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Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. 2729 West Jarvis Ave Chicago, IL 60645-1335 email:barmeir at gmail.com

Copyright © 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 by Genick Bar-Meir See the ﬁle copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions. Version (0.3.0.2 November 18, 2010)

‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”

from The Metalogicon by John in 1159

CONTENTS

Nomenclature GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . 2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS . . . 8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . . . . . . ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents How to contribute to this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steven from artofproblemsolving.com . . . . . . . . . . . Dan H. Olson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard Hackbarth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Herbolenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eliezer Bar-Meir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Henry Schoumertate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your name here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions . . . . . Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 189 size 2.6M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 0.1 April 22, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS pages 151 size 1.3M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xliii Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlix Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlix

1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? . . . . . 1.2 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Kinds of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids . . 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity . . . . 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity 1.6 Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Fluid Density . . . . . . . 1.6.2 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . 1.7 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.1 Wetting of Surfaces . . . .

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1 1 3 5 6 9 9 10 11 12 21 22 23 28 31 41 41 49 49 51 51 52 52 52 53 55 59 60 61 61 62 65 65 65 67 67 68 72

2 Review of Thermodynamics 2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Mechanics 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body . . . . . 3.2 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Actual Center of Mass . . . . 3.2.2 Aproximate Center of Area . . 3.3 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass . . 3.3.2 Moment of Inertia for Area . . 3.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia 3.3.4 Product of Inertia . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia . . . . 3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . 3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque . . . 3.5.1 Tables of geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Fluids Statics 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field . . 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field . 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field . . .

CONTENTS 4.3.4 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density . 4.3.6 Liquid Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid in a Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density . . Fluid Forces on Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buoyancy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rayleigh–Taylor Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v 76 80 82 83 83 85 87 87 96 104 111 121 122

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4.7

I

Integral Analysis

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129 129 130 131 133 133 140 142 148 151 153 153 153 154 155 155 156 160 163 164 171 172 175

5 Mass Conservation 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Control Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Non Deformable Control Volume . . . . . 5.3.2 Constant Density Fluids . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . 5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship 5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation . . . . . .

6 Momentum Conservation 6.1 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 External Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System . . 6.1.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow . 6.2 Momentum Equation Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow 6.2.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State . . . . 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Qualitative Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . . . . . 177 177 189 190 191 191 193 193 194 194 196

7 Energy Conservation 7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Energy Equation in Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State . 7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate . . . . . . . . 7.4.2 Linear Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System . . . . . 7.4.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform

II

Diﬀerential Analysis

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199 199 200 203 205 210 210 211 212 216 226 226 230 240 245 245 245 246 247 248 249 253 254 257 258 260 261 262 264

8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Mass Conservation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Conservation of General Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations 8.3.2 Examples of Generalized of Quantities . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (Navier-Stokes) . . . . . . . 8.7.1 Interfacial Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 What to Expect From This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . 9.5.1 Co–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . 9.7 Homogeneous Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.1 Pressure Loss Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8 Solid–Liquid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL . . . . 9.8.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS 9.9 Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . 9.9.1 Horizontal Counter–Current 9.9.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow 9.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii 265 267 268 275 277 277 278 280 282 288 288 289 291 294 296 299 301 303 303 304 305

A Mathematics For Fluid Mechanics A.1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors . . . . . . . . A.1.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations . . . . A.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Variables Separation or Segregation . . . . . . A.2.3 Non–Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . A.2.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations . . . . . . A.2.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation . . . . . . . A.2.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE . . . . . . . . . . A.2.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation A.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.1 First-order equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.4 Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Index 307 Subjects Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Authors Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

viii CONTENTS .

. .8 1.3 1. . .12 1. . .7 1. . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The schematic that explains the summation of moment of inertia. . . . . . . .20 1. . . . . . . . .13 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of the extinguish nozzle . . . . . . . . . Description of liquid surface . . Glass tube inserted into mercury . . .21 3. . . . . . . . . . . Air viscosity as a function of the temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 17 18 21 25 29 30 32 32 34 36 37 50 51 52 53 54 ix . . . . Water viscosity as a function temperature. . . Description of wetting and non–wetting ﬂuids.14 1. . . . . . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature . . . . . . . . Nitrogen and Argon viscosity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature . .LIST OF FIGURES 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1. .17 1. .5 Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. . . . . . . . . . . . .16 1. . . The raising height as a function of the radii . . . . . . Schematics to describe the shear stress in ﬂuid mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of how the center of mass is calculated . . . . . . . . The shear stress as a function of the shear rate. . . . . . . . . Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. .1 1. . . . . . . . . The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 1. .2 3. . .10 1. . . . .18 1. . . . . . . . . The diﬀerence of power ﬂuids. . . . . . . . . . . . Surface tension control volume analysis . . . The raising height as a function of the radius . . . . . . . Two liquid layers under pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .15 1. . Rotating disc in a steady state . . . . . Thin body center of mass/area schematic. . . . .11 1. . . .6 1. . . . . . .2 1.4 3. . . . . . . . Forces in Contact angle . . . . . . . .19 1. . . . . . Density as a function of the size of sample.

. . . . .13 4. . . . . . . .12 3. . . . . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 4. The ratio of the moment of inertia 2D to 3D. The general forces acting on submerged area . . . . . . . . .18 4. . . . Two adjoin layers for stability analysis . . 55 55 56 56 57 57 58 60 65 68 68 69 70 72 72 75 78 80 84 84 85 85 86 87 88 89 91 92 95 96 97 98 99 100 100 102 102 104 105 105 111 111 112 Description of a ﬂuid element in accelerated system. . Schematic of a thin wall ﬂoating body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . .23 4. . . . . . . Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. . . .8 3. . . . . .21 4. . .7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 4. . . . .19 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane . . . . . . . Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. . Rectangular area under pressure. Schematic of gas measurement utilizing the “U” tube. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Area above the dam arc calculation for the center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic to explain the angular angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A square element for the calculations of inertia. . . . . . . . . . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle. . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . .27 4. . . . . . . . . .11 4. . . . . Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body. . . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating cubic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 . . . . . . . . The eﬀects of multi layers density on static forces . . Inverted manometer . Inclined manometer . . . . . .8 4. . . . . . . The forces on curved area. . . . . . . . . . . The varying gravity eﬀects on density and pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 4. . . . . . . . Pressure lines in a static constant density ﬂuid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 4. . . . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for rectangular . . . . . .33 4. . . . . . . . . .29 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 4. . . Schematic of sensitive measurement device. . . . Moment on arc element around Point “O” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circular shape Dam .35 LIST OF FIGURES Cylinder with an element for calculation moment of inertia . Product of inertia for triangle . . . . . .26 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 4.28 4. . . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of submerged area. . . . . . . . .9 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4. .7 4. . . Description of rectangular in x–y plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 4. . Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. . . . Polynomial shape dam description . .10 4. . . . . .6 4. .20 4. . . . .2 4. . . . . . . . .22 4. .x 3. . . Schematic of Immersed Cylinder . . . The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart . . . . . . . . . .10 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . .12 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 3. . . . . The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. . . . A schematic to explain the atmospheric pressure measurement . .24 4. . . . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 4. The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area . . A cart slide on inclined plane . . .32 4. . . . . .6 3. . . . Description of parabola . . . . . . . . . . . .moment of inertia and center of area Triangle for example 3. . . . . . . . . . . .

.14 . . . . . . . . . . . The work on the control volume . . . Velocity for a circular shape . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . .1 8. . . .2 7. . . . . . . . . . . .40 4. . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The eﬀects of liquid movement on the GM . . . . . . .37 4. . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 4.41 4. . . . . Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control volume and system in motion . A new control volume to ﬁnd the velocity in discharge tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body. . . . . . .38 4. Kinetic Energy and Averaged Velocity Flow in an oscillating manometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 4. . . . . . . . . . Schematics of area impinged by a jet . . . . .44 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . . .43 4. . . . . The cross section of the interface for max liquid. . . . .2 Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 4. . . . Description of depression to explain the Rayleigh–Taylor instability Description of depression to explain the instability . . .9 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 . . . . . . Discharge from a Large Container . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6.7 5. . The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram Nozzle schematics water rocket . . . . . . . Three liquids layers under rotation . . . . . . Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux .12 6. . . . . . . . .47 5.8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. Stability of two triangles put tougher . . . . . . . . . .10 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . Filling of the bucket and choices of the control volumes . . . . . . . . . . xi 113 114 114 116 117 118 119 121 122 124 125 126 129 130 131 132 135 138 143 148 149 150 151 152 154 157 159 161 162 163 166 167 171 173 176 178 180 181 190 The explaination for the direction relative to surface . . .11 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. Boundary Layer control mass . . Nozzle schematic for forces calculations . . . A rocket with a moving control volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . . Schematic of a tank seating on wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 6. . . .3 6. . . . Height of the liquid for example 5. . . . . . . . Flow out of un symmetrical tank . . . . Toy Sled pushed by the liquid jet . . . . . Control volume usage to calculate local averaged velocity Control volume and system in the motion . . .11 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boat for example 5. . . . .7 6. .1 5. .10 6. .45 4. . . . . . Piston control volume . . . . .4 5. . . Schematics of ﬂow in a pipe with varying density . . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . Schematics of velocities at the interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates . . . . .3 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propeller schematic to explain the change of momentum . . . .46 4. . . . . .

. . . . . . . .14 9. Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . The right hand rule . . . . . Liquid ﬂow due to gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 205 213 214 216 218 219 221 221 221 222 227 229 230 230 232 233 236 238 240 247 249 250 250 251 252 253 263 264 265 266 266 267 268 268 274 277 278 284 285 286 287 305 8. . . . . Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes with the liquids ﬂow is faster. . . . . . General forces diagram to calculated the in a two dimension geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . A diagram to explain the ﬂood in a two dimension geometry.1 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 9. . Flow driven by surface tension . . . . . . . . . Vector in Cartesian coordinates system . The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow. .16 A. . . . . . . . . Linear strain of the element . . . . . . A dimensional vertical ﬂow map low gravity against gravity. . . . . . Spherical Coordinate System . .15 9. . .3 A. . . . . . . The control volume in pipe ﬂow . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . Flow between two plates top moving . . . . . . . Cylindrical Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . .14 8. . . . . . . 1–Dimensional free surface . . . . . . . . .2 A.5 9. . . .7 Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. . . . . . . . . Deformations of diﬀerent rectangles . . . . .18 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 8. . .8 9. . . . . . Flow in kerosene lamp . . . . . . . . (b) Deformations of the straight angle triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass ﬂow in coating process . .6 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagram to analysis the shear stress tensor . . . . The general Orthogonal with unit vectors . . . The terminal velocity that left the solid particles. . . . . . . . . . A ﬂow map to explain the horizontal counter–current ﬂow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 A.13 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 9. . Image of counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas/solid–gas conﬁgurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the liquids ﬂow is very slow.11 9. .10 LIST OF FIGURES Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . . . . . . . . .10 9. . . . . . . . . .xii 8. . . . .11 8. . .9 9. . . .19 8. . . . . . . . . . . . Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. . . . . . The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces . . . . . . . . . .3 9. .4 9.4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender The tringle angles sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular . . . . . . One dimensional ﬂow with shear between plates . Flood in vertical pipe. . . . . . . .12 8.9 8. . . . . . .6 8. . .4 A. . Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . . Stress diagram on a tetrahedron shape . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . .5 8.15 8. . . . . . . . . Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 9. . . Counter–current ﬂow in a can. .16 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow of Liquid between concentric cylinders . . .1 9. . . . . .

. Moments of Inertia full shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . xl 13 13 14 15 23 33 38 39 40 46 63 64 Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . 288 xiii . . . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . .2 Books Under Potto Project . . . . . . . . . A. . Bulk modulus for selected materials . . . . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES 1 1. . . . continue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties at the critical stage . . . . . . .1 Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients . Viscosity of selected liquids . .5 1. . . . . . . . . .1 3. . .6 1. . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . The surface tension for selected materials. . . The contact angle for air/water with selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected gases . . continue . . . . . . .

xiv LIST OF TABLES .

9). Cp Cv EU Eu Angular Momentum.121). page 45 Speciﬁc volume heat.NOMENCLATURE ¯ R τ Universal gas constant.. see equation (2. see equation (4. see equation (4. page 45 The shear stress Tenser. see equation (5. see equation (6. see equation (1.7).v. page 261 The area of surface. see equation (6. page 43 subscribe for control volume.23). Ti0 .6). page 154 Units length. page 97 The acceleration of object or system.22). page 130 Speciﬁc pressure heat. page 12 reference viscosity at reference temperature.3). see equation (2. see equation (2. page 42 xv . see equation (2. page 155 The velocity taken with the direction.0). page 42 Internal Energy per unit mass. page 45 Internal energy. see equation (2. see equation (6.43).1). see equation (2.1). page 12 External forces by non–ﬂuids means. page 171 viscosity at input temperature T. see equation (2. page 41 M µ µ0 F ext U Ξ A a Bf c.11). page 65 Body force. see equation (1.17).38).26). see equation (6. see equation (9.17). page 153 Martinelli parameter.0).

page 81 general Body force. see equation (1. page 44 Speciﬁc enthalpy. see equation (3.2).2). see equation (2. page 62 reference temperature in degrees Kelvin.2). see equation (1.17). page 45 Fluid thermal conductivity. page 42 The energy transfered to the system between state 1 and state 2. page 46 Entropy of the system. page 89 q Q12 R S Suth Tτ Ti0 Tin U w W12 z says Energy per unit mass. page 44 Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.3). page 65 Enthalpy.24). see equation (2.0). page 12 velocity . see equation (2. see equation (2. page 44 the ratio of the speciﬁc heats.66). page 42 Work per unit mass.18).13). see equation (4.17). see equation (4.0).xvi Ei G gG H h k kT L System energy at state i.18). see equation (5.6). see equation (1.14). see equation (2. see equation (3. page 12 input temperature in degrees Kelvin. page 42 The gravitation constant.89).1. page 61 LIST OF TABLES Patmos Atmospheric Pressure. see equation (4. page 42 the coordinate in z direction. page 130 . see equation (2. see equation (2. see equation (2. page 67 Subscribe says.42). see equation (2.4).17). see equation (2. page 12 Torque. page 42 The work done by the system between state 1 and state 2. see equation (4.6). page 42 Speciﬁc gas constant. see equation (7. see equation (2.27). page 178 Angular momentum.40).

3.3 M 362 pages) Further imporved the script for the chapter log ﬁle for latex (macro) process. Add several examples on surface tension.The Book Change Log Version 0.2 Nov 19. Improve English in several chapters.1 Nov 12.com. Improvement of properties chapter.artofproblemsolving. Addtion of several examples. Improve English in several chapters.0. Minimal discussion of converting integral equation to diﬀerential equations. 2010 (3.0. Version 0.3.3 M 358 pages) Build the chapter log ﬁle for latex (macro) process Steven from www. Add discussion change of density on buck modulus calculations as example as integral equation. Add discussion change of bulk modulus of mixture. 2010 (3. xvii .

. Version 0.3 M 354 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Static chapter. 2010 (3.2.9 M 280 pages) add example to Mechanical Chapter and some spelling corrected. 2010 (2.1 Oct 11.3 M 338 pages) Initial release of the diﬀerential equations chapter. 2010 (3. Add example. Improve English in static and mostly in diﬀerential analysis chapter. 2010 (3.9.3 M 344 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Thermo chapter. Improve the emphasis macro for the important equation and useful equation. Add to the appendix the diﬀerentiation of vector operations.2.3.2. Version 0.6 March 10.xviii LIST OF TABLES Version 0. Correct the ideal gas relationship typo thanks to Michal Zadrozny. Add discussion about inclined manometer Improve many ﬁgures and equations in Static chapter. Add example of falling liquid gravity as driving force in presence of shear stress. Add example to dif chap on concentric cylinders poiseuille ﬂow.9 Sep 20.0. change to the new empheq format and improve cylinder ﬁgure. Minor correction to to the wording in page 11 viscosity density issue (thanks to Prashant Balan).0 Oct 24. Version 0.

2010 (2.artofproblemsolving. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir . Corrections to Static Chapter.com. Add the macro protect to insert ﬁgure in lower right corner thanks to Steven from www. Some additions to momentum conservation chapter.LIST OF TABLES xix Version 0. Add the macro ekes to equations in examples thanks to Steven from www.9 Dec 01. 2010 (2. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0.8 M 241 pages) The momentum conservation chapter was released. 2009 (2. Add example about the the third component of the velocity.com. Add example on angular rotation to statics chapter.6 M 219 pages) The mass conservation chapter was released.2. Add the open question concept.9 M 280 pages) The energy conservation chapter was released. English corrections. English corrections.artofproblemsolving. Add Reynold’s Transform explanation. Additions to the mathematical appendix on vector algebra. Additions to the mathematical appendix on variables separation in second order ode equations.com. Add the macro to improve emphases equation thanks to Steven from www.3 Jan 01.1.artofproblemsolving. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0. Some additions to mass conservation chapter on averaged velocity. English corrections.4 March 01.2. Two open questions were released.

8. Version 0. Add the Rayleigh–Taylor instability.8 Aug 6. Improve the dwarﬁng macro to allow ﬂexibility with sub title. 2009 (2.3 M 151 pages) Fix the English in the introduction chapter. (thanks to Tousher).1.1. 2009 (2.8a July 5. Add some examples to static chapter.6 M 183 pages) Fixing some long titles issues. . Add the ﬁrst draft of the temperature-velocity diagram to the Therm’s chapter. Add an example to mechanics chapter.1.8. Remove the multiphase chapter (it is not for public consumption yet).5 Nov 01.5 M 203 pages) First true draft for the mass conservation. 2008 (1. Version 0. Improve the doChap scrip to break up the book to chapters.xx LIST OF TABLES Version 0.1.4 M 189 pages) Add the chapter on introduction to muli–phase ﬂow Again additional improvement to the index (thanks to Irene).1. 2008 (2.5 M 197 pages) Continue ﬁxing the long titles issues. Version 0. Correcting the gas properties tables (thanks to Heru and Micheal) Move the gas tables to common area to all the books. 2009 (2.1 Sep 17. Version 0. Improve the Index (thanks to Irene).6 Jun 30.

2008 (1. Version 0.4 M 155 pages) Add the constant table list for the introduction chapter.1.1.5a Jun 11. Version 0.5 Jun 5. 2008 (1. 2008 The Thermodynamics chapter was released.1 M 111 pages) Major English corrections for the three chapters.1.1a April 23.1a April 23.1 May 8.LIST OF TABLES xxi Version 0. The static chapter was released (the most extensive and detailed chapter). . viscosity and other properties of ﬂuid. Fix minor issues (English) in the introduction chapter. Add the product of inertia to mechanics chapter.4 M 149 pages) Add the introduction. 2008 Version 0. Fix very minor issues (English) in the static chapter. The mechanics chapter was released. 2008 (1. Minor corrections for all three chapters. Version 0.

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

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etc. 2009 xxxi . etc.CONTRIBUTOR LIST How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other GDL copyrighted work. this book is open to revisions and expansions by any interested parties.com Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as ”minor. date. Dec. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge. time. and resources to make this a better book! Date(s) of contribution(s): 1999 to present Nature of contribution: Original author. Contact at: barmeir at gmail. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own. Credits All entries have been arranged in alphabetical order of surname (hopefully.com Steven from artofproblemsolving. The only ”catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity. contact info. Minor contributions (typo corrections. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted.” it is in no way inferior to the eﬀort or value of a ”major” contribution. just smaller in the sense of less text changed. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s).

describing how you contributed to the book. Contact at: my email@provider.net . Olson Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Eliezer Bar-Meir Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009. Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Momentum. help on building the useful equation and important equation macros. Dec 2009 Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Mass. Nature of contribution: In 2009 creating the exEq macro to have diﬀerent counter for example. Your name here Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution Nature of contribution: Insert text here. John Herbolenes Date(s) of contribution(s): August 2009 Nature of contribution: Provide some example for the static chapter. Richard Hackbarth Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Dan H. Henry Schoumertate Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Discussion on the mathematics of Reynolds Transforms.xxxii LIST OF TABLES Nature of contribution: LaTeX formatting.

(Nov 2010) Corretion to wording in viscosity density Prashant Balan. Corretion to equation (2.38) by Michal Zadrozny. Gupta. (Nov 2010) . January 2008. help with the original img macro and other ( LaTeX issues). review of statics and thermo chapters.CREDITS xxxiii Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions R. Tousher Yang April 2008.

xxxiv LIST OF TABLES .

books and software. Spain. The author enjoys to encourage his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams.G. As the change in the view occurred. These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants). All the models have practical applicability. Now. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the ﬁeld of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes ﬂuid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design. Bar-Meir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability. xxxv . Bar-Meir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers. it was commonly believed and taught that there is only weak and strong shock and it is continue by Prandtl–Meyer function. Moreover. He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models. the critical piston velocity in a partially ﬁlled chamber (related to hydraulic jump). the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP97-0489 and PB98-0007. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 . Bar-Meir was the last student of the late Dr. he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and softwares for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue). Eckert. For example. the author’s models were used in numerical works. R. application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc. Currently. In the area of compressible ﬂow. in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. British industry. Dr.E. and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD97-2333 grants for minor aspects of that models. and Canada.D.About This Author Genick Bar-Meir holds a Ph. Bar– 1 Where the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists. In his early part of his professional life. this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas. in GM.

All the previous models for the ﬂooding phenomenon did not have a physical explanation to the dryness. Bar-Meir demonstrated that common Prandtl–Meyer explanation violates the conservation of mass and therefor the turn must be around a ﬁnite radius. He also build analytical solution to several moving shock cases. The author lives with his wife and three children. He also constructed and explained many new categories for two ﬂow regimes. The author’s explanations on missing diameter and other issues in fanno ﬂow and ““naughty professor’s question”” are used in the industry. the author just know to learn quickly. Engineers have constructed design that based on this conclusion. He described and categorized the ﬁlling and evacuating of chamber by compressible ﬂuid in which he also found analytical solutions to cases where the working ﬂuid was ideal gas. practically from scratch. While he is known to look like he knows about many things. . The common explanation to Prandtl–Meyer function shows that ﬂow can turn in a sharp corner. he often feels clueless about computers and programing. He built a model to explain the ﬂooding problem (two phase ﬂow) based on the physics. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores. In his book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics”.xxxvi LIST OF TABLES Meir discovered the analytical solution for oblique shock and showed that there is a quiet buﬀer between the oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer. A past project of his was building a four stories house. The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea oﬃcer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground. Bar-Meir demonstrated that ﬂuids must have wavy surface when the materials ﬂow together.

The study of technical material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material. when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal ﬁrm.harvard. the creation of the POTTO Project. one of this author’s sages. The ﬁrst issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. Ashcroﬀ (see http://cyber. the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand. This project is to increase wisdom and humility. The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice. one should increase wisdom. As individuals we have to obey the law. On one hand. punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work. There is always someone who can add to the book. said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness.wikipedia. xxxvii . like an open source. 3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see http://en. The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system. Hence. It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation.Prologue For The POTTO Project This books series was born out of frustrations in two respects. is a new idea3 .edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft for more information) copyrights practically remain indeﬁnitely with the holder (not the creator). The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals. particularly the copyright law with the “inﬁnite2 ” time with the copyright holders.org/wiki/Main Page). It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States). It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped. judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work. As R. but also by coming to understand and be able to solve 2 After the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v. Writing a book in the technical ﬁeld is not the same as writing a novel.law. Kook. The Potto Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges. However.

the books on compressible ﬂow and die casting became the most popular books in their respective area. the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material. For others. the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful intelligence to carry out this attack4 . The answer varies from individual to individual. For some authors. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that speciﬁc section (even within question/answer sections). so can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool. For some contributors/authors.ex. The social function can have at least two components. One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private aﬀair. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds.. Thus.ac. For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks. one also begins to better understand the material. there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence. In a way. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected ﬁeld. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject. the writing of or contributing to this kind of books will serve as a social function. It is not just for experts to contribute. The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections. For example. While one can be as creative as possible. the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors.” American Scientist. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises.uk/bugclub/raiders. If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identiﬁed. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight. Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the ﬁrst question the undersigned was asked. Whatever the reasons. It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books. 1989 (see for information http://www. Thus. While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself. The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics. in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes.xxxviii LIST OF TABLES related problems. In these cases. Nigel R. 77:139. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software 4 see also in Franks. but also students who happened to be doing their homework. contributing to these books will help one to understand the material better. One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the profession. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books. The student’s contributions can be done by adding a question and perhaps the solution. ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence.html) . The desire to be an author of a well–known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the eﬀort. they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. When an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking. To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted.

000 copies a month. the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book. Gas Dynamics Calculator (Potto-GDC). Farassat. the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts. etc. These data (tables. Unlike a regular book. Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “ﬂesh and skin. while in other cases only the gate keeper. Potto has auxiliary materials such as the gas dynamics tables (the largest compressible ﬂow tables collection in the world). . Even if not complete. These books should be considered more as a project than to ﬁt the traditional deﬁnition of “plain” books. many algorithms for calculating Fanno ﬂow parameters which are not found in any other book. better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books. These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the books with time (the organizer(s)). The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas: 5 Data are not copyrighted. other books contain data5 which can be typeset in A LTEX. The book on compressible ﬂow is also used by “young engineers and scientists” in NASA according to Dr. chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written. The books are used in more than 165 diﬀerent countries around the world. It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book. This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper).) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it. NASA Langley Research Center. these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving. Every month people from about 110 diﬀerent countries download these books. Thus. For example. graphs and etc. Additionally. Nevertheless.CREDITS xxxix process. But more than that. These books contain innovative ideas which make some chapters the best in the world. In the last 5 years three textbooks have been constructed which are available for download. Thus. In addition. The combined number downloads of these books is over half a million (December 2009) or in a rate of 20. the chapters on Fanno ﬂow and Oblique shock contain many original ideas such as the full analytical solution to the oblique shock. It is hoped that the books will be error-free. some errors are possible and expected. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work.” In this process. Potto books on compressible ﬂow and ﬂuid mechanics are used as the main textbook or as a reference book in several universities around the world. contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book.

0. The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept.0 0. etc.1 0. However.3 0. Books under development in Potto project.4. The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as numerous examples for every section.01 TelAviv’notes 0. LIST OF TABLES Project Name Compressible Flow Die Casting Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Progress beta alpha NSY alpha NSY Remarks Version 0.0 Based on Eckert Availability for Public Download Mechanics Open Channel Flow Statics Strength of Material Thermodynamics Two/Multi ﬂow phases NSY NSY early alpha NSY early alpha NSY ﬁrst chapter 0. but it has roots in the way science progresses. advanced topics.0. a process in which books .1 0.0. But such a thing is hard to deﬁne and should be enough for this stage.) are already presented.1. traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s). and the Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active.0. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written.8.0 NSY = Not Started Yet The meaning of the progress is as: The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in a rough draft.0.0.2 0.0 0. ﬁgures. other deﬁnitions give merely a hint on the status.0. While some terms are deﬁned in a relatively clear fashion. and special cases.0. and all of the examples and data (tables.0 0.0.0 0. in Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form. in Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage.xl Table -1.

. i. creating diagrams and ﬁgures. writing examples. and Microsoft Word software. There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away. projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative eﬀort of many individuals. which include the actual writing of the text. Again. Abiword. The text processes. are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality. because of the open nature of this project. the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. and perhaps troﬀ.CREDITS xli have a new version every a few years. are not appropriate for these projects. many of whom volunteered to help. 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project. especially LTEX. have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for A these writings. any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software. such as OpenOﬃce. These chores can be done independently from each other and by more than one individual. A new version is created every several years.e. who passed way some years ago. only LTEX. However. Word processors. and writing the A LTEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format. Schlichting. 6 Originally authored by Dr. But more A than that. Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects. Further. pieces of material and data can be used by diﬀerent books..

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it is very satisfying for the author.1 April 22. Even in this early development stage. 2008 pages 189 size 2.3M The topic of ﬂuid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering. This author was bothered by this explanation. The introduction to multi–phase is another example to this quality.6M When this author was an undergraduate student. While it is a hard work to discover and develop and bring this information to the students. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the xliii .1. Version 0. This explanation (on the wavy interface) demonstrates this characteristic of Potto project books. the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all. and civil engineering. it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering. aerospace engineering. chemical engineering. number of downloads per month is about 5000 copies. This issue is related to renewal energy of extracting energy from brine solution (think about the Dead Sea. The number of downloads of this book results from this quality. Potto project books are characterized by high quality which marked by presentation of the new developments and clear explanations. 2008 pages 151 size 1. Now. In fact. The common explanation to the wave existence was that there is always a disturbance which causes instability.Prologue For This Book Version 0. he spend time to study the wave phenomenon at the interface of open channel ﬂow. it was proven that this wavy interface is created due to the need to satisfy the continuous velocity and shear stress at the interface and not a disturbance. so much energy). While the emphasis is somewhat diﬀerent in this book. and electrical engineering. in this version.8 August 6.

The book is organized into several chapters which. wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. deals with a basic introduction to the ﬂuid properties and concepts (under construction).R. met its opposition. what and when a certain model is suitable than other models. This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one. Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. For example. the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. on compressible ﬂow. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is wrong. With all the above. it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the ﬁeld but change some of the way things are taught. some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase ﬂuid. Up to Egret’s book. multiphase is an advance topic. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics. When the Static Chapter was written. Today. will be presented next (again under construction). The topic of ﬂuid mechanics was chosen just to ﬁll the introduction chapter to compressible ﬂow. there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. In this book it is hoped to insert. this is the only reply. however. It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. and their colleagues. Eckert. anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing. The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. show me what is wrong”. this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. ideal ﬂow will be presented with the issues of added mass and added forces (under construction). the previous book. dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction).xliv LIST OF TABLES previous geniuses who work in this ﬁeld. he just doesn’t know from where and what. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc). The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. However. Ernst Schmidt. Eckert. must be taught in engineering classes.G. Clearly. not a traditional topic. as a traditional textbook. aside from his research activity. there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic. Indeed. . An introduction to multi–phase ﬂow. As traditional texts in this ﬁeld. One of the diﬀerence in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase ﬂow. The next two chapters will deals with open channel ﬂow and gas dynamics. In writing the chapter on ﬂuid statics. His book met strong criticism in which some called to “burn” his book. At this stage. The next topic is statics.

and Shames books were adapted and used as a scaﬀolding for this book. So. The chapters are not written in order. The ﬁgure in cover page was created by Genick Bar-Meir. this book was written on Linux (Micro$oftLess book). issue of proofs so and so are here only either to explain a point or have a solution of exams. The approach adapted in this book is practical. The structure of Hansen.” Later. The ﬁgures were done by gle. Otherwise. The presentation of some of the chapters is slightly diﬀerent from other books because the usability of the computers. this book avoids this kind of issues. In writing this book. a program that currently cannot be used on new Linux systems. and more hands–on approach. This author was inﬂuenced by Streeter and Wylie book which was his undergrad textbooks. This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). xlv . The ﬁrst 4 chapters were written ﬁrst because they were supposed to be modiﬁed and used as ﬂuid mechanics introduction in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow. The graphics were done by TGIF. The spell checking was done by ispell. The book does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provides the graphical explanation of things. and is copyleft by him. There are numerous books on ﬂuid mechanics but none of which is open content. Streeter and Wylie. Of course. it was assumed that introductory book on ﬂuid mechanics should not contained many new ideas but should be modern in the material presentation. the best graphic program that this author experienced so far. multi–phase ﬂow chapter was written. and hope to ﬁnd a way to use gaspell. After a while it seems that is easier to write a whole book than the two original planned chapters.How This Book Was Written This book started because I needed an introduction to the compressible ﬂow book. This statement really meant that the book is intent to be used by students to solve their exams and also used by practitioners when they search for solutions for practical problems.

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marked with a Mata mark. if you need information about." 8 . Basics of Fluid Mechanics. Moreover. you can read just chapter (4). the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to perfect them. and there were words. say. this manuscript is ﬁrst and foremost a textbook. I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are. Like all volunteer work. describes the fundamentals of ﬂuid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others. and emptiness was upon the face and files. without form. I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations. statics’ equations. And the Author there be words. These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped.Preface "In the beginning. For example. I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book. the power and glory of the mighty God. rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task. This book is only to explain his power.9 Reading everything will. And the Fingers of the Author the face of the keyboard. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus. and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence. physics. I believe professionals working in many engineering ﬁelds will beneﬁt from this information. This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. which can be very useful for many. the present. the POTTO project was and void. However. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress. etc. Let This book. Nevertheless. the book is not well organized. increase your understanding of the many aspects of ﬂuid mechanics. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the ﬂuid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. naturally. This book contains many worked examples. I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. 9 At 8 To xlvii . there is a limit on how much eﬀort I was able to put into the book and its organization. The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. of the bits moved upon said.

I also would like to thank to Jannie McRotien (Open Channel Flow chapter) and Tousher Yang for their advices. LTEX knowledge. you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail. or proofreading. literature review is always good. If you want to be involved in the editing. but those are solely for the author’s purposes. G. . Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. more mathematics (or less mathematics). editing. The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed. please drop me a line. A I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing. directly or indirectly.xlviii LIST OF TABLES Furthermore. I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one. ideas for new areas to cover. While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction. I am interested in it all. Dr. Naturally. rewritten sections. ignore them please. 10 Dr. errors. You may contact me via Email at “barmeir@gmail. However. other email that imply that someone will take care of this author aren’t appreciated. In practice. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well. Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall10 . graphic ability. I would like to especially thank to my adviser. There are also notes in the margin. graphic design. I am particularly interested in the best arrangement of the book. R. it brought or cause the expansion of the explanation for the oblique shock. and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project. ideas. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your comment(s). Incorrect language. Several people have helped me with this book. If you have Internet e-mail access.com”. Eckert. this book contains material that never was published before (sorry cannot avoid it). this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism. more fundamental material. This material never went through a close content review.com”. I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. E. isn’t it?). While close content peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. whose work was the inspiration for this book. They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. and assistance. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement. I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed).

At this stage. Meta End You are always welcome to add a new material: problem. There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. xlix . approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this Meta sample this part. Additional material can be provided to give a diﬀerent angle on the issue at hand. It is hoped that the style ﬁle will be converged to the ﬁnal form rapidly. Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved. illustration or photo of experiment.To Do List and Road Map This book isn’t complete and probably never will be completed. It is hoped the A changes in TEX and LTEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. question. Nevertheless. Material can be further illuminate. mistakes. Open Channel Flow The chapter isn’t in the development stage yet. Some parts were taken from Fundamentals of Die Casting Design book and are in a process of improvement. These omissions. Speciﬁc missing parts from every chapters are discussed below. many chapters are missing. there are speciﬁc issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein. Properties The chapter isn’t in development stage yet.

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A proof of the glass “liquidity” is the change of the glass thickness in high windows in European Churches after hundred years. motions. This study area deals with many and diversiﬁed problems such as surface tension. ﬂow stability. For example. and statical conditions in continuous material. The bottom part of the glass is thicker than the top part. Furthermore. In fact. After it was established that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. Researchers distinguish between orderly ﬂow and chaotic ﬂow as the laminar ﬂow and the turbulent ﬂow. The ﬂuid mechanics can also be distinguish between a single phase ﬂow and multiphase ﬂow (ﬂow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material).1 for the complex relationships between the diﬀerent branches which only part of it should be drawn in the same time.CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1. ﬂuid statics.). Even material such as aluminum just below the mushy zone also behaves as a liquid similarly to butter. The ﬂuid mechanics study involve many ﬁelds that have no clear boundary between them. Materials like sand (some call it quick sand) and grains should be treated as liquids. the boundary between the solid mechanics and ﬂuid mechanics is some kind of gray shed and not a sharp distinction (see Figure 1. but a closer look reveals that the glass is a liquid with a large viscosity. glass appears as a solid material. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces. or ﬂow round bodies (solid or otherwise). ﬂow in enclose bodies. the discussion in this book is limited to simple and (mostly) Newtonian (sometimes power ﬂuids) ﬂuids which will be deﬁned later. It is known that these materials have the ability to drown people. etc.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all ﬂuids under static and dynamic situations. The last boundary (as all the boundaries in ﬂuid mechanics) 1 . almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a ﬂuid mechanics problem.

air with dust particle). It is this author’s personal experience that the knowledge and ability to know in what area the situation lay is one of the main problems. For example.2 CHAPTER 1. Or.com/HTML ) analyzed a ﬂow of a complete still liquid assuming a . INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Continuous Mechanics Solid Mechanics something between Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics Fluid Dynamics Boundaries problems Multi phase flow Internal Flow Laminar Flow Stability problems Turbulent Flow Fig. when a general model is need because more parameters are eﬀecting the situation. Then the dimensional analysis will be used explain why in certain cases one distinguish area/principle is more relevant than the other and some eﬀects can be neglected.1. the study must make arbitrary boundaries between ﬁelds. -1. ﬂow with two phases (or materials) can be treated as a single phase (for example. http://ekkinc. engineers in software company (EKK Inc. After it was made clear that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. Moreover. isn’t sharp because ﬂuid can go through a phase change (condensation or evaporation) in the middle or during the ﬂow and switch from a single phase ﬂow to a multi phase ﬂow.

There were no calculations even with the great need for water supply and transportation. the knowledge of ﬂuid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo. a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created. The ﬁrst progress in ﬂuid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) who built the ﬁrst chambered canal lock near Milan. and continue with Empirical Analysis. 1. The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Diﬀerential Analysis. Bernoulli family. These aqueducts reached their greatest size and grandeur in those of the City of Rome and China. Reviewing many books on ﬂuid mechanics made it clear. As in thermodynamics.C. Torricelli. the simpliﬁed private cases must be explained. Thus. There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of ﬂuid mechanics materials. This discrepancy between theory and practice is called the “D’Alembert paradox” and serves to demonstrate the limitations of theory alone in solving ﬂuid problems. This fact was acknowledged by D’Alembert who stated that. there isn’t a clear winner. When cities increased to a larger size. chapters on open channel ﬂow (as a sub class of the multiphase ﬂow) and compressible ﬂow (with the latest developments) are provided. boundary layer and internal and external ﬂow .2 Brief History The need to have some understanding of ﬂuid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply.1.2. larger tunnels built for a larger water supply. Euler. The ﬁrst approach introduces the ﬂuid kinematic and then the basic governing equations. The ideal ﬂow (frictionless ﬂow) should be expanded compared to the regular treatment. This book attempts to ﬁnd a hybrid approach in which the kinematic is presented ﬁrst (aside to standard initial four chapters) follow by Integral analysis and continued by Diﬀerential analysis. At some point. with the exception Archimedes (250 B. to be followed by stability. These two approaches pose a dilemma to anyone who writes an introductory book for the ﬂuid mechanics. etc. turbulence. aqueducts were constructed. conﬂicts with the reality. For example. Yet. BRIEF HISTORY 3 complex turbulent ﬂow model. people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed. two diﬀerent of school of thoughts were created: the ﬁrst be- . almost all knowledge of the ancients can be summarized as application of instincts. After his initial work. “The theory of ﬂuids must necessarily be based upon experiment.) on the principles of buoyancy. Such absurd analysis are common among engineers who do not know which model can be applied. Before dealing with the boundaries. These two approaches have justiﬁcations and positive points. Naturally. one of the main goals of this book is to explain what model should be applied. This book is unique in providing chapter on multiphase ﬂow. At that stage theory and experiments had some discrepancy.” For example the concept of ideal liquid that leads to motion with no resistance. people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. and D’Alembert. For example. He also made several attempts to study the ﬂight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces. Newton. Later.

Helmhoitz. there are many . transformed the ﬂuid mechanics to modern science that we have known today. resistance by Darcy. Bhuckingham. Fanning. and many others. On the theoretical side. Thus. Dubuat. Gas Dynamics. On the “experimental” side. and Froude’s idea of the use of models change the science of the ﬂuid mechanics. The Navier-Stokes equations. for example. However. Today many problems can be analyzed by using the numerical tools and provide reasonable results. Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximated solutions representing speciﬁc cases. Fabre. ﬁrst Navier in the molecular level and later Stokes from continuous point of view succeeded in creating governing equations for real ﬂuid motion. von Karman. were considered unsolvable during the mid nineteen century because of the high complexity. d’Aubisson. mainly in pipes and open channels area. Rayleigh. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS lieved that the solution will come from theoretical aspect alone.4 CHAPTER 1. Bossut. Kirchhoﬀ. This problem led to two consequences. As results it created today “strange” names: Hydrodynamics. the way how it was calculated changed. creating a matching between the two school of thoughts: experimental and theoretical. But. Stanton. These programs in many cases can capture all the appropriate parameters and adequately provide a reasonable description of the physics. La Grange. The introduction of the computers during the 60s and much more powerful personal computer has changed the ﬁeld. Chezy. the empirical formulas generated by ﬁtting curves to experimental data (even sometime merely presenting the results in tabular form) resulting in formulas that the relationship between the physics and properties made very little sense. At the end of the twenty century. and Poisseuille. In the middle of the nineteen century. were Brahms. which describes the ﬂow (or even Euler equations). Coulomb. as in thermodynamics. Dupuit. at the same time proposed many correlations to many ﬂuid mechanics problems. There are many open source programs that can analyze many ﬂuid mechanics situations. Therefore. and the Kutta-Joukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). Taylor. many call Prandtl as the father of modern ﬂuid mechanics. the development of dimensional analysis by Rayleigh. and Blasius and several other individuals as Nikuradse. While the understanding of the fundamentals did not change much. Rankine. Rose. and Kelvin. Thus. Perhaps the most radical concept that eﬀects the ﬂuid mechanics is of Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer which is a combination of the modeling and dimensional analysis that leads to modern ﬂuid mechanics. and Aeronautics. Hagen. Hydraulics. This demand coupled with new several novel concepts like the theoretical and experimental researches of Reynolds. The obvious happened without theoretical guidance. The experimentalists. Prandtl and his students Blasius. and the second believed that solution is the pure practical (experimental) aspect of ﬂuid mechanics. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory ﬂow (1894). people cannot relinquish control. the demand for vigorous scientiﬁc knowledge that can be applied to various liquids as opposed to formula for every ﬂuid was created by the expansion of many industries. and Manning. This concept leads to mathematical basis for many approximations. Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortexes (1858). after World War Two. Meyer. Weisbach. considerable contribution were made by Euler. Ganguillet.

