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Dec 16, 2010

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nie yg bru...mmndng kn de owg ckp ku cilok owg len pnyer....pndai2 la klao korng nk idup n x nk kntoi

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nie yg bru...mmndng kn de owg ckp ku cilok owg len pnyer....pndai2 la klao korng nk idup n x nk kntoi

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Electric current, I=

7.2 Analysing the Relationship between Electric Current and Potential Different

1. Potential difference between two points in an electric field is defined as the work

done or energy that would be required to move one coulomb of charge from one point

to another.

Potential difference, V=

W=work done in driving the charge between the two points in joule (J)

3. Ohm’s law states that the current passing through an ideal conductor is directly

proportional to the potential difference applied across its ends, provided that the

temperature and other physical factors of conductor are kept constant

I V or = Constant

1|ELECTRICITY

4. Resistance, R of a conductor is defined as the ratio of potential difference, V across

the conductor to the current (I), flowing through it.

= R or V = IR

resistance

The sum of the voltage drops across each resistor is equal to the total

voltage supply by the source

2. Potential difference, V = V + V + V

Resistance, R = R + R + R

IR = IR + IR + IR

2|ELECTRICITY

Effective resistance of resistors connected in parallel

resistance of the branch

The total current in the circuit is equal to the sum of the currents in its

parallel branches

2. I = I + I + I

= + +

= + +

1. The electromotive force (e.m.f.) is the work done by a source in driving a unit charge

around a complete circuit.

2. The internal resistance of a battery is the resistance against the moving charge due

to the electrolyte in the battery.

represents the internal resistance.

3|ELECTRICITY

4. The value of V is less than the e.m.f. , E of the battery. The difference between E and

V is due to the potential difference needed to drive the current I through the internal

resistance r of the battery. Hence,

to internal resistance

or

E = V + IR

Potential difference, V =

Hence ,

V= or E = V x Q

2. Since current is the rate of charge flow, the total charge flows through the two points

is given as :

Q=Ixt

E = VIt

4|ELECTRICITY

From ohm’s law, E = I²Rt =

Power = or P = =

Hence, P = VI

4. Power is measured in joule per second (J s¯¹). The power of 1 watt means that 1

joule of electrical energy is being released in every second.

5. The units for power are watt (W), kilowatt (kW) and megawatt (MW).

= Power x Time

= 1kW x 1h = 1 kWh

7. 1kW of electrical energy used is considered as 1 unit. The cost of using electrical

energy at home can be calculated by multiplying the number of units with the cost of 1

unit based on the tariff rate.

5|ELECTRICITY

Efficiency of electrical appliances = x 100%

6|ELECTRICITY

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