deptt. Plan with senior employees career paths. Monitor feeding in an out of the data. Make thorough potential appraisal of the employee once in 3 years. Performance appraisal 1. . remarkable achievements. Maintain systematic information about the individual emp: history. Make new employee aware of the general phases of their development in the company. Salary administration 4. 2. Appraise the potential of the employee annually. other promotion. characteristics. salaries etc. Team building. Promotion 2. 3. 5.Reinforcement and advancement 1. training etc. job enrichment. Organisation development 1. Rewards and punishment ↓ Date storage & processing 1. other records. Review his performance in relation to the objectives and other behaviours. Plan development and coping strategies with employees showing limited potential. Career development and career planning 1. Design data cars for computers 4. → 3. 2. Send summary information for central storage and use ↓ Potential appraisal 1. Process data for research on trends etc. 2. Check review done by the supervisors 4. 3. 2. 3. Salary review 3. promotion. Task force 4. potential record. whenever solicited for counselling. Other structural and process intervention like role development. Help employee in self-appraisal. job redesigning etc. performance record. Organisation diagnosis 2. additional qualification. career planning.

. It promotes team spirit among employees. It emphasis on the development and best utilization of the capabilities of individuals in the interest of the employees and organisation. 3. It tries to develop competencies at the organization level. 6. Human resource development is a process in which employees of the organizations are recognized as its human resource.FEATURES OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT The essential features of human resource development can be listed as follows:1. It stresses on developing relationship confidence. 2. It believes that human resources is most valuable asset of the organisation. It helps the employees of the organisation to develop their general capabilities in relation to their present jobs and expected future role. It based on helps trust and stresses on providing healthy climate for development in the organization. 4. It helps in establishing / developing inter-personal relations. It stresses on development of human resources of the organisation . 5.

It tries to develop comprehence at individual. All these sub systems are inter related and interwoven. long process which never ends. 9. interpersonal.7. It stresses on collaboration among all the sub-systems. 12. ideas and principles of sociology. group and organizational level to meet organizational goal. . has mentioned following eight characteristics relating to HRD: 1. It is based on the concepts. Mr. 8. Department of Senior Executives of Bayer AG. Development is a life. It aims to develop an organization culture in which there is good. It is an inter-disciplinary concept. psychology. 11. It is a continuous and systematic learning process. 10. welfare and quality of work life. It tries to examining identify employee needs and meeting them to the best possible extent. senior – subordinate relations motivation quality and sense of belonging. It has several sub-systems. Harald Richter. HRD is a system. The people have capabilities to learn. They can be developed by providing them learning opportunities. Head. It form on employee. economics etc.

So. It is a long term approach. It depends upon needs of the industry. in human resource development can be considered as long term investment. 8. By investing in development of human resources long term refund can be increased. . It requires common understanding between people. 5. industry. Human resources can be developed through proper education and training system. There is no short cut to HRD. It stresses that on the job training. HRD is not only the responsibility of the country. is better than class room training. HRD assists in meeting the objectives of individuals as well as organization. 3. Industry will have to play a vital role by stressing on HRD activities. It is required at all levels . Investment. It provides possibilities for training. 6. 4. trade unions and government. pace of growth of HRD depends upon the industry's needs.2. 7. It stresses that there is constant need of retraining and development of people to adapt to new technologies.

To develop the capabilities and comprehences of human resources in relation to the present job. To help the development of people and their maximum utilization in the interest of society and nation. 10. opennes. 6. group and organisational levels to meet the individual and organisation goals. To develop team spirit and interpersonal relation among employees in the organization. 3. 9. To providing the employees a climate for job enrichment. 2.OBJECTIVES OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT The main objectives of HRD are as follows: 1. 8. . of human resources in relation to their expected future role. 7. To build up competencies at individual interpersonal . To help the employees to plan their career. innovation. To ensure the availability of competent and committed people to occupy key position at higher level. To develop capabilities and competencies. To achieve better organization (OD) system so that organization can respond to changes effectively. 5. To motivate the employees for their contribution by suitable rewards.. 4. increawed communication etc.

more profits. higher productivity. To develop a suitable human resource information system to objective data on employees / HR. . 12. better organization image. lower costs. 13.11. To develop an organizational culture.e. To increase organizational effectiveness i.

