THEORY OF COMPUTATION(CS1303
)
Third Year CSE( S5 CSE )
2 marks Questions and Answers
1. Why are switching circuits called as Iinite state systems?
A switching circuit consists oI a Iinite number oI gates, each oI which can be in
any one oI the two conditions 0 or 1.Although the voltages assume inIinite set oI
values,
the electronic circuitry is designed so that the voltages corresponding to 0 or 1 are
stable
and all others adiust to these value. Thus control unit oI a computer is a Iinite state
system.
2.Give the examples/applications designed as Iinite state system.
Text editors and lexical analyzers are designed as Iinite state systems. A lexical
analyzer scans the symbols oI a program to locate strings corresponding to
identiIiers,
constants etc, and it has to remember limited amount oI inIormation .
3.DeIine: (i) Finite Automaton(FA) (ii)Transition diagram
FA consists oI a Iinite set oI states and a set oI transitions Irom state to state that
occur on input symbols chosen Irom an alphabet _. Finite Automaton is denoted
by a
5 tuple(Q,_,o,q0,F), where Q is the Iinite set oI states , _ is a Iinite input alphabet,
q0 in
Q is the initial state, F is the set oI Iinal states and o is the transition mapping
Iunction
Q * L to Q.
Transition diagram is a directed graph in which the vertices oI the graph
correspond to the states oI FA. II there is a transition Irom state q to state p on
input a,
then there is an arc labeled a Irom q to p in the transition diagram.
4. What are the applications oI automata theory?
In compiler construction.
In switching theory and design oI digital circuits.
To veriIy the correctness oI a program.
Design and analysis oI complex soItware and hardware systems.
To design Iinite state machines such as Moore and mealy machines.
5. What is Moore machine and Mealy machine?
A special case oI FA is Moore machine in which the output depends on the
state oI the machine.
An automaton in whch the output depends on the transition and current input is
called Mealy machine.
6.What are the components oI Finite automaton model?
The components oI FA model are Input tape, Read control and Iinite control.
(a)The input tape is divided into number oI cells. Each cell can hold one i/p
symbol.
(b)The read head reads one symbol at a time and moves ahead.
( c)Finite control acts like a CPU. Depending on the current state and input symbol
read Irom the input tape it changes state.
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7.DiIIerentiate NFA and DFA
NFA or Non Deterministic Finite Automaton is the one in which there exists
many paths Ior a speciIic input Irom current state to next state. NFA can be used in
theory oI computation because they are more Ilexible and easier to use than DFA.
Deterministic Finite Automaton is a FA in which there is only one path Ior a
speciIic input Irom current state to next state. There is a unique transition on each
input
symbol.(Write examples with diagrams).
8.What is Cclosure oI a state q0?
Cclosure(q0 ) denotes a set oI all vertices p such that there is a path Irom q0 to
p labeled C. Example :
C
Cclosure(q0)÷¦q0,q1}
9.What is a : (a) String (b) Regular language
A string x is accepted by a Finite Automaton M÷(Q,L,o.q0,F) iI o(q0,x)÷p, Ior
some p in F.FA accepts a string x iI the sequence oI transitions corresponding to
the
symbols oI x leads Irom the start state to accepting state.
The language accepted by M is L(M) is the set ¦x ' o(q0,x) is in F}. A language
is regular iI it is accepted by some Iinite automaton.
10.What is a regular expression?
A regular expression is a string that describes the whole set oI strings according
to certain syntax rules. These expressions are used by many text editors and
utilities to
search bodies oI text Ior certain patterns etc. DeIinition is: Let L be an alphabet.
The
regular expression over L and the sets they denote are:
i. 4 is a r.e and denotes empty set.
ii. C is a r.e and denotes the set ¦C}
iii. For each a` in L , a
¹
is a r.e and denotes the set ¦a}.
iv.
II r` and s` are r.e denoting the languages R and S respectively then (r¹s),
(rs) and (r*) are r.e that denote the sets RUS, RS and R* respectively.
11. DiIIerentiate L* and L
¹
·
L* denotes Kleene closure and is given by L* ÷U L
i
i÷0
example : 0* ÷¦C ,0,00,000,.............}
Language includes empty words also.
·
L
¹
denotes Positive closure and is given by L
¹
÷ U L
i
i÷1
q
0
q
1
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12.What is Arden`s Theorem?
Arden`s theorem helps in checking the equivalence oI two regular expressions.
Let P and Q be the two regular expressions over the input alphabet L. The regular
expression R is given as :
R÷Q¹RP
Which has a unique solution as R÷QP*.
13.Write a r.e to denote a language L which accepts all the strings which begin or
end with either 00 or 11.
The r.e consists oI two parts:
L1÷(00¹11) (any no oI 0`s and 1`s)
÷(00¹11)(0¹1)*
L2÷(any no oI 0`s and 1`s)(00¹11)
÷(0¹1)*(00¹11)
Hence r.e R÷L1¹L2
÷(00¹11)(0¹1)* ¹ (0¹1)* (00¹11)
14.Construct a r.e Ior the language which accepts all strings with atleast two c`s
over
the set L÷¦c,b}
(b¹c)* c (b¹c)* c (b¹c)*
15.Construct a r.e Ior the language over the set L÷¦a,b} in which total number oI
a`s are divisible by 3
( b* a b* a b* a b*)*
16.what is: (i) (0¹1)* (ii)(01)* (iii)(0¹1) (iv)(0¹1)
¹
(0¹1)*÷ ¦ C , 0 , 1 , 01 , 10 ,001 ,101 ,101001,.......}
Any combinations oI 0`s and 1`s.
(01)*÷¦C , 01 ,0101 ,010101 ,...............}
All combinations with the pattern 01.
(0¹1)÷ 0 or 1,No other possibilities.