Inc). assuming turbulent ﬂow for still ﬂow simply provides erroneous results (see for example. e. the discussion on the mathematical meaning will be presented (later version). no weather prediction program can produce good engineering quality results (where the snow will fall within 50 kilometers accuracy. In gaseous phase. then the change of volume is at best 5%. It must be remember that force is a vector. EKK.g it has a direction. The diﬀerence between a gas phase to a liquid phase above the critical point are practically minor. For example. The ﬂuid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases. KINDS OF FLUIDS 5 other cases that numerical analysis cannot provide any meaningful result (trends). The gas ﬁlls the volume and liquid cannot. It is evident from this discussion that when a liquid is at rest. it behaves like solid and under others it behaves like liquid (see Figure 1. The main diﬀerence between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost ﬁx volume. The study of this kind of material called rheology and it will (almost) not be discussed in this book. The traditional quantity. It is a known fact said that the ﬂuid continuously and permanently deformed under shear stress while solid exhibits a ﬁnite deformation which does not change with time.3. The second quantity discussed here is the area. the pressure will not aﬀect the volume. the change of water pressure by 1000% only change the volume by less than 1 percent. This is a result of division of a vector by a vector and it is referred to as tensor. Area of three–dimensional object has no single direction.1. Gas has no free interface/surface (since it does ﬁll the entire volume).1). The area is measured in [m2 ]. for most practical purposes considered. It is also said that liquid cannot return to their original state after the deformation. under certain limits. In the best scenario. if the change of pressure is signiﬁcantly less than that. Hence. So. There are several quantities that have to be addressed in this discussion. a change in the volume by more 5% will required tens of thousands percent change of the pressure. The direction of area is perpendicular to the area. so at this stage the tensor will have to be broken into its components. This test creates a new material group that shows dual behaviors. which is force per area has a new meaning. one in the area direction and two perpendicular to the area. 1. these kinds of areas should be addressed inﬁnitesimally and locally. This diﬀerentiation leads to three groups of materials: solids and liquids. no shear stress is applied. For example. The unit used to measure is [N]. The pressure component in the area . But below the critical point. For the discussion here. This quantity was discussed in physics class but here it has an additional meaning. Thus. and it is referred to the direction of the area. Thus. Building a car with this accuracy is a disaster). the emphasis is on the physics. The ﬁrst is force which was reviewed in physics. In this book. Later. these programs are as good as the input provided. the pressure has three components. any change in pressure directly aﬀects the volume. This diﬀerence can be.3 Kinds of Fluids Some diﬀerentiate ﬂuid from solid by the reaction to shear stress. sharp even though in reality this diﬀerence isn’t sharp.

Density as a function of ρ= ∆m ∆V −→ε ∆V lim the size of sample. here it will be treated as a separate issue. (1. -1. the velocity of the plate increases also. then. U0x F However.3. The density can be changed and it is a function of time and space (location) but must have a continues property.3). it was shown that when the force per area increases. the F denotes the force.2 shows the density as log ℓ a function of the sample size. -1. Consider liquid that undergoes a shear stress between a Fig. F.4 Shear Stress ∆ℓ The shear stress is part of the pressure tensor. h is the distance between the plates. Consider moving the plate with a zero lubricant (h ∼ 0) (results in large force) or a large amount of lubricant (smaller force). it did not reach/reduced to the size where the atoms or molecular statistical calculations are signiﬁcant (see Figure 1. 1. Thus. The other two components are referred as the shear stresses. It referred to density that is independent of the sampling size. When this assumption is broken. Schematics to describe the shear short distance of two plates as shown in Figure stress in ﬂuid mechanics. Figure 1. From solid mechanics study. In solid mechanics.6 CHAPTER 1. Diﬀerent from solid. Experiments show that the increase of height will increase the velocity up to a certain range. that is. ﬂuid cannot pull directly but through a solid surface. The units used for the pressure components is [N/m2 ]. the density is deﬁned as Fig. thus the small distance analysis is applicable. the shear stress is h β considered as the ratio of the force acting on y area in the direction of the forces perpendicular x to area.2.2) Where A is the area. isn’t it?). .1) It must be noted that ε is chosen so that the continuous assumption is not broken. the density remains constant. It doesn’t mean ǫ that a sharp and abrupt change in the density cannot occur. (1.2 for point where the green lines converge to constant density). After certain sample size. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS direction is called pressure (great way to confuse. The upper plate velocity generally will be U = f (A. h) (1. The density is a property which requires that ρ liquid to be continuous. In this discussion. the aim is to develop diﬀerential equation. the principles of statistical mechanics must be utilized.

7) From Figure 1.4) (1. -1.9) Combining equation (1.4. then it can be written for small a angel that dU δβ = δt dy (1.4. applying the coeﬃcient to obtain a new equality as τxy = µ U h (1. the regular approximation provides Fig.5) From equations (1.3) (1.6) yields τxy = µ δβ δt (1. the distance the t0 < t1 < t2 < t3 upper plate moves after small amount of time.10) If the velocity proﬁle is linear between the plate (it will be shown later that it is consistent with derivations of velocity). In steady state. δt is d = U δt (1.11) . the following can be written U∝ Equations (1. d = U δt = h δβ (1.6) Where µ is called the absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity which will be discussed later in this chapter in great length.1. SHEAR STRESS For cases where the dependency is linear.5) it follows that ratio of the velocity to height is proportional to shear stress. Hence.3) can be rearranged to be U F ∝ h A Shear stress was deﬁned as τxy = F A hF A 7 (1.8) From equation (1.4 it can be noticed that for a small angle.4) and (1.9) with equation (1.8) it follows that U =h δβ δt (1. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear geometry stress as progression of time.

The property of viscosity. These cohesion and interactions hamper the ﬂux in y–direction. Equation (1. It can be assumed that the plates remains in equidistant from each other and steady state is achieved instantly.8 CHAPTER 1. the following can be written (see equation (1.6)) F = 1 × 1. Many ﬂuids fall into this category such as air.2: Castor oil at 25◦ C ﬁlls the space between two concentric cylinders of 0. water etc.45[N ] h 0. This approximation is appropriate for many other ﬂuids but only within some ranges.10) referred to as Newtonian ﬂuid. The units of absolute viscosity are [N sec/m2 ].1 [m]. is due to the existence of cohesion and interaction between ﬂuid molecules. Some referred to shear stress as viscous ﬂux of x–momentum in the y–direction. Example 1. Thus. For this kind of substance τxy = µ dU dy (1.01 End Solution Example 1. this interpretation is more suitable to explain the molecular mechanism of the viscosity.069 × 0.5 m/sec.1: A space of 1 [cm] width between two large plane surfaces is ﬁlled with glycerin.5 A µU ∼ = 53. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Materials which obey equation (1.9) can be interpreted as momentum in the x direction transferred into the y direction. Calculate the force that is required to drag a very thin plate of 1 [m2 ] at a speed of 0. the viscosity is the resistance to the ﬂow (ﬂux) or the movement.12) Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids which the ratio is constant. Assume steady state conditions. The units of shear stress are the same as ﬂux per time as following F kg m 1 mU ˙ = 2 m2 A sec A kg m 1 sec sec m2 Thus.2[m] and 0. Solution . which is exhibited by all ﬂuids. In fact.1[m] diameters with height of 0. the notation of τxy is easier to understand and visualize. Calculate the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder at 12 rpm. Solution Assuming Newtonian ﬂow. when the outer cylinder remains stationary.

the Fig. In liquids. -1. thus.5. Since these forces decrease rapidly with increases of temperature. The diﬀerent of power ﬂuids families.1).1 × 12/60 = 0. This molecular activity is known to increase with temperature. This theory indicates that gas viscosities vary directly with the square root of temperature. the molecules are more dx compact and cohesion is more dominate. while in the dU liquids. the moment can be calculated as the force times the distance as ri 2 π ri h M =F In this case ro − ri = h thus. The diﬀerence is due to their fundamentally different mechanism creating visτ cosity characteristics. ic op molecules are sparse and cohetr o ix th sion is negligible.4 π ri Where rps is revolution per second. exchange of momentum between layers brought as a result of molecular movement normal to the general direction of ﬂow.4 ¡ M= ∼ . VISCOSITY The velocity is rps 9 ˙ U = r θ = 2 π ri rps = 2 × π × 0. and it resists the ﬂow.5 Viscosity 1. temperature variation has an opposite eﬀect on the viscosities of liqτ0 uids and gases.1 General S Bi imp ng le ha m Viscosity varies widely with temperature. the momentum exchange due to molecular movement is small compared to the cohesive forces between the molecules. ri = A µU ro − ri µ 2 π 2 0. the viscosity is primarily dependent on the magnitude of these cohesive forces. Thus.5.5.0078[N m] h ¡ End Solution 1. In gases.1. However. This reasoning is a result of the considerations of the kinetic theory. The same way as in example (1. Thus. liquid viscosities decrease as temperature increases. in gases. the viscosity of gases will increase with temperature.13 h 0.986 0. tic pl do ne Ne ic eu ct ei pe ps R re ho wt on ia n r-P hi as lip po ff di la ta nt .

the pressure has minor eﬀect on the viscosity. There is no such a thing of viscosity at 30% liquid. There is a large class of materials which shows a non-linear relationship with velocity for any shear stress. The viscosity coeﬃcient is . -1. It must be stress that the viscosity in the dome is meaningless.6 demonstrates that viscosity increases slightly with pressure. Well above the critical point. The lines in the above diagrams are only to show constant pressure lines. From the physical point of view. This class of materials can be approximated by a single polynomial term that is a = bxn . Figure 1. the coeﬃcient depends on the velocity gradient.5).13) The new coeﬃcients (n. K) in equation (1. Oils have the greatest increase of viscosity with pressure which is a good thing for many engineering purposes.7. but this variation is negligible for most engineering problems. When n = 1 equation represent Newtonian ﬂuid and K becomes the familiar µ. the relationship between the velocity and the shear stress was assumed to be linear. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Fig. 1. On the liquid side below the critical point. Nitrogen (left) and Argon (right) viscosity as a function of the temperature and pressure after Lemmon and Jacobsen. It simply depends on the structure of the ﬂow as will be discussed in the chapter on multi phase ﬂow.10 CHAPTER 1. The shear stress as a function and it can be written as of the shear rate. This relationship is referred to as power relationship Fig.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids In equation (1. -1.13) are constant.6. both materials are only a function of the temperature. viscosity τ =K dU dx n−1 dU dx (1. Not all the materials obey this relationship.

de Larrard and N. The general relationship for simple Bingham ﬂow is τxy = −µ ± τ0 if |τyx | > τ0 (1.002 0. 2008 ν= µ ρ (1. The increase of the absolute viscosity with the temperature is enough to overcome the increase of density and thus. Fluids that show increase in the viscosity (with increase of the shear) referred to as thixotropic and those that show decrease are called reopectic ﬂuids (see Figure 1. is above one. for most practical purposes.0004 0. which are acceleration units (a combination of kinematic terms). this kind of ﬁgures isn’t used in regular engineering practice.0028 0. Ferraris. When n is below one.of the temperature.14) dUx =0 dy if |τyx | < τ0 (1.0024 0.8.0012 0. Materials which behave up to a certain shear stress as a solid and above it as a liquid are referred as Bingham liquids.1. the kinematic viscosity also increase with the temperature for many materials.e-06 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.000015 0. For example. Air viscosity as a function the name “kinematic” viscosity. However. the liquid is dilettante.000025 0. This fact explains Fig.0022 0.13) are referred to as purely viscous ﬂuids.e-05 0. F. These results also explained better using the new deﬁnition. the “liquid side” is like Newtonian ﬂuid for large shear stress.5.5.5). cosity is deﬁned as 0. the ﬂuid is pseudoplastic.0026 0. Many ﬂuids satisfy the above equation. Mindess and J.3 Kinematic Viscosity Air absolute & kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. In the simple case.0014 0. 1 C. When n. VISCOSITY 11 always positive.16) The gas density decreases with the temperature.001 sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1. -1.0018 0. according to Ferraris at el1 concrete behaves as shown in Figure 1. The liquids which satisfy equation (1. The above equation shows that the dimensions of ν to be square meter per second.0016 0.003 0. The kinematic vis. eds. However.0002 5. Skalny..7. The reason for this new deﬁnition is that some experimental data are given in this form. Materials Science of Concrete VI. Martys.00002 The kinematic viscosity is another way to look at the viscosity. 1.0006 0. 215-241 (2001) m ν[ sec ] 2 . S.15) There are materials that simple Bingham model does not provide dequate explanation and a more sophisticate model is required.0008 0. The Newtonian part of the model has to be replaced by power liquid. The kinematic viscosity embraces both the viscosity and density properties of a ﬂuid. [m2 /sec].

12 CHAPTER 1. Use the data provide in Table 1.8 and Fig. .07 3 2 ∼ 2. Solution Applying the constants from Suthelnd’s table provides 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1. -1.0005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. 2008 0. T T0 3 2 (1.5. Ti0 input temperature in degrees Kelvin reference temperature in degrees Kelvin Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.1.51 10−5 N sec m2 The viscosity increases almost by 40%.9. provides reasonable results2 for the range of −40◦ C to 1600◦ C m ν[ sec ] 2 µ[ N sec ] m2 0. End Solution Liquid Metals 2 This author is ambivalent about statement. For many gases. The observed viscosity is about ∼ 3. Water viscosity as a func1.07 + 120 µ = 0.3: Calculate the viscosity of air at 800K based on Sutherland’s equation.555 × 800 + 120 800 524.555 Ti0 + Suth µ = µ0 0. Sutherland’s equation is used and according to the literature.0015 The absolute viscosity of many ﬂuids relatively doesn’t change with the pressure but very sensitive to temperature. The variations of air and water as a function of the temperature at atmospheric pressure are plotted in Figures 1.17) viscosity at input temperature T reference viscosity at reference temperature.002 0.710−5 .00001827 × × 0.9.001 0.1 Example 1. Some common materials (pure and mixture) tion temperature. the viscosity can be considered constant in many cases.555 Tin + Suth Where µ µ0 Tin Ti0 Suth . For isothermal ﬂow.555 × 524. have expressions that provide an estimate.4 Estimation of The Viscosity Water absolute and kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0.

99 526.00001827 0. .67 524. Viscosity of selected gases.07 527.0000109 0.93 540.5.0001254 Table -1.0000876 0.1.67 528. The list for Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients for selected materials.00001720 0.0000203 0.1.05 528.0002018 0.0001781 0.00001480 0.67 518.57 µ0 (N sec/m2 ) 0.2. VISCOSITY 13 coeﬃcients chemical formula Material ammonia standard air carbon dioxide carbon monoxide hydrogen nitrogen oxygen sulfur dioxide CO2 CO H2 N2 O2 SO2 N H3 Sutherland 370 120 240 118 72 111 127 416 TiO [K] 527.0000654 oxygen mercury vapor Table -1.00000982 0.0000076 0. Substance formula i − C4 H10 CH4 CO2 O2 Hg Temperature T [◦ C] 23 20 20 20 380 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.0000146 0.

15-0.098 0.200 0.01915 0. Viscosity of selected liquids.000946 0.05 0.084 0.3.001194 0.000652 ∼ 1 × 107 1.986 5-20 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Substance formula (C2 H5 )O C6 H6 Br2 C2 H5 OH Hg H2 SO4 Temperature T [◦ C] 20 20 26 20 25 25 25 25 25 20 ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C 20 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.001547 0. .000245 0.069 Olive Oil Castor Oil Clucuse Corn Oil SAE 30 SAE 50 SAE 70 Ketchup Ketchup Benzene Firm glass Glycerol Table -1.14 CHAPTER 1.54 1.000647 0.072 0.6 0.

003 20.11 the relative viscosity µr = µ/µc is plotted as a function of relative temperature.9696 2. 258. In this graph.3 19. then the critical .0 21.6 26.064 [MPa] µc [ N sec ] m2 3. Washington D. Furthermore.096 K Pc [Bar] 12. many aluminum alloys are behaving as a Newtonian liquid until the ﬁrst solidiﬁcation appears (assuming steady state thermodynamics properties). ∼ 1[bar].3 5. the metal behavior can be estimated as a Newtonian material (further reading can be done in this author’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design”).00 30. Even when there is a solidiﬁ.636 58.5 2. Hougen et al suggested to use graph similar to compressibility chart.10 exhibits several liquid metals (from The Reactor Handbook.4.S.01 32. if the information is available and is close enough to the critical point.0 18.C.47 2.Fig. Furthermore.016 4.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.10.7685 36.26 44. -1.54 15. µc is the viscosity at critical condition and µ is the viscosity at any given condition.83865 46. Vol. The simplest way is by obtaining the data from Table 1. if one point is well documented.9 15 Table -1. Government Printing Oﬃce. Atomic Energy Commission AECD-3646 U.4 190. for practical purpose.4 49. other points can be estimated. Tr .0 15. 2008 The General Viscosity Graphs In case “ordinary” ﬂuids where information is limit.0 Li Na K Hg Pb Liquid metal can be considered as a Newtonian ﬂuid for many applications.0 0. Liquid Metal viscosity 2. cation (mushy zone).944 131. May 1995 p. In Figure 1. Pr = P/Pc are drawn.1. The properties at the critical stage and their values of selected materials.183 39.7 647.) sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1. Figure 1. VISCOSITY chemical component H2 He Ne Ar Xe Air “mix” CO2 O2 C 2 H6 CH4 Water Molecular Weight 2.358525 48.5.8 132 304.865925 50.04 Tc [K] 33.40685 22.4 305.5 151 289.8823 73. 19. Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature. The lower pressure is.289945 27.3 28.07 16. The second way. The critical pressure can be evaluated in the following three ways.2 154.97 44. The lines of constant relative pressure.4 or similar information. this graph also shows the trends.256425 48.5 1.

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS given µc = µ µr ﬁgure 1. Example 1.20) Calculate the reduced pressure and the reduced temperature and from the Figure 1. Or ˜ √ µc = M Pc 2/3 Tc −1/6 (1.35[Bar] Tc = 154.35 373.41 154.18) The third way.4 µc = 18 value of the reduced temperature is Tr ∼ The value of the reduced pressure is Pr ∼ 20 ∼ 0. For most 3 Kyama.11 obtain the reduced viscosity. Solution The critical condition of oxygen are Pc = 50. only the mixture of low density gases is discussed for analytical expression.4: Estimate the viscosity of oxygen.16 viscosity is obtained as CHAPTER 1.6[N sec/m2 ] The observed value is 24[N sec/m2 ]3 . Rev.15 ∼ 2. there isn’t silver bullet to estimate the viscosity.19) Where vc is the critical molecular volume and M is molecular weight. O2 at 100◦ C and 20[Bar]. 26 No. 2 1956. Even for homogeneous mixture.2 = 21.11 it can be obtained µr ∼ 1. is by utilizing the following approximation µc = M Tc vc 2/3 ˜ (1. . when none is available.4 N sec m2 The From Figure 1.2 and the predicted viscosity is T able µ = µc µ µc = 18 × 1. Makita. Physical Chemistry Japan Vol. In this book.4 50. End Solution Viscosity of Mixtures In general the viscosity of liquid mixture has to be evaluated experimentally.11 (1.

The dimensionless parameter Φij is equal to one when i = j. xi is the mole fraction of component i. The subscript i should be used for the j index.1.21) where Φi j is deﬁned as 1 Φij = √ 8 Mi 1+ Mj 1+ µi µj 4 Mj Mi (1.11. n µmix = i=1 xi µi n j=1 xi Φij 2 (1.22) Here. the following Wilke’s correlation for gas at low density provides a result in a reasonable range. VISCOSITY 17 Reduced Viscosity 2 10 liquid 5 dense gas Reduced Viscosity µ µc 2 two-phase region 1 critical point Pr=LD Pr=0. cases. n is the number of the chemical components in the mixture. . and µi is the viscosity of component i. The mixture viscosity is highly nonlinear function of the fractions of the components.5. -1. 2008 Fig.5 Pr=1 Pr=2 Pr=3 Pr=5 Pr=25 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 2 2 3 T Tc 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Reduced Temperature May 27.2 Pr=0. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.

18

6

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

5

Tr=0.8 Tr=1 Tr=1.1 Tr=1.2 Tr=1.4 Tr=1.6 Tr=2 Tr=3

µ µ0

4

Reduced viscosity

3

2

1 -1 10

2

5

1

2

5

10

2

P Reduced Pressure [ Pc ]

June 2, 2008

Fig. -1.12. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.

Example 1.5: Calculate the viscosity of a mixture (air) made of 20% oxygen, O2 and 80% nitrogen N2 for the temperature of 20◦ C. Solution The following table summarize the known details i 1 2 Component O2 N2 Molecular Weight, M 32. 28. Mole Fraction, x 0.2 0.8 Viscosity, µ 0.0000203 0.00001754

1.5. VISCOSITY i 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 Mi /Mj 1.0 1.143 0.875 1.0 µi /µj 1.0 1.157 .86 1.0 Φij 1.0 1.0024 0.996 1.0

19

µmix ∼

**0.2 × 0.0000203 0.8 × 0.00001754 N sec + ∼ 0.0000181 0.2 × 1.0 + 0.8 × 1.0024 0.2 × 0.996 + 0.8 × 1.0 m2
**

N sec m2

The observed value is ∼ 0.0000182

.

End Solution

In very low pressure, in theory, the viscosity is only a function of the temperature with a “simple” molecular structure. For gases with very long molecular structure or complexity structure these formulas cannot be applied. For some mixtures of two liquids it was observed that at a low shear stress, the viscosity is dominated by a liquid with high viscosity and at high shear stress to be dominated by a liquid with the low viscosity liquid. The higher viscosity is more dominate at low shear stress. Reiner and Phillippoﬀ suggested the following formula 1 µ0 − µ∞ τ xy dUx µ + 2 = ∞ (1.23) τxy dy 1 + τs Where the term µ∞ is the experimental value at high shear stress. The term µ0 is the experimental viscosity at shear stress approaching zero. The term τs is the characteristic shear stress of the mixture. An example for values for this formula, for Molten Sulfur at temperature 120◦ C are µ∞ = 0.0215 N sec , µ0 = 0.00105 N sec , m2 m2 and τs = 0.0000073 kN . This equation (1.23) provides reasonable value only up to 2 m τ = 0.001 kN . m2 Figure 1.12 can be used for a crude estimate of dense gases mixture. To estimate the viscosity of the mixture with n component Hougen and Watson’s method for pseudocritial properties is adapted. It this method the following is deﬁned as

n

Pc

mix

=

i=1

xi Pc

i

(1.24)

n

Tc

mix

=

i=1

xi Tc

i

(1.25)

20 and

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

n

µc

mix

=

i=1

xi µc

i

(1.26)

Example 1.6: An inside cylinder with a radius of 0.1 [m] rotates concentrically within a ﬁxed cylinder of 0.101 [m] radius and the cylinders length is 0.2 [m]. It is given that a moment of 1 [N × m] is required to maintain an angular velocity of 31.4 revolution per second. Estimate the liquid viscosity used between the cylinders. Solution The moment or the torque is transmitted through the liquid to the outer cylinder. Control volume around the inner cylinder shows that moment is a function of the area and shear stress. The shear stress calculations can be estimated as a linear between the two concentric cylinders. The velocity at the inner cylinders surface is Ui = r ω = 0.1 × 1[rad/second] = 0.1[m/s] (1.VI.a)

The velocity at the outer cylinder surface is zero. The velocity gradient may be assumed to be linear, hence, dU ∼ 0.1 − 0 (1.VI.b) = 100sec−1 = dr 0.101 − 0.1 The used moment is dU M =µ = 100 ×2 × 0.1 × π × 0.2 = dr

End Solution dU dr

(1.VI.c)

Example 1.7: A square block weighing 1.0 [kN] with a side surfaces area of 0.1 [m2 ] slides down an incline surface with an angle of 20◦ C. The surface is covered with oil ﬁlm. The oil force a distance between the block and the inclined surface of 1 × 10−6 [m] thick. What is the speed of the block at steady state? Assuming a linear velocity proﬁle in the oil and that the whole oil is under steady state. The viscosity of the oil is 3 × 10−5 [m2 /sec]. Solution The shear stress at the surface is estimated for steady state by τ =µ U dU = 3 × 10−5 × = 30 U dx 1 × 10−6 (1.VII.a)

1.6. FLUID PROPERTIES The total ﬁction force is then f = τ A = 0.1 × 30, U = 3 U The gravity force that act against the friction is equal to the friction hence Fg = m g sin 20◦ = 3 U =⇒ U = m g sin 20◦ = 3

21

(1.VII.b)

(1.VII.c)

End Solution

Example 1.8: Develop an expression for estimate of the torque required to rotate a disc in a narrow gap. The edge eﬀects can be neglected. The gap is given and equal to δ and the rotation speed is ω. The shear stress can be assumed to be linear. Solution

δ

Fig. -1.13. Rotating disc in a steady state.

In this cases the shear stress is a function of the radius, r and expression has to be developed for it. In addition the diﬀerential area also increases and is a function of r. The shear stress can be estimated as U ωr τ ∼µ =µ = δ δ This shear stress can be integrated for the entire area as

R R

(1.VIII.a)

T =

0

2 r τ dA = 2

0

2µr

ωr 2 π r dr δ

(1.VIII.b)

The results of the integration is F = π µ ω R4 δ (1.VIII.c)

End Solution

1.6 Fluid Properties

The ﬂuids have many properties which are similar to solid. A discussion of viscosity and surface tension should be part of this section but because special importance these topics have a separate sections. The rest of the properties lumped into this section.

22

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

1.6.1

Fluid Density

The density is a property that is simple to analyzed and understand. Examples to described usage of property are provided. Example 1.9: A steel tank ﬁlled with water undergoes heating from 27◦ C to 127◦ C. The initial pressure can be assumed to atmospheric. Due to the change temperature the tank (the steel) undergoes linear expansion of 8 10−6 per ◦ C. State your assumptions. Solution The expansion of the steel tank will be due to two contributions: one from the thermal Expansion and two pressure increase in the tank. For this example, it is assumed that the expansion due to pressure increase is negligible. The tank volume change under the assumptions the tank walls remain straight is

thermal expansion

V2 = V1 (1 + α∆ T )

3

(1.IX.a)

The more accurate calculations require looking into the steam tables. As approximation the relationship between the pressure and density in the liquid phase as ρ2 = ρ1 1 E = P2 − P1 E − ∆P 1− E (1.IX.b)

where E denotes the modulus of elasticity for the water 2.15 109 (N/m2 ) The water mass in the tank remain constant m1 = m2 −→ ρ1 V1 = ρ2 V2 . The change of density is reversed of the change of volume. ρ2 V1 E = = ρ1 V2 E − ∆P or using equation (1.IX.a) (1 + α∆ T ) =

3

(1.IX.c)

E − ∆P E

(1.IX.d)

**or expanding the cubical equation and neglecting high power terms of α. E (1 + α∆ T ) − E = P2 − P1 =⇒ P2 ∼ P1 + (3 α + · · · )E P1 = 3 × 8 10−6 × 100 × 2.15 109 =
**

End Solution

3

(1.IX.e)

1.6. FLUID PROPERTIES

23

1.6.2

Bulk Modulus

Similar to solids (hook’s law), liquids have a property that describes the volume change as results of pressure change for constant temperature. It can be noted that this property is not the result of the equation of state but related to it. Bulk modulus is usually obtained from experimental or theoretical or semi theoretical (theory with experimental work) to ﬁt energy–volume data. Most (theoretical) studies are obtained by uniformly changing the unit cells in global energy variations especially for isotropic systems ( where the molecules has a structure with cubic symmetries). The bulk modulus is deﬁned as BT = −v ∂P ∂v (1.27)

T

**Using the identity of v = 1/ρ transfers equation (1.27) into BT = ρ ∂P ∂ρ (1.28)
**

T

**The bulk modulus for several liquids is presented in Table 1.5.
**

Table -1.5. The bulk modulus for selected material with the critical temperature and pressure na −→ not available and nf −→ not found (exist but was not found in the literature).

chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerol Mercury Methyl Alcohol Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Paraﬃn Oil SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water

Bulk Modulus 109 N m 2.49 0.80 1.10 1.32 1.06 1.3 4.03-4.52 26.2-28.5 0.97 2.20 1.60 1.62 1.5 2.34 1.09 1.28 2.15-2.174

Tc 593K 508 K 562 K 556.4 K 514 K nf 850 K 1750 K Est 513 nf nf nf na na 591.79 K na 647.096 K

Pc 57.8 [Bar] 48 [Bar] 4.74 [MPa] 4.49 [MPa] 6.3 [Mpa] nf 7.5 [Bar] 172.00 [MPa] Est 78.5 [Bar] nf nf nf na na 4.109 [MPa] na 22.064 [MPa]

In the literature, additional expansions for similar parameters are deﬁned. The

24

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

**thermal expansion is deﬁned as βP = 1 v ∂v ∂T (1.29)
**

P

This parameter indicates the change of volume due to temperature change when the pressure is constant. Another deﬁnition is referred as coeﬃcient of tension and it is deﬁned as βv = 1 P ∂P ∂T (1.30)

v

This parameter indicates the change of the pressure due to the change of temperature (where v = constant). These deﬁnitions are related to each other. This relationship is obtained by the observation that the pressure as a function of the temperature and speciﬁc volume as P = f (T, v) The full pressure derivative is dP = ∂P ∂T dT +

v

(1.31)

∂P ∂v

dv

T

(1.32)

**On constant pressure lines, dP = 0, and therefore equation (1.32) is 0= ∂P ∂T dT +
**

v

∂P ∂v

dv

T

(1.33)

From equation (1.33) follows that ∂P ∂T ∂P ∂v

dv dT

=−

P =const

v

(1.34)

T

Equation (1.34) indicates that relationship for these three coeﬃcients is βT = − βv βP (1.35)

The last equation (1.35) sometimes is used in measurement of the bulk modulus. The increase of the pressure increases the bulk modulus due to the molecules increase of the rejecting forces between each other when they are closer. In contrast, the temperature increase results in reduction of the bulk of modulus because the molecular are further away.

1.6. FLUID PROPERTIES

25

Example 1.10: Calculate the modulus of liquid elasticity that reduced 0.035 per cent of its volume by applying a pressure of 5[Bar]. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus βT = −v v 5 ∂P ∼ ∆P = ∼ 14285.714[Bar] ∂v ∆v 0.00035

End Solution

Example 1.11: Calculate the pressure needed to apply on water to reduce its volume by 1 per cent. Assume the temperature to be 20◦ C. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus ∆P ∼ βT ∆v ∼ 2.15 109 .01 = 2.15 107 [N/m2 ] = 215[Bar] v

End Solution

Example 1.12: Two layers of two diﬀerent liquids are contained in a very solid tank. Initially the pressure in the tank is P0 . The liquids are compressed due to the pressure increases. The new pressure is P1 . The area of the tank is A and liquid A height is h1 and liquid B height is h2 . Estimate the change of the heights of the liquids depicted in the Figure 1.14. State your assumptions. Solution The volume change in a liquid is BT ∼ = Hence the change for the any liquid is ∆h = ∆P h ∆P = A BT /V BT (1.XII.b) ∆P ∆V /V (1.XII.a)

air (or gas)

Oil (liquid 1)

h1

Water (liquid 2)

h2

Fig. -1.14. Two liquid layers under pressure.

26

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

The total change when the hydrostatic pressure is ignored. ∆h1+2 = ∆P h1 h2 + BT 1 BT 2 (1.XII.c)

End Solution

Example 1.13: The hydrostatic pressure was neglected in example 1.12. In some place the ocean deep is many kilometers (the deepest places is more than 10 kilometers). For this example, calculate the density change in the bottom of 10 kilometers using two methods. In one method assume that the density is remain constant until the bottom. In the second method assume that the density is a function of the pressure. Solution For the the ﬁrst method the density is BT ∼ = ∆P ∆P =⇒ ∆V = V ∆V /V BT (1.XIII.a)

The density at the surface is ρ = m/V and the density at point x from the surface the density is m m ρ(x) = =⇒ ρ(x) = ∆P V − ∆V (1.XIII.b) V −V BT In the Chapter on static it will be shown that the change pressure is

x

∆P = g

0

ρ(x)dx

(1.XIII.c)

**Combining equation (1.XIII.b) with equation (1.XIII.c) yields m ρ(x) = x g ρ(x)dx 0 V −V BT Equation can be rearranged to be m ρ(x) = x g ρ(x)dx V 1− BT 0 =⇒ ρ(x) = ρ0 g 1− BT
**

x

(1.XIII.d)

ρ(x)dx

0

(1.XIII.e)

**Equation (1.XIII.e) is an integral equation which is discussed in the appendix4 . . It is convenient to change further equation (1.XIII.e) to 1−
**

4 Under

g BT

x

ρ(x)dx =

0

ρ0 ρ(x)

(1.XIII.f)

construction

1.6. FLUID PROPERTIES

27

The integral equation (1.XIII.f) can be converted to diﬀerential equation when the two sides under diﬀerentiation g ρ0 d ρ(x) ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ(x)2 dx or g ρ(x)3 d ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ0 dx ρ0 BT =x+c 2 g ρ2 ρ0 BT 2 g (x + c) (1.XIII.g)

(1.XIII.h)

The solution is

(1.XIII.i)

or rearranged as ρ= (1.XIII.j)

The integration constant can be found by the fact that the density at the x = 0 is ρ0 ρ0 = Hence the solution is ρ = ρ0 ρ0 BT 2 g ρ 0 x + BT (1.XIII.l) ρ0 BT BT =⇒ c = 2 g (c) 2 g ρ0 (1.XIII.k)

**In the “constant” density approach, the density at the bottom using equation (1.XIII.e) is ρ0 ρ0 BT ρ= =⇒ g (1.XIII.m) BT − g ρ0 x 1− g ρ0 x BT
**

End Solution

Advance material can be skipped

1.6.2.1

Bulk Modulus of Mixtures

In the discussion above it was assumed that the liquid is pure. In this short section a discussion about the bulk modulus averaged is presented. When more than one liquid are exposed to pressure the value of these two (or more liquids) can have to be added in special way. The deﬁnition of the bulk modulus is given by equation (1.27) or (1.28) and can be written (where the partial derivative can looks as delta ∆ as ∂V = V ∂P ∼ V ∆P = BT BT (1.36)

The total change is compromised by the change of individual liquids or phases if two materials are present. Even in some cases of emulsion (a suspension of small globules

28

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

of one liquid in a second liquid with which the ﬁrst will not mix) the total change is the summation of the individuals change. In case the total change isn’t, in special mixture, another approach with taking into account the energy-volume is needed. Thus, the total change is ∂V = ∂V1 + ∂V2 + · · · ∂Vi ∼ ∆V1 + ∆V2 + · · · ∆Vi = Substituting equation (1.36) into equation (1.37) results in ∂V = V2 ∂P Vi ∂P ∼ V1 ∆P V2 ∆P Vi ∆P V1 ∂P + + ··· + + + ··· + = BT 1 BT 2 BT i BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.38) (1.37)

Under the main assumption in this model the total volume is comprised of the individual volume hence, V = x1 V + x1 V + · · · + xi V (1.39)

Where x1 , x2 and xi are the fraction volume such as xi = Vi /V . Hence, using this identity and the fact that the pressure is change for all the phase uniformly equation (1.39) can be written as ∂V = V ∂P x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i ∼ V ∆P = x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.40)

Rearranging equation (1.40) yields v ∂P ∼ ∆P = =v ∂v ∆v 1 x2 xi x1 + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.41)

Equation (1.41) suggested an averaged new bulk modulus BT mix = 1 x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.42)

In that case the equation for mixture can be written as v ∂P = BT mix ∂v (1.43)

End Advance material

1.7 Surface Tension

The surface tension manifested itself by a rise or depression of the liquid at the free surface edge. Surface tension is also responsible for the creation of the drops and

1.7. SURFACE TENSION

29

bubbles. It also responsible for the breakage of a liquid jet into other medium/phase to many drops (atomization). The surface tension is force per length and is measured by [N/m] and is acting to stretch the surface. Surface tension results from a sharp change in the density between two adjoined phases or materials. There is a common misconception for the source of the surface tension. In many (physics, surface tension, and ﬂuid mechanics) books explained that the surface tension is a result from unbalance molecular cohesive forces. This explanation is wrong since it is in conﬂict with Newton’s second law (see example ?). This erroneous explanation can be traced to Adam’s book but earlier source may be found. The relationship between the surface tension and the pres2dβ1 sure on the two sides of the sury face is based on geometry. Con2dβ2 sider a small element of surface. dℓ2 The pressure on one side is Pi and the pressure on the other side is Po . When the surface tension R1 is constant, the horizontal forces R2 dℓ1 cancel each other because symx metry. In the vertical direction, the surface tension forces are puling the surface upward. Thus, the pressure diﬀerence has to balance the surface tension. The forces in Fig. -1.15. Surface tension control volume analysis describing principals radii. the vertical direction reads (Pi − Po ) d

1

d

2

= ∆Pd

1

d

2

= 2 σd

1

sin β1 + 2 σd

2

sin β2

(1.44)

For a very small area, the angles are very small and thus (sin β ∼ β). Furthermore, it can be noticed that d i ∼ 2 Ri dβi . Thus, the equation (1.44) can be simpliﬁed as ∆P = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (1.45)

Equation (1.45) predicts that pressure diﬀerence increase with inverse of the radius. There are two extreme cases: one) radius of inﬁnite and radius of ﬁnite size. The second with two equal radii. The ﬁrst case is for an inﬁnite long cylinder for which the equation (1.45) is reduced to ∆P = σ 1 R (1.46)

Other extreme is for a sphere for which the main radii are the same and equation (1.45) is reduced to 2σ (1.47) ∆P = R

30

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

Where R is the radius of the sphere. A soap bubble is made of two layers, inner and outer, thus the pressure inside the bubble is ∆P = 4σ R (1.48)

Example 1.14: A glass tube is inserted into bath of mercury. It was observed that contact angle between the glass and mercury is 55◦ C. The inner diameter is 0.02[m] and 55◦ the outer diameter is 0.021[m]. Estimate the force due to the surface P = ρhg tension (tube is depicted in Figure 0.02[m] σ 1.16). It can be assume that the h 0.025[m] contact angle is the same for the inside and outside part of the tube. Estimate the depression size. As55◦ sume that the surface tension for this combination of material is 0.5 Fig. -1.16. Glass tube inserted into mercury. [N/m] Solution The mercury as free body that several forces act on it. F = σ2 π cos 55◦ C (Di + Do ) (1.XIV.a)

This force is upward and the horizontal force almost canceled. However, if the inside and the outside diameters are considerable diﬀerent the results is F = σ2 π sin 55◦ C (Do − Do ) (1.XIV.b)

**The balance of the forces on the meniscus show under the magniﬁed glass are
**

A

b & W P π r2 = σ 2 π r + & or

∼0 ∼0

(1.XIV.c)

b & g ρ h π r2 = σ 2 π r + & W Or after simpliﬁcation h= 2σ gρr

(1.XIV.d)

(1.XIV.e)

End Solution

XVI.50) Where.47) for reversible process. Solution The work is due to the change of the bubbles volume.7. equation (1. which contains n bubbles with equal radii. the temperature must remain constant due to heat transfer.7. Solution The diﬀerence lie in the fact that “missing”cylinder add additional force and reduce the amount of liquid that has to raise. r. that is the work is done on the system. It can be noticed that the work is negative. Thus.16: Develop expression for rise of the liquid due to surface tension in concentric cylinders.b) (1.1.c) ρ g (ro − ri ) End Solution 1. The relationship between pressure diﬀerence and the radius is described by equation (1.15: A Tank ﬁlled with liquid. Calculate the minimum work required to increase the pressure in tank by ∆P . Assume that the liquid bulk modulus is inﬁnity.1 Wetting of Surfaces .XVI. SURFACE TENSION 31 Example 1. r0 is the radius at the initial stage and rf is the radius at the ﬁnal stage. The work is rf w= r0 ∆P (v)dv (1.XVI. The balance between gravity and surface tension is σ 2 π (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) = ρ g h π(ro )2 − π(ri )2 Which can be simpliﬁed as h= 2 σ (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) ρ g ((ro )2 − (ri )2 ) (1. Hence the work is ∆P rf dv w= r0 2σ 4 π r2 dr = 8 π σ r rf r0 rdr = 4 π σ rf 2 − r0 2 (1. The reversible process requires very slow compression.a) The maximum is obtained when cos θi = cos θo = 1.XVI.49) The minimum work will be for a reversible process.b) can be simpliﬁed 2σ h= (1. The work for n bubbles is then 4 π σ n rf 2 − r0 2 . End Solution Example 1. It is worth noting that for very slow process.

liquid. -1. The connection of the three phases–materials–mediums creates two situations which are categorized as wetting or non–wetting. and gas can be ignored.18. The surface tension occurs between gas phase (G) to liquid phase (L) and also occurs between the solid (S) and the liqFig. In fact there are commercial sprays that are intent to change the surface from wetting to non wetting. thus. -1. It must be noted that the solid boundary isn’t straight.52) into equation (1. There is a common deﬁnition of wetting the surface. if the angle is below than 90◦ the material is wetting the surface (see Figure 1. Regardless to the magnitude of the surface tensions (except to zero) the forces cannot be balanced for the description of straight lines.18).51) yields σgs − σls = Fsolid tan β (1. Thus.51). uid phases as well as between the gas phase and the solid phase. forces balanced along the line of solid boundary is σgs − σls − σlg cos β = 0 and in the tangent direction to the solid line the forces balance is Fsolid = σlg sin β substituting equation (1.51) G For β = π/2 =⇒ tan β = ∞. The angle is determined by properties of the liquid. the solid reaction force must be zero. a contact angle is created to balance it. For example. On the other hand. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS To explain the source of the contact angle.52) (1. If the angle of the contact between three materials is larger than 90◦ then it is non-wetting. The gas solid surface tension is diﬀerent from the liquid solid surface tension and hence violating equation (1.53) (1. forces diagram is shown when control volume is chosen so that the masses of the solid. The surface tension is a molec. Description of wetting and ular phenomenon. And a small change on the solid surface can change the wetting condition to non–wetting.17. This contact point occurs due to free surface reaching a solid boundary. In Figure 1. consider the point where three phases became in conS L tact. gas medium and the solid surface.32 CHAPTER 1. Forces in Contact angle. The surface tension forces must be balanced. structure of the surface and it provides the balance for these local structures. This fact is the reason that no reliable data can be provided with the exception to pure substances and perfect . thus depend on the locale non–wetting ﬂuids.17.Fig. The contact angle is determined by NonWetting whether the surface tension between the gas Wetting fluid solid (gs) is larger or smaller then the surface fluid tension of liquid solid (ls) and the local geometry.

the wetness of ﬂuids is a function of the solid as well. the water is changed to be wetting (for example 3M selling product to “change” water to non–wetting). No 1. V. V. chemical component Steel Steel. SURFACE TENSION 33 geometries. and Rohsenow W.83 π/3. and Ostrovsky. (1966) “On the mechanism of boiling heat transfer”. Energetika I transport. K. Pages 509 . Siegel.83 π/4.” Chem. G. The contact angle for air. Y. 124. E.. water is described in many books as a wetting ﬂuid. papes 717 -728. Symp. . pages 1465-1470.1. A. 11-17 1(7) In Russian. (1958) “wlijanii smatchivaemosti na teploobmen pri kipenii. R.4 π/3.N.6.5 π/3. 6 Basu. and Westwater. (1939) “Approximate theory of heat transfer by developed nucleate boiling” In Sussian Izvestiya An SSSR .. Keshock (1975) “Eﬀects of reduced gravity on nucleate boiling bubble dynamics in saturated water.. N. ”The determination of forced convection surface– boiling heat transfer. J. Aladev O. Heat Transfer.” Injenerno Fizitcheskij Jurnal.76 to π/3. Vol.Nickel Nickel Nickel Chrome-Nickel Steel Silver Zink Bronze Copper Copper Copper Contact Angle π/3. 56. vol 1 pp 365 . however.517. I. 3 Tolubinsky.7. Warrier. G.74 π/4. 1975 2 Bergles A. This statement is correct in most cases. Eng. Ser.2 π/4 π/3 π/2 Source [1] [2] [1] [3] [4] [5] [4] [4] [4] [7] [8] 1 R. when solid surface is made or cotted with certain materials.7 π/4. Table -1. (2002) “Onset of Nucleate Boiling and Active Nucleation Site Density during Subcooled Flow Boiling.7 π/6 to π/4.. M. For example.372. J.” AIChE Journal Volume 10 Issue 4. distilled water with selected materials to demonstrate the inconsistency.. So. 5 Labuntsov D. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. and Dhir. (1960) “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer... ASME. Vol. E. 9.I. R. W.74 to π/3. Prog. No 12. 7 Gaetner.I..” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer..T. F. 4 Arefeva E.