An environment of must and respect can be created with the help of human resource development. 1. knowledge and attitude of the people in the concern organisations. 2. HRD makes people more competes HRD develops new skill. Acceptability towards change can be created with the help of HRD. . With appropriate HRD programme people become more committed to their jobs. Some of the important benefits are being given here. People are assessed on the bests of their performance by having a acceptable performance appraisal system. Employees found them selves better equipped with problem solving capabilities. 4.BENEFITS OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT Human resource development now-a-days a days is considered as the key to higher productivity better relahons and greater profitability for any organisation appropriate HRD provides unlimited benefits to the concerned organisation. 3.

now values can be generated. . It leads to greater organisational effectiveness. This improve the role of worker and workers feel a sense of pride and alievement while performing their jobs. 6. Hence it can be concluded that HRD provides a lot of benifits in every organisation. It also helps to collect useful and objective data on employees programmes and policies which further facilitate rather human resource planning. It improves the all round growth of the employees. resources are property utilised and goals are achieved in a beltir way.5. It improves the participation of worker in the organisation. It also helps to create the efficiency culture in the organisation. So. This. 7. to face the present and future challenges in the organisation. the importance of concept of HRD should pre – recognised and given a place of eminence. HRD also improves term spirit in the organisation. 8. They become more3 open in their behaviour.

Enabling culture means creating an environment where employees are motivated to take initiative and risk. the following prerequisites are essential Approach of Top -level management: The main goal of the HRD is to develop the capabilities o each employee as an Individual in relation to his present job and future rule. By adopting his approach top management can better utilise the capabilities of the . To achieve and to create the effect the effect the HRD certain points must be studied and considered seriously for having effective HRD programme so. Obviously this information can be collected by top level measurement by being in touch with the employees at all levels of measurement. they feel enthused to experiment. limitations and problems of the employees of the concern.level management must try to know full capabilities and problems of the work force of the organisation at all levels. So the top. innouation and they make things happen. This can be done only by having a knowledge of capabilities.PRE-REQUISITES OF EFFECTIVE HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT Human resource development facilitates development of an enabling culture in an organisation. Top executives should frequently visit the work place of the workers and spend time with term.

their efforts should be appreciated and recognised by giving them rewards promotions. Communication System and Feedback: A success-mentation also depends on proper communication and fredback system. It should be such which provide all important information to the employees from the beginning to the end. couaboration ) should be developed. If required in normal or exceptional .available work force and creating must among the people of the organisation. They can be developed to an unlimited extent. frust. incentives etc. Their excellence should be rewarded in an appropriate and acceptable way. A p[roper communication should be developed and implemented. Conditions for Growth and Development: Human resources are the most important arrests in the organisation. For that a wealthy organisational elimate (epenness. At the same time punishment can also be given. This system should be formal are well as information is connected with feed balk so the importance of feed balk should be under spool in full and veliable feed balk system should be structured. The progress of the company must be hearted with the employees.

circumstances so a balanced environment among all these should be maintained. Decentralisation: There should be proper system of Involvement of persons at all levles of management. funds and energy in each. The maintenance of a weathly working climate and the development of its human resources is very complicated process. Proper Utilisation of Human Resource Skill: HRD must try to make proper utilisation of available and potential human resource skills. create a development climate and help the employees to realize their potential. Although major polity decisions. The top level management must clear the path. may be centralised but other important decisions should be made with the involvement of various subordinates. Investment in HRD Programme: There are to success. Manpower planning and right sizing of human resources may be used for his purpose. so as to create the conditions for development of workers. . If the proper importance is given to each person this creates the since of belongings and commitment among the worker. So to ensure the desired results the top level management and HRD professionals must invest proper time.