(0¹1)
¹
÷ ¦0,1,01,10,1000,0101,..............}
17.Reg exp denoting a language over L ÷¦1} having
(i)even length oI string (ii)odd length oI a string
(i) Even length oI string R÷(11)*
(ii) Odd length oI the string R÷1(11)*
18.Reg exp Ior:
(i)All strings over ¦0,1} with the substring 0101`
(ii)All strings beginning with `11 and ending with ab`
(iii)Set oI all strings over ¦a,b}with 3 consecutive b`s.
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(iv)Set oI all strings that end with 1`and has no substring 00`
(i)(0¹1)* 0101(0¹1)*
(ii)11(1¹a¹b)* ab
(iii)(a¹b)* bbb (a¹b)*
(iv)(1¹01)* (10¹11)* 1
19. What are the applications oI Regular expressions and Finite automata
Lexical analyzers and Text editors are two applications.
Lexical analyzers:The tokens oI the programming language can be expressed
using regular expressions. The lexical analyzer scans the input program and
separates the
tokens.For eg identiIier can be expressed as a regular expression as:
(letter)(letter¹digit)*
II anything in the source language matches with this reg exp then it is
recognized as an identiIier.The letter is¦A,B,C,.....Z,a,b,c..z} and digit is
¦0,1,.9}.Thus reg exp identiIies token in a language.
Text editors: These are programs used Ior processing the text. For example
UNIX text editors uses the reg exp Ior substituting the strings such as:
S/bbb*/b/
Gives the substitute a single blank Ior the Iirst string oI two or more blanks in a
given line. In UNIX text editors any reg exp is converted to an NFA with C
transitions,
this NFA can be then simulated directly.
20.Reg exp Ior the language that accepts all strings in which a` appears tripled
over
the set L ÷¦a}
reg exp÷(aaa)*
21.What are the applications oI pumping lemma?
Pumping lemma is used to check iI a language is regular or not.
(i)
Assume that the language(L) is regular.
(ii)
Select a constant n`.
(iii)
Select a string(z) in L, such that 'z'~n.
(iv)
Split the word z into u,v and w such that 'uv'·÷n and 'v'~÷1.
(v)
You achieve a contradiction to pumping lemma that there exists an i`
Such that uv
i
w is not in L.Then L is not a regular language.
22. What is the closure property oI regular sets?
The regular sets are closed under union, concatenation and Kleene closure.
r1Ur2÷ r1 ¹r2
r1.r2÷ r1r2
( r )*÷r*
The class oI regular sets are closed under complementation, substitution,
homomorphism and inverse homomorphism.
23.Reg exp Ior the language such that every string will have atleast one a`
Iollowed
by atleast one b`.
R÷a
¹
b
¹
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24.Write the exp Ior the language starting with and has no consecutive b`s
reg exp÷(a¹ab)*
25.What is the relationship between FA and regular expression.
26. What are the applications oI Context Iree languages?
Context Iree languages are used in :
DeIining programming languages.
Formalizing the notion oI parsing.
Translation oI programming languages.
String processing applications.
27. What are the uses oI Context Iree grammars?
Construction oI compilers.
SimpliIied the deIinition oI programming languages.
Describes the arithmetic expressions with arbitrary nesting
oI balanced parenthesis ¦ (, ) }.
Describes block structure in programming languages.
Model neural nets.
28.DeIine a context Iree grammar
A context Iree grammar (CFG) is denoted as G÷(V,T,P,S) where V and T are Iinite
set oI variables and terminals respectively. V and T are disioint. P is a Iinite set oI
productions each is oI the Iorm A~u where A is a variable and u is a string oI
symbols
Irom (V U T)*.
29.What is the language generated by CFG or G?
*
The language generated by G ( L(G) ) is ¦w ' w is in T* and S ÷~w .That is a
G
string is in L(G) iI:
(1) The string consists solely oI terminals.
(2) The string can be derived Irom S.
Regular
Expression
NFA with C
moves
NFA without
C moves
Deterministic
Finite
Automata
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30.What is : (a) CFL (b) Sentential Iorm
L is a context Iree language (CFL) iI it is L(G) Ior some CFG G.
A string oI terminals and variables u is called a sentential Iorm iI:
*
S ÷~ u ,where S is the start symbol oI the grammar.
6. What is the language generated by the grammar G÷(V,T,P,S) where
P÷¦S~aSb, S~ab}?
S÷~ aSb÷~aaSbb÷~............÷~a
n
b
n
Thus the language L(G)÷¦a
n
b
n
' n~÷1}.The language has strings with equal
number oI a`s and b`s.
7. What is :(a) derivation (b)derivation/parse tree (c) subtree
(a) Let G÷(V,T,P,S) be the context Iree grammar. II A~þ is a production oI P and
u and v are any strings in (VUT)* then u A v ÷~ uþv.
G
(b) A tree is a parse \ derivation tree Ior G iI:
(i) Every vertex has a label which is a symbol oI VU TU¦C}.
(ii) The label oI the root is S.
(iii) II a vertex is interior and has a label A, then A must be in V.
(iv) II n has a label A and vertices n
1
,n
2
,... n
k
are the sons oI the vertex n in order
Irom leIt
with labels X
1
,X
2
,.....X
k
respectively then A÷ X
1
X
2
...X
k
must be in P.
(v) II vertex n has label C ,then n is a leaI and is the only son oI its Iather.
(c ) A subtree oI a derivation tree is a particular vertex oI the tree together with
all its descendants ,the edges connecting them and their labels.The label oI the root
may
not be the start symbol oI the grammar.
