Objection One

“I do not remember all the conversation in detail. But the following is part of what was being discussed at that time. Father Timothy Mock wrote a thesis paper on this subject years before Vatican II started. He writes about what could be done and who could elect a pope if all the cardinals were killed. He then explains about the law of devolution.1 If there are no cardinals to elect the pope, it devolves down to those next in line who can elect a pope. After the cardinals I think it devolves to the clerics in Rome. If there are no Catholic clerics in Rome it devolves to the other Catholic bishops in the world. It will never devolve past these Catholic bishops because there will always be Catholic bishops on earth. Therefore, it could not devolve down to the laity.”

I Answer That,
On the contrary, can not a person refuse to act either out of malice or out of ignorance? For example, can the clerics out of malice and hatred to the Church, refuse to elect another pope? Yes, that is what the gift of free will is. They can choose to do evil or to do good. Can not a person out of ignorance, not willful ignorance (willful ignorance is a grave evil), not elect a pope because they do not know the current situation? Theoretically speaking, they (those clergy that are ignorant of the situation) are considered “dead”. Because their ignorance does not allow them to act as they ought. In addition, their ignorance stops them in their tracks. The clergy has a few options once their ignorance is cleared. A) Stay in their malice and refuse to help. B) If the papacy is vacant, fill the vacancy. C) If the papacy is filled with its proper head, help restore the Church, under the guidance of the Pope. There is only two ultimate ends that the clergy (and laity for that matter) can head toward. Either they revert to option A or follow option C. Purgatory is not an ultimate end, for it is a state of purgation of sins. Eventually the souls, after satisfying Divine Justice for their sins, will be brought to Heaven to enjoy eternal bliss. So too is ignorance not an ultimate end. For it is a state in which a soul can neither be obedient to the Church or be disobedient. Souls that are in ignorance are like the poor souls in purgatory, suffering dearly for their blindness and absence of the Vision of God. The ignorant souls who are suffering in darkness, are waiting for someone, anyone for that matter, to give them the Vision of Truth, which is the only way and cure from darkness and blindness. As I stated earlier: “Because their ignorance does not allow them to act as they ought.” Just like there are truly only two ultimate ends in this life, that is Hell or Heaven. Those who are disobedient to the Church and her Master, will perish under His Justice. Those who are faithful are rewarded for their sacrifices by His Divine Mercy, if they have completed their mission from God. “Not every one that saith to me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven: but he that doth the will of my Father who is in heaven, he shall enter into the kingdom of heaven.” 2 Which from eternity was their vocation given to them by God. “For this is the will of God, your sanctification.” 3 Therefore, it can devolve down to the laity, because they, the clergy, failed to act, either out of malice or out of ignorance.

1. Devolution: When a patron has failed to exercise, or has exercised improperly, his right of presentation to a benefice, the right is transferred, for that occasion only. 2. Matthew 7:21 3. 1 Thessalonians 4:3


Objection Two:
“Another subject discussed was: who are Catholics? I told them that in the external forum we were all non-Catholics for belonging to the Novus Ordo sect and/or other non-Catholic sects. Therefore, I explained why non-Catholics need to be received back into the Church by means of the Abjuration of Error and Profession of Faith. However, that teaching is not true. Non-Catholics must be received into the Church by means of the Abjuration of Error and Profession of Faith by some priest or bishop that still has jurisdiction in the Church.”