T. which is linked to organicational effectiveness. Rao has developed a model which explains the interrelationship between human resource development instruments process. Ultimately these HRD outcomes improve organisational effectiveness. by adopting the above-requesting even ordinary people can produce extra ordinary results. Human Resource Development and Organisational Effectiveness: Human resource development is a process. Prof. Should result in move completing satisfied and committed people. Prof. T. These Human Resource Development resource development climate and processes such human resource development climate.V. .A balanced approach should be maintained in the centralisation and decentralisation.V. So. at comes and organisational effectiveness. The people in the concern it self grow and help the organisation to realise their goals and progress. There are many instruments of Human Resource Development. Human Resources development mechanism or systems un instrument. Rao has developed the model presenting the interrelationship between the following four aspects of human resource development. I.

Human Resources development processes and human resources development (climate variables. . out comes and organisational effectiveness. A Schematic Presentation of linkage between HRD instruments. Human resources development out comes variables. Organisational effectiveness. Porcesses.II. IV. III.

* Training * Communication HRD Process & HRD limake variables * Role Clarity * Planning of Development by every employee * Awarness of comptencies required for Job performance * Proactive on entation. Top management styles. * Higher job satisfaction & work motivation * Better organisational health * Most Teamwork synergy respect poreach other. * Policies * Job Rotations * OD Exercises * Rewards * Job enrichment Programmes * Other Mechanism * Openness * Risk-taking * Value Generation * Clarification of norms & standard * Increased communication *Most objective rewards * Generation of objective data on employees Other Factors Environment. counselling sessions * Role Analysis Exercise * Potential Development Exercise. investment on HRd top management's commitment History. Nature of Business etc. technology resources availability history. Previous culture line manager's interest ect.HRD Mechanism or Sub systems or Instruments * HRD Department * Performance appraisal * Review. * More Trust * Collaboration & Team work * Authenticity HRD out variably comes * More competent People * Better developmentRoles * Higher work commitment & Job Involvement * Bether problem solving. Personnel Policies. Organisational Effectiveness Dimensions * Higher productivity * Growth and Diversification * Cost Reduction * Most Profits * Better Image. . Discussion Feed back.

. T. Training. It includes the following sub. These sub-systems are also known as human resource development mechanism or human resource are applied by the organisation to develop desired human resource development climate and improve organisational effectiveness through human resource development out comes. Communication Policies. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) HRD Department.system. Job Enrichment Programmes. Performance appraisal Review. Rate Anlysis Exercise. counseling sessions. Discussion.HRD MECHANISMS OR HRD SUB-SYSTEMS OR HRD INSTRUMENTS Human resource development in total system. Feed back. Job Rotations OD Exercise Rewards. Polential Development Exercise.V. Rao has stated the human resource development matrix. It has various sub systems. There are the large numbers of Sub-Systems or instruments that can be used to develop and facilitate human resources development.

"Performance appraisal not only let the employee know how well he is performing but should also influence her furture level of effurt activities . strength and weakness of its human resources. It's aimed at identification of competency gaps. It enables the organisation to evaluate the present position. It helps the organisation to assess where it stands in terms of its completeness of the human resources required of different levels. In indicates the extent to which an employee satisfies fulfills his present job requirements. According to by are and rue. Some of the Important human resource development instruments art explained in detail as under: (a) Performance Appraisal: Performances is measured lerns of results. Performance appraisal is concern with evaluating the present performance/ output of the employees by linking if with for requirements. It also aims at idecutifying the improvement potential of its human resources. HRD mechanism in sub systems should be periodically reviewed to ensure check whether if has resulted in developing desired HRD climate or not. of the organisational hierarchy as against desered/expleted level of human resources requirement.(l) Other Mechanisms.