8. II S~aSb ' aAb , A~bAa , A~ba .Find out the CFL
soln. S~aAb÷~abab
S~aSb÷~a aAb b ÷~a a ba b b(sub S~aAb)
S~aSb ÷~a aSb b ÷~a a aAb b b÷~a a a ba b bb
Thus L÷¦a
n
b
m
a
m
b
n
, where n,m~÷1}
9. What is a ambiguous grammar?
A grammar is said to be ambiguous iI it has more than one derivation trees Ior a
sentence or in other words iI it has more than one leItmost derivation or more than
one
rightmost derivation.
10.Consider the grammarP÷¦S~aS ' aSbS ' C } is ambiguous by constructing:
(a) two parse trees (b) two leItmost derivation (c) rightmost derivation
Consider a string aab :
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(a)
(b) (i)S÷~aS
(ii) S÷~aSbS
÷~aaSbS
÷~aaSbS
÷~aabS
÷~aabS
÷~aab
÷~aab
( c )(i)S÷~aS
(ii) S÷~aSbS
÷~aaSbS
÷~aSb
÷~aaSb
÷~aaSbS
÷~aab ÷~aaSb
÷~aab
11. Find CFG with no useless symbols equivalent to : S÷AB ' CA , B÷BC ' AB,
A÷a ,
C÷aB ' b.
S~ AB
S~CA
B~BC
B~AB
A~a
C~aB
C~b are the given productions.
*
*
A symbol X is useIul iI S ÷~ uXþ ÷~ w
The variable B cannot generate terminals as B~BC and B~AB.
Hence B is useless symbol and remove B Irom all productions.
Hence useIul productions are: S~CA , A~a , C~b
12. Construct CFG without C production Irom : S ÷a ' Ab ' aBa , A ÷b ' C ,
B ÷b ' A.
S~a
S~Ab
S~aBa
A~b A~C
B~b B~A are the given set oI production.
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8
A~C is the only empty production. Remove the empty production
S~ Ab , Put A~ C and hence S~ b.
II B~ A and A~C then B ~C
Hence S~aBa becomes S~aa .
Thus S~ a ' Ab ' b ' aBa ' aa
A~b
B~b
Finally the productions are: S~ a ' Ab ' b ' aBa ' aa
A~b
B~b
13. What are the three ways to simpliIy a context Iree grammar?
By removing the useless symbols Irom the set oI productions.
By eliminating the empty productions.
By eliminating the unit productions.
14. What are the properties oI the CFL generated by a CFG?
Each variable and each terminal oI G appears in the derivation oI
some word in L
There are no productions oI the Iorm A~B where A and B are
variables.
15. Find the grammar Ior the language L÷¦a
2n
bc ,where n~1 }
let G÷( ¦S,A,B}, ¦a,b,c} ,P , ¦S} ) where P:
S~Abc
A~aaA ' C
16.Find the language generated by :S~0S1 ' 0A ' 0 '1B ' 1
A~0A ' 0 , B~1B ' 1
The minimum string is S~ 0 ' 1
S~0S1÷~001
S~0S1÷~011
S~0S1÷~00S11÷~000S111÷~0000A111÷~00000111
Thus L÷¦ 0
n
1
m
' m not equal to n, and n,m ~÷1}
17.Construct the grammar Ior the language L÷¦ a
n
b a
n
' n~÷1}.
The grammar has the production P as:
S~aAa
A~aAa ' b
The grammar is thus : G÷( ¦S,A} ,¦a,b} ,P,S)
18. Construct a grammar Ior the language L which has all the strings which are all
palindrome over L÷¦a, b}.
G÷(¦S}, ¦a,b} , P, S )
P:¦ S ~ aSa ,
S~ b S b,
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9
S~ a,
S~b,
S~C } which is in palindrome.
19. DiIIerentiate sentences Vs sentential Iorms
A sentence is a string oI terminal symbols.
A sentential Iorm is a string containing a mix oI variables and terminal symbols or
all variables.This is an intermediate Iorm in doing a derivation.
20. What is a Iormal language?
Language is a set oI valid strings Irom some alphabet. The set may be empty,Iinite
or inIinite. L(M) is the language deIined by machine M and L( G) is the language
deIined by Context Iree grammar. The two notations Ior speciIying Iormal
languages
are:
Grammar or regular expression(Generative approach)
Automaton(Recognition approach)
21. (a)CFL are not closed under intersection and complementation True.
(b)A regular grammar generates an empty string True.
(c) A regular language is also context Iree but not reverseTrue.
(d)A regular language can be generated by two or more diIIerent grammar True.
(e) Finite State machine(FSM) can recognize only regular grammarTrue.
22.What is BackusNaur Form(BNF)?
Computer scientists describes the programming languages by a notation called
Backus Naur Form. This is a context Iree grammar notation with minor changes in
Iormat and some shorthand.
23. Let G÷ ( ¦S,C} ,¦a,b},P,S) where P consists oI S~aCa , C~aCa 'b. Find L(G).
S~ aCa ÷~ aba
S~aCa÷~ a aCa a÷~aabaa
S~aCa÷~ a aCa a÷~ a a aCa a a ÷~aaabaaa
Thus L(G)÷ ¦ a
n
ba
n
,where n~÷1 }
24.Find L(G) where G÷ ( ¦S} ,¦0,1}, ¦S~0S1 ,S~C },S )
S~C , C is in L(G)
S~ 0S1 ÷~0C1÷~01
S~0S1÷~0 0S11÷~0011
Thus L(G)÷ ¦ 0
n
1
n
' n~÷0}
25.What is a parser?
A parser Ior grammar G is a program that takes as input a string w and produces
as output either a parse tree Ior w ,iI w is a sentence oI G or an error message
indicating
that w is not a sentence oI G.
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UNIT III Pushdown Automata
1.DeIine Pushdown Automata.
A pushdown Automata M is a system (Q, L, Ġ ,o ,q
0
, Z
0
,F) where
Q is a Iinite set oI states.