I Answer That,
On the contrary, this is fatalism,4 on the grounds of the circumstance of the election. Should we wait for a miracle for a priest or a bishop to come around for the election? After thirty years (1958), with more and more souls perishing to Hell, can the Church really wait for a Catholic Priest or Bishop to stroll in at the perfect time, that is at the time of the election? See footnote. 5 “Having come through Baptism to the supernatural life, being members of the Christian society and adopted children of God, the laity belong to the "chosen race", the "royal priesthood" (1 Peter 2:9) formed of all those who are born again in Christ. They have therefore a right to share in the common spiritual goods of the Christian society, which implies a corresponding obligation on the part of the clergy to bestow on them these goods, in as far as this bestowal requires the intervention of the ministers of religion and of the spiritual authority. But if the laity are to share in these common goods they must employ more or less frequently the means of sanctification instituted by Jesus Christ in His Church, and of which the clergy have been put in charge. Further, the laity, being subject to ecclesiastical authority, must obey and respect it; but in return they have the right to obtain from it direction, protection, and service.” 6 If the laity cannot obtain these goods, then there is no purpose for the Church to exist. The laity must have the right to elect the pope, so the laity can be in subject to ecclesiastical authority, in addition to direction, protection, and service. Canon 682: “The laity has the right to receive from the clergy the spiritual good and especially the necessary means of salvation, according to the rules of ecclesiastical discipline.” If the laity has no right to elect a pope, then their would be no Church, and we might as well despair! What madness! Since the Catholic clergy failed to act either through malice or through ignorance, the Catholic laity (which you claim) cannot elect a pope, then all Catholics will all perish to Hell for they could not be subject themselves to the Pope: "Furthermore, we declare, we proclaim, we define that it is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff." 7 (If we continue to assume the Catholic clergy stayed in their malice or ignorance) And that is madness! Then God would have truly forsaken the Church, allegorically speaking. But we know that cannot happen since Jesus Christ stated Himself, "behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world." 8 So if Jesus Christ stated Himself that He is to be with us, the Church,
4. Fatalism: The doctrine that all effects are produced by a blind necessity (see destiny). Destiny: In Catholic philosophy destiny means the ordering of secondary causes that they produce their effects in accordance by the Fatalists to be a blind necessity binding all things and all their actives. Such a view destroys free will. (cf., Fate). Fate (Lat. Fatum, a prediction): In its Christian sense, the ordering of secondary causes by God so that they produce their effects in accordance with the divine providence. 5. http://www.vaticaninexile.com/WillChurchSurvive/ShouldWeAwaitaMiracle.html 6. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08748a.htm 7. Pope Boniface VIII, Encyclical Unam Sanctam, 1302 8. Matthew 28:20


even to the consummation of the world, then this only reaffirms the teaching of the Council of Trent: “A visible Church requires a visible head; therefore the Saviour appointed Peter head and pastor of all the faithful, when He committed to his care the feeding of all His sheep, in such ample terms that He willed the very same power of ruling and governing the entire Church to descend to Peter's successors.” So as long as Jesus Christ is with the Church, the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church, so too will there be a Successor to Peter for the “direction, protection, and service” of the laity. Without Peter, there is no unity. Without Peter there is no purity of doctrine. Without Peter there are no Sacraments. Without Peter, there cannot be the Church, thus no sanctity in society. Society will become corrupt all the way to the core. “They are all gone aside, they are become unprofitable together: there is none that doth good, no not one.” 9 As we can see from 1950's – present, (except the few Christians fighting this persecution). If society does not fear that someone will punish them for their wickedness, will they not just continue in their perversity? Without Peter, what is there left? There is one thing left. The wolf only to devour the helpless sheep. “I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd giveth his life for his sheep. But the hireling, and he that is not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and flieth: and the wolf catcheth, and scattereth the sheep: And the hireling flieth, because he is a hireling: and he hath no care for the sheep. I am the good shepherd; and I know mine, and mine know me. As the Father knoweth me, and I know the Father: and I lay down my life for my sheep.” 10 Society is founded first on the Church (since it is a divine institution), second on the State. To give you an analogy, society is like man. Man has a body and soul. Society has a body and a soul, the State and the Church. The body, when it is not mortified, passions are allowed to rule the body and the soul, vice flourishes. Thus war, famine, injustice, is the plague God justly sends us for His chastisement, when we commit sin. However, when the body is mortified, the soul reigns supreme, and virtue flourishes. So when there is peace, justice, and charity in society, that shows the Church is reigning above the State. Just as the Council of Trent teaches on death, results in the separation of the body and the soul, 11 I answer that society dies, that is morality and sanctity disappears, when the Church is separated from the State. Without the Church there is no need for the State. For society would not be able to stay in any cohesiveness. However, without the State, the Church cannot execute its temporal commands, upon Her children and Her enemies. It is the Church that must reign, if society wishes to cure this current plague of godlessness. But it is the Vicar of Christ that we must fear, lest we should disobey, “And he shall rule them with a rod of iron.” 12 It is only then will peace, justice, and charity will ever take its affect. And you want a great example? Look at the world currently. No one acknowledges Pope Michael as the true Pope. Society too is currently running rampant with lust, greed, lack of charity, famine, unjust wars, disease, etc. However, whenever God converts the world from its pagan ways, charity, peace, and justice will reign supreme. 13 And that is only when the Papacy is properly restored in the world, “And I send the promise of my Father upon you: but stay you in the city till you be
9. Psalms 13:3 10. John 10:11-15 11. Council of Trent (Page 55): “Moreover as Christ was true and perfect man, He of course was capable of dying. Now man dies when the soul is separated from the body. When, therefore, we say that Jesus died, we mean that His soul was disunited from His body.” 12. Apocalypse 2:27 13. (All the holy Fathers agree that after the death of Antichrist (1978) the whole world will be converted, and although some of them assert that the world will last but a few days after his death, while others say a few months, some authorities insist that it will continue to exist many years after. St. Catherine of Sienna, St. Vincent Ferrer, St. Francis of Paula, and a number of other saints have predicted this ultimate universal conversion. Saint John Eudes, page 319, The Admirable Heart of Mary.)