V. the potential of the available human resources with the organisation must be assessed in advance to **** development relates enhancing the employee's potential to accept and responsibility to handle higher position in future. Thus potential development aims at identify cation and development of the potential of employees to occupy key position in further and accept responsibility. Development oriented performance appraisals have gained movementum. This capability of the employee may not be in use at present. (b) Potential Appraisal and Development: Business and people have to be managed proactively potential approsal means assessment and identification of inherent capabilities i. . Similarity prof. T. increased competition etc.result and task direction".e. skill. development of the new technology. Taking into consideration the dynamic rather of the business. modernization. Rao has rightly stated that performance appraisal system here dual approach (i) Evaluation Approach and (ii) Development approach. The recent years further achieving human resources development goals through training and developments is better then achieving goals through performance appraisal alone. knowledge etc possessed by an employees. diversification.

Each job calls for a specific set of duties and responsibilities.(c) Feed back and counseling: The performance appraisal/evaluation report of employees may be used an a feedback information. It can also help the employees to overcome the problems faced by him and make the best utilization of his strengths. It aims at defining the contents of a role in relation to all those with whom the employees have to deal and interact for performing the job. It can help the employees in setting goals and designing an action plant to meet these goals. to understand the problems of t heir subordi9nates and vice-versa. It may help in assessing the need for counselling to the employee's. d) Role Analysis: The concept of role is broader than that of a job. It may help the seniors. This review and discussion may serve various purposes. interaction and sentiments for an individual possessing an assigned job. Role analysis is . Management may discuss and evaluate the progress of the subordinate with his immediate superior. Role analysis is a process. A role consists of the total pattern of expected behaviour. Counselling can serve various useful purposes. A job is an assignment of work /fast.

identified as an intervention for the purpose of role clarity and performance appraisal. It helps to strengthen human resource development system of the organization. Edwin B. "A career is a sequence of separate but related work activities that provided continuity. It encourages the employees to analyse and assess their capabilities and inform them about the career opportunities that are available in the organization." Career planning is a process. It aims at providing accelerated career growth opportunities for its efficient and capable employees. . order and meaning in a person's life. career planning is a systemic process of determination of the career prospects. The major focus of career planning is to help the employee's to match their skills and abilities to the needs and demand of organization. It helps the employees to plan their career. So. Flippo states. e) Career Planning: A career is a sequence of positions occupied by a person during the course of his work life. career development and career growth of an individual employee.

It aims to increase the efficiency of an employee. Training is an act of increasing the skill and knowledge of an employee to do a particular job. It aims to improve the problem solving process in the organization. It is a planned effort initiated by top management to improve the organizations health and effectiveness. On process includes the following steps:- . organization development is a systematic process of managing change. g) Organizational Development: Bennels states "Organization Development (OD) is a complex educational so that they can better adapt to new technologies. employee development aims at overall development of the employee. most of the organizational believe not only in recruiting the best in the industry but also in developing t heir competence. So. The importance of training has increased as a results of fact and constant improvement in the technology. marketsf and challenges. for a specific job on the other hand. In simple words.f) Training and Development: Training and development are the human resource development instruments or sub-systems used by every organization.

development are a natural part of the enterprises daily operation and. ii) iii) Planning strategy to introduce change. iv) Evaluating implementation change: According to Edwin B. managment by objective programs. Organization development may use various intervention such as sensitivity training.i) Diagnosis / identification of the problem. survey feedback. . (g) Developing a communication system characterized by mutual openness in solving organizational problems. consultaants changes agents may be consulted. Use intervention: OD practioners. management grid etc. Flippq "OD is a planned and calculated attempt to a attain some specific goals such as : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Decision making on the basis of competence Creatively resolving conflicts Maximizing collaborations Increasing commitment and a sense of ownership Increasing the degree of interpersonal trust and support Creating a climate in which human growth.

