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Lecture 1: Introduction to DSP Design
Dr. Hoang Tuan Anh School of Electrical Engineering International University VNU-HCM University,
Digital Signal Processing
Course Outline–DSP Design Outline– 1. Introduction to DSP Design 2. DSP Concepts 3. 3 Fundamental of speech processing 4. Fundamental of image processing 5. Discrete Linear Transforms: FFT, STFT 6. Digital Filters: FIR Filters 7. FIR Filter Design 8. Di it l Filt 8 Digital Filters: IIR Filters Filt 9. Applications of DSP in communications
All registered students are required to do a term project. Implemented using Matlab a signal processing system that accomplishes a simple or even a complex task - e.g., pitch detection, voiced unvoiced detection, edge detection, digit recognition, etc. Every student/team is also required to submit project report and make a 15-20 minute Power Point presentation of their project to the entire class. The presentation must include:
a short description of the p j and its objectives p project j an explanation of the implemented algorithm and relevant theory. a demonstration of the working program – i.e., results obtained when running the program.
etc. post filtering. isolated digits. Audio/music filters for voice 9. Pitch detector – time domain. autocorrelation. 4. Speech coders including ADPCM. Audio/music coder 5 Speech/Audio/Image Processing Term Projects 8. Photoshop Emulation in MATLAB 13. System to speed up and slow down speech by arbitrary factors 10. N-channel spectral analyzer and synthesizer – phase vocoder. Speaker verification system 11. speaker trained 7. Speech enhancement system (noise reduction. channel vocoder p p 5.g. LDM. Multipulse. Simple speech recognizer – e. LPC. Formant analyzer/tracker 3. Object Recognition in Images 6 3 . spectral flattening) 12. 2. cepstrum. Image De blurring Methods De-blurring 14.Speech/Audio/Image Processing Term Projects 1. Speech endpoint detector 6. CELP. etc.
two or N independent variables speech and audio are 1‐D signals (functions of time) p g ( ) an image is a 2‐D signal (function of spatial coordinates) video is a 3‐D signal (function of spatial coordinates and time) 8 4 . position. A signal carries information: Examples: speech. audio. seismic. image and video 7 Signals A signal can be a function of one.Signals A function of independent variables such as time. distance. pressure. etc. temperature.
g. amplitude and time) are digital signals.. Discrete Sequences (Discrete-Time Signals) Signals that are continuous in the dependant variable (e.. 10 5 .g. 9 Types of Signals Digital (Discrete‐Time.Types of Signals Analog Signals (Continuous-Time Signals) Signals that are continuous in both the dependant and independent variable (e.. time).g. amplitude and time). Discrete‐Amplitude Signal) Signals that are discrete in both the dependant and independent variable (e.. amplitude) but discrete in the independent variable (e.g. stock market price).. They are typically associated with sampling of continuoustime signals. Most environmental signals are continuous-time signals.g. These are created by quantizing and sampling continuoustime signals or as data signals (e.
Some Typical Signals 11 Compression of Multimedia Signals 12 6 .
Compression of Multimedia Signals 13 Bandwidths for Speech and Audio Signals 14 7 .
2‐Dimensional Signals 15 Matrix Image Representation 16 8 .
What is DSP? DSP? Changing or analyzing information that is measured as discrete sequences of numbers The representation. using an ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) Processed signal may need to be converted back to an analog signal DSP 18 9 . using a transducer such as a microphone to convert sound into electrical signal digitize these signals.. transformation. or convert them from analog to digital. temperature and light To processes these signals with a computer. e.g. we must: convert the analog signals into electrical signals. and manipulation of signals and the information they contain 17 Processing Real Signals Most of the signals in our environment are analog such as sound.