endued with power from on high.” 14 When men fear the Pope, that is the time when society will be cured. “Obey your prelates, and be subject to them. For they watch as being to render an account of your souls; that they may do this with joy, and not with grief.” 15 “For if you have ten thousand instructors in Christ, yet not many fathers. For in Christ Jesus, by the gospel, I have begotten you.” 16 The Pope is the father of all Christians, the Blessed Virgin Mary, allegorically speaking, is his holy spouse, and the Mother of all Christians. Whom she gives birth spiritually to all the sons and daughters of her seed. “I will put enmities between thee and the woman, and thy seed and her seed.” 17 Does not the Council of Trent teach that the fourth Commandment is: “Honor thy father and thy mother, that thou mayest be long lived upon the land which the Lord thy God will give thee.”So why do you disobey, the Pope and the Blessed Virgin Mary? “It is not the possession of a bit of land or of a city; it is independence of all power on earth; being the delegation of Him who said: 'All power is given to Me in Heaven and in earth; go, therefore, teach ye all nations.' There may, indeed, be another alternative; and I acknowledge, looking at the stream of events, the time may come when nations, governments, and legislatures may cease to believe that Jesus Christ has a Church upon earth; and in the day when they cease so to believe (and I am bound to say, their acts led us to think they are not far off from the state of unbelief), then the world will not be Christian, and then I acknowledge that the Vicar of Jesus Christ will have no temporal power over the world that has rejected his Master. Though I am no prophet and no expositor of prophecy and know nothing of what is to come, save only as the Catholic Church and faith guide me, of this I am sure from the lips of Jesus Christ, that in those days which we call the latter times, “kingdom shall rise against kingdom, and nation against nation, and brother betray brother to death,” and the world shall be in misery it never knew before. When these things shall come to pass, the tyranny of the world will be well nigh over, and the despotism of men will no more torment the Church of God; revolutions will no longer prosper, because there is One at the door who must reign until He puts all enemies under His feet, and when that time shall come, will come also the 'resurrection of the just'.” 18

14. Luke 24:49 15. Hebrews 13:17 16. 1 Corinthians 4:15 17. Genesis 3:15 18. The Fourfold Sovereignty of God, by Henry Edward Manning, Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster (Written in 18701871)


Objection Three:
Pope Pius IX wrote in Quartus Supra: “For no power of electing bishops or other ministers of religion has ever been given to the people by either divine or ecclesiastical law.” Read also from: The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. VIII. Nihil Obstat, Imprimatur and Copyright, 1910. Page 751. “The principle is that the laity as such have no share in the spiritual jurisdiction and government of the Church…The laity are incapable, if not by Divine law at least by canon law, of real jurisdiction in the Church…The laity (and by this word we here include the secular authority) cannot bestow ecclesiastical jurisdiction on clerics under the form of an election properly so called, conferring the right to an episcopal or other benefice. An election by the laity alone, or one in which the laity took part, would be absolutely null and void.” Do you agree at least one thing is clear from the teachings of Pope Pius IX, and The Catholic Encyclopedia, that the laity have never been given the power to elect a pope?”