Reward may be. confers. pride in word. Similarly.e.(v) Rewards: Reward is the compensation to the employees for their services to the organization Rewards are necessary to retain the services of efficient employee. ITCs human resources philosophy enables them to deliver high quality performance and reward talent with competitively superior compensation. job satisfaction. For instance. Most of the successful organizations try to provide a combination of intrensic as well as extrinsic rewards to their employees. bring benefits etc. prosperity and growth of organization. and Intrinsic reward Extrinsic reward is related to monetary benefits such as salary. Better rewards helps to achieve HRD goals . "Meritorious Performance Award" to encourage employees to contribute to progress. (i) (ii) Extinsic reward. So. promotion. Employees must be suitably rewarded for their contribution to the organization. Intrinsic reward is related to the job itself i. BSES Ltd. it motivate the . motivate the employee for better performance and to attract capable and efficient potential employees to the organization. recognization as an individual etc.

It is based on the belief that employees / workers want more responsibility. This instrument is the least practiced instrument in the industry. It enables to develop empathy and understanding of functioning of other departments. This instrument is used to develop managers and supervisors in an organization. . (j) Job Enrichment: Job enrichment refers to widening the contents of a job. It is a process which helps the individual to grow slow and steady . (i) Job Rotation: Job Rotation is another human resource development mechanism or sub-system. The success of job enrichment depends on how effectively it is being implemented by the work groups. It is a deliberate upgrading of responsibility. It is a systemic and planned programme of interchanging employees from one job to another for a definite period of time. scope and challenging in work.employees to improve their capabilities to become eligible for such intrinsic rewards.

Human resource development culture is an essential part of the organization climate.Confron. . In the words of T.V. openness. HRD departments are a sub system in instrument to initiate HRD culture and achieve objectives of HRD. O C T A ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Open. trust. planning of development of every employee etc.. "Human resource development climate is the perception of the employees about the human resources development culture in the organization.HRD PROCESS AND HRD CLIMATE VARIABLES Human resource development mechanism or sub-system or instrument leads to development of desired human resources development climate or process.Trust Autoness tation P ↓ ProA ↓ Authenticity C ↓ Collaboration E ↓ Experimentation nomy action Human resource development climate in an organization is reflected by its role. clarity. "Human resource development experts use the term 'OCTAPACE" to express the important features of human resource. team work. Rao. The salient features of human resource development culture are at presented in the following figure. development climate. proactive orientation. HRD (Human Resource Development) culture in the organization.

investments on HRD. inter departmental collaboration in the organization. It promotes openness. Role analysis exercises result in role clarity in the organization. top management styles. previous culture etc. counselling session help in building trust and better senior subordinate relations. discussion feedack. It aims at providing a climate for growth and development. Review. effective. b) HRD instruments are used to develop desired human resource development processes. top management. interest. To sum up the relationship between human resource development mechanism and human resource development processes and climate can be explained as under:- a) HRD mechanism are most useful instruments / interventions to develop a healthy HRD climate. For instance.Human resource development climate and processes are dependent on personnel policies. Job enrichment is a deliberals exercise of upgrading of risk and responsibility in work-group. commitment . . Training and potential development exercise have proactive orientation. line manager's. communication. performance and potential appraisal help to arsey and determine the competence required for job performance. OD exercises help to manage change and problems in the organizations.

satisfied and committed employees. HUMAN OUTCOMES VARIABLES: Human resource development mechanism generates human resources development climate and processes human resource development climate and processes human resource development climate and processes generate human resource development outcomes. Besides these outcomes. the situation of human resource development outcomes in the matrix is explained as under:- .g. it results in better utilization of internal resources. Better human resources development climate results in better human resource development outcomes e. To sum up. human resource development outcome is the result of human resource development mechanism and human resource development processes. Thus. d) HRD mechanism and personnel policies should be periodically reviewed to create / develop desired human resources development climate. An organization with competent and satisfied people is likely to be more effective in comparison to an organization.c) HRD climate is dependent on human resource development mechanism as well as personnel policies. which is low on the these outcome variables. top management styles etc. more competent. team work and better organizational health.