Appalling equation (1.19. and the contact angle consider simple “wetting” liquid contacting a solid material in two– dimensional shape as depicted in Figure 1.56) is non–linear diﬀerential equation for height and can be written as 1-D Surface Due to Surface Tension ghρ σ dh 1+ dx 2 3/2 − d2 h =0 dx2 (1.55) into equation (1. Equation (1. 659-669 To explain the contour of the surface. is ˙ 1 + h(x) R(x) = ¨ h(x) 2 3/2 (1. ρ = (1.46) and using the pressure diﬀerence yields σ g h(x). the P h pressure diﬀerence between the two sides of P P free surface has to be balanced by the surface tension.55) ˙ Where h is the derivative of h with respect to x. The pressure. on the gas side. In Figure 1.34 CHAPTER 1.54) R(x) 0 0 0 The radius of any continuous function. -1. is the atmospheric pressure.” J. H. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 8 Wang. x+dx. C. “Eﬀect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface.. Substituting equation (1.19. K.54) yields σ g h(x) ρ = (1. The pressure just below the surface is −g h(x) ρ (this pressure diﬀerence will be explained in more details in Chapter 4). pp. V.46) is applicable to it.56) 2 3/2 ˙ 1 + h(x) ¨ h(x) Equation (1. (1993). The surface tension reduces the pressure in the liquid above the liquid line (the dotted line in Fig.. and Dhir.55) can be derived either by forcing a circle at three points at (x. the Figure 1. To solve the shape of the liquid surface. and x+2dx) and thus ﬁnding the the diameter or by geometrical analysis of triangles build on points x and x+dx (perpendicular to the tangent at these points). Description of liquid surface.19 describes the raising of the liquid as results of the surface tension.19).57) . h = h(x). This problem is a two dimensional problem and equation (1. Heat Transfer 115.

7. The units of this ˙ constant are meter squared.56) is ghρ = ¨ σh ˙ 1 + h2 Integrating equation (1. 1− h2 = 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1.1.64) p equation has an analytical solution which is x = Lp 4 − (h/Lp)2 − Lp acosh(2 Lp/h) + constant where Lp is the Laplace constant. Shamefully.63) Squaring both sides and moving the one to the right side yields ˙ h2 = 5 This 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1.59) into ¨ ˙ identities h 1 h dh = Lp ξdξ (1 + ξ 2 ) 3/2 (1. h = ξ = dξ transforms equation (1. the height and the derivative of the height must by zero so constant + 0 = −1/1 and hence. this author doesn’t know how to show it in a two lines derivations.58) dh (1. The diﬀerential dh is h.58) transforms into gρ h dh = σ ¨ h ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 3/2 (1.62) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation that can be solved by variables separation5 .59) The constant Lp σ/ρ g is referred to as Laplace’s capillarity constant. An try) and the derivative at hx alternative presentation of equation (1. Using dummy variable and the ˙ = ξ and hence. SURFACE TENSION 35 ˙ With the boundary conditions that specify either the derivative h(x = r) = 0 (symme˙ = β or heights in two points or other combinations. . constant = −1 .62) Equation (1.60) After the integration equation (1.60) becomes h2 + constant = − 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1. Equation (1.62) can be rearranged to be ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp (1.61) At inﬁnity.

7. that information conﬂict each other and no real information is available see Table 1. 1. However.1 Capillarity h The capillary forces referred to the fact that surface tension causes liquid to rise or penetrate into area (volume). -1. otherwise it will not be there.20.65) = dx −1 (1. { . INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The last stage of the separation is taking the square root of both sides to be dh ˙ h= = dx or dh 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1.66) can be integrated to yield dh = x + constant 2 1 −1 2 1 − 2h Lp - (1.67) The constant is determined by the boundary condition at x = 0. this equation describes the dimensionless parameter that aﬀects this phenomenon and this parameter will be studied in Chapter ?.1.68) 0 Theory actual working range R Where ∆ρ is the diﬀerence of liquid density to the Fig. in reality there is no readily information for contact angle6 and therefore this equation is useful to show the treads. there are information about the contact angle.66) Equation (1. For example if h(x − 0) = h0 then constant = h0 . function of the radii. But this simplistic equation is unusable and useless unless the contact angle (assuming that the contact angel is constant or a repressive average can be found or provided or can be measured) is given. However. Furthermore.36 CHAPTER 1. The maximum that the contact angle can be obtained in 6 Actually. This equation is studied extensively in classes on surface tension. therefore this discussion on surface tension equation will be limited.6. The raising height as a gas density and r is the radius of tube. It can be shown that the height that the liquid raised in a tube due to the surface tension is h= 2 σ cos β g ∆ρ r (1. This book is introductory.

The experimental results of these materials are with agreement with the discussion above. The surface tension of a selected material is given in Table 1.3 0.21.0 0.Fig.0728 22σ = ∼ 2. On the other hand. Solution The pressure inside the droplet is given by equation (1. h is similar to equation (1.69). However.6 0.7.4 0.57) proved better results because the curve approaches hemispherical sphere (small gravity eﬀect). The height based on equation (1. high height which indicates a negative pressure.2 0. The liquid at a certain pressure will be vaporized and will breakdown the model upon this equation was constructed. -1.0 Distilled water [23 C] Mercury [25 C] Equation 0. The discussion above was referred to “wetting” contact angle.68) when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1.5 1. 2008 Example 1. Furthermore.1.7 Radii [cm] May 29.912 10−4 [m] ∆P 1000 End Solution .2 1. Equation (1.69) provides reasonable results only in a certain range. the small scale indicates that the simplistic and continuous approach is not appropriate and a diﬀerent model is needed. the gravity is working against the surface tension and reducing the range and quality of the predictions of equation (1. In conclusion.8 2.68) becomes hmax = 2σ g ∆ρ r (1. The measurements of the height of distilled water and mercury are presented in Figure 1.4 2.21 exhibits the height as a function of Capilary Height the radius of the tube. equation (1.20 as blue line.57) approaches the strait line (the liquid line) strong gravity eﬀect.20. 1. The actual height is shown in the red line.6 0.” The depression height.7.47).21. the surface tension issue is important only in case where the radius is very small and gravity is negligible. For large radii equation (1. For a small tube radius.9 1.2 1. D = 2R = 4 × 0. The conclusion of this discussion are shown in Figure 1. The actual dimension for many liquids (even water) is about 1-5 [mm].1 2.17: Calculate the diameter of a water droplet to attain pressure diﬀerence of 1000[N/m2 ]. for ex.69) Figure 1.69) with a minus sign. In that case equation (1.8 Height [cm] 0.69) is shown in Figure 1. The surface tension depends on the two materials or mediums that it separates. You can assume that temperature is 20◦ C. SURFACE TENSION 37 equation (1. The raising height as a tremely small radii equation (1.0 0. The depression of the liquid occurs in a “negative” contact angle similarly to “wetting. This angle is obtained when a perfect half a sphere shape exist of the liquid surface.69) indicates that the function of the radius.

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Example 1.02 cm.6 25. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Aniline Surface Tension 27.0002 End Solution Example 1. Estimate the surface tension? Solution To be continue End Solution Table -1.0728 ∼ .0366[N ] In this value the gravity is not accounted for. Solution F = 2(2 π r σ) cos β The actual force is unknown since the contact angle is unknown.1120 -0.0728 ∼ ∼ 728.38 CHAPTER 1. F = 4 π r σ = 4 × π × 0. The surface tension for selected materials at temperature 20◦ C when not mentioned.20 43. the maximum Force is obtained when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. However.20: A small liquid drop is surrounded with the air and has a diameter of 0.001 [m]. the pressure diﬀerence between the inside and outside droplet is 1[kPa].7.04[m] diameter from a water surface at 20◦ C.18: Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between a droplet of water at 20◦ C when the droplet has a diameter of 0. Neglect the weight of the ring.4 mN m T 20◦ C 22◦ C correction mN mK n/a -0.1085 .19: Calculate the maximum force necessary to lift a thin wire ring of 0. Therefore. End Solution Example 1. Solution using equation ∆P = 2σ 2 × 0.0[N/m2 ] r 0.04 × 0.

0890 -0.0902 -0.1118 n/a n/a -0.0832 -0.10 32.12 425-465.2049 -0.1372 .60 22.0 0.1011 n/a -0.1160 -0.1094 -0.1117 n/a -0.1063 -0.1191 -0.0598 n/a -0.0773 -0.88 39.7.15 43.0777 -0.50 24.12 33.70 38.1484 -0.85 11.20 47.0842 n/a -0.50 23.1.0935 -0.7.1172 -0.0 22.1308 -0.50 36.6 5.70 26.95 34.8 32.70 58.00 41.95 36.1211 -0.3 22.30 23.60 27.50 41.0 12.1291 -0.00 45.70 38.0-48.0972 -0.91 14.90 43.0920 -0. SURFACE TENSION Table -1.20 ∼ 21 64. The surface tension for selected materials (continue) 39 chemical component Benzene Benzylalcohol Benzylbenzoate Bromobenzene Bromobenzene Bromoform Butyronitrile Carbon disulﬁd Quinoline Chloro benzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopentanol Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon disulﬁd Chlorobutane Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylbromide Ethylene glycol Formamide Gasoline Glycerol Helium Mercury Methanol Methyl naphthalene Methyl Alcohol Neon Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Perﬂuoroheptane Perﬂuorohexane Perﬂuorooctane Phenylisothiocyanate Propanol Pyridine Surface Tension 28.1160 -0.30 43.1295 -0.10 22.1037 -0.20 24.067 -0.1484 -0.50 28.1159 -0.40 32.0966 -0.10 29.00 mN m T 25◦ C −269◦ C −247◦ C 25◦ C - correction mN mK -0.1066 -0.1177 -0.

7.4 27 72.10 28.80 30.40 CHAPTER 1.1514 -0.1101 -0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Table -1.90 -0.1104 .60 n/a 54-69 28.1100 n/a n/a -0. The surface tension for selected materials (continue) chemical component Pyrrol SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water o-Xylene m-Xylene Surface Tension mN m T - correction mN mK 36.1189 n/a -0.

1 Basic Deﬁnitions The following basic deﬁnitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this book. 2.1) This deﬁnition can be expanded to include two issues. The dimensions of this material can be changed. In fact for almost all engineering purpose this law is reduced to two separate laws of mass conservation and energy conservation. that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive. a review of several deﬁnitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented. 41 . Work In mechanics. The ﬁrst issue that must be addressed. Two. it is assumed that the system speed is signiﬁcantly lower than that of the speed of light. the work was deﬁned as mechanical work = F•d = P dV (2. In this deﬁnition. This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material. the mass can be assumed constant even though the true conservation law applied to the combination of mass energy (see Einstein’s law). It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isn’t.CHAPTER 2 Review of Thermodynamics In this chapter. there is a transfer of energy so that its eﬀect can cause work. So. System This term will be used in this book and it is deﬁned as a continuous (at least partially) ﬁxed quantity of matter.

For such body force.3) Interesting results of equation (2. For example for pure/homogeneous and simple gases it depends on two properties like temperature and pressure. etc as long the mass remain constant the deﬁnition is not broken. From the ﬁrst law it directly implies that for process without heat transfer (adiabatic process) the following is true W12 = E1 − E2 (2. The kinetic energy is K. Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating systems.6) 2 (2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Our system can receive energy. Q12 − W12 = E2 − E1 (2.E. etc. The statement describing the law is the following.42 CHAPTER 2. and electrical energy.5) is transformed into Spesiﬁc Energy Equation U1 2 U2 2 + gz1 + Eu 1 + q = + gz2 + Eu 2 + w 2 2 (2. The internal energy is denoted in this book as EU and it will be treated as a state property. The potential energy of the system is depended on the body force. Thermodynamics First Law This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system. m is the mass and the z is the vertical height from a datum. work. the conservation is applied to all systems. potential energy (gravity). The “new” internal energy. The internal energy is the energy that depends on the other properties of the system. chemical potential. .5) where q is the energy per unit mass and w is the work per unit mass. A common body force is the gravity.3) is that the way the work is done and/or intermediate states are irrelevant to ﬁnal results. Eu . There are several deﬁnitions/separations of the kind of works and they include kinetic energy. is the internal energy per unit mass. the potential energy is mgz where g is the gravity force (acceleration). = mU 2 2 (2.4) Thus the energy equation can be written as Total Energy Equation mU1 mU2 2 + mgz1 + EU 1 + Q = + mgz2 + EU 2 + W 2 2 For the unit mass of the system equation (2.2) The system energy is a state property.

Thermodynamics Second Law There are several deﬁnitions of the second law. Bf .10) The time derivative operator. is constant with time like in the case of gravity equation (2. the rate energy equation is DU D Bf z D EU ˙ ˙ + mU +m Q−W = Dt Dt Dt (2. No matter which deﬁnition is used to describe the second law it will end in a mathematical form.8) For the case were the body force. This observation leads to the deﬁnition of entropy and designated as S and the derivative of entropy is ds ≡ δQ T rev (2. it is referred as a reversible process and the inequality change to equality.9) (2. These states are independent of the path the system goes through. BASIC DEFINITIONS 43 Since the above equations are true between arbitrary points. The rate of change of the energy transfer is DQ ˙ =Q Dt (2. The most common mathematical form is Clausius inequality which state that δQ ≥0 T (2.13) .9) reduced to Time Dependent Energy Equation D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt (2. If there is no lost. δQ =0 T (2. the integral is independent of the path. choosing any point in time will make it correct.2. Hence. D/Dt is used instead of the common notation because it referred to system property derivative.11) The integration symbol with the circle represent integral of cycle (therefor circle) in with system return to the same condition.7) In the same manner. Thus diﬀerentiating the energy equation with respect to time yields the rate of change energy equation.12) The last integral can go though several states.1. the work change rate transfered through the boundaries of the system is DW ˙ =W Dt Since the system is with a ﬁxed mass.

15) Even though the derivation of the above equations were done assuming that there is no change of kinetic or potential energy. Or in a diﬀerential form as dH = dEU + dP V + P dV Combining equations (2.44 CHAPTER 2. which is the combination of already deﬁned properties.15) (2.16) (2. the process in which it is reversible and adiabatic. Thus. the enthalpy of the system. The equation (2.20) (2.19) (2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Performing integration between two states results in 2 S2 − S1 = 1 δQ = T rev 2 dS 1 (2.16) into (2.17) yields (one form of) Gibbs Equation T dS = dH − V dP (2.21) ρ .14) One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis is for reversible and adiabatic process dS = 0.12) can be written as δQ = T dS and the work that the system is doing on the surroundings is δW = P dV Substituting equations (2.17) in mass unit is dP T ds = du + P dv = dh − (2. Furthermore. It can be noted that there is a possibility that a process can be irreversible and the right amount of heat transfer to have zero change entropy change. Thus.17) is reduced to dH = V dP .18) For isentropic process.18) the (2.10) results in T dS = d EU + P dV (2. h. it still remail valid for all situations.17) (2. Enthalpy It is a common practice to deﬁne a new property. For reversible process equation (2. H = EU + P V The speciﬁc enthalpy is enthalpy per unit mass and denoted as. equation (2. it can be shown that it is valid for reversible and irreversible processes. the reverse conclusion that zero change of entropy leads to reversible process. isn’t correct. the entropy remains constant and referred to as isentropic process.

2. This approximation less strong for liquid but not by that much and in most cases it applied to the calculations. that ”all gases at the same pressures and temperatures have the same number of molecules per unit of volume.1. The ﬁrst change of the internal energy and it is deﬁned as the following Spesiﬁc Volume Heat Cv ≡ ∂Eu ∂T (2.26) . Commonly the diﬀerence for solid is ignored and both are assumed to be the same and therefore referred as C.” allows the calculation of a “universal gas constant. and speciﬁc volume deﬁne the equation of state for gases. and it is deﬁned as P = ρRT (2.3145 kj kmol K (2. The ratio the speciﬁc heat of gases is larger than one. BASIC DEFINITIONS when the density enters through the relationship of ρ = 1/v.25) Application of Avogadro’s law.24) For solid. Equation of state Equation of state is a relation between state variables. the ratio of the speciﬁc heats is almost 1 and therefore the diﬀerence between them is almost zero. Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp k≡ Cv (2. Normally the relationship of temperature. k. The simplest equation of state referred to as ideal gas. 45 Speciﬁc Heats The change of internal energy and enthalpy requires new deﬁnitions.22) And since the change of the enthalpy involve some kind of work is deﬁned as Spesiﬁc Pressure Heat Cp ≡ ∂h ∂T (2.23) The ratio between the speciﬁc pressure heat and the speciﬁc volume heat is called the ratio of the speciﬁc heat and it is denoted as. pressure.” This constant to match the standard units results in ¯ R = 8.

097 18.948 58.6529 0.7354 0.393 1. the speciﬁc gas can be calculate as R= ¯ R M (2.28700 0.41195 0.970 39.400 1.054 4.0416 1.29683 0.015 R kj KgK CP kj KgK Cv kj KgK k Air Argon Butane Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam 0.0299 1.327 From equation (2.48152 1.4909 1.013 114.7164 0.18855 0.51835 0.289 1.1.07279 0.6794 1.0035 0.6179 0.5482 5.999 44.8418 1.28) .667 1.7662 1.01 30.29680 0.667 1.12418 0.07 28.7448 1.04 20.4108 1.8723 0.7113 0. Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] Gas Chemical Formula Ar C4 H10 CO2 CO C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8 H18 O2 C 3 H8 H2 O Molecular Weight 28. Table -2.18892 0.07703 4.5734 0.044 1.2537 1.186 1.126 1.7445 1.4897 1.6385 0.230 31.29637 2.2518 3.1156 10.400 1.016 16.183 28.0849 1.400 1.01 28.9216 1.25) of state for perfect gas it follows d(P v) = RdT For perfect gas dh = dEu + d(P v) = dEu + d(RT ) = f (T ) (only) (2.14304 0.20813 0.299 1.2091 2.124 44.29) (2.667 1.0413 1.6618 1.7165 0.1.3122 1.1926 14.091 1.27) The speciﬁc constants for select gas at 300K is provided in table 2.237 1.409 1.46 CHAPTER 2.003 2.25983 0.27650 0. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Thus.5203 1.

2.667. BASIC DEFINITIONS From the deﬁnition of enthalpy it follows that d(P v) = dh − dEu 47 (2. The ratio of the speciﬁc heats can be expressed in several forms as Cv to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cv = R k−1 (2.” The values of several gases can be approximated as ideal gas and are provided in Table (2. ∆s = 0. k value ranges from unity to about 1.35) transformed into k T2 P2 s2 − s1 = ln − ln R k − 1 T1 P1 For isentropic process. These values depend on the molecular degrees of freedom (more explanation can be obtained in Van Wylen “F.30) Utilizing equation (2.28) and subsisting into equation (2.1.36) (2.30) and dividing by dT yields Cp − Cv = R This relationship is valid only for ideal/perfect gases.32) (2. the following is obtained T2 ln = ln T1 P2 P1 k−1 k (2.35) Or using speciﬁc heat ratio equation (2. of Classical thermodynamics.37) as Ideal Gas Isontropic Relationships T2 = T1 P2 P1 k−1 k = V1 V2 k−1 (2.33) The speciﬁc heat ratio.34) Using the identities developed so far one can ﬁnd that 2 s2 − s1 = 1 Cp dT − T 2 1 R dP T2 P2 = Cp ln − R ln P T1 P1 (2.38) . The entropy for ideal gas can be simpliﬁed as the following 2 s2 − s1 = 1 dh dP − T ρT (2.31) Cp to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp = kR k−1 (2.1).37) There are several famous identities that results from equation (2.

REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS The ideal gas model is a simpliﬁed version of the real behavior of real gas. This correction factor referred as the compressibility factor and deﬁned as Z deviation from the Ideal Gas Model PV Z= RT (2. The real gas has a correction factor to account for the deviations from the ideal gas model.39) .48 CHAPTER 2.

The velocity is derivative of the change of the location and using the chain role (for the direction and one for the magnitude) results. It also can be noticed that this derivative is present derivation of any victory. This chapter provides a review of important deﬁnitions and concepts from Mechanics (statics and dynamics). t in a location.1) Notice that ω can have three dimensional components. R . The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity “regular acceleration” angular acceleration centrifugal acceleration Coriolis acceleration a= dU = dt d2R dt2 + R× R dω dt +ω × R × ω +2 dR dt ×ω R (3. change in R direction change in perpendicular to R U = dR = dt dR dt + R ω ×R (3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body A point body is location at time.1: A water jet is supposed be used to extinguish the ﬁre in a building as depicted in Figure 49 . 3.CHAPTER 3 Review of Mechanics This author would like to express his gratitude to Dan Olsen (former Minneapolis city Engineer) and his friend Richard Hackbarth. These concepts and deﬁnitions will be used in this book and a review is needed.2) Example 3.

. Isolating t from (3.a).e) −g a2 + a tan θ 2 U 2 cos2 θ (3. What is the angle that jet has to be aimed.b) The velocity for the y coordinate at the window is zero u(t) = 0 = −g t + U sin θ (3.a) The distance for y equation for coordinate (zero is at the window) is 0=− g t2 + U sin θ t − b 2 (3. at what angle the jet has to be shot so that velocity will be horizontal at the window. The equation for the x coordinate is a = U cos θ t (3. it b proposed to calculate the velocity a of the point particle to toward the window. (3.I.I. U sin θ U cos θ θ Solution The initial velocity is unknown and denoted as U which two components.1. and time.I.b) and (3. θ.d) results in tan θ = 1 b + a 2 (3.50 CHAPTER 3.I.I.a) becomes √ ag −g a 0= + U cos θ =⇒ U = U cos θ cos θ Substituting (3. t and three equations.f) (3. Assume that gravity is g and the distance of the nozzle from the building is a and height of the window from the nozzle is b.I. To simplify the calculations.I. Calculate what is the veFig.I.I.I.I. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.I.I. U .a) and substituting into equations (3.11 . For given velocity.I.b) and (3. -3. There there are three unknowns. The velocity at x is Ux = U cos θ and the velocity in y direction is Uy = U sin θ. dow.c) b= and equation (3.e) into (3.c) can be solved explicitly.I.c) These nonlinear equations (3. Description of the extinguish locity so that the jet reach the winnozzle aimed at the building window.d) End Solution 1 While the simple example does not provide exact use of the above equation it provides experience of going over the motions of kinematics.

Note. In x coordinate. The center of mass doesn’t depend on the coordinate system and on the way it is calculated. Description of how the center of mass tion in the y nor by z directions.2 Center of Mass The center of mass is divided into two sections. The density. It can be noticed that center of mass in the x–direction isn’t aﬀected by the distribu. It is convenient to use the Cartesian system to explain this concept. the body will not rotate. . Also. -3.2.2. The density “normally” deﬁned as mass per volume. the x mass. if a body will be held by one point it will be enough to hold the body in the direction of the center of mass.Fig. y or z. the center of mass is required to make the calculations. center of the mass and two. In same is calculated. 3. if the body isn’t be held through the center of mass.2. fashion the center of mass can be deﬁned in the other directions as following xi of Center Mass 1 xi = ¯ xi ρ(xi )dV m V (3. etc. the center will be deﬁned as 1 x= ¯ m dm y x ρ(x)dV V (3. center of area (two–dimensional body with equal distribution mass). rho) as a function of the location. The physical meaning of the center of mass is that if a straight line force acts on the body in away through the center of gravity. This concept is derived from the fact that a body has a center of mass/gravity which interacts with other bodies and that this force acts on the center (equivalent force). In other words. even for solid and uniform density the line density is a function of the geometry. the the line density is referred to density mass per unit length in the x direction. moment of inertia.4) where xi is the direction of either. Suppose that the body has a distribution of the mass (density.3) z Here. Thus. It turns out that this concept is very useful in calculating rotations. ρ(xi ) is the line density as function of xi . m is the total mass of the object.2. the dV element has ﬁnite dimendV sions in y–z plane and inﬁnitesimal dimension in x direction see Figure 3. ﬁrst.1 Actual Center of Mass In many engineering problems. then a moment in additional to force is required (to prevent the body for rotating). Here. CENTER OF MASS 51 3.3. x.

3) can be transferred into 1 x= ¯ tA ρ V dm z x x ρ t dA V (3.3 which has density.6) when the integral now over only the area as oppose over the volume. Moment of inertia of mass is deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Irr m = ρr2 dm m (3. equation (3.5) Fig. There are cases where the body can be approximated as a twodimensional shape because the body is with a thin with uniform density. Furthermore.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass The moment of inertia turns out to be an essential part for the calculations of rotating bodies.2 Aproximate Center of Area t dA Y In the previous case.5) can be transferred into Aproxiate xi of Center Mass xi = ¯ 1 A xi dA A (3.3. the moment of inertia is divided into moment of inertia of mass and area. Finding the centroid location should be done in the most convenient coordinate system since the location is coordinate independent. Consider a uniform thin body with constant thickness shown in Figure 3. are constant and can be canceled.52 CHAPTER 3. 3.7) can be transformed into Irr m = ρ r2 dV V (3. it turns out that the moment of inertia has much wider applicability.2. schematic. the body was a three dimensional shape.3. t.8) . ρ and the thickness. Thin body center of mass/area The density.3 Moment of Inertia As it was divided for the body center of mass. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3. Thus. ρ.7) If the density is constant then equation (3. -3. Thus equation (3. 3.

Any point distance can be calculated from axis x as y (3. The schematic that explains the sum- (3. t and uniform density the following can be written moment of inertia for area Ixx m = r2 dm = ρ t m A r2 dA (3.2 3. Some people deﬁne the radius of gyration as an equivalent concepts for the center of mass concept and which means if all the mass were to locate in the one point/distance and to obtain the same of moment of inertia.15) mation of moment of inertia. . but dependent on the location of axis of rotation relative to the body.13) y’ C z Thus.3.11) The moment of inertia about axis is x can be deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Ixx m Ixx = r2 dA = ρt A where r is distance of dA from the axis x and t is the thickness. rk = Im m (y 2 + z 2 ) dm (x2 + z 2 ) dm V (x2 + y 2 ) dm V V (3.10) 3. -3.9) The body has a diﬀerent moment of inertia for every coordinate/axis and they are Ixx = Iyy = Izz = V V V rx 2 dm = ry 2 dm = rz 2 dm = (3.12) x= y2 + z2 (3.1 Moment of Inertia for Area General Discussion For body with thickness. MOMENT OF INERTIA 53 The moment of inertia is independent of the coordinate system used for the calculation.14) ∆y x z’ ∆x x’ In the same fashion for other two coordinates as Iyy = A x2 + z 2 dA Fig.2.3.3.4. equation (3.12) can be written as Ixx = A y +z 2 2 dA (3.3.

20) The moment of inertia of several areas is the sum of moment inertia of each area see Figure 3. n 2 1 y Ixx = i=1 Ixx i (3.19) Hence.54 CHAPTER 3. The second therm is zero because it integral of center about center thus is zero.3.2 The Parallel Axis Theorem The moment of inertial can be calculated for any axis.17) equation (3.18) The ﬁrst term in equation (3. -3. The knowledge about one axis can help calculating the moment of inertia for a parallel axis.16) 3. The third term is a new term and can be written as constant r2 2 A 2 A 2 2 (∆y) + (∆z) A dA = (∆y) + (∆z) dA = r2 A (3.2. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Izz = A x2 + y 2 dA (3.17) can be expended as Ixx =0 Ix x = A y 2 + z 2 dA + 2 A (y ∆y + z ∆z) dA + A (∆y) + (∆z) 2 2 dA (3. Ixx = i=1 Ixxi = n Ixxi (3.5 and therefore. the relationship between the moment of inertia at xx and parallel axis x x is Parallel Axis Equation Ix x = Ixx + r2 A z (3.22) .18) on the right hand side is the moment of inertia about axis x and the second them is zero. Let Ixx the moment of inertia about axis xx which is at the center of mass/area. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. The moment of inertia for axis x is Ix x = A r dA = A 2 y 2 +z 2 dA = A (y + ∆y) + (z + ∆z) 2 2 dA (3.21) x If the same areas are similar thus n Fig.5.

Here the convenient element is a shell of thickness dr which shown in Figure 3. .22) is very useful in the calculation of the moment of inertia utilizing the moment of inertia of known bodies. The moment of inertia can then move the center of area.7 around x coordinate.7. Solution The element can be calculated using cylindrical coordinate. the moment of inertial of half a circle is half of whole circle for axis a the center of circle.3.3. -3. The material is with an uniform density and homogeneous.2: Calculate the moment of inertia for the mass of the cylinder about center axis which height of h and radius.3. MOMENT OF INERTIA h 55 Equation (3.6. Cylinder with an element for calculaof the tion moment of inertia. Solution The moment of inertia is calculated utilizing equation (3. -3.6 as Irr = ρ V r dm = ρ 0 2 r0 dV r h 2 π r dr = ρ h 2 π 2 r0 4 1 1 = ρhπr0 4 = m r0 2 4 2 2 The radius of gyration is rk = 1 2 mr0 2 r0 =√ m 2 End Solution Example 3. as shown in Figure 3.3: Calculate the moment of inertia of the rectangular shape shown in Figure 3. End Solution Fig. Description of rectangular in x–y plane for calculation of moment of inertia. r0 . Fig.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia Example 3. dr r 3. For example.14) as following 0 y z b dx a x Ixx = A 2 2 y +z dA = 0 a dA z 2 bdz = a b 3 3 This value will be used in later examples.6.

The ratio of the moment of inertia of ditionally it can be noticed that the ratio two-dimensional to three–dimensional. b has no eﬀect on the error. 2 This .26) = 2 = 3 t2 Ixx m t ba + ba 1 + a2 Ixx Ixxm It can be noticed right away that equation (3.26) indicates that ratio approaches one when thickness ratio is approaches zero. Ixx m (t → 0) → 1.9.8.4: To study the assumption of zero thickness.Fig. consider a simple shape to see the eﬀects of this assumption.56 CHAPTER 3.25) Comparison with the thin body results in Ixx ρ t b a3 1 (3. Ad. t compare the results to a square shape with zero thickness. Calculate the moment of inertia about the center of mass of a square shape with a thickness. Solution The moment of inertia of transverse slice about y (see Figure mech:ﬁg:squareEll) is Ixx t dIxx m = ρ dy The transformation into from local axis x to center axis.23) dz dIx x m b a3 = ρdy + z2 12 2 r r A 2 ba A a b (3. 2008 t a End Solution ratio is a dimensionless number that commonly has no special name. The results are present in Figure 3.9. -3. I can be noticed that the error is signiﬁcant very fast even for small values of t/a while the with of the box. A square element for the calculations of inertia of two-dimensional to three– dimensional deviations.24) The total moment of inertia can be obtained by integration of equation (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Example 3. February 28. a2 /t2 is the only contributor to the error2 . Ixx m = ρ −t/2 b a3 a b t 2 + a3 b + z 2 b a dz = ρ t 12 12 (3. -3.24) to write as t/2 Fig. This author suggests to call this ratio as the B number. x can be done as following Ixx b a3 12 (3.

First the area inside the parabola calculated as √ b/α dA/2 A=2 0 2(3 α − 1) (b − αξ )dξ = 3 2 b α 3 2 . Using this method calculate the entire rectangular. calculate the area ﬁrst.V. Solution For y = b the value of x = Fig.10 is a r2 d Izz |dy = y 2 + x2 dy dx = −a 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 (3.V.3. -3. depicted in Figure 3. construct a small element and build longer build out of the small one. There are several ways to approach the calculation (diﬀerent inﬁnitesimal area). Use this area to calculate moment of inertia.11.11. The moment of inertia for a long element with a distance y shown in Figure 3. Solution dx dy y r x 57 2b 2a Fig.V. y = αx2 .10.3. b/α.c) Example 3. MOMENT OF INERTIA Example 3. Parabola for calculations of moment of inertia. Rectangular Moment of inertia.20). Hint. Hint. why?) is b Izz = −b 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 4ab (3.a) The second integration ( no need to use (3.6: Calculate the center of area and moment of inertia for the parabola.b) Results in Izz = Or a 2 a b3 + 2 a3 b = A 3 End Solution (2a)2 + (2b)2 12 (3.5: Calculate the rectangular moment of Inertia for the rotation trough center in zz axis (axis of rotation is out of the page). -3.

58 CHAPTER 3. What is the moment inertia when h −→ 0. .14) and doing the integration from 0 to maximum y provides dA b Ix Utilizing equation (3.7: Calculate the moment of inertia of strait angle triangle about its y axis as shown in the Figure on the right.20) x =4 0 ξ2 ξ 2 b7/2 dξ = √ α 7 α Ix x A (∆x=xc )2 Ixx = Ix x − A ∆x2 = 4 b7/2 3 α − 1 √ − 3 7 α √ b α 3 2 3αb 15 α − 5 2 or after working the details results in Ixx = b 20 b3 − 14 b2 √ 35 α End Solution Example 3. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on left.7. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The center of area can be calculated utilizing equation (3. Solution The right edge line equation can be calculated as x y = 1− h a Y h dy X a Fig. What is the moment inertia when a −→ 0. The center of every 2 element is at. Utilizing equation (3. α ξ 2 + b−αξ the element area is used before and therefore 2 √ 1 xc = A 0 xc b/α (b − αξ 2 ) αξ + 2 2 dA (b − αξ 2 )dξ = 3αb 15 α − 5 (3. Assume that base is a and the height is h. Triangle for example 3.27) can be done in two steps ﬁrst calculate the moment of inertia in this coordinate system and then move the coordinate system to center. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on bottom.6).12.27) The moment of inertia of the area about the center can be found using in equation (3. -3.

Here only the product of the area is deﬁned and discussed. The units of the product of inertia are the same as for moment of inertia.3)) y 3 h a 1− dy a3 h h = 3 4 0 For two triangles attached to each other the moment of inertia will be sum as The rest is under construction. MOMENT OF INERTIA or x y = 1− a h 59 Now using the moment of inertia of rectangle on the side (y) coordinate (see example (3.3. The product of inertia deﬁned as Ix i x j = xi xj dA A (3. the product of inertia for x and y axises is Ixy = A x ydA (3.30) results in 0 0 Ixy ∆y A x dA x ∆ydA + ∆x A y dA ∆x ydA + ∆x ∆y A Ix y = A x ydA + A ∆x ∆ydA A (3.3. The calculation of the product of inertia isn’t diﬀerent much for the calculation of the moment of inertia.28) For example. Transfer of Axis Theorem Same as for moment of inertia there is also similar theorem. the product of inertia is commonly used.4 Product of Inertia In addition to the moment of inertia.3.29) Product of inertia can be positive or negative value as oppose the moment of inertia. Ix y = A x y dA = A (x + ∆x) (y + ∆y)dA (3. End Solution a3 h 2 3.30) expanding equation (3.31) A .

REVIEW OF MECHANICS = Ixy + ∆x ∆y A (3.3. The total product of inertia is ∆x ∆y A b ′ y y x a ′ x Ix y =0+ a 3 b 3 ab 2 = a2 b2 18 Fig.35) referred as principle system. Solution The equation of the line is a y = x+a b The product of inertia at the center is zero.34) In linear algebra it was shown that for some angle equation (3. -3. End Solution 3. Product of inertia for triangle.60 The ﬁnal form is Ix y CHAPTER 3.32) There are several relationships should be mentioned Ixy = Iyx (3.33) Symmetrical area has zero product of inertia because integration of odd function (asymmmertial function) left part cancel the right part.34) can be transform into Ix x 0 0 0 Iy y 0 0 0 Iz z (3. Example 3.8: Calculate the product of inertia of straight edge triangle.5 Principal Axes of Inertia The inertia matrix or inertia tensor is Ixx −Iyx −Izx −Ixy Iyy −Izy −Ixz −Iyz Izz (3.13.35) System which creates equation (3. .

the system acceleration called the internal forces. The external forces are typically divided into two categories: body forces and surface forces. r × ω. Two.40) The angular momentum of the entire system is calculated by integration (summation) of all the particles in the system as Ls = m r × U dm (3. thus. The acceleration is divided into three categories: Centrifugal. Angular. The same as in the dynamic class. Coriolis.5 Angular Momentum and Torque The angular momentum of body. The radial velocity is denoted as Ur . is deﬁned as L = r × Udm (3. U is a derivative of the location with respect to time. ˙ 3.4. Yet this examination provides a tool to study what happened in the ﬂuid during operation of the forces. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 61 3.37) Dt V The external forces are equal to internal forces the forces between the “small” bodies are cancel each other. for every action by body A on Body B there is opposite reaction by body B on body A.3.36) can be transformed to a continuous form as D (ρ U ) F= dV (3. Since the derivative with respect to time is independent of the volume.41) . The surface forces are forces that act on the surface of the body (pressure.36) F= Dt It can be noted that D replaces the traditional d since the additional meaning which be added. Yet.38) The velocity. dm. it can be treated as the regular derivative.39) where r is the location of the particles from the origin. This law apply to any body and any body can “broken” into many small bodies which connected to each other. which can expressed in mathematical form as D (m U ) (3. 2 (Ur × ω). ω×(r × ω). the derivative can be taken out of the integral and the alternative form can be written as F= D Dt D2 Dt2 ρ U dV V (3. F= ρ rdV V (3. These small “bodies” when became small enough equation (3. The body forces are forces that act from a distance like magnetic ﬁeld or gravity.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion These laws can be summarized in two statements one. stresses).

it can be proved utilizing vector mechanics) that Tτ = D D Dr D2 r (r × U) = (r × )= Dt Dt Dt Dt2 (3.5.45) u v 0 Utilizing equation (3. 3.42) where Tτ is the torque. .47) The torque is a vector and the various components can be represented as Tτ x = ˆ • i D Dt r × U dm m (3.48) In the same way the component in y and z can be obtained. consider a particle moving in x–y plane.42) to calculate the torque as ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ Tτ = r × F = x y 0 = (x Fx − y Fy )k Fx Fy 0 (3.1 Tables of geometries Th following tables present several moment of inertias of commonly used geometries. in analogous to the momentum change of time which is the force. The torque of entire system is Tτ s = D DL = Dt Dt (r × Udm) m (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The change with time of angular momentum is called torque. as F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ Utilizing equation i j. The velocity can be written as U = uˆ + vˆ and the location from the origin can be written as r = xˆ + yˆ i j i j.46) Since the torque is a derivative with respect to the time of the angular momentum it is also can be written as xFx − yFy = D [(xv − yu) dm] Dt (3. The force can be written. Tτ = DL D = (r × Udm) Dt Dt (3.43) m It can be noticed (well.44) To understand these equations a bit better.62 CHAPTER 3.40) provides ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ L = r × U = x y 0 = (x v − y u)k (3. A force is acting on the particle in the same plane (x–y) plane. in the same fashion. (3.

1. yc A Ixx XX Rectangle b b/2 a b a .3. Moments of Inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity (full shapes) Shape Name Picture description xc .5. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE 63 Table -3. 2 2 ab ab3 12 XX Triangle b b/3 a a 3 ab 3 ab3 36 XX Circle a=b b b/2 b 2 π b2 4 πb4 64 a Ellipse XX a>b b b/2 b b 2 2 π ab 4 Ab2 64 a y = αx2 Parabola a XX b xc 3αb 15 α−5 6α−2 3 × 3 b 2 α √ b (20 b3 −14 b2 ) √ 35 α .

REVIEW OF MECHANICS Table -3.64 CHAPTER 3. yc A Ixx Quadrant of Circle XX 4r 3π 4r 3π π r2 4 4 π r 4 ( 16 − 9π ) r Ellipsoidal Quadrant XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Half of Elliptic XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Circular Sector XX α α 0 2α r2 r4 4 (α− 1 sin 2α) 2 r XX Circular Sector α α 2 r sin α 3 α 2 r sin α 3 α Ix 2α r2 r4 4 x = r (α+ 1 sin 2α) 2 .2. Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity Shape Name Picture description r xc .

In these derivations. the student will be exposed to stability analysis probably for the ﬁrst time. However. The ﬁrst assumption is that the change in the pressure is a continuous function. and dz is motionless in the accelerated system. several assumptions must be made. the methods discussed here will be expanded to more complicated dynamics situations. dy.1.1) erated system under body forces. Fig.1.g. This topic was introduced to most students in previous study of rigid body. where n is the steepest 65 . The changes of the second derivative pressure are not signiﬁcant compared to the ﬁrst derivative (∂P/∂n × d >> ∂ 2 P/∂n2 ). with acceleration. The combination of an acceleration and the body force results in eﬀective body force which is gG − a = geﬀ y P P+ ∂P dy dxdz ∂y P+ dy ∂P dz dxdy ∂z P+ ∂P dx dydz ∂x dz dx z P x (4. 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation A ﬂuid element with dimensions of DC. z). Furthermore. There is no requirement that the pressure has to be a monotonous function e. -4. The system is in a body force ﬁeld. a = 0. Description of a ﬂuid element in accel- Equation (4. a as shown in Figure 4. here this topic will be more vigorously examined. gG (x.CHAPTER 4 Fluids Statics 4. Later. that pressure can increase and later decrease. y.1) can be reduced and simpliﬁed for the case of no acceleration.1 Introduction The simplest situation that can occur in the study of ﬂuid is when the ﬂuid is at rest or queasy rest.

the dot product results in in · gradP = in · P = ∂P ∂n (4. The second point is that the gradient is a vector (that is. For example.66 CHAPTER 4. This mathematical statement simply requires that the pressure can deviate in such a way that the average on inﬁnitesimal area can be found and expressed as only one direction.3) The term in the parentheses in equation (4. The net pressure force on the faces in the x direction results in dF = − ∂P ∂x dydx ˆ i (4. the utilizing the above derivations one can obtain −gradP dx dy dz + ρ geﬀ dx dy dz = 0 or Pressure Gradient gradP = P = ρ geﬀ (4. as a scalar function (there no reference to the shear stress in part of the pressure) the gradient is a vector. the calculations of the three directions result in the total net pressure force as F =− surface ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂y (4. This mathematical operation has a geometrical interpretation. now. Even though. if the coordinates were to “rotate/transform” to a new system which has a diﬀerent orientation. the eﬀective gravity force is utilized in case where the gravity is the only body force and in an accelerated system.5) where in is the unit vector in the n direction and ∂/∂n is a derivative in that direction.7) . As before. P . The body (element) is in rest and therefore the net force is zero F= total surface F+ body F (4. If the pressure.8) (4. the pressure is treated. was a two–dimensional height (that is only a function of x and y) then the gradient is the steepest ascent of the height (to the valley). the dot product of the following is i · gradP = i · P = ∂P ∂x (4.4) In general. FLUIDS STATICS direction of the pressure derivative and d is the inﬁnitesimal length.3) referred to in the literature as the pressure gradient (see for more explanation in the Mathematics Appendix). it has a direction).6) Hence.2) In the same fashion.

there are several physical implications to this equation which should be discussed and are presented here. First. if at point z0 the pressure is P0 then the equation (4. There are ﬁelds where x or y are designed to the direction of the gravity and opposite direction.3. .3.14) 1 This situation were the tradition is appropriated.9) and substituting it into equation (4.13) becomes P (z) − P0 = −ρg(z − z0 ) (4.12) can be absorbed by the integration of equation (4. 4.11) and therefore P (x. y) = constant (4. This equation can be integrated and therefore solved. For example. a discussion on the pressure and the density in various conditions is presented. ρ. The eﬀective body force is ˆ geﬀ = −g k (4.11) (4. z) = −ρgz + constant (4. the z coordinate is used as the (negative) direction of the gravity1 .3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field In this section.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field The simplest case is when the density. 4. P .12) (4.4. a discussion on a simple condition and will continue in more challenging situations. T (in a way no function of the location) are constant. and temperature. it will be used. For this reason sometime there will be a deviation from the above statement. However.10) can be integrated to yield P (x.8) results into three simple partial diﬀerential equations.10) and constant in equation (4. These equations are ∂P ∂P = =0 ∂x ∂y and Pressure Change ∂P = −ρ g ∂z Equations (4.13) The integration constant is determined from the initial conditions or another point. y. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 67 Some refer to equation (4. pressure.8) as the Fluid Static Equation.9) Utilizing equation (4. Traditionally.