I Answer That,
On the contrary, the Papacy is not a Sacrament of the Church, it can also be resigned. As some Popes have done. 19 There is a drastic difference between electing a bishop and electing the pope. To become a bishop, one needs to be a priest and then be consecrated as a bishop. However, the papacy, has the Church history has proven, laymen, deacons, priests, bishops, have been elected to the Papacy. We can conclude that it cannot be a Sacrament, on the grounds that Holy Orders was not initially needed to be elected to the Papacy. But if a layman, were elected to the Papacy, he would have to be consecrated as a bishop to fulfill his office, as Bishop of Rome. But to become a bishop, one must take the Sacrament of Holy Orders, before he is even considered being elected a Bishop. The following quotes (1-7) were taken from here. 20 1. “A Council acting independently of the vicar of Christ is unthinkable in the constitution of the Church. Such assemblies have only taken place in times of great constitutional disturbances, when either there was no pope or the rightful pope was indistinguishable from anti-popes. In such abnormal times, the safety of the Church becomes the supreme law, and the first duty of the flock is to find a new shepherd, under whose direction the existing evils may be remedied." (Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. IV, Councils; Rev. J. Wilhem; www.newadvent.org) 2. “The function of the electors, whoever they may be — cardinals as at present, or others as in times past — is to designate the person who is to occupy the vacant See of Rome. The mode of designation has not been determined by God by any divine law, and so it remains free to be determined by ecclesiastical law.” (Urbs et Orbis, by Rev. William Humphries 1919) 3. “When any bishop is elected Supreme Pontiff, either by cardinals or by the people according to the times, from whom does he obtain the supreme power of jurisdiction? From Christ, of course…” (Speech given by the Bishop of Grenada at the 22nd Session of the Council of Trent; Concilium
19. The first date is the election the second is there death. According to 'Annuario Pontificio' 1939 Benedict IX 1033-1044 Gregory XI 1044-1046 Pope Saint Celestine V 1294-1294 Gregory XII 1406-1409 20. http://www.vaticaninexile.com/LaityCanElelct.html


Tridentuum Editio Gorresiana, Vol. IX, # 50; 1919) 4. “For the Church without doubt has the authority of providing for itself a head, although it is not able, without the head to decide about many things…as Cajetan rightly teaches…and presbyters of the Roman Church taught in the epistle to Cyprian.” (De Conciliis, by St. Robert Bellarmine, Ch. 14, "Certain Doubts Are Explained") 5. “During the vacancy of the Apostolic See, the Church possesses only the power of proceeding to the election of a new pope, either through the cardinals, or in default of them, by other ways.” (The Church of the Word Incarnate, by Rev. Charles Journet, Prof. at the Major Seminary of Fribourg) 6. Rev. Journet asks: In whom does the power to elect a Pope preside? Cardinal Cajetan replies: “The Pope can settle who the electors shall be and change and limit in this way the mode of election…” Journet comments: “In the case where the settled conditions of validity have become inapplicable, the task of determining new ones falls to the Church by devolution, this last word being taken, as Cajetan notes, not in the strict sense, (since devolution is strictly to the higher authority in case of default of the lower) but in the wide sense, signifying all transmission, even to an inferior…” [Cajetan writes]: “In the case of ambiguity” (if it is unknown who the true cardinals are or there are antipopes), then the power “of applying the papacy to such and such a person devolves on the universal Church…In default of the Roman clergy, the right will belong to the Church universal.” (ibid) 7. In his work on the Great Schism, the historian Walter Ullmann quotes the jurist and canon lawyer Baldus de Ubaldis. He calls Baldus “perhaps the greatest jurist of the late 14th century.” (The Origins of the Great Schism, 1948) One of Baldus' students was the future Pope Gregory XI and another Francis Cardinal Zabarella. In his first Consilium, Ullmann relates, Baldus observed that "Canon Law lays down the dictum that in doubtful situations the man elected [unless a manifest heretic] has to be held as Pope." He also taught that a Pope could not be legally deposed long before the Church condemned this as an heretical proposition. It appears, therefore, that Traditionalists are a day late and a dollar short, as the saying goes, for above all a papal election must be canonical. That a doubtful Pope is no Pope was the hue and cry of the Gallicanists. It is a principal revived and mouthed today by Traditionalists. In the absence of cardinals and clergy, it is not the “ecclesia universalis” who are called to vote for the Pope but the “fidelium congregatio,” or the congregation of the faithful, “a term used by Nicholas III in the Sext. 1.6.17.” (ibid) This was the teaching of Francis Cardinal Zabarella in the 14th century. “Only those who were not stubborn heretics or schismatics — those who kept the faith and were distinguished from the rest in some way — could actually represent the Church.” Therefore, the laity can elect the Pope, despite lacking clergy, for the purpose of obtaining the right for direction, protection, and service.