HRD outcomes include: 1. HRD outcomes generate and determine organizational effectiveness. c) d) HRD processes. knowledge and attitudes. satisfied and committed people. Better HRD climate and processes result in more competent. The data based . It shows that here is need of improvement in organizational climate and processes. 3. f) An organization with poor HRD outcomes is the result of its poor HRD climate poor policies and commitment of its top management. People become more committed to their jobs because now there is greater objectivity in the administration of rewards. e) An organization with competent and committed workers is likely to be more effective. are many where as HRD outcomes are limited. There is greater clarity of norms and standards . 2.a) b) HRD outcomes are the result of HRD climate and processes. People become better aware of the skills required for job performance and the expectations which other members of their role set have from them. They develop new skills. Training makes people more competent.

It is not merely a decorative piece in the hardware of an organization. 6. They must be treated as human. 5. There is great collaboration and team work which produces synergy effect. Lot of useful and objective data on employees are generated which fulfill human resource planning. 4. There is greater readiness on the part of employees to accept change. People develop great trust and respect for each other. Thus. new values come to be generated. HRD at macro and micro level: People are the most important assets of the organization. So it is very important to get the people who are winner but is even more important to retain those winners due to acceptance of this concept human resource development is . The great or big organizations have always had good faith in their man power and their capabilities. 8. Participation develops in workers a sense of achievement and pride in work.appraisal system reduces subjectively to minimum. They become more proactive in their orientation. They find themselves better equipped with problem – solving capabilities. They become more open in their behaviour. 7.

is what does the HRD means at macro and micro level? The answer to it is not as easy as it seems to be . Development have is related with the development of new capabilities among the employees of . HRD is essentially treated as a collective human and team efforts directions towards improving of human abilities available in a given environment. HRD at micro level performs the task of organization's man power planning. Normally. All these activities collectively provide answer science in the organization. But the question. compensation. Human resources development's involvement in the all the above stated areas provide advantage to the concern in the form of development man power. One more objective of HRD is to develop the innovative or newer capabilities in the people so as to make them competent to face the present as well as further challenges. HRD activities play a very crucial role. HRD concept applies to both macro as well as micro level. selecting training. organizational development etc. In the present fast changing environment. development potential appraisal. It is mainly related with the development of inner potentials of people working with the organization . performance appraisal. MICRO LEVEL: For any dynamic and growth oriented unit.in the limelight these days. it is like a small wonder for the organization with the help of which a unit can achieve its objective in an effective way.

the concern with this they can achieve and face and present sub and challenges of the future. it has not achieved more popularity at the national or macro level. Macro Level: At the macro level. activities of people which are more useful to the development among them and nations for overall development as well as while calculating the national income indicators like national income. . however. capabilities. skill. So to achieve the benefit of human resource development it is essential to understand the micro and macro concepts of the human resources development. This takes wealth. HRD is related with the development of people and nation as a whole. is certain that human resource development is a collective human effort directed towards recognizing and improvising the human abilities available in a given environment. economic planning. One thing. In spite of importance of HRD at mass level.

. c) Taking steps to mould. The HRD manager should also take into consideration the internal and external environmental factors. ii) Human Resource Planning: The HRD manager. The steps in human resource planning include: a) Estimation of present and future requirements and supply of human resources based on objectives and long range plans of the organization. b) Calculation of net human resource requirements based on present inventory of human resources. role analysis should plan for the human resource which would meet not only the future organizational requirements but also capable of being developed. They perform a variety of functions. These functions include: i) Role Analysis: The HRD manager should design the wider roles rather than mere jobs based on the organization's present and future needs. change and develop the strength of existing employees in the organization so as to meet the future human resources requirements.THE FUNCTIONS OF HRD MANAGERS HRD managers or departments play a crucial role in the organization.