Figure 4.15) is deﬁned as piezometric pressure. FLUIDS STATICS Constant Pressure Lines Fig.68 CHAPTER 4. The liquid is ﬁlling the tube and is brought into a steady state. the right hand side of the equation (4. It is convenient to reverse the direction of z to get rid of the negative sign and Fig.2 describes the constant ρgh pressure lines in the container under the gravity body force. Using liquid with a very low vapor pressure like mercury. The pressure above the liquid on the right side is the vapor pressure.2.1 Pressure Measurement Measuring the Atmospheric Pressure One of the application of this concept is the idea of measuring the atmospheric pressure.3.3. The reason that a a solid boundary doesn’t break the continuity of the pressure lines is because there is always a path to some of the planes.2 4. that is h ≡ −(z − z0 ) so equation (4. Pressure lines in a static ﬂuid with a constant density.3.3. A schematic to explain the measure to deﬁne h as the dependent of the ﬂuid of the atmospheric pressure.2. will result in a device that can measure the pressure without additional information (the temperature).13) that the pressure depends only on z and/or the constant pressure lines are in the plane of x and y. It is evident from equation (4. . -4.14) becomes Pressure relationship P (h) − P0 = ρgh (4. The pressure lines are continuous even in area where there is a discontinuous ﬂuid.15) In the literature. -4. 4. Consider a situation described in Figure 4.

16) The main reason the mercury is used because its of large density and the fact that it is in a liquid phase in most of the measurement range.39[P a] ∼ 1. The mercury density is 13545. The atmospheric pressure at point a is the same as the pressure on the right hand side of the tube. End Solution (4.1: Calculate the atmospheric pressure at 20◦ C.3. Locate the liquids surfaces.85[kg/m3 ]. P valve 2 1 Example 4. Solution The pressure is uniform or constant plane perpendicular to the gravity. Solution The question is to ﬁnd the equilibrium point where two liquids balance each other. Assume that the mercury vapor pressure is 0.76 [m] and the gravity acceleration is 9.4. The ratio of the Fig. Pa = 13545. the ratio between two sides will be as ρ1 h1 = ρ2 h2 → h2 = α h1 2 This example was requested by several students who found their instructor solution unsatisfactory.3. L.2: A liquid2 a in amount Ha and a liquid b in amount Hb in to an U tube. If the width of the U tube is equal or larger than total length of the two liquids then the whole liquid will be in bottom part.85 × 9. The high of the Mercury is 0. Gas The pressure.000001793[Bar] which is insigniﬁcant compared to the total measurement as can be observed from the above example. Equation (4. For smaller width. The description of the height is given in Figure 4. knowing any point on this plane provides the pressure anywhere on the plane. h .01[Bar] The vapor pressure is about 1 × 10−4 percent of the total results.76 ∼ 101095.4.82 × 0. The partial pressure of mercury is in the range of the 0.82[m/sec].000179264[kPa]. Schematic of gas measurement liquid densities is α = ρ1 /ρ2 . Hence. -4. The third reason is the low vapor (partial) pressure of the mercury. U tube is L. The width of the utilizing the “U” tube.15) can be utilized and it can be noticed that pressure at point a is Pa = ρ g h + Pvapor The density of the mercury is given along with the gravity and therefore. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 69 Example 4.

5. The gas density is signiﬁcantly lower than the liquid density and therefore can be neglected. the balance is h1 ρb + h2 ρa = h3 ρa where h1 is the height of liquid b where h2 is the height of “extra” liquid a and same side as liquid b and where h3 is the height of liquid b on the other side.17) Since the atmospheric pressure was measured previously (the technique was shown in the previous section) the pressure of the chamber can be measured. Thus. -4. The pressure at point “1” is P1 = Patmos + ρg h (4. Schematic of sensitive measurement device.70 The mass conservation results in CHAPTER 4.3. . One A2 h2 ρ2 technique is to attached “U” tube ρ2 to the chamber and measure the ρ2 pressure. imal interference to the gas (some gas enters to the tube).Fig. This way.2 Pressure Measurement The idea describes the atmoh1 P1 P2 A1 A1 spheric measurement can be exρ1 ρ1 tended to measure the pressure gas chambers.2. FLUIDS STATICS Ha + Hb = L + h 1 + h 2 Thus two equations and two unknowns provide the solution which is h1 = Ha + Hb − L 1+α When Ha > L and ρa (Ha − L) ≥ ρb (or the opposite) the liquid a will be on the two sides of the U tube. the gas is prevented from escaping and its pressure can be measured with a min.4). The additional equation is the mass conservation as Ha = h 2 + L + h 3 The solution is h2 = (Ha − L) ρa − Hb ρb 2 ρa End Solution 4. When in this case h1 is equal to Hb . Consider a chamber ﬁlled with gas needed to be ρ1 measured (see Figure 4.

In the previous technique. Additional parameter. This device is based on the following mathematical explanation.22) A2 A1 (4. In steady state. will be introduced when the volumes ratio isn’t equal.3 Magniﬁed Pressure Measurement 71 For situations where the pressure diﬀerence is very small. This technique utilizes the opposite range.20). It can be noticed that h1 can be positive or negative or zero and it depends on the ratio that two containers ﬁlled with the light density liquid. then equation (4.2. If the pressure diﬀerences between P1 and P2 is small this instrument can “magniﬁed” height. This device is build around the fact that the height is a function of the densities diﬀerence.3.20) Liquid volumes do not necessarily have to be equal. the density of one side was neglected (the gas side) compared to other side (liquid).4. The two sides of the densities are very close to each other so the height became large. The densities of the liquid are chosen so that they are close to each other but not equal.23) . A2 /A1 << 1. The pressure diﬀerence can be expressed as P1 − P2 = g [ρ2 h2 − ρ1 (h1 + h2 )] (4. if the volumes in two containers is equal then −h1 A1 = h2 A2 −→ h1 = − h2 A2 A1 (4. engineers invented more sensitive measuring device.18) becomes P1 − P2 = g h2 ρ2 − ρ1 1 − or the height is h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + ρ1 A2 A1 (4. The densities of the liquids are chosen to be much heavier than the measured gas density.18) the gas density was neglected. Here. Thus. it provides the relationship between h1 and h2 . PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 4. For example. Additionally. the pressure balance (only diﬀerences) is P1 + g ρ1 (h1 + h2 ) = P2 + g h2 ρ2 (4. in writing equation (4.3. With the equation for height (4. h1 and provide “better” accuracy reading. it can be observed that h1 is relatively small because A1 >> A2 . The calculations as results of this additional parameter does not cause signiﬁcant complications.5 shows a typical and simple schematic of such an instrument.20) equation (4. Figure 4. But this ratio easily can be inserted into the derivations.19) If the light liquid volume in the two containers is known.18) It can be noticed that the “missing height” is canceled between the two sides.21) For the small value of the area ratio. the volume ratio.22) becomes h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) (4. this ratio equals to one and it simplify the equation (4.

17) is then Poutside P1 dy θ dℓ Fig. -4. a location can be calibrated on the inclined leg as zero3 . caption. In this method. Due to surface tension cause air entrapment especially in rapid change of the pressure or height.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field There are several cases that will be discussed here which are categorized as gases.25) leads to P2 − P1 = ρ2 (b + h) g − ρ1 a g − ρ h g (4. 4.25) a b 2 (4. In the gas phase.23) as “magniﬁcation factor” since it replace the regular density.3.6. .6). This method is attempt to increase the accuracy by “extending” length visible of the tube. Thus. liquids and other. it can be written the pressure on left is equal to pressure on the right legs (see Figure 4. Schematic of inverted manometer.72 CHAPTER 4. The equation (4. Inverted U-tube manometer The diﬀerence in the pressure of two diﬀerent liquids is measured by this manometer. This idea is similar to “magniﬁed” manometer but in reversed. FLUIDS STATICS Some refer to the density diﬀerence shown in equation (4. -4.24) If there is insigniﬁcant change in volume (the area ratio between tube and inclined leg is signiﬁcant). right leg left leg Z Z h P2 − ρ2 (b + h) g = P1 − ρ1 a − ρ h) g Rearranging equation (4. As in the previous “magniﬁed” manometer if the density diﬀerence is very small the height become very sensitive the change of pressure. ρ2 .7.7).26) becomes P2 − P1 = (ρ1 − ρ) g h (4.26) 1 For the similar density of ρ1 = ρ2 and for a = b equation (4. The pressure line are same for the both legs on line ZZ. the equation of state is simply the ideal gas model 3 The personal experience of this author while working in ship that this manometer is signiﬁcantly inaccurate (to be the ﬁrst thing to be replaced on the ship). P1 − Poutside = ρ g d (4. Inclined Manometer One of the old methods of pressure measurement is the inclined manometer.27) Fig. the tube leg is inclined relatively to gravity (depicted in Figure 4.

PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 73 or the ideal gas with the compressibility factor (sometime referred to as real gas).3.29) (4. Equation (4.31) can be expanded to show the diﬀerence to standard assumption of constant pressure as − h ρ0 g P0 P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 RT 6RT Or in a simpliﬁed form where the transformation of h = (z − z0 ) to be correction factor h2 P ρ0 g h − + ··· =1+ 6 P0 P0 2 (4. .4. These deviations have a limited practical purpose.33) Equation (4.31) Here the pressure ratio is related to the height exponentially.11) becomes ∂P gP =− ∂z RT (4. 4 These derivations are left for a mathematical mind person.30) It is convenient to rearrange equation (4.33) is useful in mathematical derivations but should be ignored for practical use4 . the ideal gas model can be employed to describe the density.3. These relationships will be used to ﬁnd the functionality between pressure.30) to the following P = P0 e − g(z−zo ) RT (4. Thus equation (4. As ﬁrst approximation. they are presented here for students who need to answer questions on this issue. density and location.32) (4.3. 4.1 Gas Phase under Hydrostatic Pressure Ideal Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The gas density vary gradually with the pressure.28) Separating the variables and changing the partial derivatives to full derivative (just a notation for this case) results in dP g dz =− P RT Equation (4. The equation of state for liquid can be approximated or replaced by utilizing the bulk modulus. However.29) can be integrated from point “0” to any point to yield ln P g =− (z − z0 ) P0 RT „ « (4.

the ﬁrst approximation should be noticed that the compressibility factor.39) .38) can be represented in a more convenient form as Density variation ρ = ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4. In general. So.3. In these cases. Z.38) Equation (4. 4. the diﬀerential equation for density should be solved ﬁrst. Another point that is worth discussing is the relationship of Z to other gas properties.36) should be separated and then the integration can be carried out as P ρ dP = P0 ρ0 BT dρ ρ (4. FLUIDS STATICS Real Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The mathematical derivations for ideal gas can be reused as a foundation for the real gas model (P = ZρRT ).2 Liquid Phase Under Hydrostatic Pressure The bulk modulus was deﬁned in equation (1.28).34) (4. The modiﬁed equation is P = P0 Or in a series form which is P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 Z RT 6Z RT 2 e „ − g (z−zo ) Z RT « (4. the relationship is very complicated and in some ranges Z cannot be assumed constant. Z enter the equation as h/Z and not just h.37) yields P − P0 = BT ln ρ ρ0 (4. the value of the compressibility factor. The governing diﬀerential density equation (see equation (1. there are two diﬀerential equations that needed to be solved.37) The integration of equation (4. The simplest approach is to assume that the bulk modulus is constant (or has some representative average). here.74 CHAPTER 4.35) Without going through the mathematics. can be assumed constant and therefore can be swallowed into equations (4. The compressibility is deﬁned in equation (2. Fortunately.36) The variables for equation (4.32).28)) is ρ = BT ∂ρ ∂P (4.39).3. For these cases. For a large range of P/Pc and T /Tc . only one hydrostatic equation depends on density equation.31) and (4. a numerical integration must be carried out.

46) . The exponent can be expanded as piezometric corrections pressure (P − P0 ) + BT 2 P − P0 BT 2 + BT 6 P − P0 BT 3 + ··· = z g ρ0 (4.41) It can be noted that BT has units of pressure and therefore the ratio in front of the exponent in equation (4. Fig.8.43) and is plotted in Figure 4. The integration constant. The solution becomes BT g ρ0 BT g ρ0 (4. BT /g ρ0 .41) has units of length. 2008 P −P0 BT Or in a dimensionless form Density in Liquids g ρ0 z BT e −1 = z g ρ0 BT (4.43) March 11. If at z = 0 the pressure is P0 and the density is ρ0 then the constant is Constant = This constant. Sometimes. The solution is a reverse function (that is not P = f (z) but z = f (P)) it is a monotonous function which is easy to solve for any numerical value (that is only one z corresponds to any Pressure). Utilizing equation (4.11) transformed into ∂P = −gρ0 ∂z Equation (4.40) can be integrated to yield BT g ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4. -4. can be evaluated at any speciﬁc point.39) in equation (4.4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 75 Equation (4. Hydrostatic pressure when there is The solution is presented in equation (4. with units of length.3. Additional discussion will be presented in the dimensionless issues chapter (currently under construction). the solution is presented as P BT = ln P0 P0 g ρ0 z +1 +1 BT (4. is a typical length of the problem.44) is presented for historical reasons and in order to compare the constant density assumption.42) e P −P0 BT P −P0 BT −1 =z (4.44) compressibility in the liquid phase.8.40) e P −P0 BT = z + Constant (4.45) An approximation of equation (4.39) is the counterpart for the equation of state of ideal gas for the liquid phase.

a simple case is examined for which the temperature is a linear function of the height as dT = −Cx dh (4. P/BT is small (<< 1).). the integral equation uses the fact the pressure is function of location. For h = 0. the temperature–distance function can be written as T = Constant − Cx h (4. If you know of this solution or similar please pass this information to this author.13 use the integral equation without the using any “equation of state. when the temperature ﬁeld is not uniform.4 4. in the atmosphere the temperature is assumed to be a linear with the height under certain conditions. A bit more complicate case is when the gas is a function of the pressure and another parameter. The coparsson between the two methods is to be presented.1 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations The Basic Analysis There are situations when the main change of the density results from other eﬀects. Additionally. For the atmosphere. However. The diﬀerence between the two equations is the fact that Example 1.49) 5 This author is not aware of solution the “equation of state” neither the integral solution. Example 4. FLUIDS STATICS It can be noticed that equation (4. The equation of state suggests that ∂P = g ρ0 f (P ) dz while the integral equation is ∆P = g ρ dz where no assumption is made on the relationship between the pressure and density. . For example.3: 4.XIII.3.4. In Example 1.46) is reduced to the standard equation when the normalized pressure ratio.48) where the Constant is the integration constant which can be obtained by utilizing the initial condition. Air can be a function of the temperature ﬁeld and the pressure.76 CHAPTER 4. Here.3. it can be observed that the correction is on the left hand side and not as the “traditional” correction on the piezometric pressure side.” The method described in the Example 1. it is commonly assumed that the temperature is a linear function of the height.47) where h here referred to height or distance.13 ratio of the density was expressed by equations (1. the density is aﬀected and thus the pressure is a location function (for example.13 is more general which provided a simple solution5 .l) while here the ratio is expressed by diﬀerent equations. the temperature is T0 and using it leads to Temp variations T = T0 − Cx h (4. Hence.

53) Or in a more convenient form as Pressure in Atmosphere P = P0 g T0 − Cx h ( R Cx ) T0 (4.4.51) Deﬁning a new variable6 as ξ = (T0 − Cx h) for which ξ0 = T0 − Cx h0 and d/dξ = −Cx d/dh.51) and reusing (the reverse deﬁnitions) the variables transformed the result into ln P g T0 − Cx h = ln P0 R Cx T0 (4. If you feel that it is too simple. It can be recalled that the following expansions are g h ρ0 P0 correction factor P Cx = lim 1 − h h−>0 P0 T0 g R Cx =1− R g C x − g 2 h2 gh − − . please.54) is a monotonous function which decreases with height because the term in the brackets is less than one. It is worth to point out that the above statement 6 A colleague asked this author to insert this explanation for his students.. This situation is roughly representing the pressure in the atmosphere and results in a temperature decrease. negative direction). and the second approximation for a small temperature gradient.3.e. The correction factor occurs only at the third term which is important for larger heights.54) can be approximated by two approaches/ideas. The ﬁrst approximation for a small distance. Using these deﬁnitions results in dP g dξ = P RCx ξ (4. h.55) shows that the ﬁrst two terms are the standard terms (negative sign is as expected i. just ignore it.11) results in ∂P gP =− ∂h R (T0 − Cx h) 77 (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Combining equation (4. .50) Separating the variables in equation (4.55) Equation (4..50) and changing the formal ∂ to the informal d to obtain dP g dh =− P R (T0 − Cx h) (4.49) with (4.52) After integration of equation (4. It can be observed that Cx has a “double role” which can change the pressure ratio.54) It can be noticed that equation (4. T0 R 2 T0 2 R2 (4. Equation (4.

7 These concepts are very essential in all the thermo–ﬂuid science. Whether these forces are toward the original layer or not.9.4. This question is determined by the net forces acting on the slab.56) Equation (4. A weak wind or other disturbances can make the unstable system to move to a new condition. .R. However. the slab is in equilibrium with its surroundings before the movement (not necessarily stable). Cx .57) Advance material can be skipped 4. -4. The ﬁrst case is referred to as the stable condition and the second case referred to as the unstable condition. (4.9) What could happen? There are two Fig.49). Equation (4. That is. It has to be noted that these equations (4. For engineering purposes.54) represents only the pressure ratio. the body forces that acting on the slab are equal to zero. Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. higher heights).3.54) and (4.54) is stable and if so under what conditions. this kind of analysis will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter7 . Suppose that h for some reason.. This relationship can be obtained from combining equations (4. equation (2.56) are not properly represented without the characteristic height. The whole system falls apart and does not stay if the analysis predicts unstable conditions. FLUIDS STATICS has a qualitative meaning when additional parameter is added. The simplest assumption to combine these equations is by assuming the ideal gas model. The two forces that act on the slab are the gravity force and the surroundings pressure (buoyant forces). Clearly.78 CHAPTER 4. h. It has to be inserted to make the physical signiﬁcance clearer.. inﬂuences at only large values of height.2 The Stability Analysis It is interesting to study whether h + dh this solution (4. to layer at height h + dh (see Figure 4. Eckert who was the pioneer of the dimensional analysis in heat transfer and was kind to show me some of his ideas. a small slab of material moves from a layer at height.G.55) and (4. The second approximation for small Cx is Cx P = lim 1− h Cx −>0 P0 T0 g R Cx = e gh −RT 0 − g h2 Cx 2 T0 2 R e gh −RT 0 − . it is sometimes important to obtain the density ratio. Under equilibrium.25). to yield P P0 T0 T g R Cx ρ P T0 = = ρ0 P0 T 1− Cx h ( T0 ) 1+ Cx h T (4.56) shows that the correction factor (lapse coeﬃcient). I am grateful to my adviser E. main possibilities one: the slab could return to the original layer or two: stay at the new layer (or even move further.

If ρ (h) > ρ(h + dh) then the situation is stable. The pressure ratio is given by equation (4.62) . The two processes that occurred here are thermal and the change of pressure (at the speed of sound). That is.61) Expanding equation (4.. The second issue that occurs during the “expansion” is the shock (in the reverse case [h + dh] → h). this shock is insigniﬁcant (check book on Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics by this author on the French problem).55) and thus ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− gdh T (h) R 1/k (4. However. The buoyancy forces are proportional to the ratio of the density of the slab to surrounding layer density.61) in taylor series results in 1− ρ gdh P 1/k =1− g 2 ρ2 k − g 2 ρ2 dh2 g ρ dh − − .59) When the symbol denotes the slab that moves from layer h to layer h + dh.25)) ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) P (h + dh) P (h) 1/k (4.3.61) transformed into ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− ρ gdh P 1/k (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 79 the surroundings “pressure” forces (buoyancy forces) are equal to gravity forces. In reality. no signiﬁcant heat transfer occurs in the short period of time).58) The pressure and temperature change when the slab moves from layer at h to layer h + dh.54) but can be approximated by equation (4. The process. The slab density at layer h+dh can be obtained using equation (4. under the above discussion and simpliﬁcations.60) Again using the ideal gas model for equation (4. The thermal process is in the range of [cm/sec] while the speed of sound is about 300 [m/sec]. Thus. The little slab undergoes isentropic expansion as following for which (see equation (2. The reason that the free expansion is chosen to explain the process that the slab undergoes when it moves from layer h to layer h + dh is because it is the simplest. The term ρ (h) is slab from layer h that had undergone the free expansion.4. Pk 2 P 2 k2 (4. the pressure process is about thousands times faster then the thermal process. the free expansion is not far way from the actual process. can be assumed to be adiabatic (that is. ρ (h) undergoing a free expansion is higher or lower than the density of the layer h + dh. the stability question is whether the slab density from layer h.57) as following ρ(h + dh) P T0 = = ρ(h) P0 T g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1− 1+ T0 T (4..

the body 8 The g ∝ r2 same issue of the ﬂoating ice. At ﬁrst glance. What is the source of the force(s) that make this situation when unstable continue to be unstable? Supposed that the situation became unstable and the layers have been exchanged.80 CHAPTER 4. Thus. g.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density P b ρb rb r Until now the study focus on the change of density and pressure of the ﬂuid.3. -4.11) has two terms on the right hand side. around this value additional analysis is needed 8 . 4.64) and using the ideal gas identity. the density. Equation (4. One of the common question this author has been asked is about the forces of continuation. it transformed to Cx (k − 1) g ρ > T kP k−1 g Cx < k R (4. to keep the inequality for a small dh only the ﬁrst term need to be compared as gρ g ρ Cx > − Pk P T (4. would the situation become stable now? One has to remember that temperature gradient forces continuous heat transfer which the source temperature change after the movement to the new layer. the unstable situation is continuously unstable. The varying gravity eﬀects on density and pressure. From a mathematical point of view. The body force was assumed until now to be constant. one has to bear in mind that this analysis only provides a range and isn’t exact. Thus. .65) The analysis shows that the maximum amount depends on the gravity and gas properties. When lapse rate Cx is equal to the right hand side of the inequality.63) and (4.63) The comparison of the right hand terms of equations (4.64) After rearrangement of the inequality (4. ρ and the body force.58) and then it is expanded in taylor series as ρ(h + dh) = ρ(h) g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1− 1+ T0 T ∼1− g ρ Cx − P T dh + · · · (4. It should be noted that this value should be changed a bit since the k should be replaced by polytropic expansion n. This assumption must be deviated when the distance from the body source is signiﬁcantly change. However. it is said that situation is neutral. See example for the ﬂoating ice in cup.10.62) provides the conditions to determine the stability. Fig. FLUIDS STATICS The density at layer h + dh can be obtained from (4.

Assuming that the pressure is aﬀected by this gravity/body force.. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD force is independent of the ﬂuid.67) where the subscript b denotes the conditions at the body surface. 4. The issues of magnetohydrodynamics are too advance for undergraduate student and therefore. it was explained that the gravity is a function of the distance from the center of the plant/body. Thus.will not be introduced here.69) Equation (4. ρb Pb 2 RT 2 rb (R T ) (4. while the gravity force source in liquid can be the liquid itself..70) Notice that G isn’t our beloved and familiar g and also that G rb /RT is a dimensionless number (later in dimensionless chapter about it and its meaning).4. The integration of equation (4.66) where here G denotes the general gravity constant. It can be noticed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .3.69) can be expanded in taylor series as standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) = = 1− − + . The source of the gravity force in gas is another body. the discussion is separated into two diﬀerent issues. The gravity force can be assumed that for inﬁnity. As before.5.3.11) can be used (semi one directional situation) when r is used as direction and thus ∂P G = −ρ 2 ∂r r (4. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0. equation (4.68) e G r−r − RT r r b b (4. The regular method of separation is employed to obtain P Pb dP G =− P RT r rb dr r2 (4.67) results in ln Or in a simpliﬁed form as P ρ = = ρb Pb P G =− Pb RT 1 1 − rb r (4. r → ∞ the pressure is about zero. Again.69) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance.1 Ideal Gas in Varying Gravity 81 In physics. . The gravity force is reversely proportional to r2 . equation (4.

3. equation (4.69) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. It has to remember when this assumption isn’t accurate enough. is employed.69) is standard correction f actor P ρ 2 2 G Z R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) = = (4.75) Since this author is not aware to which practical situation this solution should be applied.2 Real Gas in Varying Gravity CHAPTER 4. one can obtain ρ P = = ρb Pb e G r−r −Z RT r r b b (4. the Cartesian coordinates provides suﬃcient treatment to the problem. 4.3. 4. If the liquid “equation of state” (4. As before taylor series for equation (4.3.73) 1− − + .71) With the same process as before for ideal gas case.74) is e P −P0 BT G r2 (4.82 4. Thus.3 Liquid in Under Varying Gravity For comparison reason consider the deepest location in the ocean which is about 11.67) is transformed into P Pb dP G =− P Z RT r rb dr r2 (4. ρb Pb 2 Z RT 2 rb (Z R T ) It can be noted that compressibility factor can act as increase or decrease of the ideal gas model depending on whether it is above one or below one.5.74) e P0 −P BT = Constant − B T g ρ0 r (4. Z.39) is used with the hydrostatic ﬂuid equation results in ∂P = −ρ0 ∂r which the solution of equation (4. numerical integration is a possible solution..72) Equation (4. if applicable. It can be observed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb . .. FLUIDS STATICS The regular assumption of constant compressibility. there are situations where the spherical coordinates must be considered and used. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.5.000 [m]. it is left for the reader to apply according to problem.6 Liquid Phase While for most practical purposes.

The general.4. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM Derivations of the ﬂuid static in spherical coordinates are Pressure Spherical Coordinates 1 d r2 dP + 4 π Gρ = 0 r2 dr ρ dr Or in a vector form as 1 P ρ 83 (4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System ˆ gef f = a ˆ + g k i (4.4.4: . body forces were considered as one-dimensional. Example 4. the constant pressure plane is perpendicular to the direction of the eﬀective gravity. Generally the acceleration is divided into two categories: linear and angular and they will be discussed in this order. 4. As before. in a two dimensional system.76) • + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4.4. the previous method can be used and there is no need to solve new three (or two) diﬀerent equations.77) 4. the linear acceleration have three components as opposed to the previous case of only one.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System Up to this stage. Consider the following example to illustrate the situation.8) can be transformed into a diﬀerent coordinate system where the main coordinate is in the direction of the eﬀective gravity.80) Perhaps the best way to explain the linear acceleration is by examples.79) and the angle/direction can be obtained from tanβ = a g (4. However. the previous derivations can be easily extended. for the eﬀective gravity where the magnitude of the eﬀective gravity is |gef f | = g 2 + a2 (4. Equation (4. Thus.78) For example.

the acceleration in the cart direction is determined from a = g sin β (4.81) ) F (a β The eﬀective body force is acting perpendicu. -4. The eﬀective angle is obtained by adding vectors.5: Cart partially is ﬁlled with liquid and is sliding on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 4. Calculate the shape of the surface.Fig. A cart slide on inclined plane.015[m/sec2 ] End Solution Example 4.1 a 5 m sec g geﬀ Fig.812 = 11. Thus.12.11.84 A tank ﬁlled with liquid is accelerated at a constant acceleration. If there is a resistance what will be the angle? What happen when the slope angle is straight (the cart is dropping straight down)? Solution (a) The angle can be found when the acceleration of the cart is found. the liquid surface is parallel to the surface of the inclination surface. This angle/direction can be found using the following a 5 tan−1 β = tan−1 = ∼ 27. The solution is obtained by ﬁnding the eﬀective angle body force. what happened to the liquid surface? What is the relative angle of the liquid surface for a container in an accelerated system of a = 5[m/sec]? Solution CHAPTER 4. -4. FLUIDS STATICS 27. The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart. When the acceleration is changing from the right to the left. This question is one of the traditional question the ﬂuid static and is straight forward.12.81 The magnitude of the eﬀective acceleration is |gef f | = 52 + 9. In that case the eﬀective body moves . lar to the slope. The change of the acceleration form the right to left is like subtracting vector (addition negative vector). If there is no resistance.01◦ g 9. End Solution (b) In case of resistance force (either of friction due to the air or resistance in the wheels) reduces the acceleration of the cart.

83) a rf su ce α a β g sin β − Fnet m β g geﬀ 4.4. So. unit mass Fig. That is the eﬀective body force can be written as ˆ gef f = −g k + ω 2 r r ˆ The lines of constant pressure are not straight lines but lines of parabolic shape. -4. the pressure at any point in the liquid is the same and equal to the atmospheric pressure.84) z r ω2 r g geﬀ center of circulation Fig. The pressure is uniform in the tank and no pressure diﬀerence can be found. The net body force depends on the mass of the liquid and the net acceleration is Fnet a=g− (4. Schematic to explain the angular Notice that the integration constant was substituted by z0 .14.4.6 is provided.82) m The angle of the surface.13. the ﬁrst case to deal with a rotation in a perpendicular to the gravity. The constant pressure will be along Angular Acceleration System ω2 r2 (4. Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane. wi th fr o ti ic n net g − Fm g cosβ (4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density For simpliﬁcation reasons.86) angle. .85) dr ω r Equation (4. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 85 closer to the gravity forces. (4.87) P − P0 = ρg (z0 − z) + 2g To illustrate this point. -4. α < β. is now tan α = (c) In the case when the angle of the inclination turned to be straight (direct falling) the eﬀective body force is zero. example 4.4. The angle of the line depends on the radius as dz g =− 2 (4.85) can be integrated as z − z0 = ω2 r2 2g (4.

86) represent the pressure line. How would you suggest to deﬁne the height in the tube? Solution nt . Thus. End Solution Example 4. equation (4. What will be the correction factor if the curvature in the liquid in the tube is taken in to account.15. FLUIDS STATICS S ω L co xL Fig. The pressure at the interface at the two sides of the tube is same.6. The center of rotation is a distance.86 Calculation of the correction factor dA Rotation center ns ta su pr es re lin e CHAPTER 4. Expresses the relationship between the diﬀerent parameters of the problem. Because the asymmetrical nature of the problem there is diﬀerence in the heights in the U tube arms of S as shown in Figure 4.7: Assume the diameter of the U tube is Rt .6: A “U” tube with a length of (1 + x)L is rotating at angular velocity of ω. -4. Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. Taking the “left” wing of U tube change in z direction zl − z0 The same can be said for the other side zr − z0 = ω 2 x2 L2 2g = change in r direction ω 2 L2 2g Thus subtracting the two equations above from each each other results in zr − zl = L ω 2 1 − x2 2g It can be noticed that this kind equipment can be used to ﬁnd the gravity.15. Solution It ﬁrst assumed the height is uniform at the tube (see for the open question on this assumption). L from the “left” hand side. Example 4.

The distance of the inﬁnitesimal area from the rotation center is ?.16. This section deals with these calculations.8: In the U tube in example 4. Later.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces A motivation is needed before going through the routine of derivations. End Solution Example 4. These calculations are divided into two categories.9: Consider a rectangular shape gate as shown in Figure 4.” The element of moment is a dξ for the width of the gate and is dF "0" β = 50 h ◦ A-A ξ ℓ = 5[m] ξ A-A a[m] dξ dM = P a dξ ( + ξ) dA F1 F2 b[m] The pressure. Assuming that the atmospheric pressure can be ignored.5.5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces The forces that ﬂuids (at static conditions) extracts on surfaces are very important for engineering purposes.6 is rotating with upper part height of . what happen the rotation approach very large value? 4. F1 and F2 to maintain the gate in position. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 87 In Figure 4. Example 4. . P can be expressed as a function ξ as the following P = g ρ ( + ξ)sinβ Fig. The volume above the lower point is ? which is only a function of the geometry. Notice that the curvature in the two sides are diﬀerent from each other. how the calculations can be simpliﬁed will be shown. At what rotating velocity liquid start to exit the U tube? If the rotation of U tube is exactly at the center. Solution The forces can be calculated by looking at the moment around point “O. Calculate the minimum forces. 4.4. The height of the inﬁnitesimal area is ?.15 shown the inﬁnitesimal area used in these calculations. -4. Initially.5.16. a simple case will be examined. straight surfaces and curved surfaces. Rectangular area under pressure.

It is the total force.88 The liquid total moment on the gate is b CHAPTER 4. which is b Ftotal = 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ The total force integration provides b Ftotal = g ρ a sin β 0 ( + ξ)dξ = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 The forces on the gate have to provide F1 + F2 = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 Additionally. Additional equation is needed. the moment of forces around point “O” is F1 + F2 ( + b) = g ρ a sin β The solution of these equations is F1 = F2 = (3 + b) a b g ρ sin β 6 (3 + 2 b) a b g ρ sin β 6 End Solution "O" 3 b l 2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 The above calculations are time consuming and engineers always try to make life simpler. Schematic of submerged area to explain the center forces and moments.88) and β ξ ξ ℓ0 dξ ℓ1 ξ Fig. -4. it can be observed that there is a moment of area in equation (4. Looking at the above calculations.88) The solution of the above integral is M = g ρ a sin β 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 This value provides the moment that F1 and F2 should extract.17. . FLUIDS STATICS M= 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ( + ξ) The integral can be simpliﬁed as b M = g a ρ sin β 0 ( + ξ)2 dξ (4.

Several represented areas for which moment of inertia and center of area have been tabulated in Chapter 3. 89 Symmetrical Shapes Consider the two–dimensional symmetrical area that are under pressure as shown in Figure 4. The boundaries of the integral of equation (4.89) refer to starting point and ending points not to the start area and end area.93) F2 Or separating the parts as xc A ξ1 Fig. First. These concepts have been introduced in Chapter 3. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES also a center of area.18. The “atmospheric” pressure can be set to zero.90) A+ 0 ξdA (4. the force is h(ξ) 1 F = A P dA = (Patmos + ρgh)dA = A Patmos + ρg 0 (ξ + 0 ) sin β dA (4.94) .89) can be further developed as Ftotal = A Patmos + ρ g sin β In a ﬁnal form as Total Force in Inclined Surface Ftotal = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( 0 + xc )] The moment of the liquid on the area around point “O” is ξ1 0 xc A 1 (4.92) ξ1 ξ1 My = ξ0 (Patmos + g ρ h(ξ) )ξdA (4. The general forces acting on submerged area.4. Ix ξ1 x My = Patmos ξ0 ξdA +g ρ sin β ξ0 ξ 2 dA (4.5.89) In this case.17. The symmetry is around any axes parallel to axis x. The integral in equation (4.91) "O" y ξ0 β a F1 b My = ξ0 P (ξ)ξdA ξ sin β (4. The total force and moment that the liquid extracting on the area need to be calculated. -4. These tabulated values can be used to solve this kind of problems. the atmospheric pressure can include any additional liquid layer above layer “touching” area.

Additionally. If the “atmospheric pressure” can be zero or include additional layer of liquid.90 CHAPTER 4. Ix x .91). The moment around the x axis (which was arbitrary chosen) should be Mx = A y P dA (4. The forces balance reads F1 + F2 = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( and moments balance reads F1 a + F2 b = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx The solution of these equations is F1 = and F2 = Ix x x 0 + xc )] (4. The moment around the y axis is given by equation (4. Ix x ρ sin β (4. and the distance a or b can be positive or negative.95) Example 4. the atmospheric pressure can contain either an additional liquid layer above the “touching” area or even atmospheric pressure simply can be set up to zero.99) In the solution.9 can be generalized to solve any two forces needed to balance the area/gate. Thus.98) ρ sin β − ρ sin β − Patmos ga xc + 0 ρ sin β + Patmos g aA g (b − a) (4.19).91) and (4. additional equation is required.96) (4. In symmetrical area only two forces are required since the moment is one dimensional. the forces can be negative or positive. in non–symmetrical area there two diﬀerent moments and therefor three forces are required.95) and the total force is given by (4. This equation is for the additional moment around the x axis (see for explanation in Figure 4.18 which has two forces that balance the body.95) can be combined the moment and force acting on the general area. Consider the general symmetrical body shown in ﬁgure 4. However.101) . FLUIDS STATICS The moment of inertia.97) ρ sin β − Patmos gb xc + 0 ρ sin β + g (b − a) Patmos g b A−. is about the axis through point “O” into the page. Equations (4. Equation (4.100) Substituting the components for the pressure transforms equation (4.94) can be written in more compact form as Total Moment in Inclined Surface My = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx x (4.100) into Mx = A y (Patmos + ρ g ξ sin β) dA (4.

FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The integral in equation (4. two forces and moment) but no general solution is provided.102) The compact form can be written as Moment in Inclined Surface Mx = Patmos A yc + ρ g sin β Ix The product of inertia was presented in Chapter 3.103) provide the base for solving any problem for straight area under pressure with uniform density. The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area.20. (4. (4.104) (4.19. Example to illustrate the use of these equations is provided.103). -4. Solution The three equations that needs to be solved are F1 + F2 + F3 = Ftotal The moment around x axis is F1 b = My The moment around y axis is F1 1 Fig. These equations (4.95) and (4.4.5.95) and (4.g. (4. y (4.10: Calculate the forces that are required to balance the triangular shape shown in the Figure 4. There are many combinations of problems (e.20) for triangle 1 and 2).105) + F2 (a + 0) + F3 0 = Mx (4.106) The right hand side of these equations are given before in equations (4. The moment of inertia of the triangle around x is made of two triangles (as shown in the Figure (4.91).100) can be written as A yc Ix y 91 Mx = Patmos A y dA +ρ g sin β A ξ y dA (4.103) y ξ dA y x Example 4. The height of triangle 1 is ( 1 − 0 ) .91). Triangle 1 can be calculated as the moment of inertia around its center which is 0 +2∗( 1 − 0 )/3.

Ixx 1 = b( 3 1− 0) 36 + 1 b( 1− 0) 3 0) + 2( 1− 0) 3 The height of the triangle 2 is a − ( inertia about its center is − and its width b and thus.20. b ( ( 1 − 0 −a)x ℓ1 y b 1 ℓ0 F3 a F1 2 F2 x + 0 +a Fig. moment of inertia about its center is Ixx = b( The moment of inertia for triangle 1 about y is A1 ∆x1 2 0 2 − 0) 3 /36. The lower line of the b 0 triangle is y = ( 1 − b −a)x + 0 + a. 2 a b2 2 1 +2 a b 0 +a 2 Ixy = 0 b 1 − 0 )x + b 0 x y dx dy = b2 24 The solution of this set equations is A F1 = a b (g (6 3 „ (3 1 + 3 a) + 6 g „ 0) ρ sin β + 8 Patmos 24 12 a 1 . F2 ab 3 =− F3 ab 3 = − 72 « « 24 1 48 0 Patmos a −24 + a . FLUIDS STATICS 1 and its width b and thus. -4. The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. 72 „„ « « « „ 2 15 12 12 a− a 1 + 0 27− a 1 + a 0 g ρ sin β 72 „„ « « 24 1 48 +24 + a 0 Patmos a „„ 1 −14 a)− 0 « « 12 2 −27 + a 0 g ρ sin β + 72 End Solution . the moment of ∆x2 2 1 A2 Ixx 2 = b[a−( 1− 36 0 )] 3 + b[a−( 1 − 0 )] 3 + [a−( 1 − 0 )] 2 3 and the total moment of inertia Ixx = Ixx 1 + Ixx 2 The product of inertia of the triangle can be obtain by integration.92 CHAPTER 4. It can be noticed that upper line of the triangle is y = ( 1 − 0 )x + 0 .

pressure centers are commonly deﬁned.1.110) and in the same fashion in y direction yp = Ixy + yc yc A (4. it can be found by setting the atmospheric pressure and 0 to zero as following xp = Expanding Ix x g ρ sin β Ix x A ρ g sin β xc (4.103).107) In the same way. It also means that the density can be a non-continuous function.108) To show relationship between the pressure center and the other properties. If density can be represented by average density. For non constant density the derivations aren’t “clean” but are similar. the density was assumed to be constant.” Thus. the pressure center in the y direction is deﬁned as yp = 1 F y P dA A (4. the pressure center in the x direction is xp = 1 F x P dA A (4.1 Pressure Center 93 In the literature. In fact. 4. These deﬁnitions are mathematical in nature and has physical meaning of equivalent force that will act through this center.111) It has to emphasis that these deﬁnitions are useful only for case where the atmospheric pressure can be neglected or canceled and where 0 is zero. the reader can ﬁnd that direct calculations can sometimes simplify the problem. The deﬁnition is derived or obtained from equation (4. Why? Because of the buoyancy issue.1. The pressure center is the distance that will create the moment with the hydrostatic force on point “O.5. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 4.2 Multiply Layers In the previous sections.112) 9 This statement also means that density is a monotonous function.5.17) results in xp = Ixx + xc xc A (4. Thus. . Consider straight/ﬂat body that is under liquid with a varying density9 . the force that is acting on the body is Ftotal = A g ρ h dA ∼ ρ ¯ A g h dA (4. these limitations diminish the usefulness of pressure center deﬁnitions.5.109) according to equation (3.95) and equation (4.4.

The moment around axis y. if the variation of the density is within 10% and/or the accuracy of the calculation is minimal. but constant in segments. the following can be said Ftotal = A g ρ h dA = A1 g ρ1 h dA + A2 g ρ2 h dA + · · · + An g ρn h dA (4. In cases where density is non–continuous. Moreover. However. .118) In the same fashion one can obtain the moment for x axis as Total Static Moment n Mx = Patmos yc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x y i (4.94 CHAPTER 4.114) As before for single density. ρi is the density of the layer i and Ai and xc i are geometrical properties of the area which is in contact with that layer.113) (4.117) If the atmospheric pressure also enters into the calculations one can ﬁnd that Total Static Moment n My = Patmos xc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4.116) After similar separation of the total integral. one can ﬁnd that n My = g sin β i=1 ρi Ix x i (4.115) where the density. the reasonable average can be used. The atmospheric pressure can be entered into the calculation in the same way as before. the atmospheric pressure can include all the layer(s) that do(es) not with the “contact” area. FLUIDS STATICS In cases where average density cannot be represented reasonably10 .119) 10 A qualitative discussion on what is reasonably is not presented here. the following can be written xc A1 x c A2 1 2 xc n An Ftotal = g sin β ρ1 ξ dA +ρ2 A1 A2 ξ dA + · · · + ρn An ξ dA Or in a compact form and in addition considering the “atmospheric” pressure can be written as Total Static Force n Ftotal = Patmos Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi xc i Ai (4. the integral has be carried out. My under the same considerations as before is My = A g ρ ξ 2 sin β dA (4.