L is an alphabet called the input alphabet.
Ġ is an alphabet called stack alphabet.
q
0
in Q is called initial state.
Z
o
in Ġ is start symbol in stack.
F is the set oI Iinal states.
o is a mapping Irom Q X (L U ¦C} ) X Ġ to Iinite subsets oI Q X Ġ *.
2.Compare NFA and PDA.
NFA
PDA
1.The language accepted by NFA is the
regular language.
The language accepted by PDA is
Context Iree language.
2.NFA has no memory.
PDA is essentially an NFA with
a stack(memory).
3. It can store only limited amount oI
inIormation.
It stores unbounded limit
oI inIormation.
4.A language/string is accepted only
by reaching the Iinal state.
It accepts a language either by empty
Stack or by reaching a Iinal state.
3.SpeciIy the two types oI moves in PDA.
The move dependent on the input symbol(a) scanned is:
o(q,a,Z) ÷ ¦ ( p
1
, v
1
), ( p
2
,v
2
),....( p
m
,v
m
) }
where q qnd p are states , a is in L ,Z is a stack symbol and v
i
is in Ġ*.
PDA is in state q , with input symbol a and Z the top symbol on state enter state p
i
Replace symbol Z by string v
i.
The move independent on input symbol is (Cmove):
o(q,C,Z)÷ ¦ ( p
1
,v
1
), ( p
2
,v
2
),....( p
m
,v
m
) }.
Is that PDA is in state q , independent oI input symbol being scanned and with
Z the top symbol on the stack enter a state p
i
and replace Z by v
i
.
4.What are the diIIerent types oI language acceptances by a PDA and deIine them.
For a PDA M÷(Q, L ,Ġ ,o ,q
0
,Z
0
,F ) we deIine :
Language accepted by Iinal state L(M) as:
*
¦ w ' (q
0
, w , Z
0
) ' ( p, C , v ) Ior some p in F and v in Ġ * }.
Language accepted by empty / null stack N(M) is:
*
¦ w ' (q
0
,w ,Z
0
) '( p, C, C ) Ior some p in Q}.
5.Is it true that the language accepted by a PDA by empty stack and Iinal states are
diIIerent languages.
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11
No, because the languages accepted by PDA s by Iinal state are exactly the
languages accepted by PDA`s by empty stack.
6. DeIine Deterministic PDA.
A PDA M ÷( Q, L ,Ġ ,o ,q
0
,Z
0
,F ) is deterministic iI:
For each q in Q and Z in Ġ , whenever o(q,C,Z) is nonempty ,then
o(q,a,Z) is empty Ior all a in L.
For no q in Q , Z in Ġ , and a in L U ¦ C} does o(q,a,Z) contains more
than one element.
(Eg): The PDA accepting ¦wcw
R
' w in ( 0¹1 ) * }.
7.DeIine Instantaneous description(ID) in PDA.
ID describe the conIiguration oI a PDA at a given instant.ID is a triple such as (q,
w ,v ) , where q is a state , w is a string oI input symbols and v is a string oI stack
symbols. II M ÷( Q, L ,Ġ ,o ,q
0
,Z
0
,F ) is a PDA we say that
(q,aw,Zu) '( p, w, þu) iI o(q,a,Z) contains (p, þ ).
M
a` may be C or an input symbol.
Example: (q
1
, BG) is in o(q
1
, 0 , G) tells that (q
1
, 011, GGR )' ( q
1
, 11,BGGR).
8.What is the signiIicance oI PDA?
Finite Automata is used to model regular expression and cannot be used to
represent non regular languages. Thus to model a context Iree language, a
Pushdown
Automata is used.
9.When is a string accepted by a PDA?
The input string is accepted by the PDA iI:
The Iinal state is reached .
The stack is empty.
10. Give examples oI languages handled by PDA.
(1) L÷¦ a
n
b
n
' n~÷0 },here n is unbounded , hence counting cannot be done by Iinite
memory. So we require a PDA ,a machine that can count without limit.
(2) L÷ ¦ ww
R
' w C ¦a,b}* } , to handle this language we need unlimited counting
capability .
11.Is NPDA (Nondeterministic PDA) and DPDA (Deterministic PDA)equivalent?
The languages accepted by NPDA and DPDA are not equivalent.
For example: ww
R
is accepted by NPDA and not by any DPDA.
12. State the equivalence oI acceptance by Iinal state and empty stack.
II L ÷ L(M
2
) Ior some PDA M
2
, then L ÷ N(M
1
) Ior some PDA M
1
.
II L ÷ N(M
1
) Ior some PDA M
1
,then L ÷ L(M
2
) Ior some PDA M
2
.
where L(M) ÷ language accepted by PDA by reaching a Iinal state.
N(M) ÷ language accepted by PDA by empty stack.
13. State the equivalence oI PDA and CFL.
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12
II L is a context Iree language, then there exists a PDA M such that
L÷N(M).
II L is N(M) Ior some PDA m, then L is a context Iree language.
14. What are the closure properties oI CFL?
CFL are closed under union, concatenation and Kleene closure.
CFL are closed under substitution , homomorphism.
CFL are not closed under intersection , complementation.
Closure properties oI CFL`s are used to prove that certain languages are not
context Iree.
15. State the pumping lemma Ior CFLs.
Let L be any CFL. Then there is a constant n, depending only on L, such that iI z
is in L and 'z' ~÷n, then z÷uvwxy such that :
(i)
'vx' ~÷1
(ii)
'vwx' ·÷n and
(iii)
Ior all i~÷0 uv
i
wx
i
y is in L.
16. What is the main application oI pumping lemma in CFLs?
The pumping lemma can be used to prove a variety oI languages are not context
Iree . Some examples are:
L
1
÷¦ a
i
b
i
c
i
' i~÷1} is not a CFL.