TS’ ti t f ti D/A – digital-to-analog conversion Analog LPF – eliminate any remaining signal out-of band (images) 19 Example 20 10 . fS = 1/TS Hold – retain current sample value. x(nTS) A/D – analog-to-digital conversion Digital Filter – process digitized samples D/C – di it l t digital-to-continuous transformation.Typical DSP System Components Sampler – every TS seconds.
speech. direction finding. audio. language translation Image Processing: image enhancement. image segmentation and classification. g g g g g natural language understanding. patient monitoring. echo cancellation Radar and Sonar: target detection. speech enhancement. diagnosis.g. speech recognition.. image understanding Video Processing: video enhancement. preventive health h lth care. position and velocity estimation.Applications of DSP Communication: encoding and decoding of digital communication signals (e. tracking Biomedical Engineering: analysis of biomedical signals. artificial organs tifi i l 21 Applications of DSP Speech Processing: speech synthesis. detection. ) q g video). filtering. image. video segmentation and classification. video understanding Signal/data compressions 22 11 . equalization. speaker recognition.
h[n] 24 12 .DSP Functions Common features of DSP applications they use a lot of multiplying and adding operations they deal with signals that come from the real world y g they require a certain response time Key DSP operations filtering correlation discrete transformation 23 Filtering Example Signals are usually a mix of “useful” information and noise How do we extract the useful information? filtering is one way y[n] = x[n].
Transform Example Can you say which is “1” / ”#” by looking at them? If not. go to “frequency” domain another way to look at signals done using transforms 25 Transform Example (cont.) 26 13 .
Transform Equations Discrete‐Time Fourier Transform (DTFT) x – Time domain signal X – Frequency domain representation of x 27 Correlation Example Provides a measure of similarity between 2 signals Typical application is locating a known signal E. E g transmit a signal and see if you receive it back and also at what time you receive it back 28 14 ..g.
we transmit the signal shown below We receive the following (note the noise!) 29 Correlation Example (cont.Correlation Example (cont.) 30 15 .) Using radar.
Correlation Equations Correlation x – Transmitted signal y – Received signal rxy – Correlation coefficients x 31 Color Image Coding 32 16 .
Why do we need DSPs? DSPs? Digital signal processors are microprocessors specifically designed to handle digital signal p processing tasks. g DSP operations require many calculations of the form: A=BxC+D This simple equation involves a multiply and an add operation The multiply instruction in a general purpose processor is very slo compared with the add instruction er slow ith instr ction Motorola 68000 microprocessor uses • 10 clock cycles for add • 74 clock cycles for multiply 33 Why do we need DSPs? DSPs? Digital signal processors can perform the multiply and the add operation in just one clock cycle most DSPs have a specialized instruction that causes p them to multiply. Add. add and save the result in a single cycle this instruction is called a MAC (Multiply. power. and development time 34 17 . memory use. and Accumulate) DSPs aim to minimize cost.
not many DSP chips use the Harvard architecture because of the cost 36 18 .Digital Signal Processor Architectures Von Neuman Von Neuman machines store program and data in the same memory area with a single bus an instruction contains the operation command and the address of data to be operated on (operand) most of the general‐purpose microprocessors such as Motorola 68000 and Intel 80x86 use this architecture it is simple in hardware implementation. but the data p p . and program are required to share a single bus 35 Digital Signal Processor Architectures Harvard architecture the only difference in Harvard architecture is that program and data memories are separated and use physically separate transmission paths enables the machine to transfer instructions and data simultaneously‐‐ enhances performance the Harvard architecture is more commonly used in specialized microprocessors for real‐time and embedded applications however.
program information flows on the pins.Digital Signal Processor Architectures Modified Harvard architecture cost penalty with the Harvard architecture. modified Harvard architecture is used in most DSPs uses single data and address bus externally but internally there are two separate busses for program and data the separation of program and data information is done by timing (multiplexing) for one clock cycle. which needs twice as many address and data pins on the chip to balance cost and performance. and in second cycle data follows on the same pins 37 Moore’s Law Growth in Computing Resources 38 19 .
matrix‐based system for scientific and engineering numeric computation and visualization strength: complex numerical problems can be solved easily with a programming language similar to C can be easily extended to create new commands and functions ideal software tool for studying digital signal processing graphing capability makes it possible to view results of hi bilit k ibl t i lt f processing and provide insight into complicated operations 39 MATLAB Matlab programming is vector‐based should rarely need to use loops can do most operations on vectors or matrices p e.*b d(i) = a(i)*b(i) end 40 20 . in C: in Matlab: for i = 1:10 c = a+b c(i) = a(i) + b(i) d = a..g.MATLAB MATLAB is an interactive.