5[m]. The heights are: h1 = 1[m]. Example 4. a2 = 1. The forces distances are a1 = 1. pressure the new “atmospheric” forces. h3 = 3[m].5.21. -4. pressure can be used as ρ1 ρ2 ρ3 ρ4 β h1 a2 h3 h2 b2 b1 F2 F1 a1 ℓ The eﬀects of multi layers density on static Patmos = Patmos + ρ1 g h1 The distance for the center for each area is at the middle of each of the “small” rectangular. as can be noticed that instead of using the regular atmospheric Fig. h2 = 2[m].21. ρ2 = 800[kg/m3 ].118) can be used by modifying it.11: Consider the hypothetical Figure 4. The solution method of this example is applied for cases with less layers (for example by setting the speciﬁc height difference to be zero). Also neglect all mass transfer phenomena that may occur. The last layer is made of water with density of 1000[kg/m3 ].118) and (4.115). The geometries of each areas are „ h2 a2 + sin β 2 h2 +h3 2 sin β h3 +h4 2 sin β h2 sin β −a2 36 «3 xc 1 = xc 2 = xc 3 = A1 = A2 = A3 = h2 sin β sin β sin β − a2 Ix x 1 = x 2 x 3 + (xc 1 ) A1 + (xc 2 ) A2 + (xc 3 ) A3 2 2 2 (h3 − h2 ) (h4 − h3 ) Ix Ix = = (h3 −h2 )3 36 sin β (h4 −h3 )3 36 sin β After inserting the values. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 95 To illustrate how to work with these equations the following example is provided. Assume that the layers are stables without any movement between the liquids. which are (4. Calculate the forces at points a1 and b1 . and ρ4 = 1000[kg/m3 ].75[m]. The densities are ρ1 = 500[kg/m3 ]. Solution y "O" Since there are only two unknowns. only two equations are h4 needed. ρ3 = 850[kg/m3 ].and h4 = 4[m]. the following equations are obtained Thus. the ﬁrst equation is Atotal 3 F1 + F2 = Patmos (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β i=1 ρi+1 xci Ai .4. Equation ρ4 (4.5[m]. and b1 = 4. The angle of inclination is is β = 45◦ .

The element force is d F = −P n dA ˆ (4. the conventional notation is used which is to denote the x y dAz Fig. The intermediate results in SI units ([m].535 Ix x 1 = 14.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces The pressure is acting on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the surface (no shear forces assumption).292 Ix x 3 = 86. It is simpler to compute the terms separately.92[N ] End Solution 4. the pressure is treated as a scalar function.118) to be written for the moment around the point “O” as xc Atotal F1 a1 + F2 b1 = Patmos (b2 + a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β ρi+1 Ix 2 i=1 3 x i The solution for the above equation is 2 b1 g sin β P3 i=1 F1 = P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai −2 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 Ix x i − (b2 2 −2 b1 b2 +2 a2 b1 −a2 2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 2 g sin β ρi+1 Ix x i Patmos F2 = −2 a1 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai + (b2 2 +2 a1 b2 +a2 2 −2 a1 a2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos The solution isn’t provided in the complete long form since it makes things messy.5.9497 A1 = 2.79[N ] and F2 = 958923.696 A2 = 3. The forces on curved area. [m2 ].5355 xc3 = 4. -4.120) z dAy dAx dA Here. FLUIDS STATICS The second equation is (4.535 A3 = 3.215 Ix x 2 = 44. A mini source code for the calculations is provided in the the text source. [m4 ]) are: xc1 = 2.2892 xc2 = 3.96 CHAPTER 4.718 The ﬁnal answer is F1 = 304809. At this stage.22. .

123) The same can be said for the x direction. -4. There are no readily made expressions for these 3–dimensional geometries. This force component can be combined with the other components in the other directions to be Ftotal = Fz 2 + Fx 2 + Fy 2 (4.124) The force which acting on the z direction is the weight of the liquid above the projected area plus the atmospheric pressure. only a dot product is needed as dFy = dF • ˆ j (4.23.127) Fig.122) From this analysis (equation (4. outward as positive. . “y z” is tan θzy Fz = Fy (4. The moment due to the curved surface require integration to obtain the value. So.125) only the liquid above the body affecting the body And the angle in “x z” plane is tan θxz = Fz Fx (4. for some geometries there are readily calculated center of mass and when combined with two other components provide the moment (force with direction line). The total force on the area will be the integral of the unit force F=− A 97 P n dA ˆ (4. The force in the z direction is Fz = A h g ρdAz (4.121) The result of the integral is a vector. if the y component of the force is needed. However. for example.122)) it can be observed that the force in the direction of y.4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES area. Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body.5. dA. is simply the integral of the area perpendicular to y as Fy = A P dAy (4.126) and the angle in the other plane.

The pressure is only a function of θ and it is P = Patmos + ρ g r sin θ The force that is acting on the x direction of the dam is Ax × P . FLUIDS STATICS Cut–Out Shapes Eﬀects There are bodies with a shape that the vertical direction (z direction) is “cut– out” aren’t continuous. The net force will be θ0 P dAx Fx = 0 ρ g r sin θ b r cos θ dθ results in The integration . The atmospheric pressure does cancel itself (at least if the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the dam is the same. The diﬀerential area that will be used is. Fx = A P r cos θ dθ (4. When the area Ax is b r dθ cos θ. Example 4. only the net force is the actual liquid in the slot which is acting on the body. For example. The atmospheric pressure acts on the area with continuous lines. direct and indirect. b r dθ where b is the width of the dam (into the page).12: Calculate the force and the moment around point “O” that is acting on the dam (see Figure (4.24)). -4. Thus.128) Note that the direction of the area is taken into account (sign).98 CHAPTER 4.23 shows a ﬂoating body with cut–out slot into it. Compare the diﬀerent methods of computations. Calculations of forces on a circular shape dam. Solution The force in the x direction is dAx δθ θ θ0 θ Y 4[m] x direction A θ Ax Ay Fig. Additional point that is worth mentioning is that the depth where the cut–out occur is insigniﬁcant (neglecting the change in the density). the atmospheric pressure with it piezometric pressure is canceled by the upper part of the slot.24.124) implicitly means that the net force on the body is z direction is only the actual liquid above it. The gravity is 9. Inside the slot. You can assume that the liquid density is constant and equal to 1000 [kg/m3 ]. The dam is made of an arc with the angle of θ0 = 45◦ and radius of r = 2[m]. Figure 4.). Equation (4.8[m/sec2 ] and width of the dame is b = 4[m].

The force in the y direction is the area times width.0[N ] 2 Since the last two equations are identical (use the sinuous theorem to prove it sin2 θ + cos2 = 1). Ax (see Figure 4. why? The values to evaluate the last equation are provided in the question and simplify subsidize into it as Fx = 1000 × 9.4. Notice that dAx (cos θ) and Ax (sin θ) are different. just a demonstration! . -4.26) is at yc arc = 4 r sin2 3θ θ 2 11 Well.25.216[N ] 2 2 The center area ( purple area in Figure 4. V A θ r2 r2 sin θ0 cos θ0 0 Fy = − − b g ρ ∼ 22375.25) should be calculated as yc = yc Aarc − yc Atriangle A The center area above the dam requires to know the center area of the arc and triangle shapes. clearly the discussion earlier was right (not a good proof LOL11 ). Some mathematics are required because the shift in the arc orientation. Area above the dam arc subtract triangle. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES ρ g b r2 1 − cos2 (θ0 ) 2 99 Fx = A△ = r2 sin θ cos θ Aarc = r Alternative way to do this calculation is by calculating the pressure at mid point and then multiply it by the projected area. The arc center (see Figure 4.25) as r sin θ0 ρgbr Fx = ρ g b r sin θ0 = sin2 θ 2 2 Ax xc θ r2 2 Fig.8 × 4 × 2 sin(45◦ ) = 19600.5.

Area above the dam arc calculation for the center.26.100 CHAPTER 4.348[m] The moment is Mv = yc Fy ∼ 0.” .2.65174[m] The result of the arc center from point “O” (above calculation area) is Fig.21[N × m] 9 The total moment is the combination of the two and it is Mtotal = 23191. -4. and substituting the proper values results in Aarc θ r2 2 yc yc Atriangle cos θ 2 3θ θ 4 r sin yc r = 2 r cos θ sin θ r2 3θ 3 2 θ r2 r2 sin θ cos θ − 2 2 cos − Aarc Atriangle θ 2 θ 2 4 r sin 3θ θ 2 This value is the reverse value and it is yc r = 1. Moment on arc element around Point “O. yc = r − yc r = 2 − 1.2 ∼ 7792.1 and 3.65174 ∼ 0.31759[N × m] The center pressure for x area is Ixx 3 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) Ixx 5 r cos θ0 r cosθ0 36 xp = xc + = = + r cosθ0 xc A 2 9 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) 2 xc The moment due to hydrostatic pressure is Mh = xp Fx = 5 r cosθ0 Fx ∼ 15399. -4.348 × 22375.5[N × m] For direct integration of the moment is done as following O θ0 dF = P dA = 0 ρ g sin θ b r dθ θ θ/2 θ/2 π−θ 2 ℓ = 2 r sin θ 2 π 2 dF θ/2 Fig.27. FLUIDS STATICS 4 r sin θ 2 All the other geometrical values are obtained from Tables 3.

there are many programs or hand held devices that can carry numerical integration by inserting the function and the boundaries. the traditional approach was presented ﬁrst. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES and element moment is θ 2 θ 2 101 dM = dF × = dF 2 r sin and the total moment is θ0 cos M= 0 dM θ0 or M= 0 ρ g sin θ b r 2 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 dθ The solution of the last equation is M= g r ρ (2 θ0 − sin (2 θ0 )) 4 The vertical force can be obtained by θ0 Fv = 0 P dAv P dAv or θ0 Fv = 0 ρ g r sin θ r dθ cos θ g r2 ρ 2 1 − cos (θ0 ) 2 Fv = Here. this example provides for practical purposes of the general solution for curved surfaces. The reason that a polynomial function was chosen is that almost all the continuous functions can be represented by a Taylor series. End Solution To demonstrate this point further. In fact. and thus. and the direct approach was presented second.5. Example 4.4. It is much simpler now to use the second method.13: . consider a more general case of a polynomial function.

29. It can be noticed that the diﬀerential area that is used here should be multiplied by the depth. Polynomial shape dam description for the moment around point “O” and force calculations.calculate the moment around point “O” and the force created by the liquid per unit depth. in this case describing the dam function is 1+ dy dx 2 n 2 O y dy dx ℓ dF b = 1+ i=1 i a (i) x (i) i−1 y θ The value of xb is where y = b and can be obtained by ﬁnding the ﬁrst and positive root of the equation of n x x 0= i=1 ai xi − b Fig. it can be shown that dx2 + dy 2 = dx 1+ dy dx 2 The right side can be evaluated for any given function.29).102 For the liquid shown in Figure 4. For example.28.28 . To evaluate the moment.28). The function of the dam shape is n y = i=1 ai xi and it is a monotonous function (this restriction can be relaxed somewhat). FLUIDS STATICS o y= b n i=1 ai x i dA dy y x dx Fig. expression of the distance and angle to point “O” are needed (see Figure 4. Also calculate the horizontal and vertical forces. The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle.28) in this case is P h dA dF = (b − y) g ρ dx2 + dy 2 The size of the diﬀerential area is the square root of the dx2 and dy 2 (see Figure 4. The calculations are done per unit depth (into the page) and do not require the actual depth of the dam. From mathematics. The distance between the point on the dam at x to the point “O” is (x) = (b − y)2 + (xb − x)2 . -4. Solution CHAPTER 4. -4. The element force (see Figure 4.

The distance is = The angle can be expressed as θ = tan−1 12 x5 − tan The total moment is √ 6 b (b − 2 2 x6 ) + 6 b −x 2 2 b − 2 x6 −1 6 b 2 −x M= 0 (x) cos θ(x) b − 2 x6 g ρ 1 + 12 x5 dx This integral doesn’t have analytical solution.4. only one term is provided and xb can be calculated as following xb = Notice that 6 6 b 2 b 2 5 is measured in meters.5. consider the speciﬁc case of y = 2 x6 . In this case. The derivative at x is and the derivative is dimensionless (a dimensionless number). The number “2” is a dimensional number with dy = 12 x5 dx units of [1/m ]. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The angle between the force and the distance to point “O” is θ(x) = tan−1 dy dx − tan−1 b−y xb − x 103 The element moment in this case is dF 2 dM = (x) (b − y) g ρ 1+ dy dx cos θ(x) dx To make this example less abstract. The horizontal force is Fh = b ρ g b ρ g b2 = 2 2 The vertical force per unit depth is the volume above the dam as √ 6 b Fv = 0 b − 2x 6 5 b6 ρ g dx = ρ g 7 7 . for a given value b this integral can be evaluate. However.

h0 as shown in Figure 4. The force due to the liquid pressure per unit depth (into the page) is 0 0 F = ρg ((h0 − a/2) − (h0 + a/2)) b = −ρ g a b = −ρgV In this case the be (4.129) represents a depth (into the page). .30. he was able to cap. End Solution 4.129) to F = ρg V (4. the imaginary pressure make it so that they cancel each other. The forces on square geometry body are made only of vertical forces because the two sides cancel each other. All the horizontal forces are canceled. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. It was taught by people like these. 12 This topic was the author’s class name in high school. the ﬂoating vessels structure (more than 150 years ago) show some understanding12 . This analysis can be generalized by noticing two things. ship builders who know how to calculate GM but weren’t aware of scientiﬁc principles behind it. While the question of the stability was not scientiﬁcally examined in the past. However. To understand this issue. because this material is presented in a diﬀerent era. This omission saves considerable time. those will cancel each other. FLUIDS STATICS In going over these calculations. Archimedes princib ple is related to question of density and volume. In fact. the horizontal forces are canceling each other. perhaps the name can explain it: Sea Oﬃcers High School. Any body that has a projected area that has two sides. on the vertical direction. trying to ﬁnd the center of the area will double the work. Thus even these bodies are in contact with each other. 150 years ago and more. While Archimedes did not know much about integrals. -4. more advance mathematics will be used. On the upper surface the pressure is ρg(h0 − a/2). If the reader wonders why such a class is taught in a high school. This author ﬁnd this method to be simpler for complicated geometries while the indirect method has advantage for very simple geometries.Fig.104 CHAPTER 4. The total forces the liquid exacts on a body are considered as a buoyancy issue. ture the essence. Here. For any two rectangle bodies. On the lower surface the pressure is ρg(h0 + a/2).6 Buoyancy and Stability h r One of the oldest known scientiﬁc rea search on ﬂuid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carried by Archimedes. The force to hold the cylinder at the place must be made of integration of the pressure around the surface of the square and cylinder bodies.30. Rearranging equation (4.130) The force on the immersed body is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid. consider a cubical and a cylindrical body that is immersed in liquid and center in a depth of. the pressure on the two surfaces are diﬀerent. the calculations of the center of the area were not carried out. Another way to look at this point is by approximation.

131) r θ The total force will be the integral of the equation (4. In illustration of this concept. -4.133) Fig. Assume that the wall thickness is small compared with the other dimensions (t << w and t << h). the total force is made of the sum of all the small rectangles which is the weight of the sum of all volume. these examples are a must. ﬂoating body. calculate the pressure inside the container.32 .131) transforms it to 2π F = rgρ 0 (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ dθ (4.131) 2π F = 0 ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) r dθ sin θ (4.135) Typical examples to explain the buoyancy are of the vessel with thin walls put upside down into liquid. -4.134) The negative sign indicate that the force acting upwards.32.is ﬂoating in liquid with density. . ρl and the surroundings air temperature. In the case where thickness is half the maximum. The force per area (see Figure 4.6. The container diameter is w. The force on every rectangular shape is made of its weight of the volume. Since there are no better examples. shown in Figure 4.4. T1 for the body to ﬂoat. ρs liquid density. Thus. consider the cylindrical shape in Figure 4. While the horizontal force is 2π Fv = 0 (h0 − r sin θ) cos θ dθ = 0 (4. any shape is made of many small rectangles.133) is F = −π r2 ρ g (4. The solution of equation (4. h1 t w hin h Example 4. Express the maximum wall thickness. Schematic of a thin wall function of the density of the wall. as a Fig. The body was inserted into liquid in a such a way that the air had remained in it.31) is P dAvertical h0 dF = ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ r dθ (4. The second example of the speed of the ﬂoating bodies. The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder.31.132) Rearranging equation (4. ρl .30.14: A cylindrical body. t. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 105 On the other hand.

ρ π w2 h ρl g hin + Patmos = Pin = The last equation can be simpliﬁed into ρl g hin + Patmos = And the solution for hin is hin = − and hin = Patmos + Patmos R T1 R T1 hin π w2 h Patmos hin 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 2 g ρl 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 − Patmos 2 g ρl The solution must be positive. so that the last solution is the only physical solution. Thus. h1 has to be zero. . the pressure at the interface from the air point of view (ideal gas model) should be mair R T1 Pin = hin π w2 V Since the air mass didn’t change and it is known. the pressure at the interface can be written as Pin = ρl g hin On the other hand. FLUIDS STATICS mair = π w2 h The mass of the container is Patmos RT A mcontainer = π w2 + 2 π w h t ρs The liquid amount enters into the cavity is such that the air pressure in the cavity equals to the pressure at the interface (in the cavity). Note that for the maximum thickness. it can be inserted into the above equation. the height.106 Solution The air mass in the container is V ρair CHAPTER 4.

6. When the gravity approaches zero (macro gravity) then hin = Patmos h 2 ρl g 5 h 4 ρl 3 g 3 2 h 3 ρl 2 g 2 +h− − + ··· + ρl g Patmos Patmos 2 Patmos 3 This “strange” result shows that bodies don’t ﬂoat in the normal sense. the temperature in the cavity immediately after the insertion is . It is reasonable as the ﬁrst approximation to assume that the process is adiabatic and isentropic. Thus.4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 107 Example 4. the air. the following height can be expanded into hin = h Patmos Patmos + + ··· g ρl 2 g ρl which shows that the large quantity of liquid enters into the container as it is expected. net displayed water π w2 (h − hin ) g container = π w 2 + 2 π w h t ρs g + π w 2 h air Patmos R T1 g If air mass is neglected the maximum thickness is tmax = 2 g h w ρl + Patmos w − w 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 (2 g w + 4 g h) ρl ρs The condition to have physical value for the maximum thickness is 2 g h ρl + Patmos ≥ The full solution is tmax = − ” “ √ w R 4 gh Patmos ρl +Patmos 2 −2 g h w R ρl −Patmos w R T1 +2 g h Patmos w ρl (2 g w+4 g h) R ρl ρs T1 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 In this analysis the air temperature in the container immediately after insertion in the liquid has diﬀerent value from the ﬁnal temperature. Thus. When the ﬂoating is under vacuum condition.15: Calculate the minimum density an inﬁnitely long equilateral triangle (three equal sides) has to be so that the sharp end is in the water. End Advance material Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container. Advance material can be skipped Extreme Cases The solution demonstrates that when h −→ 0 then hin −→ 0.

16: A body is pushed into the liquid to a distance. where α is ratio between the body density to the liquid density and (0 < α < 1). Calculate acceleration and time for a body to reach the surface. which is ρl g hin + Patmos = π w2 (h − hin − h1 ) = π w2 + 2 π w h) t ρs g + π w2 h End Solution atmos π w2 h PR T1 R T1 (hin + h1 ) π w2 Patmos R T1 g Example 4. Is the body volume important? Solution The net force is liquid weight body weight F = V g ρl − V g α ρl = V g ρl (1 − α) But on the other side the internal force is m F = m a = V αρl a . but the liquid displacement is still unknown. The thickness is known. FLUIDS STATICS The ﬁnal temperature and pressure were calculated previously. The pressure at the interface (after long time) is ρl g hin + Patmos = which can be simpliﬁed to h Patmos hin + h1 The second equation is Archimedes’ equation. h0 and left at rest. The equation of state is Pi = mair R Ti Vi The new unknown must provide additional equation which is Vi = π w 2 h i Thickness Below The Maximum For the half thickness t = tmax the general solution for any given thickness below 2 maximum is presented. The body’s density is α ρl .108 Ti = Tf Pi Pf CHAPTER 4.

This idea can lead to experiment in “large gravity” because the acceleration can be magniﬁed and it is much more than the reverse of free falling. End Solution Example 4. Consider the force that acts on a half sphere.4. it can be observed that only the density ratio is important. the acceleration is a=g 1−α α 109 If the object is left at rest (no movement) thus time will be (h = 1/2 a t2 ) t= If the object is very light (α −→ 0) then tmin = 2hα + g √ √ √ 3 5 7 2 g h α2 3 2 g h α2 5 2 g h α2 + + + ··· 2g 8g 16 g 2 hα g(1 − α) From the above equation. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Thus.6. The element force is dAx h 2 dA dF = (ρL − ρS ) g r cos φ cos θ cos θ cos φ r dθ dφ The total force is then π π 0 Fx = 0 (ρL − ρS ) g cos2 φ cos2 θ r3 dθ dφ The result of the integration the force on sphere is Fs = The force on equivalent cylinder is Fc = π r2 (ρL − ρS ) h π 2 (ρL − ρS ) r3 4 . it is desired to ﬁnd equivalent of force of a certain shape to be replaced by another force of a “standard” shape.17: In some situations. Find equivalent cylinder that has the same diameter that Solution The force act on the half sphere can be found by integrating the forces around the sphere.

The net force down is the weight of the body ρc h A.110 These forces have to be equivalent and thus CHAPTER 4. This force is balance according to above explanation by the two liquid as ρc ¨A = ¨h (α ρl + (1 − α)ρh ) h¨ A¨ Where α is the fraction that is in low liquid. FLUIDS STATICS $ ! £ (ρL $$ ¡ π 2 $$− ρS ) r3 $ = & $$− ρS ) h π r2 (ρL $$ 4 Thus the height is h π = r 4 End Solution 1 Example 4. A is canceled on both sides.18: In the introduction to this section. Suppose that the above layer is another liquid which has a bit lighter density. the body can be separated into two which one in ﬁrst liquid and second in the second liquid. After rearrangement it became α= ρc − ρh ρl − ρh the second part deals with the case where the density varied parabolically. In this case there are two diﬀerent liquid densities. What will be location of solid body if the liquid density varied parabolically. The density as a function of x coordinate along h starting at point ρh is ρ(x) = ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) Thus the equilibration will be achieved. Where h is the height of the body and A is its cross section. it was assumed that above liquid is a gas with inconsequential density. when x1 +h ρc h = x1 ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) dx After the integration the equation transferred into ρc h = (3 ρl − 3 ρh ) x12 + (3 h ρl − 3 h ρh ) x1 + h2 ρl + 2 h2 ρh 3h . In the same vein. Develp the relationship between the densities of liquids and solid and the location of the solid cubical. Body with density between the two liquids. ρl < ρs < rhoh is ﬂating between the two liquids. There situations where density is a function of the depth. Solution In discussion to this section it was shown that met force is the body volume times the the density of the liquid.

However.6. When the body is at the position shown in Figure 4. -4. These forces create a moment which wants to return the body to the resting (original) position.6.33c. ing the body with a small angle from its resting position creates a shift in the forces direction (examine Figure 4. Moving bodies from an unstable position is in essence like a potential. the cubic results in returning to the original position. If this arrangec a ment is inserted into liquid and it will b be ﬂoating. This B situation is similar to Figure 4.33b).34).33c . x1 . TiltFig. End Solution 4. any experiment of this cubic wood shows that it is stable locally.33. the balloon will be on the top and sphere on the bottom. Small amount of tilting of Fig.4. Schematic of ﬂoating cubic. will be at √ 3 3 h2 ρl 2 + (4 ρc − 6 h2 ρh ) ρl + 3 h2 ρh 2 − 12 ρc ρh + 3 h ρl − 3 h ρh X1 = 6 ρh − 2 ρl For linear relationship the the following results can be obtained. This arrangement has mass centroid close to the middle of the sphere. -4. When tilting a larger amount than π/4 . for example) is inserted into water. The cubic mass (gravity) centroid is in the middle of the cubic. However. the calculations can be carried out under assumption sharp change. Part of the block ﬂoats above water line. A wooden cubic (made of pine. Thus.1 Stability Empty buoyancy Figure 4. Schematic of ﬂoating bodies. This analysis doesn’t violate the second law of thermodynamics. HowG ever the buoyant center is the middle of the volume under the water (see Figure 4. they have to accounted for. if body is small compare the zone of variation.33 shows a body made of center hollow balloon and a heavy sphere connected by a thin and light rod.the body is unstable and any tilt from the original position creates moment that will further continue to move the body from its original position. x1 = h ρl + h ρh − 6 ρc 2 ρl − 2 ρh In many cases in reality the variations occur in small zone compare to the size of the body.34. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 111 And the location where the lower point of the body (the physical). gravity center The buoyant center is below the midFull dle of the balloon.

move to a new buoyant center. So.35 is displaced by the same area (really the volume) on left since the weight of the body didn’t change13 so the total immersed section is constant. when given a tilted position. The right green area (volume) in Figure 4. When the body is tilted at δF ∆F GM a small angle. the body is “stable” in some β M δF ∆F points more than others in their vicinity. It can be noticed that the distance BB is an approximation for small angles (neglecting the vertical component. However. BB . Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. This analysis is based on the diﬀerence of the displaced liquid. The center of the mass (gravity) is still in the old location since the body did not change. W referred to the weight of the body.33c. in any of these six positions. -4.136) Where M is the moment created by the displaced areas (volumes). In fact. the moment is calculated as the integration of the small force shown in the Figure 4. . BB is the distance between points B and point B’. categories.35. shown in Figure 4. If one draws the stability (later about this criterion) as a function of the rotation angle will show a sinusoidal function with four picks in a whole rotation. B. it results in a ﬂipping into the next stable position. The body.35. The third state is when the couple forces do have zero moment. should be BB = M W (4. For small angle. when the body is not symmetrical.137) 13 It is correct to state: area only when the body is symmetrical. the immersed part of the B B’ body center changes to a new location.35 as ∆F . the analysis is still correct because the volume and not the area is used. FLUIDS STATICS . The displacement of the buoyant center can be calculated by examining the moment these forces are creating.35. the body stability must be based on the diﬀerence between the body’s local positions rather than the “absolute” stability. the original state is referred as the stable body and vice versa.112 CHAPTER 4. it is referred to as the neutral stable. The body weight creates opposite moment to balance the moment of the displaced liquid volume. The stability of the body is divided into three Fig. So the perpendicular distance. β. the body is in situation like in 4. BB W = M (4. should to be calculated. If the new immerse volume creates a new center in such way that the couple forces (gravity and buoyancy) try to return the body. These points are raised from the buoyant G dA force analysis. β. and. The cubic is stable in six positions (every cubic has six faces). B’. B’ as shown in Figure 4. The reason for this local stability of the cubic is that other positions are less stable.). This deviation of the buoyant center from the old buoyant center location. That is.

the geometrical quantities can be related as BM h h1 ρl Ixx GM = −BG ρs Vbody (4.36. is insigniﬁcant for this analysis.139) The point where the gravity force direction is intersecting with the center line of the cross section is referred as metacentric point.138) as BB = g ρl Ixx ρs Vbody (4.138) is referred to as the area moment of inertia and was discussed in Chapter 3.140) And combining equations (4.139) with (4. Show that the block’s length.35.143) a L To understand these principles consider the following examples. M. The distance. BB can be written from equation (4. ρs = α ρl where ( 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 ) is ﬂoating in a liquid. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY The moment M can be calculated as δF 113 M= A g ρl x β dA x = g ρl β dV A x2 dA (4.141) β→0 It is remarkable that the results is independent of the angle. . L. Fig.19: A solid block of wood of uniform density.6.138) The integral in the right side of equation (4. The location of the metacentric point can be obtained from the geometry as BM = BB sin β (4. -4.4.142) g ρl βIxx ρl Ixx ¡ = g ρs sin β Vbody ρs Vbody ¡ (4. Looking at Figure 4.140) yields BM = For small angle (β ∼ 0) lim sin β ∼1 β (4. Construct a graph that shows the relationship of the GM as a function of ratio height to width. Example 4. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis.

The distance BG obtained from Archimedes’ theorem and can be expressed as immersed V volume ρs W = ρs a h L = ρl a h1 L =⇒ h1 = h ρl Thus.5 -0.34) 3.1 2.0 2.8 0. Thus.6 0.144) 2.145) 2 Fig.37.4 0.146) can be expressed. Where L is the length into 12 the page.5 0.5 0. Notice that GM /h isn’t a function of the depth.1 1.0 square circle 0.2 0.0 1.9 ρs 1− ρl 0. The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio. 2008 α 0.5 2.5 1.9 1.2 0.2 BG = h ρs 1 h − h = 2 ρl 2 2 1− GM h ρs ρl (4.2 -0.7 0. FLUIDS STATICS Equation (4.0 a h April 16.1 Stability of Square Block h1 0. The moment of 3 inertia for a block is given in Table 3.0 Fig.7 0.9 1.6 1.0 1.5 α = 0.0 0.0 0.2 α = 0. L.4 α = 0.8 0.3 1. the distance BG is (see Figure 4.143) requires that several quantities should be expressed.8 2. -4.0 -0.1 0.0 0.5 0.3 1.0 -0.114 Solution CHAPTER 4.8 0.38.0 0.0 0. In cylindrical shape equivalent equation to equation (4. the equation is Stability of Solid Blocks GM g = h 64 α b h 2 1 − (1 − α) 2 a h 3.4 1.1 and is Ixx = La . -4. 2008 Simplifying the above equation provides GM 1 = h 12 α a h 2 1 − (1 − α) (4.0 1.4 Ixx α = 0.1 1.4 April 16. .2 1.3 0. For cylinder (circle) the moment of inertia is Ixx = π b4 /64. Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long.2 1.6 0. The distance BG is the same as for the square shape (cubic) (see above (4.146) End Solution One of the interesting point that the above analysis was that there is a point above which the ratio of the height to the body width is not stable any more. where α is the density ratio.0 α = 0. This equation leads to the condition where the maximum height above which the body is not stable any more as a ≥ h 6 (1 − α)α (4.5 L 3 a g ρl ¡ 12 − h GM = g ρs a h 2 L ¡ V α = 0.8 1.7 α = 0.3 0.144)).5 0.6 0.

Supposed that a/h −→ ˜ the body will be unstable. Some analysis of ﬂoating bodies are done by breaking the rotation of arbitrary axis to rotate around the two main axises.4. With the exception of the circular shape. Assume that density ratio is ρl /ρs = ρ. This is not a hypothetical question. Suppose that two opposite sides triangle (prism) attached to each other to 0 create a long “ship” see Figure 4. every geometrical shape has an axis in which the moment of inertia is without the product of inertia. This axis is where the main rotation of the body will occur.38. ¯ .20: One way to make a ship to be a hydrodynamic is by making the body as narrow as possible. the ship that was stable (positive GM ) leaving the initial port might became unstable (negative GM ) before reaching the destination port. the fuel is stored at the bottom of the ship and thus the mass center (point G) is changing during the voyage. On the other side if the a/h −→ ∞ the body is very stable. Principle Main Axises Any body has inﬁnite number of diﬀerent axises around which moment of inertia can be calculated. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY And the condition for maximum height for stability is b ≥ h 32 (1 − α) α 115 This kind of analysis can be carried for different shapes and the results are shown for these two shapes in Figure 4. Example 4. Unstable Bodies What happen when one increases the height ratio above the maximum height ratio? The body will ﬂip into the side and turn to the next stable point (angle). a square shape body has larger moment of inertia around diagonal. this problem is reduced to ﬁnd the stability for principle axis. Thus.6. but rather practical. For each of these axises there is a diﬀerent moment of inertia. For example. So.39. The diﬀerence between the previous calculation and the moment of inertia around the diagonal is I diagonal axis √ ∆Ixx = 2a √ 3a 2 3 “normal axis 6 − a4 12 ∼ 0. it must be stable at the “diagonal” axis. In commercial ships. For stability analysis. What is the ˜ minimum ratio of a/h that keep the body stable at half of the volume in liquid (water). it is enough to ﬁnd if the body is stable around the smallest moment of inertia.07 a4 Which show that if the body is stable at main axises. It can be noticed that the square body is more stable than the circular shape body. This happens when a ship is overloaded with containers above the maximum height.

The point B can be expressed as B= And thus the distance BG is BG = a 2 1− ρs ρl a ρs 2 ρl The limiting condition requires that GM = 0 so that ρl Ixx = BG ρs Vbody Or explicitly ρl ρs a2 h a h3 2 1− 1 a 4 h2 2 = a 2 1− ρs ρl After rearrangement and using the deﬁnitions of ξ = h/a ρρl /ρs results in ¯ ρ ξ2 ¯ 1− ξ 4 2 = 1− 1 ρ ¯ .116 Solution The answer to the question is that the limiting case where GM = 0. The Volume of the body is V =2 a2 h 2 = a2 h CHAPTER 4.7) is Ixx = And the volume is Vbody = a2 h2 − a2 = a2 h 4 1− 1 a2 4 h2 a h3 2 The point B is a function of the density ratio of the solid and liquid.143) have to found. -4. To ﬁnd this ratio equation terms in (4. tougher. FLUIDS STATICS h a a Fig.39. Stability of two triangles put The moment of inertia is triage (see for explanation in example (3. Denote the liquid density as ρl and solid density as ρs .

The eﬀects of liquid movement on nored. for stability analysis. Exact analysis requires taking into the GM . These situations involve liquid with a low viscosity (like water.40). Moreover. When the body is given a tilting position the body displaces the liquid on the outside. here. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 117 The solution of the above solution is obtained by squaring both sides and deﬁning a new variable such as x = ξ 2 .148) . After the about manipulation and selecting the positive value and to keep stability as √ x< 64 ρ4 −64 ρ3 +ρ2 −2 ρ+1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ ¯ + 2 √ 1 ρ ¯ −1 2ρ ¯ End Solution 4. is enough to be ig. The moment created by the inside displaced liquid is Min = g ρl B βIxx B (4.1.40. the slow reaction of the load. the liquid inside is changing its mass centroid. it is used as a limit for the stability analysis.6. For example. -4.6. and/or liquid) B does not occur in the same speed as the B′ body itself or the displaced outside liquid. furniture. The change in the mass centroid of the liquid “A” then is Ixx B g ρl¨βIxx B = G1 G1 = ¡ ¨B g VB ¨B VB ρl¨ ¡ Inside liquid weight (4.1 Stability of Body with Shifting Mass Centroid Ships and other ﬂoating bodies carry liquid or have a load which changes the M mass location during tilting of the ﬂoating body. The movement of the load (grains.40. A body is loaded with liquid “B” and is ﬂoating in a liquid “A” as shown in Figure 4. There are situations where the real case approaches to this extreme. account these shifting mass speeds. in this analysis. a ship that carries Gc wheat grains where the cargo is not propG G′ erly secured to the ship. the extreme case where the load reacts in the same speed as the tilting of the ship/ﬂoating body is examined.4. alcohol) and ship with low natural frequency (later on the frequency of the ships).Fig. Sometimes. At the same time. the dynamics are ignored and only the statics is examined (see Figure 4.147) Note that IxxB isn’t the same as the moment of inertia of the outside liquid interface. However. For practical purposes.

The engineer could design the tanks in such a way that the moment of inertia is operationally changed.154) T d h G Fig.1. can be achieved by having some tanks spanning across the entire body with tanks spanning on parts of the body. Movement of the liquid (mostly the fuel and water) provides way to control the stability. GM .148) shows that GG is only a function of the geometry.41.6.150) A new point can be deﬁned as Gc . the general formula is Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Ixx bi Vb i (4. This quantity. of the ship. X0 g mtotal GG = $mbody + g mf G1 G1 g $$$ ¡ (4. This control of the stability. . is similar for all liquid tanks on the ﬂoating body.118 CHAPTER 4. The moment of inertial of the combine two tanks is smaller than the moment of inertial of a single tank.151) The distance that was used before GM is replaced by the criterion for stability by Gc M and is expressed as Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 Ixx b − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Vb n i=1 (4. GM . Increasing the number of tanks reduces the moment of inertia. Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body. 4. Measurement The metacentric height can be measured by ﬁnding the change in the angle when a weight is moved on the ﬂoating body.2 Metacentric Height. -4. G1 G1 .152) If there are more than one tank partially ﬁlled with liquid. T a distance.149) ¡ For more than one tank. d then the moment created is Mweight = T d (4. Moving the weight. The total change of the vessel is then calculated similarly to center area calculations. it can be written as GG = g Wtotal n Gi Gi ρl i Vi = i=1 g Wtotal n i=1 Ixx b i Vb i (4. FLUIDS STATICS Equation (4.153) One way to reduce the eﬀect of the moving mass center due to liquid is done by substituting a single tank with several tanks. GM . G Gc = GG sin β (4. This point is the intersection of the center line with the vertical line form G .

-4.1. However.156) provides the solution. 4. This analysis is out of the scape of this book (for now).158) (4. this density change helps to increase the stability of the ﬂoating bodies.156) results in GM a ctual = GM new mtotal T −h mship mship (4.6.1. Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body. there are situations where the body has a “strange” and/or un-symmetrical body. When the body is submerged in a single ﬂuid layer. the stability analysis must take into account the changes of the displaced liquids of the two liquid layers.157) The weight of the ship is obtained from looking at the ship depth. The calculations for such cases are a bit more complicated but based on the similar principles. The calculation of GM can be improved by taking into account the eﬀect of the measuring weight. . BUOYANCY AND STABILITY This moment is balanced by Mrighting = Wtotal GM new θ (4. For an example of such a case is an object ﬂoating in a solar pond where the upper layer is made of water with lower salinity than the bottom layer(change up to 20% of the density). The change in height of G is g mtotal Gnew = g mship Gactual + g T h ¡ ¡ ¡ Combining equation (4. When the ﬂoating object is immersed in the two layers. then none of the changes of buoyant centroid occurs.3 Stability of Submerged Bodies The analysis of submerged bodied is diﬀerent from the stability when the body lay between two ﬂuid layers with diﬀerent density.4 Stability of None Systematical or “Strange” Bodies a While most ﬂoating bodies are symmetrical or semi–symmetrical. all ﬂuids have density varied in some degree.157) with equation (4. 4. the mass centroid must be below the buoyant centroid in order to have stable condition. Thus.156) If the change in the GM can be neglected.4.42. In cases where the density changes signiﬁcantly.155) 119 Where. is measured as the diﬀerence in the orientation of the ﬂoating body. equation (4. Generally. Consider the δβ ∆F M ∆F G GM B’ B b Fig.6. Wtotal . The angle. θ. is the total weight of the ﬂoating body including measuring weight. The metacentric height is GM new = Td Wtotal θ (4.6. it must be taken into account.

For the case where b < 3 a x some part is under the liquid.42. Thus.5 Neutral frequency of Floating Bodies This case is similar to pendulum (or mass attached to spring). After the tilting. The center of the moment is needed be found. FLUIDS STATICS ﬁrst strange body that has an abrupt step change as shown in Figure 4.42).161) . The body weight doesn’t change during the rotation that the green area on the left and the green area on right are the same (see Figure 4. The moment of inertia should be calculated around this axis. The period of the cycle is 2 π /g. This point is intersection point liquid with lower body and it is needed to be calculated.120 CHAPTER 4. The amount of area under the liquid section depends on the tilting angle.6. the moment to return the body is larger than actually was calculated and the bodies tend to be more stable (also for other reasons). For the case of b < 3 a the calculation of moment of inertia are similar to the previous case. The mathematical condition for the border is when b = 3 a. Similar situation exists in the case of ﬂoating bodies. The moment of inertia is calculated around this point (note the body is “ended” at end of the upper body). The basic diﬀerential equation is used to balance and is rotation rotating moment ¨ Iβ − V ρs GM β =0 (4. the upper part of the body is above the liquid or part of the body is submerged under the water. This point is the intersection of the liquid line with the brown middle line. the frequency of pendulum is 21π g which measured in Hz. The governing equation for the pendulum is ¨ β −gβ = 0 (4. 4. The moment created by change in the displaced liquid (area) act in the same fashion as the before. There are two situations that can occur.159) Where here is length of the rode (or the line/wire) connecting the mass with the rotation point.160) In the same fashion the frequency of the ﬂoating body is 1 2π V ρs GM Ibody (4. These calculations are done as if none of the body under the liquid.1. However.

Newton’s law states when there is unbalanced force. 4.162) In general. the needle cannot be held by the liquid. the body should be accelerate. Solution Under Construction End Solution .6. the surface tension between the needle and the liquid hold the needle above the liquid. etc. -4. Calculate the maximum diameter needle that can be inserted into liquid without drowning.22: Needle is made of steel and is heavier than water and many other liquids.2 Surface Tension The surface tension is one of the mathematically complex topic and related to many phenomena like boiling. End Solution Fig. Thus. only simpliﬁed topics like constant value will be discussed. Example 4.21: In interaction of the molecules shown in Figure ? describe the existence of surface tension. the common explanation is wrong. in this case. coating.43. Increase in GM increases the frequency of the ﬂoating body. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY and the period time is 2π Ibody V ρs GM 121 (4. In this section. the larger GM the more stable the ﬂoating body is. the liquid is not in motion. Example 4. However. Explain why this description is erroneous? Solution The upper layer of the molecules have unbalanced force towards the liquid phase. However. If the ﬂoating body is used for transport humans and/or other creatures or sensitive cargo it requires to reduce the GM so that the traveling will be smother. After certain diameter.6.4. A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid.

This distortion can be as a result of heavy ﬂuid above the lighter liquid. Thus. There are situations where a heavy liquid layer is placed over a lighter ﬂuid layer.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability RayleighTaylor instability (or RT instability) is named after Lord Rayleigh and G.44. For perfectly straight interface. ρL . As usual there is the neutral stable when the forces are equal. This situation has engineering implications in several industries. The conditions that required from this function will be required from all the other functions. This disturbance can grow or returned to its original situation.163) . and the buoyancy forces. some of heavy liquid moves down. Supposed that a liquid density is arbitrary function of the height. The depression is returned to its h original position if the surface forces are L large enough. In that case. Example for such systems are dense water over oil (liquid–liquid). Taylor. heavy ﬂuid that is being placed above a lighter ﬂuid in a gravity ﬁeld perpendicular to interface. this situation x σ σ is considered to be stable. The simpliﬁed case is the two diﬀerent uniform densities. the force that acting to get the above ﬂuid down is the buoyancy force of the ﬂuid in the depression. The disturbance is of the following h = −hmax cos 2πx L (4.3. the liquid ﬂuid zone and vice versa. -4. This instability deals with a dense. if the surface forces (surface tension) are not suﬃcient. This condition is determined by competing forces. Thus. FLUIDS STATICS 4. This analysis is referred to the case of inﬁnite or very large surface. ρG . In poor designs or other situations. or water over air(gas–liquid). Thus.122 CHAPTER 4. above lower ﬂuid with lower density. The original Rayleigh’s paper deals with the dynamics and density variations. example of a cosine function will be examined. The ﬂuid above the depression is in equilibrium with the sounding pressure since the material is extending to inﬁnity. For example. the surface density. Any continues function can be expanded in serious of cosines. the heavy ﬂuid will stay above the lighter ﬂuid. Description of depression to explain unstable and the heavy liquid enters into the Rayleigh–Taylor instability.2) are always stable but unstable of the density is in the reversed order. density variations according to the bulk modulus (see section 4. some air is not evacuated and stay in small cavity on the edges of the shape to be casted. This analysis asks the question what happen when a small amount of liquid from above layer enter into the lower layer? Whether this liquid continue and will grow or will it return to its original conditions? The surface tension is the opposite mechanism that will returns the liquid to its original place. For example a heavy ﬂuid density. On the other hand. liquid metal is injected in a cavity ﬁlled with air. If the surface will disturbed.3. the situation is Fig. I. it can create a situation where the liquid metal is above the air but cannot penetrate into the cavity because of instability. For example in die casting.