L
2
÷ ¦ a
i
b
i
c
i
d
i
' i~÷1 and J~÷1 } is not a CFL.
17.What is Ogden`s lemma?
Let L be a CFL. Then there is a constant n such that iI z is any word in L, and we
mark any n or more positions oI z ' distinguished¨ then we can write z÷uvwxy
such
that:
(1) v and x together have atleast one distinguished position.
(2) vwx has at most n distinguished positions and
(3) Ior all i~÷0 uv
i
wx
i
y is in L.
18. Give an example oI Deterministic CFL.
The language L÷¦a
n
b
n
: n~÷0} is a deterministic CFL
19. What are the properties oI CFL?
Let G÷(V,T,P,S) be a CFG
The Ianout oI G , 4(G) is largest number oI symbols on the RHS oI
any rule in R.
The height oI the parse tree is the length oI the longest path Irom the
root to some leaI.
20. Compare NPDA and DPDA.
NPDA
DPDA
Page 13
Theory oI Computation
13
1. NPDA is the standard PDA
used in automata theory.
1. The standard PDA in
practical situation is DPDA.
2. Every PDA is NPDA unless
otherwise speciIied.
2. The PDA is deterministic in
the sense ,that at most one
move is possible Irom any ID.
21. What are the components oI PDA ?
The PDA usually consists oI Iour components:
A control unit.
A Read Unit.
An input tape.
A Memory unit.
22. What is the inIormal deIinition oI PDA?
A PDA
is a computational machine to recognize a Context Iree language.
Computational power oI PDA is between Finite automaton and Turing machines.
The
PDA has a Iinite control , and the memory is organized as a stack.
23. Give an example oI NonDeterministic CFL
The language L÷¦ ww
R
: w C ¦a,b}
¹
} is a nondeterministic CFL.
24. What is a Dyck language?
A Dyck language is a language with ktypes oI balanced parenthesis.
For ex: 
1

2

1

1

2

2

2

1
is in the Dyck language with two kinds oI parenthesis.
25. What is a CYK algorithm?
*
Let V
ii
be the set oI variables A such that A÷~ x
ii
iII there is some production
A~BC and some k , 1·÷k·÷i such that B derives the Iirst symbols oI x
ii
and C
derives the last ik symbols oI x
ii
.
UNIT IV Turing Machine
1.What is a turing machine?
Turing machine is a simple mathematical model oI a computer. TM has unlimited
and unrestricted memory and is a much more accurate model oI a general purpose
computer. The turing machine is a FA with a R/W Head. It has an inIinite tape
divided
into cells ,each cell holding one symbol.
2.What are the special Ieatures oI TM?
Page 14
Theory oI Computation
14
In one move ,TM depending upon the symbol scanned by the tape head and state
oI the Iinite control:
Changes state.
Prints a symbol on the tape cell scanned, replacing what was written there.
Moves the R/w head leIt or right one cell.
3. DeIine Turing machine.
A Turing machine is denoted as M÷(Q, L, Ġ ,o ,q
0
, B,F)
Q is a Iinite set oI states.
L is set oI i/p symbols ,not including B.
Ġ is the Iinite set oI tape symbols.
q
0
in Q is called start state.
B in Ġ is blank symbol.
F is the set oI Iinal states.
o is a mapping Irom Q X Ġ to Q X Ġ X ¦L,R}.
4.DeIine Instantaneous description oI TM.
The ID oI a TM M is denoted as u
1
q u
2
. Here q is the current state oI M is in Q;
u1 u2 is the string in Ġ * that is the contents oI the tape up to the rightmost
nonblank
symbol or the symbol to the leIt oI the head, whichever is the rightmost.
5. What are the applications oI TM?
TM can be used as:
Recognizers oI languages.
Computers oI Iunctions on non negative integers.
Generating devices.
6.What is the basic diIIerence between 2way FA and TM?
Turing machine can change symbols on its tape , whereas the FA cannot change
symbols on tape. Also TM has a tape head that moves both leIt and right side
,whereas
the FA doesn`t have such a tape head.
7. What is (a)total recursive Iunction and (b)partial recursive Iunction
II I(i
1
,i
2
,...i
k
) is deIined Ior all i
1
,...i
k
then we say I is a total recursive
Iunction. They are similar to recursive languages as they are computed by TM that
always halt.
A Iunction I(i
1
,.i
k
) computed by a Turing machine is called a partial recursive
Iunction. They are similar to r.e languages as they are computed by TM that may
or may
not halt on a given input.
8.DeIine a move in TM.
Let X
1
X
2
.X
i1
q X
i
.X
n
be an ID.
The leIt move is: iI o (q, X
i
)÷ (p, Y,L) ,iI i~1 then
X
1
X
2
.X
i1
q X
i
.X
n
' X
1
X
2
. X
i2
p X
i1
Y X
i¹1
.X
n
.
M
The right move is iI o (q, X
i
)÷ (p, Y,R) ,iI i~1 then
Page 15
Theory oI Computation
15
X
1
X
2
.X
i1
q X
i
.X
n
' X
1
X
2
. X
i1
Y p X
i¹1
.X
n
.
M
9. What is the language accepted by TM?
The language accepted by M is L(M) , is the set oI words in L * that cause M to
enter a Iinal state when placed ,iustiIied at the leIt on the tape oI M, with M at qo
and
the tape head oI M at the leItmost cell. The language accepted by M is:
¦ w ' w in L * and q
0
w ' u1 p u2 Ior some p in F and u1 ,u2 in Ġ * }.
10.Give examples oI total recursive Iunctions.
All common arithmetic Iunctions on integers such as multiplication , n!,
log
2
n and 2
2n
are total recursive Iunctions.
11.What are(a) recursively enumerable languages (b) recursive sets?