Objection Four:
“Teresa Benns and David Bawden teach in their book that they belonged to the Novus Ordo and many of the other Traditional Movement sects. There were no priests or bishops around before or during the David Bawden election. Therefore, not one of those who voted for him were first received into the Catholic Church! On his website David Bawden states Only Catholics may vote. He also states: Traditionalists are not Catholic, therefore they cannot vote. In their book, Teresa Benns and David Bawden tell us in a number of places they belonged to the non-Catholic Novus Ordo sect and many of the Traditional Movement sects. The conclusion is therefore they cannot vote. But you might reply that on his website, David Bawden also wrote: Those who have departed the Church can return to the Church by Professing their Faith and obedience to the Church, Her Laws and the Pope to be elected. One of many problems is that no one with jurisdiction received any of David Bawden's electors back into the Church? In the external forum they all remained non-Catholic lay men and women. The Catholic Church also teaches that even Catholic lay men and women cannot take part in the actual papal election. If they attempt to do so it would be absolutely null and void.”

I Answer That,
On the Contrary, “commenting on Canons 672 and 2295, Rev Stanislaus Woywod stated that these canons establish a precedent for cases of heresy, apostasy and schism where infamy is concerned. He comments: 'If he has for three years given signs of complete amendment, the religious organization is bound to receive him.' Lest it be objected that all this depends on finding a validly ordained priest who can absolve from censure, we quote St. Thomas Aquinas: 'Just as Baptism is a necessary Sacrament, so is Penance…The minister of Penance to whom, in virtue of his office confession should be made is a priest; but in a case of necessity, even a laymen may take the place of a priest and hear a person's confession.' (Supplement Q-8, Article 2)”21 After three years of his departure from both the Novus Ordo and Traditional heretical sects, Pope Michael, formerly David Bawden, the Church is bound to receive him as a Catholic. The problem is who? Traditionalists cannot since they are not Catholics. Novus Ordoians are not Catholics. There were no clergy at the time of the election, because of the impossibility of finding one. Not to say that there was not one in the world, but it is finding that needle in the haystack. Of course you will find the needle eventually, it is just when. The Church, for the sake of saving souls, cannot wait. The more the Church waits to be repaired the more souls there are to be lost. To give you another analogy, it is like a prisoner, who after serving his time for three years, has served his time for his crime. The Church, is bound to receive him back into the fold, as it shows above in bold. And that is what happened. Pope Michael, formerly David Bawden, was elected as the Pope, to end the vacancy of the papacy. He reestablished unity, and purity of doctrine. “The Church has but one ruler and one governor, the invisible one, Christ, whom the eternal Father hath made head over all the Church, which is his body; the visible one, the Pope, who, as a legitimate successor of Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, fills the Apostolic Chair. It is the unanimous teaching of the Fathers that this visible head is necessary to establish and preserve unity in the Church. A visible Church requires a visible head; therefore the Saviour appointed Peter head and pastor of all the faithful, when He committed to his care the feeding of all His sheep, in such ample terms that He willed the very same power of ruling and governing the entire Church to descend to Peter's successors.” 22

21. http://www.vaticaninexile.com/NoDeclarationNecessary.html 22. The Catechism Of The Council Of Trent (Page: 102-104)