168) (4.169) An alternative approach to analyze this instability is suggested here.163) the radius is 1 4 π 2 hmax =− R L2 (4.44).55).167) It should be noted that hmax is irrelevant for this analysis as it is canceled.45. equation (1.4. If all the heavy liquid “attempts” to move straight down. . x. Consider the situation described in Figure 4. The radius of any equation is expressed by equation (1.167) show that if the relationship is 4 σ π2 > g (ρH − ρL ) L2 (4. The ﬁrst derivative of cos around zero is sin which is approaching zero or equal to zero. The lighter liquid needs to move up at the same time but in a diﬀerent place. if the center point of the depression can “hold” the intrusive ﬂuid then the whole system is stable. The depression has diﬀerent radius as a function of distance from the center of the depression.7.166) and (4.55) can be approximated as d2 h 1 = 2 R dx For equation (4. The point where the situation is neutral stable Lc = 4 π2 σ g (ρH − ρL ) (4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 123 where hmax is the maximum depression and L is the characteristic length of the depression.45.166) The pressure diﬀerence due to the gravity at the edge of the disturbance is then PH − PL = g (ρH − ρL ) hmax Comparing equations (4. the lighter liquid will “prevent” it. The weakest point is at x = 0 because symmetrical reasons the surface tension does not act against the gravity as shown in Figure (4. The heavier liquid needs to move in one side and the lighter liquid in another location. Thus.164) According to equation (1. Thus.46) the pressure diﬀerence or the pressure jump is due to the surface tension at this point must be PH − PL = 4 hmax σ π 2 L2 (4. In this process the heavier liquid “enter” the lighter liquid in one point and creates a depression as shown in Figure 4.165) (4.

174) πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4.17) This value is exact if the shape is a perfect half sphere. the force at the top is the same force at the bottom of the cylinder. considered two con2r trol volumes bounded by the blue lines in Figure 4. the force is atmospheric pressure times the area. At the cylinder bot.171) The force that hold this column is the surface tension.172) The maximum surface tension is when the angle. the radius is r∼ 2πσ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. The ﬁrst control volume is made of a cylinder with a radius r and θ the second is the depression below it. In reality. For the depression.173) (4. the error is not signiﬁcant.45. Thus.Fig. Description of depression to explain tom. As shown in Figure 4. the total force is then Fσ = 2 π r σ cos θ The forces balance on the depression is then 2 π r σ cos θ ∼ π r2 The radius is obtained by r∼ 2 π σ cos θ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. FLUIDS STATICS To analyze it. Additionally when the depression occurs.175) . the force is the integral around the depression. At that case. This acts the instability. they are not part of the control volume. The horizontal forces around the control volume are canceling each other. the liquid level is reduced a bit and the lighter liquid is ﬁlling the missing portion. -4. At the top. θ = π/2. the force at the bottom is σ σ Fbottom ∼ π r2 The net force is then πr + h (ρL − ρG ) g + Patmos 4 πr 4 (4. against the gravity force which make the cylinder to be in equilibrium with its surroundings if the pressure at bottom is indeed ρ g h. It can be approximated as a ﬂat cylinder that has depth of r π/4 (read the explanation in the example 4.170) Fbottom ∼ π r2 (ρL − ρG ) g (4.45. the force is ρ g h × A.45.124 CHAPTER 4. At the bottom. The “extra” lines of the depression should be ignored.

the speciﬁc radius is limited. this angle is never obtained.46. The yellow color represents the maximum lighter liquid that are “going down.168 by introducing experimental coeﬃcient. In Figure 4. Since the “exchange” volumes of these two process are the same. The actual area of the depression is only a fraction of the interfacial cross section and is a function.46). it can be written that the minimum radius is rmin tube = 2 2πσ g (ρL − ρG ) (4.176) The actual radius will be much larger. These two scenarios should be inserting into equation 4.7. -4. Example 4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 125 Fig.4. The purple color represents the maximum heavy liquid raising area. The actual value of this angle is about π/4 to π/3 and in only extreme cases the angle exceed this value (considering dynamics). Thus. The heavier liquid can stay on top of the lighter liquid without being turned upside down when the radius is smaller than the equation 4. Solution .176) the angle was assumed to be 90 degrees. For the cylindrical geometry. the maximum depression radius is about half for the container radius (see Figure 4. However. In equation (4.176. it was shown that the depression and the raised area are the same. This radius is limited because the lighter liquid has to enter at the same time into the heavier liquid zone.” The maximum possible radius of the depression depends on the geometry of the container. This analysis introduces a new dimensional number that will be discussed in a greater length in the Dimensionless chapter. Assume that the surface tension is 400[mN/m].the depression is larger for square area. For example. The density of the aluminum is 2400kg/m3 .46. The cross section of the interface.23: Estimate the minimum radius to insert liquid aluminum into represent tube at temperature of 600[K].

24: A canister shown in Figure 4. the canister top center is connected to another tank with equal pressure to the canister before the rotation (the connection point).47.S.47 has three layer of diﬀerent ﬂuids with diﬀerent densities.81 The minimum radius is r ∼ 0. Assume that the ﬂuids do not mix. The density of air is negligible as can be seen from the temperature compare to the aluminum density. FLUIDS STATICS The depression radius is assume to be signiﬁcantly smaller and thus equation (4. Is there a diﬀerence if the ﬂuids are compressible? Where is the maximum pressure points? For the case that the ﬂuids are compressible. -4. You the ideal gas model. Is there diﬀerence if the process is isentropic? If so what is the diﬀerence? . What happen after the canister start to be rotated? Calculated the volume that will enter or leave. The canister is rotate with circular velocity. for known geometries of the ﬂuids. Describe the interface of the ﬂuids consider all the limiting cases. σ r∼ 8 π 0. Open Question by April 15. Example 4.175) can be used.4 2400 × 9.02[m] which demonstrates the assumption of h >> r was appropriate. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. Three liquids layers under rotation with various critical situations. You can assume that the process is isothermal.126 CHAPTER 4. ω. End Solution Z L3 L2 L1 Fig.

Part I Integral Analysis 127 .

.

Even though this system looks reasonable. Leonard Euler (1707–1783) suggested an alternative approach. Ad. one wants to ﬁnd or predict the velocities in the system. The main target of such analysis is to ﬁnd the value of certain variables.1 Introduction This chapter presents a discussion on the control volume and will be focused on the conservation of the mass. -5. L. Langrange (1736–1813) who formulated the equations of motion for the moving ﬂuid particles. This name is in honored J. The use of the Eulerian methods leads to a set diﬀerentic control ation equations that is referred to volume as Navier–Stokes equations which are commonly used. The main diﬃculty lies in the fact that every particle has to be traced to its original state. 129 . This method applied and used in very few cases. When the ﬂuid system moves or changes. The Eulerian method focuses on a deﬁned area or locaa system tion to ﬁnd the needed informab tion. the Lagrangian system turned out to be diﬃcult to solve and to analyze. Control volume and system before and after the later part of this book.CHAPTER 5 The Control Volume and Mass Conservation 5. These differential equations will be used in Fig.1. This kind of analysis is reasonable and it referred to in the literature as the Lagrangian Analysis. In Euler’s approach the focus is on a deﬁned point or a deﬁned volume.motion. This methods is referred as Eulerian method.

The coordinate system could be ﬁxed to the conduit. Every control volume is the focus of the certain interest and will be dealt with the basic equations. trol volume. The material that remained in the control volume is marked as “b”. Therefore a limited discussion on the Lagrangian system will be presented (later version). The Eulerian method plays well with the physical intuition of most people.2 Control Volume The Eulerian method requires to deﬁne a control volume (some time more than one). the control gains some material which is marked as “c”. Deformable control volume is a volume having part of all of its boundaries in motion during the process at hand. momentum. -5. Control volume of a moving The control volume chosen is non-deformable con. The control volume should be chosen so that the analysis should be simple and dealt with as less as possible issues which are not in question. In the case where no mass crosses the boundaries. . This methods has its limitations and for some cases the Lagrangian is preferred (and sometimes the only possibility). At the same time. entropy etc. The control volume is diﬀerentiated into two categories of control volumes. The red dotted lines are the control volume. The control volume is a deﬁned volume that was discussed earlier. Fig. some of the mass in the system exited the control volume which are marked “a” in Figure ??. Lagrangian equations are associated with the system while the Eulerian equation are associated with the control volume. mass. After a certain time. When a piston pushing gases a good choice of control volume is a deformable control volume that is a head the piston inside the cylinder as shown in Figure 5. energy.2. the Eulerian system leads to integral equations which are the focus of this part of the book. This coordinate system may be in a relative motion to another (almost absolute) coordinate system. The green lines in Figure ?? represent the system. Non–deformable control volume is a control volume which is ﬁxed in space relatively to an one coordinate system. non–deformable and deformable. 5. The diﬀerence between the system and the control volume is shown in Figure ??.piston with in and out ﬂow.130 CHAPTER 5. At certain time the system and the control volume are identical location. Flow in conduits can be analyzed by looking in a control volume between two locations. MASS CONSERVATION ditionally. the control volume is a system. Two examples of control volume are presented to illustrate diﬀerence between a deformable control volume and non–deformable control volume.2.

In this chapter. The change with time (time derivative of equation (5. The mass ﬂow out of the control volume is the system mass that is not included in the control volume. -5.5. The actual velocity of the ﬂuid leaving the control volume is the relative velocity (see Figure 5. (t) d = dt dt ρ dV Vc. d ma d mc = + − Dt dt dt dt (5. Thus.v.2) The change of the system mass is by deﬁnition is zero.1) The system mass after some time.3).7) .v. is perpendicular to the surface is − → Urn = −ˆ · Ur = Ur cos θ n (5.3). the conservation equations will be applied to the control volume. + ma − mc (5. (5.3 Continuity Equation In this chapter and the next three chapters. The relative velocity is − → − → − → Ur = Uf − Ub (5.5) Ub n ˆ θ Uf −Ub Uf − Ub Where Uf is the liquid velocity and Ub is the boundary Fig.v. The interface of the control volume can move.6) Where n is an unit vector perpendicular to the surface.3) The ﬁrst term in equation (5. the mass conservation will be discussed.3. The velocity component that velocities at the interface. according Figure ??.3) is the derivative of the mass in the control volume and at any given time is d mc. is made of msys = mc.v. The system mass change is D msys D = Dt Dt ρdV = 0 Vsys (5.2)) results in 0= D msys d mc. CONTINUITY EQUATION 131 5.3.4) Control Volume and is a function of the time. Schematics of velocity (see Figure 5. the ﬂow out is d ma = dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. The convention of direction ˆ is taken positive if ﬂow out the control volume and negative if the ﬂow is into the control volume.

Again notice the negative sign in surface integral.7) are similar and can be combined. ρ0 L t0 .3) results in d dt ρs dV = − c. due to temperature variation and other reasons. The negative sign is because ﬂow out marked positive which reduces of the mass (negative derivative) in the control volume. Schematics of ﬂow in in pipe with varying density as a function time for example 5. Substituting equation (5.1.132 CHAPTER 5. the ﬂow rate in is d mb = dt ρs Urn dA Sc. X dx L Fig. Example 5.1: The density changes in a pipe. Scv ρ Urn dA (5.v.8) It can be noticed that the two equations (5. In the same manner.4. -5. (5. taking the positive or negative value of Urn with integration of the entire system as d mb d ma − = dt dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. can be approximated as x 2 t ρ(x.v.9) into equation (5. The next example is provided to illustrate this concept.10) is essentially accounting of the mass. The change of mass change inside the control volume is net ﬂow in or out of the control system.9) applying negative value to keep the convention. t) = 1− cos .10) Equation (5. MASS CONSERVATION It has to be emphasized that the density is taken at the surface thus the subscript s.8) and (5.

v. t.3. the derivative in equation (5. the ﬂow out (or in) is ρ(t) dV d dt d ρdV = dt c. Express the mass ﬂow in and/or out. Vc.5. 5.10).3.v. d dt ρ0 1 − c.v. Using equation (5.2 Constant Density Fluids Further simpliﬁcations of equations (5. x L 2 cos t t0 dx Flow Out = π R2 d dt L ρ0 1 − 0 x L 2 cos t π R2 L ρ0 dx = − sin t0 3 t0 t t0 The ﬂow out is a function of length.10). CONTINUITY EQUATION 133 The conduit shown in Figure 5. Solution Here it is very convenient to choose a non-deformable control volume that is inside the conduit dV is chosen as π R2 dx. dρ dV = − dt ρ Urn dA Sc.v. L. . r and angle.4 length is L and its area is A.3.11) Equation (5.10) can enter the integral since the boundaries are ﬁxed in time and hence. and is the change of the mass in the control volume. ρ0 c.1 Non Deformable Control Volume When the control volume is ﬁxed with time. θ and they can be taken out the integral as d dt which results in A ρdV = π R2 c. End Solution 5. (5. x 1− L 2 cos t t0 π R2 dx The density is not a function of radius.10) become conservation of the volume. Write the expression for the mass change in the pipe.v.v.11) is simpler than equation (5. and the mass in the conduit as function of time.10) can be obtained by assuming constant density and the equation (5. and time.

7 Ap .2.v. Sc.v. This condition can be written mathematically as =0 d −→ dt or in a more explicit form as Vrn dA = 0 Sc.14) where Ub is the boundary velocity and Ubn is the normal component of the boundary velocity.v.5. Physically. c. And where Aj is the area of jet when touching the liquid boundary in bucket.2 Deformable Control Volume The left hand side of question (5.1 CHAPTER 5. 5.12) Vrn dA = Sin Sout Vrn dA = 0 (5. Ubn dA (5.v.v. the net ﬂow (in and out) is zero. Sc. Assume that the density is constant and at the boundary interface Aj = 0.v. Ubn dA = Sc.134 5.15) is the net growth (or decrease) of the Control volume is by net volume ﬂow into it. (5. and hence the mass change of the control volume is zero.10) can be examined further to develop a simpler equation by using the extend Leibniz integral rule for a constant density and result in thus.3.3.v.2: Liquid ﬁlls a bucket as shown in Figure 5. the meaning is that volume ﬂow rate in and the volume ﬂow rate out have to equal. =0 =0 d dt ρ dV = c. Example 5.2 illustrates this point.15) The meaning of the equation (5. The average velocity of the liquid at the exit of the ﬁlling pipe is Up and cross section of the pipe is Ap . Find the height as a function of the other parameters. The last assumption is result of the energy equation (with .2. Hence. Urn dA (5. dρ dV +ρ dt n · Ub dA = ρ ˆ Sc.13) Notice that the density does not play a role in this equation since it is canceled out. MASS CONSERVATION Non Deformable Control Volume For this case the volume is constant therefore the mass is constant. Example 5. The liquid ﬁlls a bucket with cross section area of A and instantaneous height is h.

v.v. Solution This problem requires two deformable control volumes. several assumptions must be made. Urn dA where Ubn is the perpendicular component of velocity of the boundary. Third. However. Second.v. The relationship is function of the distance of the pipe from the boundary of the liquid. Substituting the known values for Urn results in Urn Ub dA = c. CONTINUITY EQUATION 135 Up Ap Ub Aj h Uj A Fig. some inﬂuence of momentum equation).v. there are no evaporation or condensation processes. Calculate the bucket liquid interface velocity. In this analysis. First.2. The ﬁrst control is around the jet and second is around the liquid in the bucket. In reality.3. Filling of the bucket and choices of the deformable control volumes for example 5. this eﬀect can be neglected for this range which this problem. This assumption is a strong assumption for certain conditions but it will be not discussed here since it is advance topic. ﬂow in = c. the air eﬀects are negligible. c. -5. The control volume around the jet is deformable because the length of the jet shrinks with the time.5.5. the liquid in the bucket has a straight surface. Fourth. no liquid leaves the jet and enters the air. the ratio is determined by height of the pipe from the liquid surface in the bucket. The mass conservation of the liquid in the bucket is boundary change Ubn dA c. (Uj + Ub ) dA .

II. End Solution Example 5.II. (5. Urn dA The entrance is ﬁxed. The other limit is that and Ap /A −→ 0 then Ap Ub = A which is the result for the “intuitive” solution.II.b) and using the ratio of Aj = 0.II.II.a) into (5. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries assuming constant density. thus the relative velocity. MASS CONSERVATION The integration can be carried when the area of jet is assumed to be known as Ub A = Aj (Uj + Ub ) (5. The reason for this diﬀerence is that the liquid already ﬁll the bucket and has not to move into bucket. The ﬁrst limit is when Ap = A/0.II.II.7 which is Ap Ub = =∞ 0 The physical meaning is that surface is ﬁlled instantly. mi . Solution The applicable equation is Ubn dA = c.3: Balloon is attached to a rigid supply in which is supplied by a constant the mass rate. Urn is Urn = −Up 0 @ the valve every else .a) and (5.b) are enough to solve for the two unknowns. e.7 Ap It is interesting that many individuals intuitively will suggest that the solution is Ub Ap /A.c) is Ub = Ap A − 0.136 CHAPTER 5. the second control volume around the jet is used as the following ﬂow in ﬂow out boundary change Up Ap − Aj (Ub + Uj ) = −Aj Ub (5. Uj .g. When examining solution there are two limits.a) To ﬁnd the jet velocity. the velocity will be Ub = Up in the limiting case and not inﬁnity.v. the side.b) The above two equations (5.c) The solution of equation (5.7 Ap results Up Ap − Ub A = −0.7 Ap Ub (5. Substituting the ﬁrst equation.II. It also interesting to point out that if the ﬁlling was from other surface (not the top surface). c.v.

The right side of equation (5. This simpliﬁcation provides very useful description for many ﬂuid ﬂow phenomena.v.3 One–Dimensional Control Volume Additional simpliﬁcation of the continuity equation is of one dimensional ﬂow. CONTINUITY EQUATION 137 Assume equal distribution of the velocity in balloon surface and that the center of the balloon is moving. End Solution 5.v. Ubr = mi ρ 4 π r2 The center velocity is (also) exactly Ubr . thus the velocity has the following form Ub = Ux x + Ubr r ˆ ˆ Where x is unit coordinate in x direction and Ux is the velocity of the center and where ˆ r is unit coordinate in radius from the center of the balloon and Ubr is the velocity in ˆ that direction. The second integral (notice n = r) yields ˆ ˆ (Ubr r) · n dA = 4 π r2 Ubr ˆ ˆ Sc. The main assumption made in this model is that the proprieties in the across section are only function of x coordinate .5. (Ux x) · n dA + ˆ ˆ Sc.v. (Ubr r) · n dA ˆ ˆ The ﬁrst integral is zero because it is like movement of solid body and also yield this value mathematically (excises for mathematical oriented student). Substituting into the general equation yields A ρ 4 π r2 Ubr = ρ Up Ap = mi Hence.3. The total velocity of boundary is Ut = mi (ˆ + r) x ˆ ρ 4 π r2 It can be noticed that the velocity at the opposite to the connection to the rigid pipe which is double of the center velocity.2.v. This assumptions leads d ρ2 U2 dA − ρ1 U1 dA = dt A2 A1 dV ρ(x) A(x) dx V (x) (5.15) is the net change due to the boundary is center movement net boundary change (Ux x + Ubr r) · n dA = ˆ ˆ ˆ Sc.16) . Sc.3.

h as function of the time.17) For steady state but with variations of the velocity and variation of the density reduces equation (5. Assume that the height at time zero is h0 . min h Fig. continuity equation is at its minimum form of U1 A1 = A2 U2 (5. Is there a critical value and then if exist ﬁnd the critical value of the system parameters.16) is reduced to U2 dA − A2 A1 U1 dA = d dt A(x)dx (5.18) reduces further to ρ1 A1 U1 = ρ2 A2 U2 (5. Example 5.19) For incompressible ﬂow (constant density).4.16). For the ﬁrst case.16) to become ρ2 U2 dA = A2 A1 ρ1 U1 dA (5. determine the height. The mass ﬂow rate out is √ function of the height.4: Liquid ﬂows into tank in a constant mass ﬂow rate of a.6. MASS CONSERVATION When the density can be considered constant equation (5. First assume that qout = b h second Assume as qout = b h.20) The next example is of semi one–dimensional example to illustrate equation (5.18) For steady state and uniform density and velocity equation (5. Height of the liquid for example 5.138 CHAPTER 5. -5. What happen if the h0 = 0? .

16) is ﬂow out ﬂow in √ dh ρL = b h − mi dt with the general solution of √ hb ln −1 mi √ √ mi hb hb + − 1 = (t + c) ρL mi 2ρL . the height will increase. b t − ρ1L e e h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t +c e b1 t ρL With the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 the constant coeﬃcient can be found as h0 b 1 h0 b1 = 1 − c =⇒ c = 1 − m1 mi which the solution is h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t + 1− h0 b1 mi e b1 t ρL 0 0 It can be observed that if 1 = hmb1 is the critical point of this solution.16) is d L dh ρ h dx = ρ L dt 0 dt Substituting into equation equation (5. the governing equation (5.16) is dh ρL = dt solution is h= ﬂow out b1 h ﬂow in − mi private solution homogeneous solution b1 t mi + c1 ρ L b1 The solution has the homogeneous solution (solution without the mi ) and the solution of the mi part. For second case.3. It can be noticed that control volume satisfy the demand of one dimensional since the ﬂow is only function of x coordinate. the critical ratio state if the ﬂow in is larger or lower than the ﬂow out determine the condition of the height. negative number for height is not possible and the height solution approach zero.5. Essentially. For case one the right hand side term in equation (5. If the reverse case appeared. The solution can rearranged to a new form (a discussion why this form is preferred will be provided in dimensional chapter). CONTINUITY EQUATION Solution 139 The control volume for both cases is the same and it is around the liquid in the tank. If the term hmb1 i i is larger than one then the solution reduced to a negative number. However.

c.org/details/papersonmechanic01reynrich. This is engineering book and thus. (1842-1912) which is actually a three dimensional generalization of Leibniz integral rule1 .23) is f (x.22) Initially. 3 There was a suggestion to insert arbitrary constant which will be canceled and will a provide rigorous proof. .23) Notice that lower boundary of the integral is missing and is only the upper limit of the function is present3 .140 CHAPTER 5. y) dy ∂x2 dy ∂y ∂x1 dy ∂y 1 These 2 This (5. This author ﬁnd material just given so no questions will be asked. it will be provided. y) = f (α. To make the previous derivation clearer.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem It can be noticed that the same derivations carried for the density can be carried for other intensive properties such as speciﬁc entropy. y) dα (5.25) papers can be read on-line at http://www. The change of accumulative property will be then D Dt f ρdV = sys d dt f ρdV + c. For its derivative of equation (5. y) − f (x1 . material is not necessarily but is added her for completeness. if there will be a demand for such. Osborne. a proof will be provided and the physical meaning will be explained. Nevertheless. y) − − (x1 . End Solution 5. MASS CONSERVATION The constant is obtained when the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 and it left as exercise for the reader. y)] ∂G dx2 ∂G ∂G dx1 ∂G = + (x2 . y) − G(x1 . y) dx = x1 (y) x1 (y) dx2 dx1 ∂f dx + f (x2 . the exact mathematical proof is not the concern here. y) = ∂G ∂x (5.archive. the Reynolds Transport Theorem will be reproofed and discussed. y) ∂y dy dy (5. Suppose that g is intensive property (which can be a scalar or a vector) undergoes change with time.21) This theorem named after Reynolds. Leibniz integral rule2 is an one dimensional and it is deﬁned as d dy x2 (y) x2 (y) f (x.v. Assume that there is a function that satisfy the following x G(x.24) diﬀerentiating (chain rule d uv = u dv + v du) by part of left hand side of the Leibniz integral rule (it can be shown which are identical) is 1 2 3 4 d [G(x2 .v f ρ Urn dA (5. The ideas are the similar but extended some what. speciﬁc enthalpy.

y) dx ∂y (5. Since the change is very short (diﬀerential). Suppose that a ﬂuid is ﬂowing in a conduit.25) is dx2 ∂G dx2 = f (x2 . F . REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM 141 The terms 2 and 4 in equation (5. The change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f dV sys (5. (5.25) are actually (the x2 is treated as a diﬀerent variable) x2 (y) x1 (y) ∂ f (x.v. The above “proof” is mathematical in nature and physical explanation is also provided. This limiting condition is the control volume for which some of the mass will leave or enter. F . F . F .27) The same can be said for the third term (3). The same can be said for the other side.31) The change with time of the accumulative property. f is investigated or the accumulative property.32) . Thus this explanation is a proof the Leibniz rule. F .5. y) ∂x2 dy dy (5. Urn = U1 − Ub . is then F2 dx2 dt (5. The interesting information that commonly needed is the change of the accumulative property. the ﬂow in (or out) will be the velocity of ﬂuid minus the boundary at x1 . is then F1 dx1 dt Fin = f1 ρ Urn The accumulative ﬂow of the property out. between the boundaries is d dt ρ(x) f A(x) dA c. The intensive property.26) The ﬁrst term (1) in equation (5.30) Fout = f2 ρ Urn (5.29) If two limiting points (for the one dimensional) are moving with a diﬀerent coordinate system. The accumulative ﬂow of the property in. with time. the mass will be diﬀerent and it will not be a system.28) For one dimensional situation the change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f A(x)dx sys (5.4.

13). For which R Umax 1 − 0 r R 2 π r dr = Uave π R2 (5. is arbitrary and it can be replaced by any letter. Since the time variable. What is the magical averaged velocity at the exit? Assume no–slip condition.V.a) The integration of the equation (5. Example 5.b) (5.V. Write the equation which describes the velocity at the entrance. Solution The velocity proﬁle is linear with radius.c) End Solution . t.v Sc.33) 5. later a discussion on relationship between velocity at interface to solid also referred as the (no) slip condition will be provided.5: Liquid enters a circular pipe with a linear velocity proﬁle as a function of the radius with maximum velocity of Umax .142 CHAPTER 5.V. the velocity became uniform. D DT d dt f ρdV = sys f ρ dV + c. f ρ Urn dA (5. the boundary condition is U (r = R) = 0 and U (r = 0) = Umax Therefore the velocity proﬁle is r U (r) = Umax 1 − R Where R is radius and r is the working radius (for the integration).v. The above discussion is one of the physical meaning the Leibniz rule. The magical averaged velocity is obtained using the equation (5. This assumption is good for most cases with very few exceptions. Thus. After magical mixing. MASS CONSERVATION When put together it brings back the Leibniz integral rule. It will be assumed that the velocity at the interface is zero. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has three components and only the perpendicular component enters into the calculations. Additionally.a) is R2 = Uave π R2 6 The solution of equation (b) results in average velocity as Umax π Uave = Umax 6 (5.V. Reynolds Transport theorem is a generalization of the Leibniz rule and thus the same arguments are used.5 Examples For Mass Conservation Several examples are provided to illustrate the topic.

The situation is steady state and thus using equation (5. calculate the relationship of the mass transfer across the control volume.7. The boundary layer is growing with x because the boundary eﬀect is penetrating further into ﬂuid.13) results in x direction y direction out in δ δ U0 dy − 0 0 U0 y dy = δ L U xdx 0 It can be noticed that the convention used in this chapter of “in” as negative is not “followed. The assumption is that ﬂuid attaches itself to surface. For simplicity assume slowed ﬂuid has a linear velocity proﬁle. Where δ is the height of the boundary layer at exit point of the ﬂow as shown in Figure 5. the left. In this case. (to satisfy the boundary condition) it will be U0 y Ux (y) = δ The chosen control volume is rectangular of L × δ. Example 5.6: Experiments have shown that a layer of liquid that attached itself to the surface and it is referred to as boundary layer. Solution Assuming the velocity proﬁle is linear thus. Boundary Layer control mass. The slowed liquid is slowing the layer above it. No mass can cross the lower surface (solid boundary). A common boundary layer analysis uses the Reynolds transform theorem. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION (1) (2) 143 U0 ge Ed of B n ou yL dr er ay L Fig.5. -5. The above integrals on the . and upper.5. Compare the two diﬀerent velocity proﬁles aﬀecting on the mass transfer.7.” The integral simply multiply by negative one. right. Then assume parabolic velocity proﬁle as Ux (y) = 2 U0 y 1 + δ 2 y δ 2 and calculate the mass transfer across the control volume. The control volume has three surfaces that mass can cross.

the ﬂow out is ( 5 + 0.1 m2 with velocity of 500 m/sec. The burned gases leaves at the exhaust which has cross area 0. The tank is 3/4 fulls. The tank also has three emptying valves of 5 hours. What is the density of the gases at the exhaust? Solution The mass conservation equation (5.8: The tank is ﬁlled by two valves which one ﬁlled tank in 3 hours and the second by 6 hours.7: Air ﬂows into a jet engine at 5 kg/sec while fuel ﬂow into the jet is at 0. Thus.1 kg/sec The density is ρ= m ˙ 5.13) is used. the mass (or the volume) is given by indirect quantity such as the eﬀect of ﬂow. The next example deal with such reversed mass ﬂow rate.1 kg/sec. MASS CONSERVATION U0 1 − 0 y δ L dy = 0 U xdx the integration results in U0 δ = 2 or for parabolic proﬁle δ δ L U xdx 0 U0 dy − 0 0 δ U0 y y + δ δ y y − δ δ L 2 L dy = 0 U xdx or 0 U0 1 − the integration results in 2 dy = U0 U0 δ = 2 U xdx 0 End Solution Example 5.144 right hand side can be combined as δ CHAPTER 5. Is there a combination of valves that make the tank at steady state? . However sometime. 7 hours. and 8 hours.02kg/m3 AU 0.01 m2 500 m/sec End Solution The mass (volume) ﬂow rate is given by direct quantity like x kg/sec.1 ) 5.1 kg/sec = = 1. Example 5. calculate the time for tank reach empty or full state when all the valves are open.

v boundary velocity + Sc. Assume that the cylinder inﬂated uniformly and pressure inside the cylinder is uniform.v. assume that the process is isothermal. For simplicity.v. in or out ﬂow rate = Sc. mass ﬂow rate in is min = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2tank/hour ˙ The mass ﬂow rate out is mout = 1/5 + 1/7 + 1/8 = ˙ 131 280 Thus. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution 145 Easier measurement of valve ﬂow rate can be expressed as fraction of the tank per hour. Calculate the cylinder boundaries velocity. Solution The applicable equation is increase pressure Vc. Thus. if all the valves are open the tank will be ﬁlled. dρ dV dt ρ Ub dV ρUrn dA Every term in the above equation is analyzed but ﬁrst the equation of state and volume to pressure relationship have to be provided.5. End Solution Example 5. The pressure inside the cylinder is linearly proportional to the volume. ρ= P RT and relationship between the volume and pressure is P = f π Rc 2 . Assume that the gas mass is supplied in uniformed way of mi [kg/m/sec]. The time to completely ﬁlled the tank is 1 70 4 = hour 159 1 131 − 2 280 The rest is under construction. For example valve of 3 hours can be converted to 1/3 tank per hour.9: Inﬂated cylinder is supplied in its center with constant mass ﬂow. The gas inside the cylinder obeys the ideal gas law.5.

When the derivative of the second part is dUb /dRc = 0. Combining the above two equations results in f π Rc 2 ρ= RT Where f is a coeﬃcient with the right dimension.v Vc. Where fv is a coeﬃcient describing the balloon physical characters. . Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries under the assumption of isothermal process. It also can be noticed that boundary velocity is related to the radius in the following form Ub = dRc dt The ﬁrst term requires to ﬁnd the derivative of density with respect to time which is Ub dρ d = dt dt Thus the ﬁrst term is dρ dV = dt 2 π Rc f π Rc RT 2 = 2 f π Rc dRc RT dt Vc. Assume that balloon volume is a linear function of the pressure inside the balloon such as P = fv V .10: A balloon is attached to a rigid supply and is supplied by a constant mass rate. 4 The proof of this idea is based on the chain diﬀerentiation similar to Leibniz rule.146 CHAPTER 5. Assume that gas obeys the ideal gas law. A f π 3 Rc 2 RT Ub substituting in the governing equation obtained the form of f π 2 Rc 3 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub + Ub = mi RT 3RT The boundary velocity is then Ub = mi 3 mi R T G= 7 f π 2 Rc 3 7 f π 2 Rc 3 3RT End Solution Example 5. MASS CONSERVATION Where Rc is the instantaneous cylinder radius.v.v 2 f π Rc Ub RT 2 π Rc dRc dV = 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub 3RT The integral can be carried when Ub is independent of the Rc 4 The second term is ρ f π Rc 2 ρ Ub dA = Ub 2 πRc = RT Sc. mi .

5.5. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution The question is more complicated than Example 5.10. The ideal gas law is ρ= P RT

147

The relationship between the pressure and volume is P = fv V = 4 fv π Rb 3 3

The combining of the ideal gas law with the relationship between the pressure and volume results 4 fv π Rb 3 ρ= 3RT The applicable equation is dρ dV + dt ρ (Uc x + Ub r) dA = ˆ ˆ

Sc.v. Sc.v.

ρUrn dA

Vc.v

**The right hand side of the above equation is ρUrn dA = mi
**

Sc.v.

**The density change is
**

Ub

**dρ 12 fv π Rb dRb = dt RT dt The ﬁrst term is
**

=f (r) Rb 0

2

12 fv π Rb 2 16 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub 4 π r2 dr = Ub RT 3RT

dV

**The second term is 8 fv π 2 R b 5 4 fv π R b 3 4 fv π R b 3 Ub dA = Ub 4 π Rb 2 = Ub 3RT 3RT 3RT
**

A

A

Subsisting the two equations of the applicable equation results Ub = 1 mi R T 8 fv π 2 R b 5

Notice that ﬁrst term is used to increase the pressure and second the change of the boundary.

148

**CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION
**

End Solution

Open Question: Answer must be received by April 15, 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U.S. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. Example 5.11: Solve example 5.10 under the assumption that the process is isentropic. Also assume that the relationship between the pressure and the volume is P = fv V 2 . What are the units of the coeﬃcient fv in this problem? What are the units of the coeﬃcient in the previous problem?

**5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship
**

The integral approach is intended to deal with the “big” picture. Indeed the method is used in this part of the book for this A purpose. However, there is very little written about the usability of this approach to provide way to calculate the average quantities in the control system. Sometimes hℓ z y Ae it is desirable to ﬁnd the averaged velocx Ue ity or velocity distribution inside a control volume. There is no general way to provide these quantities. Therefore an example will be provided to demonstrate the use Fig. -5.8. Control volume usage to calculate of this approach. local averaged velocity in three coordinates. Consider a container ﬁlled with liquid on which one exit opened and the liquid ﬂows out as shown in Figure 5.8. The velocity has three components in each of the coordinates under the assumumption that ﬂow is uniform and the surface is straight5 . The integral approached is used to calculate the averaged velocity of each to the components. To relate the velocity in the z direction with the ﬂow rate out or the exit the velocity mass balance is constructed. A similar control volume construction to ﬁnd the velocity of the boundary velocity (height) can be carried out. The control volume is bounded by the container wall including the exit of the ﬂow. The upper boundary is surface parallel to upper surface but at Z distance from the bottom. The mass balance reads dρ dV + dt Ubn ρ dA +

A A

Urn ρ dA = 0

(5.34)

V

5 The liquid surface is not straight for this kind of problem. However, under certain conditions it is reasonable to assume straight surface which have been done for this problem.

5.6. THE DETAILS PICTURE – VELOCITY AREA RELATIONSHIP For constant density (conservation of volume) equation6 and (h > z) reduces to Urn ρ dA = 0

A

149

(5.35)

In the container case for uniform velocity equation 5.35 becomes Uz A = Ue Ae =⇒ Uz = − Ae Ue A (5.36)

It can be noticed that the boundary is not moving and the mass inside does not change this control volume. The velocity Uz is the averaged velocity downward. The x component of velocity is obY control Volume Volume tained by using a diﬀerent control volume. Ax− X controlpage into the page into the The control volume is shown in Figure 5.9. The boundary are the container far from Ay − y the ﬂow exit with blue line projection into x page (area) shown in the Figure 5.9. The mass conservation for constant density of this control volume is −

A

Ue

Ae

Ubn ρ dA +

A

Urn ρ dA = 0 (5.37)

Fig. -5.9. Control volume and system before and after the motion.

Usage of control volume not included in the previous analysis provides the velocity at the upper boundary which is the same as the velocity at y direction. Substituting into (5.37) results in Ae Ue ρ dA + A Ux ρ dA = 0

Ayz

(5.38)

Ax

−

Where Ax − is the area shown the Figure under this label. The area Ayz referred to area into the page in Figure 5.9 under the blow line. Because averaged velocities and constant density are used transformed equation (5.38) into Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A

Ayz

(5.39)

Where Y (x) is the length of the (blue) line of the boundary. It can be notice that the velocity, Ux is generally increasing with x because Ax − increase with x. The calculations for the y directions are similar to the one done for x direction. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has two diﬀerent directions. One zone is right to the exit with ﬂow to the left and one zone to left with averaged velocity to right. If the volumes on the left and the right are symmetrical the averaged velocity will be zero.

6 The

point where (z = h) the boundary term is substituted the ﬂow in term.

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CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION

Example 5.12: Calculate the velocity, Ux for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder). Solution The relationship for this geometry needed to be expressed. The length of the line Y (x) is Y (x) = 2 r 1− 1− x r

2

Ax− Y(x)

(r − x) x α

y

r

(5.XII.a)

Ue

Ae

This relationship also can be expressed in the term of α as Y (x) = 2 r sin α (5.XII.b)

Fig. -5.10. Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux and various cross sections.

Since this expression is simpler it will be adapted. When the relationship between radius angle and x are x = r(1 − sin α) (5.XII.c) The area Ax − is expressed in term of α as Ax − = Thus the velocity, Ux is Ae A α− 1 sin(2α) r2 Ue + Ux 2 r sin α h = 0 2 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue A h sin α 1 S (5.XII.e) (5.XII.f) 1 α − , sin(2α) r2 2 (5.XII.d)

Ux = Averaged velocity is deﬁned as

Ux =

U dS

S

(5.XII.g)

Where here S represent some length. The same way it can be represented for angle calculations. The value dS is r cos α. Integrating the velocity for the entire container and dividing by the angle, α provides the averaged velocity. Ux = which results in Ux = 1 2r

π 0

**Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (π − 1) Ae r Ue 4 A h
**

End Solution

(5.XII.h)

(5.XII.i)

Example 5.13:

5.7. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Calculate the velocity, Uy for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder). What is the averaged velocity if only half section is used. State your assumptions and how it similar to the previous example. Solution

X(y)

x

151

y

r (r − x)

Ay − Ue Ae

Fig. -5.11. y velocity for a circular shape

The ﬂow out in the x direction is zero because symmetrical reasons. That is the ﬂow ﬁeld is a mirror images. Thus, every point has diﬀerent velocity with the same value in the opposite direction. The ﬂow in half of the cylinder either the right or the left has non zero averaged velocity. The calculations are similar to those in the previous to example 5.12. The main concept that must be recognized is the half of the ﬂow must have come from one side and the other come from the other side. Thus, equation (5.39) modiﬁed to be Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A The integral is the same as before but the upper limit is only to π/2 Ux = which results in Ux = (π − 2) Ae r Ue 8 A h

End Solution

Ayz

(5.40)

1 2r

π/2 0

Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α

(5.XIII.a)

(5.XIII.b)

**5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation
**

Typical question about the relative velocity that appeared in many ﬂuid mechanics exams is the following. Example 5.14:

152 CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION A boat travels at speed of 10m/sec upstream in a river that ﬂows at a speed of 5m/s. The inboard engine uses a pump to suck in water at the front Ain = 0.2 m2 and eject it through the back of the boat with exist area of Aout = 0.05 m2 . The water absolute velocity leaving the back is 50m/sec, what Fig. -5.12. Schematic of the are the relative velocities entering and leaving the boat for example 5.14 boat and the pumping rate?

Us = 5[m/sec] Uo = 50[m/sec] Ub = 10[m/sec]

Solution The boat is assumed (implicitly is stated) to be steady state and the density is constant. However, the calculation have to be made in the frame of reference moving with the boat. The relative jet discharge velocity is Urout = 50 − (10 + 5) = 35[m/sec] The volume ﬂow rate is then Qout = Aout Urout = 35 × 0.05 = 1.75m3 /sec The ﬂow rate at entrance is the same as the exit thus, Urin = Aout 0.05 Urout = 35 = 8.75m/sec Ain 0.2

End Solution

**CHAPTER 6 Momentum Conservation for Control Volume
**

6.1 Momentum Governing Equation

6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous

In the previous chapter, the Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) was applied to mass conservation. Mass is a scalar (quantity without magnitude). This chapter deals with momentum conservation which is a vector. The Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) is applicable to any quantity and the discussion here will deal with forces that acting on the control volume. Newton’s second law for single body is as the following F = U d(mU ) dt (6.1)

It can be noticed that bold notation for the velocity is U (and not U ) to represent that the velocity has a direction. For several bodies (n), Newton’s law becomes

n n

Fi =

i=1 i=1

U d(mU )i dt

(6.2)

The ﬂuid can be broken into inﬁnitesimal elements which turn the above equation (6.2) into a continuous form of small bodies which results in

n

Fi =

i=1

D Dt

element mass U ρ dV

sys

(6.3)

153

one due to viscosity (solid body) and two consequence of the ﬂuid pressure.7) Fig. excluding the external forces. g ρ dV = sys cv g ρ dV (6. Where the surface “force”.4) In this book (at least in this discussion). Sn . The surface “force”. The total gravity force is element mass Fb = sys g ρ dV (6.6) The integral yields a force trough the center mass which has to be found separately. is made out of two components. The Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT) has to be used on the right hand side. The gravity acts on all the system elements. In this chapter.5) which acts through the mass center towards the center of earth. The explaination for the direction relative to surface perpendicular and with the surface.2 External Forces First. the surface forces are with the divided into two categories: one perpendisurface n ˆ perpendicular to cular to the surface and one with the surthe surface face direction (in the surface plain see Figure 6. hence.154 CHAPTER 6. . After inﬁnitesimal time the gravity force acting on the system is the same for control volume. the terms on the left hand side. the main body force is the gravity. or the forces.1. is in the surface direction. Again. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Note that the notation D/Dt is used and not d/dt to signify that it referred to a derivative of the system.v. only the pressure component is used which is reasonable for most situations. Sn . and the surface forces as the following F total = F b + F s (6.1. -6.8) Where Sν is perpendicular stress due to viscosity. Here for simplicity. are the body forces.1. and τ are the shear stresses. have to be discussed. Thus. Sn dA + c.). 6. τ dA (6. n is an unit vector outward ˆ of element area and the negative sign is applied so that the resulting force acts on the body.v. The forces. ∼0 Pˆ S n = −P n + Sν (6. it can be written as Fs = c. Thus.

v.v.11) is a vector equation which can be broken into its three components.v. ρ U U rn dA (6. for example in the x coordinate.v.9) The liquid velocity. c. c.6. P cos θx dA + c. c. is ρ U dV = sys ρ U dV + c. (6. etc.v.10) ρ U Urn dV ρ U dV + c.v. In Cartesian coordinate. t = dt c.v.1.v. Thus. ρ U Urn dV The external forces. is measured in the frame of reference and U rn is the liquid relative velocity to boundary of the control volume measured in the same frame of reference. where θx is the angle between n and ˆ or (ˆ · ˆ ˆ i n i). ducts. With external forces equation (6.3 Momentum Governing Equation D Dt t dt The right hand side.v. 6. c.v.v.v.v.1. c.v. τ x · dA = ρ U x · U rn dA (6. U . g · ˆ ρ dV i c.v.12) t dt ρ U x dV + c. supporting solid structures.10) is transformed to Integral Momentum Equation & External Forces F ext + g ρ dV − P · dA + τ · dA = c. (6.v. Equation (6. c.11) ρ U dV + c.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System For accelerate system. friction (non-ﬂuid). the components are Fx + c. are the forces resulting from support of the control volume by non–ﬂuid elements. Fext . MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 155 6. the general form of the momentum equation without the external forces is Integral Momentum Equation g ρ dV − P dA + τ · dA c. These external forces are commonly associated with pipe. t dt c.13) . the right hand side has to include the following acceleration r ˙ a acc = ω × (r × ω) + 2 U × ω + r × ω − a 0 (6. according Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT).1.v.

it common to obtain a situation where one of the term will be an integral of the pressure over the body surface. Integral Steady State Momentum Equation F ext + c.14) Integral of Uniform Pressure on Body In this kind of calculations.3. In this case the resulting force due to the pressure is zero to all directions. The unsteady term (where the time derivative) is zero. ρ U Urn dA (6.1 Momentum for For Constant Pressure and Frictionless Flow Another important sub category of simpliﬁcation deals with ﬂow under approximation of the frictionless ﬂow and uniform pressure.17) 1 A [U (r)] dA A 2 (6. . the mass ﬂow rate in and out are equal.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow The momentum equation can be simpliﬁed for the steady state condition as it was shown in example 6.16) In situations where the velocity is provided and known (remember that density is constant) the integral can be replaced by F = mU o − mU i ˙U ˙U The average velocity is related to the velocity proﬁle by the following integral U = 2 (6. in these situations. g ρ dV − c.v.v. equation (??) is further reduced to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA (6.18) is applicable to any velocity proﬁle and any geometrical shape.156 CHAPTER 6.18) Equation (6.v. a acc ρ dV (6. Thus. τ dA = c. 6.15) 6.v.6. This situation is a similar idea that was shown in Section 4. P dA + c. Additionally. In this situation.1.1. This kind of situations arise when friction (forces) is small compared to kinetic momentum change.5. ﬂow is exposed to the atmosphere and thus (almost) uniform pressure surrounding the control volume.v. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where r is the distance from the center of the frame of reference and the add force is F add = Vc.