The languages that is accepted by TM is said to be recursively enumerable (r. e )
languages. Enumerable means that the strings in the language can be enumerated
by
the TM. The class oI r. e languages include CFL`s.
The recursive sets include languages accepted by at least one TM that halts on
all inputs.
12. What are the various representation oI TM?
We can describe TM using:
Instantaneous description.
Transition table.
Transition diagram.
13. What are the possibilities oI a TM when processing an input string?
TM can accept the string by entering accepting state.
It can reiect the string by entering nonaccepting state.
It can enter an inIinite loop so that it never halts.
14. What are the techniques Ior Turing machine construction?
·
Storage in Iinite control.
·
Multiple tracks.
·
Checking oII symbols.
·
ShiIting over
·
Subroutines.
15. What is the storage in FC?
The Iinite control(FC) stores a limited amount oI inIormation. The state oI the
Finite control represents the state and the second element represent a symbol
scanned.
16.When is checking oII symbols used in TM?
Checking oII symbols is useIul method when a TM recognizes a language with
repeated strings and also to compare the length oI substrings.
(eg) : ¦ ww ' w C L * } or ¦a
i
b
i
' i~÷1}.
Page 16
Theory oI Computation
16
This is implemented by using an extra track on the tape with symbols Blank or \.
17.When is shiIting over Used ?
A Turing machine can make space on its tape by shiIting all nonblank symbols a
Iinite number oI cells to the right. The tape head moves to the right , repeatedly
storing the symbols in the FC and replacing the symbols read Irom the cells to the
leIt.
The TM can then return to the vacated cells and prints symbols.
18. What is a multihead TM?
A khead TM has some k heads. The heads are numbered 1 through k, and move
oI the TM depends on the state and on the symbol scanned by each head. In one
move, the heads may each move independently leIt or right or remain stationary.
19.What is a 2way inIinite tape TM?
In 2way inIinite tape TM, the tape is inIinite in both directions. The leItmost
square is not distinguished. Any computation that can be done by 2way inIinite
tape
can also be done by standard TM.
20.DiIIerentiate PDA and TM.
PDA
TM
1. PDA
uses a stack Ior
storage.
1. TM uses a tape that is inIinite .
2.The language accepted by
PDA is CFL.
2. Tm recognizes recursively
enumerable languages.
21.How can a TM used as a transducer?
A TM can be used as a transducer. The most obvious way to do this is to treat
the entire nonblank portion oI the initial tape as input , and to treat the entire blank
portion oI the tape when the machine halts as output. Or a TM deIines a Iunction
y÷I(x)
Ior strings x ,y C L* iI: q
0
X '  q
I
Y, where q
I
is the Iinal state.
22. What is a multitape Turing machine?
A multitape Turing machine consists oI a Iinite control with ktape heads and k
tapes ; each tape is inIinite in both directions. On a single move depending on the
state oI
Iinite control and symbol scanned by each oI tape heads ,the machine can change
state
print a new symbol on each cells scanned by tape head, move each oI its tape head
independently one cell to the leIt or right or remain stationary.
23.What is a multidimensional TM?
The device has a Iinite control , but the tape consists oI a kdimensional array
oI cells inIinite in all 2k directions, Ior some Iixed k. Depending on the state and
symbol scanned , the device changes state , prints a new symbol and moves its
tape
head in one oI the 2k directions, either positively or negatively ,along one oI the k
axes.
Page 17
Theory oI Computation
17
24. When a recursively enumerable language is said to be recursive ? Is it true that
the
language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is diIIerent Irom
recursively
enumerable language?
A language L is recursively enumerable iI there is a TM that accepts L and
recursive iI there is a TM that recognizes L. Thus r.e language is Turing acceptable
and
recursive language is Turing decidable languages.
No , the language accepted by nondeterministic Turing machine is same as
recursively enumerable language.
25. What is Church`s Hypothesis?
The notion oI computable Iunction can be identiIied with the class oI partial
recursive Iunctions is known as Churchhypothesis or ChurchTuring thesis. The
Turing machine is equivalent in computing power to the digital computer.
UNIT V Undecidability
1.When we say a problem is decidable? Give an example oI undecidable
problem?
A
problem whose
language is recursive is said to be decidable.
Otherwise the problem is said to be undecidable. Decidable problems have an
algorithm that takes as input an instance oI the problem and determines whether
the answer to that instance is 'yes¨ or 'no¨.
(eg) oI undecidable problems are (1)Halting problem oI the TM.
2.Give examples oI decidable problems.
1. Given a DFSM M and string w, does M accept w?
2. Given a DFSM M is L(M) ÷ 4 ?
3. Given two DFSMs M
1
and M
2
is L(M
1
)÷ L(M
2
) ?
4. Given a regular expression u and a string w ,does u generate w?
5. Given a NFSM M and string w ,does M accept w?
3. Give examples oI recursive languages?
i. The language L deIined as L÷ ¦ 'M¨ ,¨w¨ : M is a DFSM that
accepts w} is recursive.
ii.
L deIined as ¦ 'M
1
¨ U 'M
2
¨ : DFSMs M
1
and M
2
and L(M
1
)
÷L(M
2
) } is recursive.
4. DiIIerentiate recursive and recursively enumerable languages.
Recursive languages
Recursively enumerable languages
1. A language is said to be
recursive iI and only iI there exists
a membership algorithm Ior it.
1. A language is said to be r.e iI
there exists a TM that accepts it.
2. A language L is recursive iII
there is a TM that decides L.
2. L is recursively enumerable iII
there is a TM that semidecides L.
Page 18
Theory oI Computation
18
(Turing decidable languages). TMs
that
decide languages
are
algorithms.
(Turing acceptable languages). TMs
that semidecides languages are not
algorithms.