d) Preparation of action programmes to get the rest of human resources from outside the organization and to develop the human resources of existing employees. of an applicant with a view to appraising his/her suitability to a job. It deals with : a) Identification of existing sources of applicants and developing them. This function includes: a) b) c) d) e) Framing and developing of application banks. Stimulating the candidates to apply for jobs in the organization. experiences. skills. knowledge etc. Formulating interviewing techniques. Checking of references Setting up of medical examination policy and procedures. Striking a balance between internal and external sources. iv) Selection: It is the process of ascertaining the qualifications . iii) Recruitment: It is the process of searching for prospective employees and simulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. b) c) d) Creation / identification of new sources of applicants. . Creating and developing valid and reliable testing techniques.

culture etc. of the organization. . vi) Induction and orientation: Induction and orientation are the techniques by which a new employee is rehabilitated in the charged surroundingly and introduced to the practices policies. v) Placement: It is the process of assigning the selected candidate with the most suitable job. purposes and people etc. objectives. policies. if any.f) g) h) Line managers decision Sending of letters of appointment and rejection. This function includes: a) b) Counselling of the functional managers regarding placement. It is matching of employee specifications with job requirements. Employing the selected candidates who report for duty. company history. social and community standing. superiors and subordinates. market share. They include:- a) Acquaint the employee with the company philosophy . b) Introduce the employee to the people with whom he has to work such as peer. Correcting misplacements.

c) Mould the employees attitude by orienting him to the new working and social environment. Evaluating the effectiveness of training programes. viii) Training: Training is a systemic process by which employees learn skills. d) (e) Imparting requisite job skills and knowledge to employees. It includes : a) b) c) Identification of training needs of the individuals and the company. vii) Performance appraisal: It is the systematic evaluation of individuals with respect to their performance on the job and their potential for development . abilities or attitudes to further organizational and personal goals. Evaluating the effectiveness of various programmes. procedures and techniques. it includes:- a) b) c) d) Developing of policies. Reviewing and consolidation of reports. knowledge. . Helping the functional managers. Developing suitable training programmes. Helping and advising line management in the conduct of training programmes.

It includes: (a) Identification of the areas in which management development is needed. Using the services of specialists. x) Career Planning and Development: It is the planning of one's career and implementation of career plans by means of education training. . (b) (c) (d) (e) Conducting development programmes. promotion and demotion. Internal Mobility: It includes vertical and horizontal movement of an employee within and orgnaisation. Motivating the executives. It consists of transfer. It includes internal and external mobility.ix) Management Development: It is the process of elesigning and conduching suitable executive dvelopment the managerial and human relations skills of employees. job search and acquisition of work experiences. Designing special de3velopment programmes for promotions. and or utilising the institutional executive development – programmes.

it is simply a transfer. Promotion: It deals with upward reassignment given to an employees in the organisation to occupy higher position which commands better status and/or pay keeping in view the human resources of the employees and the job requirements. When employees or demotion. (c) Evaluating the executing of promoti9on polities and procedures.Transfer: Transfers and promotions are the two important ways of personnel adjustments. Guiding employees and the management on transfers. fair and consistent promotion policies and procedures. This activity deals with. . (b) Advising line management and employees on matters relating to promotions. Evaluating the execution of transfer policies and procedures. This function covers: (a) Formentating of equitable. (a) (b) (c) Development employees and the management on transfers.

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Knowledge .Quality Circles .Individual goals .Social and Spiritual Development Human Resources Development of human resources output: .Team goals → .Performance appraisal .Team .Behaviour .Skill .Society PROCESS OF HRD: Techniques and Output Outcomes .Training .Workers participation .Organization Development .Individual .Career development .Values Means .Organization goals .Management development .Organizational Climate & HRD Climate Techniques .Family & Friends .Social Goals .

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