1.a) Substituting equation (6.1: Calculate the average velocity for the given parabolic velocity proﬁle for a circular pipe.2).2.I.b) 2 2 1 − r2 ¯ 2 rd¯ = ¯ r 1 2 (Umax ) 6 (6.2. calculate the force and the angle which the support has to apply to keep the system in equilibrium. Fig.2: A jet is impinging on a stationary surface by changing only the jet direction (see Figure 6. Schematics of area impinged by a jet and angle eﬀects. Schematics of maximum angle for impinged by a jet. Uo θ Ui F Fig b.I.I. Example 6. What is the angle for which maximum force will be created? .a) into equation (6. -6. Solution The velocity proﬁle is U r R = Umax 1 − r R 2 (6.I. Schematics of area impinged by a jet for example 6.c) y x Uo Ui F Fig a.6.18) U = results in U = (Umax ) Thus. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 157 Example 6. Neglect the friction. Umax U= √ 6 End Solution 2 1 2 π R2 1 0 R 0 [U (r)] 2 π r dr 2 (6.

It can be proven by setting dFx /dθ = 0 which yields θ = 0 a minimum and the previous solution. Fx occurs when cos θ = π. to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ˙U ˙U ρU (U · n) dA = mUo − mUi (6. For small angle analysis is important in the calculations of ﬂow around thin wings. Hence Fx |max = −2 m Ui ˙ and the force in the y direction is Fy = m Ui sin θ ˙ the combined forces are Ftotal = Which results in Ftotal = m Ui sin (θ/2) ˙ with the force angle of tan φ = π − Fy π θ = − Fx 2 2 Fx 2 + Fy 2 = m Ui ˙ (cos θ − 1) + sin2 θ 2 For angle between 0 < θ < π the maximum occur at θ = π and the minimum at θ ∼ 0.3 with a mass . The equation for the x coordinate is Fx = m (cos θ Uo − Ui ) ˙ or since Ui = Uo Fx = m Ui (cos θ − 1) ˙ It can be observed that the maximum force.3: Liquid ﬂows through a symmetrical nozzle as shown in the Figure 6.11) can be reduced.158 Solution CHAPTER 6. Equation (6.a) can be explicitly written for the two coordinates. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Equation (6.a) It can be noticed that even though the velocity change direction. because it is a steady state.II. End Solution Example 6.II. the mass ﬂow rate remains constant.

c. This situation is a steady state for constant density.1.b) c.12) is applicable but should be transformed into the z direction which is Fz + c. Then A1 U1 = A2 U2 and after rearrangement. The chosen control volume is shown in Figure 6. First. the velocity has to be found.3. The entrance pressure is 3[Bar] and the entrance velocity is 5 [m/sec].v. c.6. What is the exit velocity? What is the force acting the nozzle? Assume that the density is constant ρ = 1000[kg/m3 ] and the volume in the nozzle is 0.III. The entrance area is 0. Solution U2 =? P2 = 1[Bar] A2 = 10[cm2] 159 z P2 = 3[Bar] A1 = 50[cm2] U1 = 5[m/sec] Fig.v. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION ﬂow rate of 0. Nozzle schematic for the discussion on the forces and for example 6.0001 Equation (6. τ z dA = (6.v. The exit pressure is 1[Bar].III.v.0005[m2 ] and the exit area is 0. The control volume does not cross any solid body (or surface) there is no external forces. forces on the nozzle Fnozzle solid surface P cos θz dA + c.3. ρ U z · U rn dA . ˆ g · k ρ dV + P cos θz dA + (6. -6.v.3. the exit velocity is U2 = A1 0. =0 c. The exit velocity is uniform but unknown.v. Hence.0015 [m3 ].v. τ z dA = c. =0 liquid surface Fz + c.a) ρ U z · U rn dA ρ U z dV + c. ˆ g · k ρ dV + t dt P cos θz dA + c.01 [gk/sec].v.v.0005 U1 = × 5 = 25[m/sec] A2 0.v.0001[cm2 ].

ships and other devices (thrust) as shown in Figure 6. ˆ g · k ρ dV + c. For a steady state the analysis is simpler and used here to provide an example of steady state. Improvements can be made to this analysis.v.d) 6.4. this analysis is used for academic purposes. P dA = 1 P dA − 2 P dA = P A|1 − P A|2 The last term in equation (6.8 × 1000× End Solution (6. . The propeller analysis of unsteady is complicated due to the diﬃculty in understanding the velocity ﬁeld. Many times it is used for propulsion purposes of airplanes. Of course it is only approximation but is provided a crude tool. The part of the pressure which act on the nozzle in the z direction is − c.III.2 Momentum Equation Application Momentum Equation Applied to Propellers The propeller is a mechanical devise that is used to increase the ﬂuid momentum.160 CHAPTER 6.v.v. Here. ρ U z · U rn dA (6.v.c) is ρ U z · U rn dA = c.III.v. Either it is assumed that some of the ﬂuid enters into the container and ﬂuid outside is not aﬀected by the propeller. fan etc. g · n ρ dV = −g ρVnozzle ˆ Notice that in the results the gravity is not bold since only the magnitude is used. This surface is called slip surface.c) The second term or the body force which acts through the center of the nozzle is Fb = − c. Or there is a line (or surface) in which the ﬂuid outside changes only the ﬂow direction.4 the ﬂuid ﬂows from the left to the right. P cos θz dA = c. A2 U2 (U2 ) dA − A1 U1 (U1 ) dA which results in ρ U z · U rn dA = ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 c.III.v.v. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION All the forces that act on the nozzle are combined as Fnozzle + c. The propeller can be stationary like in cooling tours. In the Figure 6.c) into Fz = −g ρVnozzle + P A|2 − P A|1 + ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 Fz = 9. The other common used of propeller is mostly to move ﬂuids as a pump. Combining all transform equation (6.III.

and is. pressure drops from the calculation.19) 161 1 U1 3 4 2 U2 Liquid Combining the control Fig. Furthermore. The analysis of such device in complicated and there is a whole class dedicated for such topic in many universities. a very limited discussion related to the steady state is oﬀered. in many case more eﬃcient. a major obstacle in the past. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION As ﬁrst approximation. Notice that Example 6. Calculate the friction force on the . 3 with (note that there are no external forces) with points 4 and 2 results in ρ U2 2 − U1 2 = P4 − P3 (6. The one dimensional momentum equation is reduced F = ρ U2 2 − U1 2 (6.4: A sled toy shown in Figure ?? is pushed by liquid jet. the pressure around control volume is the same. the thermal energy is converted to thrust. Propeller schematic to explain the change of movolume between points 1 and mentum due to velocity. -6.20) This analysis provide way to calculate the work needed to move this propeller. Thus. Note that in this analysis it was assumed that the ﬂow is horizontal that z1 = z2 and/or the change is insigniﬁcant. Jet Propulsion Jet propulsion is a mechanism in which the air planes and other devices are propelled. Hence. as it will be shown in the Chapter on compressible ﬂow it allows to achieve velocity above speed of sound.21) An academic example to demonstrate how a steady state calculations are done for a moving control volume. Further increase of the exit area with the increased of the burned gases further increase the thrust. the air is sucked into engine and with addition heating (burning fuel) the velocity is increased. In Jet propulsion. this direct conversion can be. The propellers are moved by a mechanical work which is converted to thrust.2. Here. The diﬀerence between the jets propulsion and propellers is based on the energy supplied.4. Essentially. The inlet area and exit area are diﬀerent for most jets and if the mass of the fuel is neglected then F = ρ A2 U2 2 − A1 U1 2 (6.6.

v. The frame of reference is moving with the toy velocity.4. Toy Sled pushed by the liquid relative to the vertical force. g ρ dV − c. thus g ρ dV ∼ 0 c.5.a) The relative velocity into the control volume is U 1j = (Uj − U0 ) x ˆ The relative velocity out the control volume is U 2j = (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ The absolute exit velocity is U 2 = U0 x + (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ ˆ For small volume. . U0 . The applicable mass conservation equation for steady state is A1 U1 = A2 U2 The momentum equation in the x direction is Ff + c. τ dA = c.v.v.162 CHAPTER 6. U0 Uj Calculate the absolute velocity of the Ff jet exit. The same can be said for air friction as τ dA ∼ 0 c. U 0 . Neglect y the friction between the liquid (jet) and control x volume the toy and between the air and toy. ρ U U rn dV (6.v. 2 1 Solution The chosen control volume is attached to the toy and thus steady state is obtained. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION toy when the toy is at steady state with velocity. P dA + c. The dyjet in a steady state for example 6.v. Assume that the jet is horizontal and the reﬂecting jet is vertical. namics friction is µd .IV. -6. The velocity of the jet is uniform. Assume that the friction between the toy and surface (ground) is Fig. the gravity can be neglected also because this term is small compared to other terms. The pressure is uniform around the control volume and thus the integral is P dA = 0 c.v.v.

A rocket with a moving control volume.6. -6. One such example of such idea is associated with the Rocket Mechanics which is present here.IV.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow The main problem in solving the unsteady state situation is that the control volume is accelerating.c) Increase of the friction reduce the velocity.a) yields Ff = A ρ U1j 2 The friction can be obtained from the momentum equation in the y direction mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = Fearth According to the statement of question the friction force is Ff = µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 The momentum in the x direction becomes µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ (Uj − U0 ) The toy velocity is then U0 = Uj − µd mtoy g A ρ (1 − µd ) 2 (6.v.IV.b) The substituting (6. Alternative method of solution is done by attaching the frame of reference to the accelerating body.2. 163 (6.10). FR mf mR UR Ug Fig.2. . MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION The control volume was chosen so that the pressure calculation is minimized. End Solution 6. A possible way to solve the problem is by expressing the terms in an equation (6. The momentum ﬂux is ρ Ux Ui rn dA = A ρ U1j 2 Sc.IV. Additionally larger toy mass decrease the velocity.IV.6. This method is cumbersome in many cases.b) into equation (6.

(6.v. The velocity of the rocket in the rocket frame of reference U is zero. g ρ dV + c.v. The pressure term vanish because the pressure essentially is the same and the diﬀerence can be neglected. The momentum equation is FR 0 τ dA + c. ρUy Urn dA (6.v. In contrast to other mechanisms such as jet propulsion which obtain the oxygen from the medium which they travel the rockets carry the oxygen with it. d dt ρUy dV = Vc.v. c.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State Rocket Mechanics A rocket is a devise similar to jet propulsion. c. dU /dt = 0 is not zero. This mechanism is useful for speciﬁc locations because it is independent of the medium though which it travels. However. This change is minimal and for this analysis. The last term is ρUy Urn dA = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ c.v. the ﬁrst term FR . The rocket is accelerating and thus the frame for reference is moving the with the rocket.v. the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity and thus ρ a0 dV = dU (mR + mf ) dt (6.25) Combining all the above term results in −FR − (mR + mf ) g + dU (mR + mf ) = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ dt (6.164 CHAPTER 6. Yet. the change of the rocket mass can be considered minimal or even neglected.22) There are no external forces in this control volume thus. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 6. However. vanishes. The oxidant and fuel ﬂow outside. The resistance of the medium is Denote as FR .24) Clearly. the derivative with respect to time. This change is due to the change in the volume of the oxidant and the fuel. The diﬀerence is the fact that the oxidant is on board with the fuel. The gravity term is an instantaneous mass times the gravity times the constant and the same can be said for the acceleration term.2.23) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is the change of the momentum in the rocket volume. inside the rocket the change in the velocity is due to change in the reduction of the volume of the oxidant and fuel. d [(mR + mf ) U ] dt (6.v.26) . P dA − d dt ρ a0 dV = ρUy dV + Vc. it can be neglected. The two components are burned and the gases are ejected through a nozzle.

Integrating equation (6.28) Before integrating equation (6. This author was called for consultation and to solve a related problem.28) with limits of U (t = 0) = 0 provides U 0 ˙ dU = −MT Ue 0 t dt − MT t g dt 0 (6.27) Separating the variables equation (6. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 165 Denoting MT = mR + mf and thus dM/dt = m and Ue = Ug − UR . For which he noticed this “constant velocity. the speed (the Reynolds number). Thus.28). Thus it is assume that FR = 0. for constant fuel consumption (and almost oxidant). This problem was aroused in manufacturing industry. material that surface made and the medium it ﬂow in altitude.6. However.29) ˙ the results of the integration is (notice M = M0 − t M) U = Ue ln M0 ˙ M0 − t M −gt (6. gas ﬂow out is constant as well. it can be noticed that the friction resistance FR . for constant constant gas consumption equation (6. For simplicity here the part close to Earth (to the atmosphere) is assumed to be small compared to the distance in space. This problem demonstrates the used of control volume to ﬁnd method of approximation for not given velocity proﬁles1 Example 6. is a function of the several parameters such the duration.2. As ﬁrst approx˙ imation. in the past it was not noticed that a slight change in conﬁguration leads to a constant x velocity.” .27) yields dU = ˙ −MT Ue FR − − g dt MT MT (6.30) The following is an elaborated example which deals with an unsteady two dimensional problem.5: 1 A variation of this problem has appeared in many books in the literature.26) transformed to −FR − MT g + dU ˙ MT = MT Ue dt (6.

= −ρ U0 A0 = −m0 dt (6. The control volume is shown in Figure 6.a) Equation (6.v. U0 = B h (6.V.v. Schematic of a tank seating on wheel for unsteady state discussion Assume that the exit velocity is a This problem is similar to the rocket mechanics with a twist. mt . The mass conservation equation is d dt ρ dV + Vc.d) into equation (6. The tank upper part is opened to the atmosphere.e) .7.c) results in dh B h A0 + =0 dt A (6. Sc. The tank mass with the wheels (the solid parts) is known. -6.d) Where B is the coeﬃcient that has the right units to mach equation (6. At initial time the valve on the tank is opened and the liquid ﬂows out with an uniform velocity proﬁle. One the wheels have a constant resistance with the ground and two the resistance linear function of the weight.V.V.V.d) that represent the resistance in the system and substitute the energy equation. Solution Uo FR Fig. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION UT y x h A tank with wheels is ﬁlled with liquid is depicted in Figure 6.V.V. Substituting equation (6.V. Furthermore.7.12) for two dimensions is used. linear function of the height.b) Where m0 is mass ﬂow rate out. the ﬂuid has two velocity components verse one component in the rocket mechanics.a) can be transferred to dmc.166 CHAPTER 6. This situation is unsteady state thus equation (6.V. Equation (6.V.v. the source of the propulsion is the potential energy. ρdA = 0 (6. The frame of reference is moving with the tank.b) can be further reduced due to constant density to d (A h) (6. Calculate the tank velocity for two cases.V.7.c) + U0 A0 = 0 dt It can be noticed that the area of the tank is almost constant (A = constant) thus A dh dh U0 A0 + U0 A0 = 0 =⇒ =− dt dt A (6.31) The relationship between the height and the ﬂow now can be used.

the average velocity in the tank is Ux = 1 L L 0 x A0 B L A0 B = A 2A (6.6. .g) Where here w is the depth or width of the tank.V. Using a similar control volume2 .V. -6.1 ) is h(t) = h0 e − t A0 B A (6.k) 2 The boundaries are the upper (free surface) and tank side with a y distance from the free surface. y The boundary of this control volume are x the tank boundary on the left with the U straight surface as depicted in Figure 6.8. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 167 Equation (6. The applicable momentum equation (in the tank frame of reference) is (6.Fig.e) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which can be solved with the initial condition h(t = 0) = h0 . The mass con.V. R Ubn dA = Urn dA =⇒ Ubn = Urn .V. A new control volume to ﬁnd the servation for this control volume is velocity in discharge tank for example 6. h x o R w &x dh = −& h Ux w dt (6. Using this function.V. The tank depth.f) into (6.h) e Ux (x) = ¨ A Ah ¡ The average x component of the velocity is a linear function of x. the average velocity in the y direction is Uy = dh h0 A0 B − =− e dt A t A0 B A (6. it can be shown that average velocity is a function of cross section (what direction?). is not relevant. Perhaps surprising. The solution (see for details in the Appendix A. h.2.11) which is reduced to acceleration F −F R − (mt + mf ) g − a (mt + mf ) = R d [(mt + mf ) U r ] + U0 mo dt (6.j) It can be noticed that the velocity in the y is a function of time as oppose to the x direction.i) It can be noticed that Ux is not function of height.2.g) results ¨ t A0¨ B h0 x A0 B − ¨ ¨ A = x A0 B (6. F The last boundary is variable surface in a distance x from the tank left part. In fact.V. Substituting (6.V.V.V.f) UT To ﬁnd the average velocity in the L x direction a new control volume is used. it also can be noticed that Ux (x) is a not function of the time.5.8.

v.m) There is no mass ﬂow in the y direction and Uy is component of the velocity in the y direction.168 CHAPTER 6. The acceleration of the tank is a = −ˆ 0 or ˆ · a = −a. It . a Vc. And the additional force for accelerated system ia i is −ˆ · i a ρdV = mc.v. The momentum ﬂow rate out of the tank is ρ Ux Urn dA = ρ Uo 2 Ao = mo Uo Sc. This momentum is function of the tank volume times the air density times tank velocity (h0 × A × ρa × U ). (6. The mass in the control volume include the mass of the liquid with mass of the solid part (including the wheels). The momentum equation in the y coordinate it is Fy − (mt + mf ) g = d (mt + mf ) Uy dt (6. hence τ dA ∼ 0 Sc.v.v. = mf + mT because the density of the air is very small the change of the air mass is very small as well (ρa << ρ). The tank movement cause movement of the air which cause momentum change. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where U r is the relative ﬂuid velocity to the tank (if there was no tank movement). mf and mt are the mass of the ﬂuid and the mass of tank respectively.32) In the x coordinate the momentum equation is −Fx + (mt + mf ) a = d [(mt + mf ) Ux ] + U0 mf ˙ dt (6.l) Where Fx is the x component of the reaction which is opposite to the movement direction. Here this eﬀect is neglected. and the resistance due to air is negligible. The main problem of integral analysis approach is that it does not provide a way to analysis the time derivative since the velocity proﬁle is not given inside the control volume.v.V.V.v. The pressure around the control volume is uniform thus P cos θx dA ∼ 0 Sc. This eﬀect is known as the add mass/momentum and will be discussed in the Dimensional Analysis and Ideal Flow Chapters. mc. This limitation can be partially overcome by assuming some kind of average.

v. dt dt dt (6.v. if it is the opposite the toy start to move. Ux Vf Thus. Ux = mc.V. d d Ux Ux + mc. d Ux Ux + mc.n) becomes mass rate out ˙ = − m0 d mc.p) Rearranging and noticing that a = dUT /dt transformed equation (6.V. The ﬁrst component is downward (y) direction and the second in the exit direction (x).d) the mass ﬂow out is U0 h m0 (t) = B h0 e − t A0 B A A0 ρ (6.o) Combining all the terms results in −Fx + a (mf + mt ) = −m0 L A0 B − U0 m0 2A (6. From equation (6.v.V. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 169 can be noticed that the velocity in the tank has two components. However. dt dt L A0 B Ux = −m0 2A (6.v.v.p) into a= Fx − m0 mf + mt L A0 B + 2 A U0 (mf + mt ) 2 A (mf + mt ) (6.v.V.6.V.n) Noticing that the derivative with time of control volume mass is the ﬂow out in equation (6.V. The average velocity in the tank (because constant density and more about it later section) is Ux = 1 Vt Ux dV Vf Because the integral is replaced by the average it is transferred to ρ Ux dV ∼ mc.r) .2. The velocity in the y direction does not contribute to the momentum in the x direction. if the diﬀerence between the actual and averaged momentum is neglected then ∼0 d dt ρ Ux dV ∼ Vf d mc.V.V.q) A0 If the Fx ≥ m0 L 2 A B + U0 the toy will not move.

Here.r) and (6. For the second case where Rx is a function of the Ry as Rx = µ Ry (6.t) (mf ) Uy = mf Uy + dt dt dt The reason that mf is used because the solid parts do not have velocity in the y direction. Substituting equations (6. the ﬂow proﬁle in example 6. the velocity proﬁle can be estimated using the ideal ﬂuid theory but the actual values are not known.V. relationship between momentum for the average velocity to the actual velocity is presented. ρ Ux dV (6.v.5 can be estimated even by hand sketching.34) The actual momentum for control volume is Mc = c.35) . The momentum for average velocity is Ma = mc. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION V mf = ρ A h0 e − t A0 B A (6. This correction factor can be calculated by ﬁnding the relation between the two cases.u) The actual results of the integrations are not provided since the main purpose of this exercise to to learn how to use the integral analysis.V.V. Rearranging the momentum equation in the y direction transformed m f t A0 B − A g + 2 Fy = mt + ρ A h0 e ρ h0 A0 2 B2 A 2 e − t A0 B A (6. The change in the accumulative momentum is d dmf dUy (6.V.v U = ρ V c.q) transforms it to a diﬀerential equation which is integrated if Rx is constant.V. There are situations where actual velocity proﬁle is not known but is function can be approximated.170 The mass in the control volume is CHAPTER 6. For example.v U dV (6. End Solution Average Velocity Estimates In example 6.s) into equation (6.V. For these cases a correction factor can be used.s) The initial condition is that UT (t = 0) = 0. For example.1 relationship between momentum of maximum velocity to average velocity was presented.33) The y component of the average velocity is function of the time.

39) The angular momentum equation.39) to uniform and steady state ﬂow with neglected pressure gradient is reduced to M = m (r2 × U2 + r2 × U1 ) ˙ Introduction to Turbo Machinery The analysis of many turbomachinary such as centrifugal pump is fundamentally based on the angular momentum.9 commonly used in industry. To demonstrate this idea. the coeﬃcient is not equal to one. ρ Ux dV (6.v.6. the following discussion is provided. -6.Fig. The pressure on the outer side is uniform thus does not create a moment. CONSERVATION MOMENT OF MOMENTUM These two have to equal thus. The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram at the exit.36) If the density is constant then the coeﬃcient is one (C ≡ 1).v r ρ (r × U ) U rn dA (6. The ﬂow is Um2 Ulr2 U2 Un2 Ut2 (6. The inside particle is obtained larger velocity and due to centrifugal forces is moving to outer radius for which ad. 6. C ρV c.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum The angular momentum can be derived in the same manner as the momentum equation for control volume.9. The impeller increases the velocity of the ﬂuid by increasing the radius of the particles. However.40) . applying equation (6.v 171 U dV = c. if the density is not constant.37) The angular momentum then will be obtained by calculating the change of every element in the system as M = r ×F = D Dt ρ r × U dV Vsys (6. ditionally increase of velocity occur.v. The force F = D Dt U ρU dV Vsys (6. A pump impeller is shown in Figure 6.3.38) Now the left hand side has to be transformed into the control volume as M= d dt r ρ (r × U ) dV + Vc. Sc.

r.40[m]. The thickness of the impeller. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION assumed to enter the impeller radially with average velocity U1 . The height of the impeller is h.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation Example 6. Assume that angle velocity is leaving the impeller is 125◦ . 6. It is assumed that required torque is function U2 .6: A centrifugal pump is pumping 600 2[m3 /hour]. Un2 . and h. The exit liquid velocity.42) (6.172 CHAPTER 6. h is 2[cm] and the exit diameter is 0.41) results in Um2 (6.m. Estimate what is the minimum energy required by the pump. M = m r2 Ut2 ˙ Multiplying equation (6.p. The angular velocity is 1200 r.43) The diﬀerence between Um2 to Ut2 is related to the eﬃciency of the pump which will be discussed in the chapter on the turbomachinary. one the tangential velocity. The relative exit velocity is Ulr2 and the velocity of the impeller edge is Um2 . U2 has two components. Here it is assumed that ﬂuid is incompressible (ρ = constant). Notice that tangential liquid velocity.7: A design of a rocket is based on the idea that density increase of the leaving jet increases the acceleration of the rocket see Figure . ˙ W = m Um2 Ut2 ˙ (6. Example 6.41) M ω = m r2 ω Ut2 ˙ The shaft work is given by the left side and hence. Ut2 is not equal to the impeller outer edge velocity Um2 . Ut2 and radial component.

The mass conservation is similar to the rocket hence it is dm = −Ue Ae dt (6. The upper part of the rocket tank is ﬁlled with compressed gas.3) without a solution. In this problem the energy source is the pressure of the gas which propels the rocket. forces for example 6. The surface remained straight at the times and no liquid residue remains behind.2. The following is not the solution but rather the approach how to treat this problem.a) 3 This problem appeared in the previous version (0. The cross section of the liquid is constant.10. Several people ask to provide a solution or some hints for the solution. No gas leaves the rocket. -6. Assume that this idea has a good enUrocket gineering logic. Liquid ﬁlls the lower part of the rocket tank. No resistance to the rocket (can be added). Nozzle schematics wapression for rocket velocity. The gas obeys the ideal gas law. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 173 6.7 What are the parameters that eﬀect the problem. Additionally. What is the instantaneous vehℓ locity of the rocket at time zero? Develop Uexit the expression for the pressure (assuming no friction with the walls).6. hg Gas Select the control volume in such a way that provides the ability to ﬁnd the rocket Liquid acceleration. . The process is isothermal (can be isentropic process). hypotherical volume height Solution Under construction for time being only hints3 In the solution of this problem several assumptions must be made so that the integral system can be employed.VII. Develop exFig. the initial take oﬀ is requires a larger pressure. The mixing between the liquid and gas is negligible. Once the gas pressure reduced to be equal or below the outside pressure the rocket have no power for propulsion.4. Assume that ter rocket for the discussion on the the gas is obeying the perfect gas model. The gas mass is negligible in comparison to the liquid mass and/or the rocket.10.

f) It must be point out that integral is not function of time since the height as function of time is known at this stage.e) =A = −A dt dt dt The last identify in the above equation is based on the idea what ever height concede by the liquid is taken by the gas.VII. Furthermore.i) m (t) = m 0 − 0 Ue Ae dt (6.b) Per the assumption the gas mass remain constant and is denoted as mg . The initial pressure now can be expressed as P0 = The pressure at any time is P = Thus the pressure ratio is P hg0 hg0 = = = hg0 P0 hg hg0 − ∆h Equation (6. Using the above deﬁnition.j) .174 CHAPTER 6.VII.g) (6.VII. it can be observed that the gas pressure is a direct function of the mass ﬂow out.VII.VII. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION The mass conservation on the gas zone is a byproduct of the mass conservation of the liquid.d) mg R T V0g (6.VII. equation (6.VII.VII.VII.VII.b) becomes P0 = The relationship between the gas volume Vg = h g A (6.c) The gas geometry is replaced by a virtual constant cross section which cross section of the liquid (probably the same as the base of the gas phase). The total change of the gas volume can be obtained by integration as Vg = A (hg0 − ∆h ) (6. The gas pressure at the initial point is P0 = ρ0 R T (6.a) can be written as t mg R T hg0 A mg R T hg A 1 ∆h 1− hg0 (6. The change of the gas volume is dVg dhg dh (6. The minus sign is to account for change of “direction” of the liquid height.VII.h) (6.

Develop an expression for the rocket velocity. What are the parameters that eﬀect the rocket velocity.11: .1 Qualitative Questions Example 6.8: A rocket is ﬁlled with only compressed gas.VII.10: For each following ﬁgures discuss and state force direction and the momentum that act on the control volume due to . Example 6. End Solution (6. Ue = f (P ) + g h rho Where ζ here is a constant which the right units. What was the assumption that the third velocity component was neglected.VII. At a speciﬁc moment the valve is opened and the rocket is allowed to ﬂy.l) d −g (mR + m ) − a (mR + m ) = (mR + m ) U +bc + (UR + U ) m dt Where bc is the change of the liquid mass due the boundary movement. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION From equation (6. The liquid momentum balance is =0 f (P ) = ζ P (6.5 it was mentioned that there are only two velocity components.VII.k) According to the assumption the ﬂow out is linear function of the pressure inside thus.VII.m) Example 6. 6.4. What is the minimum pressure which make the rocket ﬂy.a) it also can be written that dh Ue Ae = dt ρe A 175 (6.9: In Example 6.6.4. Example 6.

Fig.176 Situations CHAPTER 6. Flow out of un symmetrical tank for example 6. Look at the directions which the unsteady state momentum in the tank change its value. consider the unsteady eﬀects. The exit is located on the left hand side at the front.11.11 is built with a exit located in uneven distance from the the right and the left and is ﬁlled with liquid. What are the direction of the forces that keep the control volume in the same location? Hints. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Explanations Uout F U Uin Flow in and out of Angle β θ Flow in and out at angle from a tank A similar tank as shown in Figure 6. -6.11 .

during time of the constructing this book only a simple skeleton by Potto standards will be build. Clearly this topic is very important and will be extensively discussed here. This simplistic representation is correct only under extreme conditions. the above view is wrong when the heat convection. The right hand side is very complicated and only some of the eﬀects will be discussed (It is only an introductory material). is included on the right hand side.CHAPTER 7 Energy Conservation 7. 177 . Moreover. 1 Thermodynamics is the favorite topic of this author since it was his major in high school. For example. For example.1) Equation (7.10) for a system is D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt This equation can be rearranged to be D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt EU + m U2 + mgz 2 (7. obeys this law which creates strange and wonderful phenomena such as a shock and choked ﬂow. as all phases and materials. It was shown in Chapter 2 that the energy rate equation (2. However. the relationship between height and ﬂow rate was assumed previously.3) in which the right hand side has to be interpreted and the left hand side interpolated using the Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT)2 . Additionally a discussion on various energy approximation is presented.2) is similar to equation (6.2) (7. The ﬂuid. which is external force.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics This chapter focuses on the energy conservation which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics1 . which were assumed in the previous chapters. 2 Some view the right hand side as external eﬀects while the left side of the equation represents the internal eﬀects. this law allows to solve problems. here it will be derived.

the discussion here will be restricted to convection and conduction. .5) dw d S S = − (Sn + τ ) · dA = − (Sn + τ ) · U dA dt dt The total work for the system including the shaft work is ˙ W =− Ac.4) System at t Sn The work done on the system is dℓ more complicated to express than the heat transfer.178 CHAPTER 7. The main heat transfer mode on the left hand side is conduction. Conduction for most simple cases is governed by Fourier’s Law which is dq = kT ˙ dT dA dn (7. -7. actual mass transfer must occur and thus no convection is possible to a system by the deﬁnition of system. the surface forces Fig.6) S (Sn + τ ) U dA − Wshaf t (7. 3 There 4 When (7. the radiation is minimal. The issues of convection are mostly covered by the terms on the left hand side.1.done by two diﬀerent mechanisms pendicular to the surface and one with the surface direction.3) Where dq is heat transfer to an inﬁnitesimal small area per time and kT is the heat ˙ conduction coeﬃcient. convection4 and radiation. The ﬁrst kind work is by the friction or the shear System at t + dt stress and the second by normal force. Hence. Issues related to radiation are very complicated and considered advance material and hence will be left out. conduction. dealing with convection. As in the previous chapter.7) are other methods such as magnetic ﬁelds (like microwave) which are not part of this book. In most problems. There are three modes of heat transfer. The work on the control volume is are divided into two categories: one per. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy transfer is carried (mostly3 ) by heat transfer to the system or the control volume. There are two kinds of works that the system does on the surroundings. The total heat transfer to the control volume is ˙ Q= Acv k dT dA dn τ (7. The work done by system on the surroundings (see Figure 7.1) is F dF dV S A S dw = −S dA ·d = − (Sn + τ ) · d dA The change of the work for an inﬁnitesimal time (excluding the shaft work) is U (7.v. The heat derivative is normalized into area direction.

11) can be further manipulated to become work due to the ﬂow work due to boundaries movement P n · U dA = ˆ S S P ρ Urn dA + ρ P Ubn dA S (7.9) ρ Vcv Eu + m Eu + m U2 +gz 2 U2 + g z dV 2 ρ Urn dA From now on the notation of the control volume and system will be dropped since all equations which deals with the control volume. As it was discussed in the previous chapter the normal stress component is replaced by the pressure (see equation (6.12) . Now Reynolds Transport Theorem can be used to transformed the left hand side of equation (7. In the last term in equation (7. The work rate (excluding the shaft work) is ﬂow work ˙ = W ∼ S P n · U dA − ˆ S τ · U n dA ˆ (7.10) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is referred to in the literature as the ﬂow work and is Urn P n · U dA = ˆ S S P (U − Ub ) n dA + ˆ S P Ubn dA (7.7.8) Equation (7.8) and thus yields kT Acv dT dA+ dn Energy Equation ˙ S (Sn + τ ) dA + Wshaf t = d dt + Acv Acv (7. Note that U is the velocity in the frame of reference while Urn is the velocity relative to the boundary.1.11) Equation (7.8) for more details).8) does not apply any restrictions on the system.2) for system is kT Asys 179 dT dA+ dn S (Sn + τ ) dV D ˙ +Wshaf t = Dt Asys ρ Vsys EU + m U2 + g z dV 2 (7. The system can contain solid parts as well several diﬀerent kinds of ﬂuids. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The energy equation (7.9) the velocity appears twice.

13) Substituting all these terms into the governing equation yields d U2 ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 P U Eu + + + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA ρ 2 S S (7. the ﬂow rate out of a tank or container was assumed to be a linear function of A the height. h.180 CHAPTER 7. the gas density is very small compared to Fig. The ﬂow out is related to the height but in a more complicate function and is the focus of this discussion. ENERGY CONSERVATION The second term is referred to as the shear work and is deﬁned as ˙ Wshear = − S τ · U dA (7.15) Equation (7. The enhℓ Ae ergy equation with mass conservation will Ue be utilized for this analysis. 6 This 5 Later .2. assumption is appropriated only under certain conditions which include the geometry of the tank or container and the liquid properties. and exit area is relatively with a small diameter. Discharge from a Large Container liquid density. Additionally. so the velocity can be assumed uniform (not a function of the opening height)5 . A discussion about this issue will be presented in the Dimensional Chapter and is out of the scope of this chapter.15). Also note that the straight surface assumption is not the same surface tension eﬀects zero. the temperature is assumed to constant. With these deﬁnitions equation (7. surface tension eﬀects are negligible and the liquid surface is straight6 . Flow Out From A Container In the previous chapters of this book. In this analysis several assumptions are made which includes the following: constant density.15) describes the energy conservation for the control volume in stationary coordinates.14) The new term P/ρ combined with the internal energy. which was discussed on page 44. a discussion about the height opening eﬀects will be discussed. -7.14) transformed ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + Simpliﬁed Energy Equation d U2 ˙ Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 U + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA h+ 2 S S (7. small. The example of ﬂow from a tank or container is presented to demonstrate how to treat some of terms in equation (7. Eu is referred to as the enthalpy.

Similar estimate that was done for x direction can be done Ue to every side of the opening if they are not symmetrical.3.12 to be larger than Ux 2 r Ae 2r 2 r dh Ue =⇒ Ux ∼ Ub = = h A h h dt (7.21) Also notice that the surface velocity is not zero.19) The x component of the averaged velocity is a function of the geometry and was calculated in Example 5. However.1. However.17) Equation (7. for the energy analysis the averaged velocity cannot be considered zero. The kinetic energy of the tank or container is based on the half part Uy = 0 as shown in Figure 7. the change of the kinetic Uy 1 Uy 1 energy due to the change in the velocity 2 2 ﬁeld isn’t zero.3. The surface has three velocity components which non have them vanish. The averaged velocity in the y direction is zero because the ﬂow is symmetrical7 . THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 181 The control volume is chosen so that all the liquid is included up to exit of the pipe. Hence it requires that velocity proﬁle in x y to be parabolic. How to compensate and estimate the kinetic energy when averaged Velocity is zero. Second reason for this exercise the surface velocity has only one component is to avoid dealing with Bar-Meir’s instability. The averaged velocity in z direction is same as the boundary velocity Ub = Uz = dh Ae = Ue dt A (7.18) Note that the boundary velocity is not the averaged velocity but the actual velocity.20) In this analysis. . in this discussion it is assumed that surface has only one component in z direction. the velocity is zero for symmetrical geometry and some other geometries. 7 For the mass conservation analysis. for simplicity. However.7. The conservation of the mass is d dt V ρ dV + ¡ dρ dt A ρ Urn dA = 0 ¡ (7. is suﬃcient as (π − 2)r dh Uy ∼ = 8h dt (7.17) provides the relationship between boundary velocity to the exit velocity as A Ub = Ae Ue (7. -7. this quantity will be used.16) which also can be written (because = 0) as Urn dA = 0 A Ubn dA + A (7. Since in this case the geometry is assumed to be symmetrical one side Fig.

23) Now the energy equation deals with no “external” eﬀects. 9 It is only the same assumption discussed earlier.24) are Pe Ue ρdA − ρ Pa Ub dA = Pe A A Ue dA − Pa A Ub dA (7.27) V A 8 This approach is a common approximation. ˙ ˙ Wshear = Wshaf t = 0 (7. A discussion about this eﬀect will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter. At the free surface the velocity has only normal component9 and thus shear work vanishes there as well. this change is a function of Eckert number. Furthermore.G. The pressure terms in equation (7. Additionally. The dissipation can be neglected for small Ec number.24) is reduced to d dt U2 + g z ρ dV − 2 Ue 2 2 Ue ρ dA = 0 (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy balance can be expressed by equation (7. Note that the exit velocity on the upper surface is zero Urn = 0.26) The governing equation (7. The temperature is constant8 . In this light.182 CHAPTER 7. why this approach is correct in most cases is not explained here. Yet. Eckert.22) The boundary shear work is zero because the velocity at tank boundary or walls is zero. 10 It is assumed that the pressure in exit across section is uniform and equal surroundings pressure. the following approximation can be written Eu ˙ = hin − hout = 0 Q= dt (7. . Ec number is named after this author’s adviser. Pa is the external pressure and Pe is the exit pressure10 .R. E.25) A It can be noticed that Pa = Pe hence =0 Pa A Ue dA − A Ub dA =0 (7. Combining all these information results in energy ﬂow out internal energy change energy in and out upper surface work d dt V U + g z ρ dV + 2 2 A Pe Ue + ρ 2 2 Ue ρ dA − A Pa Ub dA = 0 (7. In this case. Clearly. Ec which is very small.15) which is applicable to this case.24) Where Ub is the upper boundary velocity. the internal shear work is assumed negligible. the shear stresses at the exit are normal to the ﬂow direction hence the shear work is vanished. the dissipation creates a loss that has temperature component.

7.30) into equation (7. The averaged velocity is Uave = 1 V U dV V (7.30) Substituting the results of equation (7. Furthermore. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 183 The minus sign is because the ﬂow is out of the control volume. A discussion on the correction factor is presented to provide a better “averaged” velocity.28) V V The second integral (in the r.s) of equation (7. The ﬁrst integral can be estimated by examining the velocity proﬁle eﬀects.1.29) yields d gρ dt V h2 d h dh dA = g ρ hA = g ρAh 2 dt 2 dt (7.31) A The kinetic energy related to the averaged velocity with a correction factor which depends on the geometry and the velocity proﬁle.28) is d dt d g z ρ dV = g ρ dt h A 0 dV z dz dA (7. The terms under the time derivative can be divided into two terms as d dt d U2 + g z ρdV = 2 dt U2 d dV + 2 dt g z ρ dV V (7.h.29) V Where h is the height or the distance from the surface to exit. Similarly to the previous chapter which the integral momentum will be replaced by some kind of average. The inside integral can be evaluated as h zdz = 0 h2 2 (7.33) . A comparison between the actual kinetic energy and the kinetic energy due to the “averaged” velocity (to be called the averaged kinetic energy) provides a correction coeﬃcient.32) The total kinetic energy for the averaged velocity is ρ Uave 2 V = ρ 1 V 2 2 U dV V V =ρ V U dV (7. Even the averaged velocity is zero the kinetic energy is not zero and another method should be used.

Calculations according to this point can improve the accurately based on the above discussion. The ﬂow is parabolic only when the ﬂow is driven by pressure or gravity.34) Here. CF is the correction coeﬃcient. The relationship between Umax to the averaged velocity. For a pipe geometry.35) results Uave 2 V U 2 dV V V = Uave 2 V 2 Uave 1 − r2 ¯ 2 = dV 3 Uave 2 V = 4 4 Uave 2 π L R2 3 (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION The general correction factor is the ratio of the above value to the actual kinetic energy as 2 ρ U dV CF = V ρ U 2 dV V ρ (Uave ) V = ¡ ρ U 2 dV ¡ V 2 (7. More about this issue in the Diﬀerential Analysis Chapter. diﬀerent directions cancel each other out. 12 The advantage is described in the Dimensional Analysis Chapter. A large family of velocity proﬁles is laminar or parabolic (for one directional ﬂow)11 . the inequality sign because the density distribution for compressible ﬂuid.36) into equation (7. the velocity is U r R = U (¯) = Umax 1 − r2 = 2 Uave 1 − r2 r ¯ ¯ (7. for simplicity reason.1.36) It can be noticed that the velocity is presented as a function of the reduced radius12 . The correction factor for a constant density ﬂuid is 2 2 ρ U dV CF = V = ρ U 2 dV ρ ¡ ρ ¡ U dV V = U 2 dV Uave 2 V U 2 dV V (7.32) which yields 1/2. For circular shape. it is assumed that the averaged velocity indeed represent the energy in the tank or container. In this case.35) V V This integral can be evaluated for any given velocity proﬁle. .184 CHAPTER 7. 11 Laminar ﬂow is not necessarily implies that the ﬂow velocity proﬁle is parabolic. Note. The diﬀerence between the “averaged momentum” velocity and the “averaged kinetic” velocity is also due to the fact that energy is added for diﬀerent directions while in the momentum case. Substituting equation (7.37) The correction factor for many other velocity proﬁles and other geometries can be smaller or larger than this value. a good guess number is about 1. Uave is obtained by using equation (7.