5. What are UTMs or Universal Turing machines?
Universal TMs are TMs that can be programmed to solve any problem, that
can be solved by any Turing machine. A speciIic Universal Turing machine U is:
Input to U: The encoding 'M ' oI a Tm M and encoding 'w¨ oI a string w.
Behavior : U halts on input 'M¨ 'w¨ iI and only iI M halts on input w.
6. What is the crucial assumptions Ior encoding a TM?
There are no transitions Irom any oI the halt states oI any given TM .
Apart Irom the halt state , a given TM is total.
7. What properties oI recursive enumerable seta are not decidable?
Emptiness
Finiteness
Regularity
ContextIreedom.
8.DeIine L
!
.When is ! a trivial property?
L
!
is deIined as the set ¦ ·M~ ' L(M) is in !. }
! is a trivial property iI ! is empty or it consists oI all r.e languages.
9. What is a universal language L
u
?
The universal language consists oI a set oI binary strings in the Iorm oI
pairs (M,w) where M is TM encoded in binary and w is the binary input string.
L
u
÷ ¦ · M,w~ ' M accepts w }.
10.What is a Diagonalization language L
d
?
The diagonalization language consists oI all strings w such that the TM M
whose code is w doesnot accept when w is given as input.
11. What properties oI r.e sets are recursively enumerable?
L = 4
L contains at least 10 members.
w is in L Ior some Iixed w.
L ( L
u
= 4
12. What properties oI r.e sets are not r.e?
L ÷ 4
L ÷ L *.
L is recursive
L is not recursive.
L is singleton.
Page 19
Theory oI Computation
19
L is a regular set.
L  Lu = 4
13.What are the conditions Ior L
!
to be r.e?
L
!
is recursively enumerable iII ! satisIies the Iollowing properties:
i. II L is in ! and L is a subset oI L ,then L is in ! (containment property)
ii. II L is an inIinite language in ! ,then there is a Iinite subset oI L in !.
iii. The set oI Iinite languages in ! is enumaerable.
14. What is canonical ordering?
Let L* be an input set. The canonical order Ior L * as Iollows . List words in
order oI size, with words oI the same size in numerical order. That is let L ÷¦
x
0
,x
1
,.x
t1
} and x
i
is the digit i in base t.
(e.g) II L ÷¦ a,b } the canonical order is C , a ,b , aa, ab ,....
15. How can a TM acts as a generating device?
In a multitape TM ,one tape acts as an output tape, on which a symbol, once
written can never be changed and whose tape head never moves leIt. On that
output
tape , M writes strings over some alphabet L , separated by a marker symbol # ,
G(M) ( where G(M) is the set w in L * such that w is Iinally printed between a
pair oI #`s on the output device ).
16. What are the diIIerent types oI grammars/languages?
·
Unrestricted or Phase structure grammar.(Type 0 grammar).(Ior TMs)
·
Context sensitive grammar or context dependent grammar (Type1)(Ior
Linear Bounded Automata )
·
Context Iree grammar (Type 2) (Ior PDA)
·
Regular grammar (Type 3) ( Ior Finite Automata).
This hierarchy is called as Chomsky Hierarchy.
17. What is a PS or Unrestricted grammar?
A grammar without restrictions is a PS grammar. DeIined as G÷(V,T,P,S)
With P as :
4 A u ~ 4 u u where A is variable and 4 u u is replacement string.
The languages generated by unrestricted grammars are precisely those accepted by
Turing machines.
18. State a single tape TM started on blank tape scans any cell Iour or more
times is decidable?
II the TM never scans any cell Iour or more times , then every crossing
sequence is oI length at most three. There is a Iinite number oI distinct crossing
sequence oI length 3 or less. Thus either TM stays within a Iixed bounded number
oI tape cells or some crossing sequence repeats.
19.Does the problem oI ' Given a TM M ,does M make more than 50 moves
Page 20
Theory oI Computation
20
on input B '?
Given a TM M means given enough inIormation to trace the processing oI
a Iixed string Ior a certain Iixed number oI moves. So the given problem is
decidable.
20. Show that AMBIGUITY problem is undecidable.
Consider the ambiguity problem Ior CFGs. Use the 'yesno¨ version oI AMB.
An algorithm Ior FIND is used to solve AMB. FIND requires producing a word
with
two or more parses iI one exists and answers 'no¨ otherwise. By the reduction oI
AMB to FIND we conclude there is no algorithm Ior FIND and hence no
algorithm Ior AMB.
21.State the halting problem oI TMs.
The halting problem Ior TMs is:
Given any TM M and an input string w, does M halt on w?
This problem is undecidable as there is no algorithm to solve this problem.
22.DeIine PCP or Post Correspondence Problem.
An instance oI PCP consists oI two lists , A ÷ w
1
,w
2
,..w
k
and B ÷ x
1
,...x
k
oI strings over some alphabet L .This instance oI PCP has a
solution iI there is any sequence oI integers i
1
,i
2
,..i
m
with m ~÷1 such that
w
i1
, w
i2
,.w
im
÷ x
i1
,x
i2
,.x
im
The sequence i
1
,i
2
,.i
m
is a solution to this instance oI PCP.
23.DeIine MPCP or ModiIied PCP.
The MPCP is : Given lists A and B oI K strings Irom L * ,say
A ÷ w
1
,w
2
, .w
k
and B÷ x
1
, x
2
,...x
k
does there exists a sequence oI integers i
1
,i
2
,.i
r
such that
w
1
w
i1
w
i2
...w
ir
÷ x
1
x
i1
x
i2
.x
ir
?
24 . What is the diIIerence between PCP and MPCP?
The diIIerence between MPCP and PCP is that in the MPCP ,a solution
is required to start with the Iirst string on each list.
25. What are the concepts used in UTMs?
Stored program computers.