“A layman may also be elected pope, as was Celestine V (1294). Even the election of a married man would not be invalid (c. "Qui uxorem", 19, caus. 33, Q. 5)...Immediately on the canonical election of a candidate and his acceptance, he is true pope and can exercise full and absolute jurisdiction over the whole Church. A papal election, therefore, needs no confirmation, as the pontiff has no superior on earth.” 23 “The principle is that the laity as such have no share in the spiritual jurisdiction and government of the Church; but they may be commissioned or delegated by ecclesiastical authority to exercise certain rights, especially when there is no question of strictly spiritual jurisdiction, for instance, in the administration of property. The laity are incapable, if not by Divine law at least by canon law, of real jurisdiction in the Church, according to chap. x, "De constit." (lib. I. tit. ii): "Attendentes quod laicis etiam religiosis super ecclesiis et personis ecclesiasticis nulla sit atributa facultas, quos obsequendi manet necessitas non auctoritas imperandi", i.e., the laity have no authority over things or persons ecclesiastical; it is their duty to obey not to command. Therefore no official acts requiring real ecclesiastical jurisdiction can be properly performed by the laity; if performed by them, they are null and void. A layman therefore cannot be at the head of a Church or any Christian community, nor can he legislate in spiritual matters, no act as judge in essentially ecclesiastical cases. In particular, the laity (and by this word we here include the secular authority) cannot bestow ecclesiastical jurisdiction on clerics under the form of an election properly so called, conferring the right to an episcopal or other benefice. An election by the laity alone, or one in which the laity took part, would be absolutely null and void (c. lvi, "De elect.") (see ELECTION). But this refers to canonical election strictly so called, conferring jurisdiction on the right to receive it; if it is merely a question, on the other hand, of selecting an individual, either by way or presentation or a similar process, the laity are not excluded, for the canonical institution, the source of spiritual jurisdiction, is exclusively reserved to the ecclesiastical authority.”24 Reverend Charles Journet quotes John of St. Thomas, in his work: "The Church of the Word Incarnate. Journet quotes both Cardinal Cajetan and John of St. Thomas in support of a papal election by remaining Catholics, although the latter supports Constance citing "Papa dubius, papa nullus" without directly addressing the issue of lay election. Yet, John of St. Thomas determined that whenever qualified electors participate in the election, a capable subject is elected and due form is observed, the election is valid. (p. 481.) He cites the peaceful acceptance and submission of the Church as final proof of validity and distinguishes negative acceptance "...when the election is not at once contested..." from positive acceptance, "...when the election is first accepted by those present and then gradually, by the rest." (p. 481.) 25 And as Canon 1827 states: “He who has a presumption of law in his favor is freed from the burden of proof, which is thus shifted to his opponent; if the latter cannot prove that the presumption failed...the judge must render sentence in favor of the one on whose side the presumption stands.” 26 “God is One and Christ is One, His Church is One, His See is One, founded by the voice
23. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11456a.htm 24. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08748a.htm 25. http://www.ewtn.com/library/THEOLOGY/CHWORDIN.HTM 26. Will the Catholic Church Survive The Twentieth Century?


of the Lord on Peter. No other altar can be set up, no other priesthood instituted apart from that one altar and that one Priesthood. Whoso gathers elsewhere, scatters.” 27 “Simon, My disciple, I placed thee as the foundation of Holy Church. I had already called thee a 'rock,' for thou art to bear up the entire edifice; thou art to be the inspector of all those who shall build up My Church on earth; if they to build into spurious material, it will be for you, the foundation, to repress them; thou art the source and the foundation from which My teaching is drawn; thou art the head of My disciples; through thee will I give drink to all the nations; thine is that lifegiving sweetness which I will dispense; thee have I chosen that by My appointment thou mayest be as it were the firstborn and mayest be made heir to My treasure; to thee have I given the keys of My Kingdom. Behold I have made thee ruler over all my treasures.” 28 “Woe to him that is alone, for when he falleth, he hath none to lift him up.” 29 You my dear friend, are indeed outside the Church, since you refuse to submit to the Pope. And you need to submit to the Pope if you wish to save your soul. “Furthermore, we declare, we proclaim, we define that it is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff.” 30

27. St. Cyprian, ep. 50, 5. (Catholic Apologetics Page: 108) 28. St. Ephraem the Syrian (306-373), In Hebdomadam Sactam, IV, I. (Catholic Apologetics Page: 108) 29. Ecclesiastes 4:10 30. Pope Boniface VIII, Encyclical Unam Sanctam, 1302


Works Cited
The Roman Catechism:The Catechism Of The Council Of Trent (Ordered By The Council Of Trent Edited Under St. Charles Borromeo Published By Decree Of Pope St. Pius V) Translated Into English With Notes By: John A. McHugh, O.P., S.T.M., Litt.D. Charles J. Callan, O.P., S.T.M., Litt.D. NIHIL OBSTAT: V.F. O'Daniel, O.P., S.T.M. T. M. Schwertner, O.P., S.T. LR. IMPRIMI POTEST: J.R. Meagher, O.P., S. T. LR. Provincialis NIHIL OBSTAT: A. J. Scanlan. S. T. D. Censor Librorum IMPRIMATUR: Patritius J. Hayes, Achiepiscopus Neo-EboracensisNeo-Eboraci, Die 3 Januarii, 1923 Catholic Apologetics (God, Christianity and the Church) A Course In Religion For Catholic High Schools and Academics Book IV By: Fr. John Laux, M.A. NIHIL OBSTAT: Arthur J. Scanlan, S.T.D. Censor Librorum IMPRIMATUR: +Patrick Cardinal Hayes Archbishop of New York August 27, 1928 Holy Bible The Douay - Rheims Nihil Obstat: Arthur J. Scanlan, S.T.D. Censor Librorum Imprimatur: Francis J. Spellman, D.D. Archbishop of New York, New York February 3 , 1941 Original Publisher: The Douay Bible House, New York, 1941


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