Interpretive Implementation oI Programming languages.
Computability.
Page 21
Theory oI Computation
21
16 marks
1.Prove that ,iI L is accepted by an NFA with ctransitions, then L is accepted by
an NFA
without ctransitions.
ReIer page no:26,Theorem 2.2
2.Prove that Ior every regular expression there exist an NFA with ctransitions.
ReIer page no:30,Theorem 2.3
3.Construct the NFA with ctransitions Irom the given regular expression.
II the regular expression is in the Iorm oI ab then NFA is
a
b
II the regular expression is in a¹b Iorm then NFA is
c
a
c
c
b
c
II the regular expression is in a* Iorm then NFA is
c
a
c
4.conversion oI NFA to DFA
Draw the NFA`s transition table
Take the initial state oI NFA be the initial state oI DFA.
Transit the initial state Ior all the input symbols.
II new state appears transit it again and again to make all state as old state.
All the new states are the states oI the required DFA
Draw the transition table Ior DFA
Draw the DFA Irom the transition table.
5.Conversion oI DFA into regular expression.
Arden`s theorem is used to Iind regular expression Irom the DFA.
using this theorem iI the equation is oI the Iorm R÷Q¹RP,we
can write this as R÷QP*.
Write the equations Ior all the states.
Apply Ardens theorem and eliminate all the states.
Page 22
Theory oI Computation
22
Find the equation oI the Iinal state with only the input symbols.
Made the simpliIications iI possible
The equation obtained is the required regular expression.
6.LeItmost and rightmost derivations.
II we apply a production only to the leItmost variable at every step to derive the
required string then it is called as leItmost derivation.
II we apply a production only to the rightmost variable at every step to derive the
required string then it is called as rightmost derivation.
Example:
Consider G whose productions are S~aAS'a , A~SbA'SS'ba.For the string
w÷aabbaa Iind the leItmost and rightmost derivation.
LMD: S÷~aAS
÷~aSbAS
÷~aabAS
÷~aabbaS
÷~aabbaa
RMD: S÷~aAS
÷~aAa
÷~aSbAa
÷~aSbbaa
÷~aabbaa
7. Prove that Ior every derivations there exist a derivation tree.
ReIer page no: 84,Theorem 4.1
8.Construction oI reduced grammar.
·
Elimination oI null productions
 In a CFG,productions oI the Iorm A~c can be eliminated, where A is
a variable.
·
Elimination oI unit productions.
 In a CFG,productions oI the Iorm A~B can be eliminated, where A
and B are variables.
·
Elimination oI Useless symbols.
 these are the variables in CFG which does not derive any terminal or
not reachable Irom the start symbols. These can also eliminated.

9. Chomsky normal Iorm(CNF)
II the CFG is in CNF iI it satisIies the Iollowing conditions
 All the production must contain only one terminal or only two
variables in the right hand side.
Example: Consider G with the production oI S~aAB , A~ bC , B~b, C~c.
G in CNF is S~EB , E~DA , D~ a , A~FC , F~ b , B~b , C~ c.
10.Conversion oI CFL in GNF.
ReIer page no: 97,Example 4.10
Page 23
Theory oI Computation
23
11.Design a PDA that accepts the language ¦ww
R
' w in (0¹1)*}.
ReIer page no:112,Example 5.2
12. Prove that iI L is L(M2) Ior some PDA M2,then L is N(M1) Ior some PDA
M1.
ReIer page no:114,Theorem 5.1
13.II L is a contextIree language, then prove that there exists a PDA M such that
L÷N(M).
ReIer page no: 116,Theorem 5.3
14.Conversion oI PDA into CFL.
Theorem: reIer page no:117
Example: reIer page no :119
15.State and prove the pumping lemma Ior CFL
ReIer page no: 125,Theorem 6.1
16.Explain the various techniques Ior Turing machine construction.
 storage in Iinite control
 multiple tracks
 checking oII symbols
 shiIting over
 subroutines.
For explanation reIer page no 153158
17.BrieIly explain the diIIerent types oI Turing machines.
 two way Iinite tape TM
 multi tape TM
 nondeterministic TM
 multi dimensional TM
 multihead TM
For explanation reIer page no 160165
18.Design a TM to perIorm proper subtraction.
ReIer page no: 151,Example 7.2
19Design a TM to accept the language L÷¦0
n
1
n
' n~÷1}
ReIer page no:149,Example 7.1
20. Explain how a TM can be used to determine the given number is prime or not?
It takes a binary input greater than 2,written on the Iirst track, and determines
whether it is a prime. The input is surrounded by the symbol $ on the Iirst track.
Page 24
Theory oI Computation
24
To test iI the input is a prime, the TM Iirst writes the number 2 in binary on the
second track and copies the Iirst track on to the third. Then the second track is
subtracted
as many times as possible, Irom the third track eIIectively dividing the third track
by the
second and leaving the remainder.
II the remainder is zero, the number on the Iirst track is not a prime.II the
remainder is non zero,the number on the second track is increased by one.II the
second
track equals the Iirst,the number on the Iirst track is the prime.II the second is less
than
Iirst,the whole operation is repeated Ior the new number on the second track.
21.State and explain RICE theorem.
ReIer page no: 188,Theorem 8.6
22.DeIine L
u
and prove that L
u
is recursive enumerable.
ReIer page no: 183,Theorem 8.4
23. DeIine L
d
and prove that L
d
is undecidable.
ReIer page no: 182.
24.Prove that iI a language L and its complement are both recursively enumerable,
then L
is recursive.
ReIer page no: 180,Theorem 8.3
25.Prove that the halting problem is undecidable.
ReIer page no: 187
.
BOOK REFERED
1.Introduction to automata theory,languages,and computation
by John E.HopcroIt,JeIIery D,Ullman
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