7.40) Ue = A dh dh = −Ub Ae dt dt (7. some other eﬀects have to be taken into account which were neglected in construction of this model such as upper surface shape. it easy can be proved by construction the same control volume. The reader is encouraged to do it to get acquainted with this concept. the mathematical complication are enormous14 and this eﬀect is assumed neglected and the function to be constant. .1.43) f (G) dh U∼ = dt (π − 2) r 8h 2 + (π − 1) r 4h 2 + 12 (7.44) It can be noticed that f (G) is a weak function of the height inverse. However. It must be remembered that is eﬀect extremely important in the later stages of the emptying of the tank. 14 The solution not the derivation is about one page.41) Combining all the three components of the velocity (Pythagorean Theorem) as 2 2 2 2 U ∼ Ux + Uy + Uz = (7.39) Therefore. Analytical solution of the governing equation is possible including this eﬀect of the height.42) 2 U ∼ = (π − 2) r dh 8h dt 2 + (π − 1) r dh 4h dt 2 + dh dt 2 (7.38) The relationship between the boundary velocity to the height (by deﬁnition) is Ub = dh dt (7. the velocity in the z direction13 is Uz = dh dt (7. However. 13 A similar point was provided in mass conservation Chapter 5. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The unsteady state term then obtains the form 2 U2 d U d gh ∼ρ ρ + g y dV = + dt V 2 dt 2 2 185 V hA (7. But in the same vain.

186 The last term is CHAPTER 7.49) Further rearranging to eliminate the “ﬂow rate” transforms to 1 U dh 1 A B ¨ gh dU Ub A¨ f (G)2 dt ¨ + f (G) h + ¨ dt ¨Ue Ae 2 e Ae U 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.45) Combining all the terms into equation (7.48) Notice that U = Ub f (G) and thus f (G) Ub U dU h A g dh h A U gh 1 + + + − dt Ue Ae 2 dt Ue Ae 2 2 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.46) hA + U gh + 2 2 2 A dh 1 − dt 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 Ue Ae = 0 (7. results in d U gh + dt 2 2 2 (7.47) can be rearranged and simpliﬁed and combined with mass conservation 15 .47) Equation (7.51) part can be skipped to end of ”advanced material”. .27) results in V 2 2 2 d U gh 1 dh A ρ + hA − Ue ρ Ae = 0 ¡ dt ¡ 2 2 2 dt Ae taking the derivative of ﬁrst term on l.50) f (G)2 h 15 This d2 h g h f (G)2 + + dt2 2 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.h.40) A Ae A Ue d U gh + dt 2 2 2 hA U gh + + Ue Ae 2 2 2 dh 1 A − dt 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 $ Ue A $$ e = 0 (7. Advance material can be skipped Dividing equation (7.46) by Ue Ae and utilizing equation (7.s. ENERGY CONSERVATION A Ue 2 Ue 2 Ue ρ dA = Ue ρ Ae = 2 2 dh A dt Ae 2 Ue ρ Ae (7.

7.52) Deﬁning a new tank emptying parameter. equation (7. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 187 End Advance material Combining the gh terms into one yields f (G)2 h d2 h 1 +gh+ dt2 2 dh dt 2 f (G)2 − A Ae 2 =0 (7.56) The solution with the positive solution has no physical meaning because the height cannot increase with time. Thus deﬁne function of the height as dh f (h) = − (7.54) The solution can either of these equations16 dh − = t + k2 (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) or - (7. . as Te = A f (G) Ae 2 (7.57) (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) 16 A discussion about this equation appear in the mathematical appendix.55) dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) = t + k2 (7.52) by f (G)2 and using this parameter.1. Te .52) after minor rearrangement transformed to h d2 h g Ae 2 + dt2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 [1 − Te ] = 0 (7. Dividing equation (7.53) This parameter represents the characteristics of the tank which controls the emptying process.

61) (7. the information about opening of the valve did not reached to the surface. And taking the “positive” branch √ dh 2gh = (7.60) The complication of the above solution suggest a simpliﬁcation in which d2 h g Ae 2 << dt2 Te A2 which reduces equation (7.59) (7. However. . This initial condition is the initial height of the liquid.64) It can be noticed that Te “disappeared” from the equation. The initial velocity 17 For the initial condition speed of sound has to be taken into account.58) This condition pose a physical limitation17 which will be ignored. if this phenomenon is ignored this solution is correct.63) While equation (7.188 CHAPTER 7.62) [1 − Te ] = 0 (7. Thus for a very short time. ENERGY CONSERVATION The initial condition for this case are: one the height initial is h(0) = h0 The initial boundary velocity is dh =0 dt (7. the non linear element can be removed by taking negative branch (height reduction) of the equation as dh dt 2 = 2gh −1 + A Ae 2 (7.63) is still non linear equation.65) 2 dt A 1 − Ae The nature of ﬁrst order Ordinary Diﬀerential Equation that they allow only one initial condition. This information travel in characteristic sound speed which is over 1000 m/sec. The ﬁrst condition yields k2 = −f (h0 ) The second condition provides dh =0= dt (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h0 ) T e + 2 g h0 2 h0 (T e − 2) f (G) (7.54) into h g Ae 2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 (7.

66) The initial condition has been inserted into the integral which its solution is 1− A Ae √ 2 h − h0 √ =t 2gh A = 2 Ae √ 2gh Ae 2 A (7. 1608 October 25. It is correct only for large ratio of h/r and the error became very substantial for small value of h/r. He was student (not formal) and follower of Galileo Galilei.67) dh A Ue = = dt Ae If the area ratio Ae /A << 1 then 2gh A Ae (7.68) 1− 1− U∼ = 2gh (7.7. There are problems that the integral methods even with these enhancements simply cannot tackle. Equation (7.65) integrated to yield 1− A Ae 2 h h0 dh √ = 2gh t dt 0 (7. It seems that Torricelli was an honest man who gave to others and he died at young age of 39 while in his prime. The improvements to the integral methods are the corrections to the estimates of the energy or other quantities in the conservation equations. Today the exact reference to his work is lost only “sketches” of his lecture elude work. this analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the integral analysis to provide a reasonable solution. LIMITATION OF INTEGRAL APPROACH 189 ﬁeld was eliminated by the approximation (remove the acceleration term).2.70) 7. In the calculations 18 Evangelista Torricelli (October 15.2 Limitation of Integral Approach Some of accuracy issues to enhance the quality and improvements of the integral method were suggested in the analysis of the emptying tank. 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician. .69) Equation (7. He derived this equation based on similar principle to Bernoulli equation (which later leads to Bernoulli’s equation). Thus it is assumed that the initial velocity is not relevant at the core of the process at hand. This analysis can be improved by experimental investigating the phenomenon.69) is referred in the literature as Torricelli’s equation18 This analysis has several drawbacks which limits the accuracy of the calculations. Yet. The experimental coeﬃcient can be added to account for the dissipation and other eﬀects such dh ∼ =C dt 2gh (7.

Engineers in order to reduce the work further simplify the energy equation. In the case of the tank.4. In the analysis of the tank it was assumed that the dissipation can be igD nored. the integral methods is Fig. A liquid in manometer is disturbed from a rest by a distance of H0 . the averaged energy in the x direction contributes or eﬀects the energy equation. It turn out that these simpliﬁcations can provide reasonable results and key understanding of the physical phenomena and yet with less work. . ENERGY CONSERVATION of the exit velocity of a tank. the integral does not provide a sufH equilibrioum level ﬁcient tool to analyze the issue at hand. Additionally. The accuracy issues that integral methods intrinsically suﬀers from no ability to exact ﬂow ﬁeld and thus lost the accuracy as was discussed in the example. Hence the prediction can skew the actual predictions. -7. the averaged velocity in x direction is zero yet the averaged velocity in the two zooms (two halves) is not zero. too crude to handle issues of free interface. the problems can be solved. The following sections provides further explanation. In fact. Flow in an oscillating manometer. In cases that dissipation play major air air role.3 Approximation of Energy Equation The emptying the tank problem was complicated even with all the simpliﬁcations that were carried. the analysis of the oscillating manometer cannot be carried by the intelowest level for the liquid gral methods. The integral method does not handle the problems such as the free surface with reasonable accuracy. 7. The second type of corrections is the understanding that averaged of the total ﬁeld is diﬀerent from the averaged of diﬀerent zooms. the knowledge of whether the ﬂow is laminar or turbulent (later on this issue) has to come from diﬀerent techniques. Furthermore. two such corrections were presented. The integral method is a powerful and yet simple method but has has to be used with the limitations of the method in mind. Hence diﬀerent techniques are required. The discussion on the limitations was not provided to discard usage of this method but rather to provide a guidance of use with caution. The ﬁrst type is the prediction of the velocities proﬁle (or the concentration proﬁle). These problem were minor for the emptying the tank but for the oscillating manometer it is the core of the problem.190 CHAPTER 7. The description H(t) as a function of time requires exact knowledge of the velocity ﬁeld. H For example.

7. The second low is the core of “no losses” and can be employed when calculations of this sort information is needed. Equation (2.73) Dividing equation the mass ﬂow rate provides Steady State Equation. Fix m & uniform ˙ q − wshear − wshaf t = ˙ ˙ ˙ h+ U2 +gz 2 − out h+ U2 +gz 2 (7. the pressure is different.3.72) for non-deformable control volume does not vanished. The time derivative term can be eliminated since the time derivative is zero. Hence the energy equation is reduced to Steady State Equation ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = S h+ U2 + g z Urn ρ dA + 2 P Ubn dA S (7. under this simpliﬁcation transformed to ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 U2 + g z Urn ρAin h+ 2 (7. This imaginary ﬂuid reduces the amount of work in the calculations and Ideal Flow Chapter is dedicated in this book.3. The reason is that while the velocity is constant. APPROXIMATION OF ENERGY EQUATION 191 7.72) U2 + g z Urn ρAin + P Ubn Aout − P Ubn Ain 2 It can be noticed that last term in equation (7. For a stationary ﬁx control volume the energy equation.71) is reduced to Steady State Equation & uniform ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 (7.75) .1 Energy Equation in Steady State The steady state situation provides several ways to reduce the complexity.71) If the ﬂow is uniform or can be estimated as uniform.3. equation (7. The acceleration term must be eliminated for the obvious reason.74) in 7.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State In cases where the ﬂow can be estimated without friction or where a quick solution is needed the friction and other losses are illuminated from the calculations.21) which can be written as dqrev = T ds = dEu + P dv (7.

80) can be simpliﬁed for uniform ﬂow as ˙ Qrev = m (hout − hin ) − ˙ or qrev = (hout − hin ) − ˙ dP ρ − out dP ρ − out dP ρ dP ρ (7.77) P ρ − v dP (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION Using the multiplication rule change equation (7.76) qrev = Eu + P ρ − dP ρ (7.83) in Subtracting equation (7.81) As before equation (7.79) becomes h D ˙ Qrev = Dt Eu + V P ρ ρ dV − D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.80) Using the Reynolds Transport Theorem to transport equation to control volume results in d ˙ Qrev = dt h ρ dV + V A h Urn ρ dA + D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.74) results in change in pressure energy change in kinetic energy change in potential energy 0 = wshaf t + dP ρ − 2 dP ρ + 1 U2 2 − U1 2 + g (z2 − z1 ) 2 (7.75) dqrev = dEu + d (P v) − v dP = dEu + d integrating equation (7.192 CHAPTER 7.79) Taking time derivative of the equation (7.82) in (7.76) yields dqrev = dEu + d P ρ − v dP (7.78) Integration over the entire system results in h Qrev = V Eu + P ρ ρ dV − V dP ρ ρ dV (7.84) .83) from equation (7.

ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM Equation (7. These accelerations will be translated to potential energy. The gravity force for ﬂuid element in small distance then is g dz dm.4.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate 2 The potential is deﬁned as P. the control volume is moving in accelerated coordinates. It was pointed earlier in this book that accelerated forces can be translated to potential force. the mathematical treatment is somewhat diﬀerent which is the reason for the separation.4.85) reduced to 0= U2 2 − U1 2 P2 − P1 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 (7.90) The total work or potential is the integral over the whole mass. is the gravity that was compensated by the gravity potential. 7. In building the gravity potential it was assumed that the gravity is a conservative force. r and m are the distance and mass respectively. General Acceleration can be broken into a linear acceleration and a rotating acceleration.88) r2 Where G is the gravity coeﬃcient and M is the mass of the Earth.7. For example.87) In Chapter 3 a discussion about gravitational energy potential was presented. There is no conceptional diﬀerence between these two accelerations. for the gravity force is GM m (7.84) for constant density is 0 = wshaf t + P2 − P1 U2 2 − U1 2 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 193 (7.E.85) For no shaft work equation (7. However.86) 7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System In the discussion so far. linear and rotational. The accelerations are referring to two kinds of acceleration. In many cases. = − ref F ·d (7.89) The reference was set to inﬁnity. The only acceptation to the above statement. it was assumed that the control volume is at rest. . The work this element moving from point 1 to point 2 is 2 g dz dm = g (z2 − z1 ) dm 1 (7. The gravity potential is then F =− r P Egravity = − ∞ − GM m dr r2 (7.

The same can be done for the other two coordinates.92) At the origin (of the coordinates) x = 0. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7. The potential of unit material is P Ea total = (ax x + ay y + az z) ρ dV sys (7.4.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System The coordinate system rotating around ﬁx axis creates similar conservative potential as the linear system. The Force due to the acceleration of the ﬁeld can be broken into three coordinates. Using this trick the notion of the ax (x1 − x0 ) can be replaced by ax x.94) Equation can be added to the energy equation as D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt Eu + sys U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7.4. and z = 0.91) P Ea = (0) a · d dm = (ax (x1 − x0 ) ay (y1 − y0 ) az (z1 − z0 )) dm (7. y = 0.96) h+ U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z Urn ρ dA 2 + cv P Ubn dA 7.95) The Reynolds Transport Theorem is used to transferred the calculations to control volume as Energy Equation in Linear Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv Eu + cv U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7. Thus. There are two kinds of acceleration due this rotation one is the . the element of the potential is d P Ea = a · d dm The total potential for element material (1) (7.2 Linear Accelerated System The acceleration can be employed in similar fashion as the gravity force.194 CHAPTER 7. The linear acceleration “creates” a conservative force of constant force and direction.93) The change of the potential with time is D D P Ea total = Dt Dt (ax x + ay y + az z) dm sys (7. The “potential” of moving the mass in the ﬁeld provides the energy.

consider a particle which moves with the our rotating system. However. To understand it better. the ﬂux of this property is important only in the direction of the velocity. This multiplication creates lines (surfaces ) of constant values.98) (7.7.102) Inserting the potential energy due to the centrifugal forces into the energy equation yields Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv U2 ω 2 r2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z − ρ dV 2 2 cv ω2 r2 U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z Urn ρ dA h+ 2 2 Eu + + cv (7. The forces acting on particles are centrifugal Coriolis F = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω dm ˆ The work or the potential then is P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · d dm ˆ The cylindrical coordinate are ˆ ˆ d = drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k r (7. The second part is (2 U × ω) · d dm (7.103) P Ubn dA .101) This multiplication does not vanish with the exception of the direction of U . θ.4. The ˆ ˆ potential is then ˆ ˆ P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k dm ˆ r (7. this term canceled and does not contribute to the potential. The net change of the potential energy due the centrifugal motion is 2 P Ecentrif ugal = − 1 ω 2 r2 dr dm = ω 2 r1 2 − r2 2 dm 2 (7. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM 195 centrifugal and second the Coriolis force.97) (7. Hence. and k are units vector in the coordinates r. the most important direction is the direction of the velocity.99) ˆ where r. θ and z respectively. The cross product is zero of U ×ω×U =U ×ω×ω = 0 because the ﬁrst multiplication is perpendicular to the last multiplication.100) The ﬁrst term results in ω 2 r2 (see for explanation in the appendix 277 for vector explanation). From physical point of view.

.103) is to assume uniform ﬂow.196 CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7.4.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform Flow One of the way to simplify the general equation (7.

Part II Diﬀerential Analysis 197 .

.

the solution is not unique. The concepts of Add Mass and 1 Which can be view as complementary analysis to the integral analysis. In diﬀerential analysis. with a presentation of the “non–regular” solutions will be presented with the associated issues of stability. One of the approaches is to reduce the equations by eliminating the viscosity eﬀects. Navier-Stokes equations are non–linear and there are more than one possible solution in many cases (if not most cases) e. First these equations were derived by Claude– Louis–Marie Navier as it is known in 1827.g. 199 . The foundations for their arguments or motivations are based on a molecular view of how stresses are exerted between ﬂuid layers. A discussion about the “regular” solution is present and a brief discussion about limitations when the solution is applicable. Barr´ de e Saint Venant (1843) and George Gabriel Stokes (1845) derived these equation based on the relationship between stress and rate–of–strain (this approach is presented in this book).CHAPTER 8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8. The diﬀerential analysis allows the investigation of the ﬂow ﬁeld in greater detail. These equations are named after Claude–Louis Navier–Marie and George Gabriel Stokes. the emphasis is on inﬁnitesimal scale and thus the analysis provides better accuracy1 .1 Introduction The integral analysis has limited accuracy. As usual Simon-Denis Poisson independently. However even for the “regular” solution the mathematics is very complex. derived these equations in 1831 for the same arguments as Navier. This analysis leads to partial diﬀerential equations which are referred to as the Navier-Stokes equations. The equations without the viscosity eﬀects are referred to as the ideal ﬂow equations (Euler Equations) which will be discussed in the next chapter. which leads to a diﬀerent approach of differential analysis. Like many equations they were independently derived by several people. Later in the Chapters on Real Fluid and Turbulence. as he done to many other equations or conditions.

DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Add Force.1. 8. This phenomenon is presented in Multi–phase chapter and in this chapter. the following can be written D Dt ρdV = d dt ρdV + Urn ρ dA = 0 Fig. The mass conservation for this inﬁnitesimal small system is zero thus D Dt ρdV = 0 (8.200 CHAPTER 8. At a speciﬁc time this control volume can be viewed as a system. the boundary conditions create instability which alters the boundary conditions itself which is known as Interfacial instability. It has to be pointed out that the Add Mass and Add Force appear regardless to the viscosity.1) x A ρ Ux dy dz ρ+ dρ dz Uz + dUz dz dx dy E F dρ y ρ+ d U dU + dy y y dx dz B ρ+ dρ dx Ux + dUx dx dy dz G dx dz H ρU y C ρ Uz dx dy D However for a control volume using Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT). The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume.1. (8. The connection between these two ideas or ﬁelds was done via introduction of the boundary layer theory by Prandtl which will be discussed in a separate chapter. Even for simple situations.2) For a constant control volume the derivative can enter into the integral (see also for the divergence theorem in the appendix A. -8. which are easier to discuss when the viscosity is ignored.1. there are cases when the complying with the boundary conditions leads to a discontinuity (shock or choked ﬂow). The choked ﬂow is associated with single phase ﬂow (even the double choked ﬂow) while the Interfacial instability associated with the Multi–Phase ﬂow. on one hand. Historically. and will be presented in the Ideal Flow chapter.3) . the complexity of the equations. These equations cannot satisfy the boundary conditions in other cases and in way the ﬂuid pushes the boundary condition(s) further downstream (choked ﬂow). These issues are discussed in Open Channel Flow and Compressible Flow chapters. Sometimes. leads to approximations and consequently to ideal ﬂow approximation (equations) and on the other hand experimental solutions of Navier–Stokes equations.2 Mass Conservation Fluid ﬂows into and from a three dimensional inﬁnitesimal control volume depicted in Figure 8.2) and hence dρ dt dV dρ dV + dt Urn ρ dA = 0 (8.

The net mass change.8.6) The same can be said for the y and z coordinates. for example. as depicted in Figure 8. neglecting higher order derivatives.2.2) is expressed2 as dAyz Urn ρ dA = dy dz (ρ Ux )|x − (ρ Ux )|x+dx + dAxz dAxz (8. . in the control volume is ∂ρ dr dz r dθ dm = ˙ ∂t 2 Note (8.5) dx dz (ρ Uy )|y − (ρ Uy )|y+dy + dx dy (ρ Uz )|z − (ρ Uz )|z+dz The diﬀerence between point x and x + dx can be obtained by developing Taylor series as (ρ Ux )|x+dx = (ρ Ux )|x + ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂x dx x (8. The combination can be divided by dx dy dz and simpliﬁed by using the deﬁnition of the partial derivative in the regular process to be Urn ρ dA = − ∂(ρ Ux ) ∂(ρ Uy ) ∂(ρ Uz ) + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (8. produces additional dx thus a inﬁnitesimal volume element dV is obtained for all directions. in the x coordinate. It also can be noticed that.7) Combining the ﬁrst term with the second term results in the continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates as Continuity in Cartesian Coordinates ∂ρ ∂ρ Ux ∂ρ Uy ∂ρ Uz + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z Cylindrical Coordinates The same equation can be derived in cylindrical coordinates.3) for the inﬁnitesimal volume is expressed.8) dv (8. as ∼0 dρ dρ dV = dx dy dz + f dt dt dV d ρ dt2 2 + ··· (8. the operation.2.9) that some time the notation dAyz also refers to dAx .4) The second term in the LHS of equation (8. MASS CONSERVATION 201 The ﬁrst term in equation (8.

The mass ﬂow at r + dr is ρ Ur r dθ dz|r + d/dr (ρ Ur r dθ dz) dr + · · · . r . -8. dr r dθ dz results in total net ﬂux =− 1 ∂ (ρ Ur r) ∂ρ Uz r ∂ρ Uθ + + r ∂r ∂z ∂θ (8.12) Combining equations (8. The change is ﬂux in r direction = dθ dz r ρ U r − r ρ Ur + ∂ρ Ur r dr ∂r (8. Hence. The net mass ﬂow out or in the r direction has an additional term which is the area change compared to the Cartesian coordinates.13) ∂ (ρ Uz ) dz ∂z (8.11) Note3 that the r is still inside the derivative since it is a function of r.10) The net ﬂux in the r direction is then ∂ρ Ur r net ﬂux in the = dθ dz dr ∂r r direction (8. the r is “trapped” in the derivative. Expansion to Taylor serious ρ U r dθ dz| r r r+dr is obtained by the regular procedure.11)–(8.202 ρ U r z CHAPTER 8.g.2. e. This change creates a diﬀerent diﬀerential equation with additional complications. In a similar fashion the net ﬂux in the z coordinate be written as net ﬂux in z direction = r dθ dr The net change in the θ direction is then net ﬂux in θ direction = dr dz ∂ρ Uθ dθ ∂θ (8.13) and dividing by inﬁnitesimal control volume.14) 3 The mass ﬂow is ρ U r dθ dz at r point. The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates. the change of r with r. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS + ∂ (ρ Ur r) dz dθ dr ∂z ρ U θ ∂ (ρ Uθ ) + dθ dr dz ∂θ dz ρ Uz r) d r r ρU ∂ ( ∂z r+ dθ dz ρU r rd θd z rd z θ dr ρ Uθ dr dθ y θ x ρ Uz r dr dθ Fig.

End Advance material The use of these equations is normally combined with other equations (momentum and or energy equations). several examples are constructed here.18) Compare to equation (8.15) Carrying similar operations for the spherical coordinates.14) with the change in the control volume (8. dr r dθ dz yields Continuity in Cylindrical Coordinates ∂ρ Uz ∂ρ 1 ∂ (r ρ Ur ) 1 ∂ρ Uθ + + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (8. The mass equation (see in the appendix for more information on the index notation) written as ∂ρ ∂ (ρ U )i + =0 ∂t ∂xi (8. It can be noticed that the second part of these equations is the divergence (see the Appendix A. this writing reduce the amount of writing and potentially can help think about the problem or situation in more conceptional way.1 Mass Conservation Examples Example 8.15) and (8.8). t0 .9) divided by inﬁnitesimal control volume. The index notation really does not add much to the scientiﬁc understanding.16) can be expressed in diﬀerent coordinates. At time.1: A layer of liquid has an initial height of H0 with an uniform temperature of T0 . . (8. 8. However.8. MASS CONSERVATION 203 Combining equation (8. For academic purposes.2. the continuity equation can be written in a general vector form as Continuity Equation ∂ρ (8. Hence.16) The continuity equations (8. There are very few cases where this equation is used on its own merit. Again remember that the meaning of repeated index is summation. the continuity equation becomes Continuity in Spherical Coordinates ∂ρ 1 ∂ r 2 ρ Ur 1 ∂ (ρ Uθ sin θ) 1 ∂ρ Uφ + 2 + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂z (8.8).2.2 page 280).17) + · (ρ U ) = 0 ∂t Advance material can be skipped The mass equation can be written in index notation for Cartesian coordinates. the upper surface is exposed to temperature T1 .1.

it is treated as a constant.d) ρ1 − ρ0 H0 Equation (8.204 CHAPTER 8. It can be noticed that the height H0 is a function of time. Calculates the velocity of the liquid.3. -8. Neglect the mutual dependency of the temperature and the height.I. Substituting the density.I. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Assume that the actual temperature is ρ T1 exponentially approaches to a linear temperature proﬁle as depicted in Figure 8.I.I.d) relates the temperature with the time and the location was given in the question (it is not the solution of any model).e) =0 e−β t + ∂y Equation (8. as a function of time into the governing equation (8.a)) is ρ − ρ0 H0 − y =α 1 − e−β t (8.f) .3. The expression that connects the temperature with the space for the ﬁnal temperature as T − T0 H0 − y =α T1 − T0 H0 (8.1 function of the y coordinate.I.b) with the boundary condition of zero velocity at the lower surface Uy (y = 0) = 0.e) is ﬁrst order ODE with the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 which can be arranged as 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 ∂y = −α β H0 − y H0 e−β t (8.b) results in ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ Uy ∂y 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 αβ H0 − y H0 (8.I. For this question. ρ.c) The exponential decay is 1 − e−β t and thus the combination (with equation (8.I. Solution The situation is unsteady state thus the unsteady state and one dimensional continuity equation has to be used which is ∂ρ ∂ (ρUy ) + =0 ∂t ∂y (8.I.I. Assume that the velocity at the lower boundary is zero at all times.I. Mass ﬂow due to temperature tom. Assume that the velocity is only a diﬀerence for example 8. H0(t) The density is a function of the temperT0 y ature according to ρ 1 0 T − T0 =α T1 − T0 ρ − ρ0 ρ1 − ρ0 (8.a) T(t = 0) T(t > 0) T(t = ∞) where ρ1 is the density at the surface and where ρ0 is the density at the botFig.

2: In many coating processes a thin ﬁlm is created by a continuous process in which liquid injected into a moving belt that carries the material out as exhibited in Figure 8.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation A simpliﬁed equation can be obtained for a steady state in which the transient term is eliminated as · (ρ U ) = 0 (8.2. the integration with respect to y yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t y + c (8.I. Example 8. Mass ﬂow in coating process perature is only a function of the distance for example 8. Assume that the ﬁlm temFig.2.4. For this example. 4 Since (8.II.4.I.f) holds for any time and thus.20) the time can be treated as constant for y integration. The relationship between the density and the temperature is linear as T − T∞ ρ − ρ∞ =α (8. MASS CONSERVATION 205 Uy is a function of the time but not y. asH0 T0 T(x) T∞ sume that no mass transfer occurs or can x be neglected and the main mechanism is x heat transfer. End Solution 8. Equation (8. Calculate the ﬁlm velocity ﬁeld if the density is a function of the temperature. it can be treated for the solution of equation (8.f) as a constant4 .I. -8. The temperature and mass transfer takT0 ing place which reduces (or increases) the thickness of the ﬁlm.g) Utilizing the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t (y − 1) (8.19) If the ﬂuid is incompressible then the governing equation is a volume conservation as ·U = 0 Note that this equation appropriate only for a single phase case.2. Hence.8. . from the extraction point.a) ρ0 − ρ∞ T0 − T∞ State your assumptions.I.h) It can be noticed that indeed the velocity is a function of the time and space y.

The solution is similar to the previous Example 8. However.b) can be written as Ux ∂ (ρ Uy ) ∂ρ =− ∂x ∂y (8. Higbie suggested this idea which was rejected by the scientiﬁc establishment.c) Where Ux is the belt velocity. This assumption is consistent with the ﬁrst solution (no stability issues). this author Master thesis is extension Higbie’s equation. See the resembles to equation (8. the discussion about this point is beyond the scope of this section.d) Substituting this relationship in equation (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS This problem is somewhat similar to Example 8.II. it can be assumed that the material moves with at the belt in the x direction in the same velocity.II. If the frame of reference was moving with the belt then there is only velocity component in the y direction6 .II.I.206 Solution CHAPTER 8.15 . .e) Notice that ρ could “come” out of the derivative (why?) and move into the RHS.f) (8.II.b) + =0 ∂x ∂y At ﬁrst. Hence equation (8. Applying the boundary condition Uy (t = 0) = 0 results in Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y ρ(x) Ux ∂x End Solution (8. At any point the governing equation in coordinate system that moving with the belt is ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂ (ρ Uy ) (8.II. One of the early pioneers who suggest this idea is Higbie which Higbie’s equation named after him.1 for the general function T = F (x).g) 5 The presentation of one dimension time dependent problem to two dimensions problems can be traced to heat and mass transfer problems. He spend the rest of his life to proof it and ending only to suicide. 6 In reality this assumption is correct only in a certain range.II.b).II. ∂ρ α ∂F (x) = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂x Ux ∂x (8.II. however it can be considered as steady state.II.a) and thus Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y + c ρ Ux ∂x (8. On personal note.d) into the governing equation results in α ∂F (x) ∂Uy ρ = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂y Ux ∂x The density is expressed by equation (8.

Assume that the density is constant and calculate the vertical velocity (y component) for the following x velocity component.III.f) and switching sides to be ∂ Uy b + Uy = −a 2 x + x2 + y 2 (8.III. It can be noted that x should be treated as a constant parameter for the y coordinate.f) The exponent can be canceled to simplify further the equation (8.III.III.8. assume the density is also a function of the location as ρ = m ex+y Where m is constant.c) is an ODE with constant coeﬃcients. Calculate the velocity ﬁeld in this case. Notice the symmetry of the situation. Solution The ﬂow ﬁeld must comply with the mass conservation (8. Ux = a x2 + b y 2 Next. Uy = − 2 a x + f (x) = −2 x y + f (x) (8. Thus. Ux has also arbitrary function in the y component.g) ∂y a Equation (8.d) The integration constant in this case is not really a constant but rather an arbitrary function of x.b) (8. The velocity.III.III.c) (8.19) is applicable and used as ∂ a x2 + b y 2 (m ex+y ) ∂ Uy (m ex+y ) + =0 ∂x ∂y (8.III.g) is ﬁrst order ODE that can be solved by combination of the homogeneous solution with the private solution (see for explanation in the Appendix).III.2. The homogeneous equation is ∂ Uy + Uy = 0 (8.III.3: The velocity in a two dimensional ﬁeld is assumed to be in a steady state. For the second part equation (8.III.a) Equation (8.e) Taking the derivative of the ﬁrst term and second part move the other side results in a 2 x + x2 + b 2 y a ex+y = − ex+y ∂ Uy + Uy ∂y (8. MASS CONSERVATION 207 Example 8.h) ∂y .20) thus 2ax + ∂Uy =0 ∂y (8.III.

III. ∂Ux ∂x = t2 z ∂Uy ∂y =t ∂Uz ∂z =t (8. This ﬂow can exist only for a limit time since over time the divergence is unbounded.IV. must be compressible ﬂow.5: Find the density as a function of the time for a given one dimensional ﬂow of Ux = x e5 α y (cos (α t)). Hence. it can be observed that the velocity contains time component. the mass conservation is reduced only for one dimensional form as ∂ρ ∂ (Ux ρ) + =0 ∂t ∂x (8.j) (8. Thus.IV. End Solution Example 8.IV. In this problem these physical . this kind of presentation is possible. Solution This problem is one dimensional unsteady state and for a compressible substance.b) Or the combination of these derivatives is U = t2 z + 2 t (8. this ﬂow ﬁeld is not steady state. The private solution is Uy |private = −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x The total solution is Uy = c e−y + −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x (8.V.a) Is the ﬂow is incompressible? Is the ﬂow in a steady state condition? Solution To check whether the solution is in a steady state.c) The divergence isn’t zero thus this ﬂow.208 CHAPTER 8.III. However physically there are velocity components in y and z directions. if it exist. Check if the ﬂow is incompressible for this continuity equation should be used for constant density. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution for (8. Ux = (x t) z 2 Uy = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) Uz = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) (8.i) End Solution Example 8.4: Can the following velocities co-exist.III.a) Mathematically speaking. The initial density is ρ(t = 0) = ρ0 .h) is Uy = c e−y (see for explanation in the appendix).

∂Ux = e5 α y (cos (α t)) ∂x (8.V.V.h) is constant coeﬃcients ﬁrst order ODE which its solution discussed extensively in the appendix. Equation (8.f) (8.a) is ﬁrst order partial diﬀerential equation which can be converted to ordinary diﬀerential equation when the velocity component.V. MASS CONSERVATION 209 components are ignored for academic reasons.V. Ux .V.V.i) which indicates that the solution is a complex number thus the constant. real value.e) is reduced to ODE and its solution is ρ= c1 sin (α t) + c2 α ∂ρ 5 α y e = c1 ∂x (8.V.c) can be separated to yield 1 ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y − e cos (α t) ∂t ∂x (8.2.V. In that case the left hand side is 1 ∂ρ = c1 cos (α t) ∂t The solution of equation (8. is a function of x results in ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y (cos (α t)) − e (cos (α t)) ∂t ∂x Equation (8. must be zero and thus the constant.V. is substituted.V.V.g) The term e5 α y is always positive. The solution of (8. c1 vanishes as well and the solution contain only the homogeneous part and the private solution is dropped ρ = c2 e− x2 2 (8. and independent of x thus ρx + ∂ρ c1 = 5 α y = c3 ∂x e (8.V.a) and noticing that the density.j) .V. Hence.b) into equation (8.8. ρ.h) is given by impossible solution ρ=e −x 2 2 √ π i c3 erf √ c − 2 ix √ 2 (8.d) (8.V.b) Substituting equation (8. c3 .V.c) Possible solution is when the left and the right hand sides are equal to a constant.h) Equation (8.e) The same can be done for the right hand side as ρ x e5 α y + (8.V.

22) Using RTT to change the system to control volume (see equation (5.j) by (8. Basically the divergence theorem relates the ﬂow out (or) in and the sum of the all the changes inside the control volume.24) Substituting equation (8.g. t).23) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv cv · (ρ φ U ) dV (8. A change with time is DΦ D = Dt Dt φ ρ dV sys (8. scalar.V.V. the derivative can enter into the integral and thus combining the two integral on the RHS results in D Dt φ ρ dV = sys cv d (φ ρ) + dt · (ρ φ U ) dV (8. Suppose that the property φ is under a study which is a function of the time and location as φ(x. The total amount of quantity that exist in arbitrary system is Φ= sys φ ρ dV (8. 8. the volume integral can be changed to the surface integral) as ρ φ U · dA = A V · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.k) Where the constant. are presented. .3 Conservation of General Quantity 8.26) 7 These integrals are related to RTT. c2 is arbitrary function of the y coordinate. vector or tensor. y. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution is the multiplication of equation (8.V.f) is ρ = c2 e− x2 2 c1 sin (α t) + c2 α End Solution (8.210 CHAPTER 8.3.25) Since the volume of the control volume remains independent.23) The last term on the RHS can be converted using the divergence theorem (see the appendix7 ) from a surface integral into a volume integral (alternatively.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations In this section a general approach for the derivations for conservation of any quantity e.24) into equation (8.33)) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv A ρ φ U · dA (8. z.21) Where Φ is the total quantity of the system has a volume V and a surface area of A which are a function of time.

x. it can be written that U (x.30) can be further rearranged so derivative of the density is equal the divergence of velocity as 1 ρ ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ =− ·U (8.2. for the last derivations using φ = 1 which is the same for mass conservation.29) can be rearranged as ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ+ρ ·U = 0 (8.3. z. t) = Ux (x. The substantial derivative represents the change rate of the density at a point which moves with the ﬂuid. y.29) Equation (8.27) 8.31) relates the density rate of change or the volumetric change to the velocity divergence of the ﬂow ﬁeld.2 8.32) . z. z.8. y. The integral is carried over arbitrary system. t) j + Uz (x. Therefore. For an inﬁnitesimal control volume the change is DΦ ∼ = Dt d (φ ρ) + dt dV · (ρ φ U ) dx dy dz (8. The term in the bracket LHS is referred in the literature as substantial derivative.3. t) i + Uy (x. Acceleration Direct Derivations One of the important points is to ﬁnd the particles acceleration of the ﬂuid.30) · (ρ U ) = 0 (8. In that case D Φ = D ρ and hence equal to zero as Dt Dt φ d dV 1 ρ φ (8.1 Examples of Generalized of Quantities The General Mass Time Derivative For example. y.31) Equation (8. t) k (8.3. y. CONSERVATION OF GENERAL QUANTITY 211 By the deﬁnition of equation (8.21) LHS can be change to simply to derivative of Φ. A ﬂuid particle velocity is a function of the location and time.28) dx dy dz = 0 + · ρ 1 U dt - The integral is over arbitrary volume which mean that integrand is zero as ∂ρ + ∂t Equation (8.

The ﬂow in a nozzle is an example to ﬂow at steady state but yet has acceleration which ﬂow with low velocity can achieve a supersonic ﬂow.33) ∂ Ux d t ∂ U x d x ∂ U x d y ∂ U x d z d Ux = + + + dt ∂t d t ∂x d t ∂y d t ∂z d t The acceleration in the x can be written as ∂ Ux ∂ Ux d Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux U = + Ux + Uy + Uz = + (U · dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ) Ux (8. when the shear stresses are absent) it was written τ = −P n (8.38) It was shown that in static case (or in better words. While the ﬂow is in a steady state there is acceleration of the ﬂow. 8.36) ∂U ∂U dU ∂U ∂U = + U +U +U dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (8.35) The same can be developed to the other two coordinates and when combined to be (in a vector form) ∂U dU U = + (U · dt ∂t or in more explicit form as local acceleration convective acceleration )U (8. This division creates a tensor which the physical meaning will be explained here (the mathematical explanation can be found in the mathematical appendix of the book).212 The acceleration will be CHAPTER 8. So it can be written that F τ = f (F . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS U dU d Ux d Uy d Uz = i+ j+ k dt dt dt dt The velocity components are a function of four variables and hence =1 Ux Uy Uz (8.34) (8.37) The time derivative referred in the literature as the local acceleration which disappear when the ﬂow is steady state. The area has a direction or orientation which control the results of this division. The stress is relationship between the force and area it is acting on or force divided by the area (division of vector by a vector). A ) (8.39) .4 Momentum Conservation The relationship among the shear stress various components have to be established.

The opposing forces which acting on the slanted surface in the x are Fx = δAn τnn n · i − τn Where here ℵ. Stress diagram on a tetrahedron rection and δAz is the surface area of the shape. Similar “vectors” exist for the y and z coordinates which can be written in matrix forms τxx τxy τxz τ = τyx τyy τyz (8. The notation τ (xi ) is used to denote the stresses on xi surface.44) .41) τzx τzy τzz Suppose that a straight angle tetrahedron is under stress as shown in Figure 8.4. tetrahedron in the z direction. similarly for τxz . The reason for this omission is that there is no physical meaning for it.8. However. It can be noticed that no mathematical symbols are written between the components. -8. The transformation n·i n·j n·k ·i ·j ·k ℵ·i ℵ·j ℵ·k When the tetrahedron is shrunk to a point relationship of the stress on the two sides can be expended by Taylor series and a diﬀerence is related to the ﬁrst derivative. In Cartesian coordinates on surface in the x direction the stresses are τ (x) = τxx τxy τxz (8.42) T0 Z τnn where δAy is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the y direction.40) where τxx is the stress acting on surface x in the x direction. The transformation is available because the “standard” surface can be transformed using trigonometrical functions. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 213 It also was shown that the pressure has to be continuous.5. matrix is then · i − τzℵℵ · i (8. If Y τn ℵ τnℓ X τ τ xx xy τxz τ yx τy y τyz (8. these stresses that act on every point and have three components on every surface and depend on the surface orientation. and τxy is the stress acting on surface x in the y direction. δAx is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the x diFig.5. The forces balance in the x direction excluding the slanted surface is Fx = −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz (8. A common approach is to collect the stress in a “standard” orientation and then if needed the stresses can be reorientated to a new direction.43) and n are the local unit coordinates on n surface.

τyx τ However. The Symmetry of the Stress Tensor A small liquid cubical has three possible rotation axes and here only one will be discussed. The cubical rotation can involve two parts one distortion and one rotation. for cases that body force. Advance material can be skipped 8 See for derivation in Example 3. The momentum can be accessed by the shear stresses that act on it.47) The same can be said for τyx for y τyy direction.5 for moment of inertia. such yy as the magnetic ﬁelds. . This matrix is referred to as stress tensor and as it can be observed has nine terms. Diagram to analysis the shear stress due to the fact that the body force is not tensor.214 CHAPTER 8. The areas are related to each other through angles.46) Where Mz is the cubic moment around the cubic center and Izz 8 is the moment of inertia around that center. dx For simplicity and generality. The shear stress at point x is τxy .6. However. uniform and hence act not through the mass center. it is assumed x that the external body force exert a torque GT per unit volume at the speciﬁc location.6 is Mz = Izz dθ dt (8. Hence. The τxy τxx dy τ normal body force (gravity) acts through τxx xy the cubic center of gravity and can be neglected (the changes are insigniﬁcant). The clarity of this analysis can y τyx be improved if additional terms are taken but the results will be the same. the rotation of the inﬁnitesimal ﬂuid cube can be viewed as it is done almost as a solid body. -8. can create torque. The body force can exert torque is Fig. These relationships provide the transformation for the diﬀerent orientations which depends only angles of the orientations. the shear stress at point x + dx is τxy |x+dx = τxy + dτxy dx dx (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS the ﬁrst derivative is neglected (tetrahedron is without acceleration) the two sides are related as −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz = δAn τnn n · i − τn · i − τzℵℵ · i (8. A ﬁnite angular distortion of inﬁnitesimal cube requires requires an inﬁnite shear. Balance of momentum around the z direction shown in Figure 8.45) The same can be done for y and z directions.

49) results y+dy y τxx |y + dτxx dy η y η− dy 2 dη (8.52) which means since that dx −→ 0 and dy −→ 0 that GT + τxy = τyx (8. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 215 The torque due to the shear stress in the surface direction results in a change due to the shear stress9 . The moment that results from this shear force (clockwise positive) is y+dy τxx (η) y η− dy 2 dη (8.54) 9 This point bother this author in the completeness of the proof.4. It can be ignored.8.49) Substituting (8.50) isn’t zero (non symmetrical function around the center of integration). τxx at x can be expended as a linear function τxx = τxx |y + dτxx dy η y (8.51) 2 2 dθ dt dx dy dz 2 = ρ dx dy dz (dx) + (dy) The actual components that contribute to the moment are =0 (dx)2 + (dy)2 =0 GT + τxy − τxy + ∂ (τyx − τxy ) =ρ ∂y 12 dθ dt (8.50) The integral of (8. The reason that this term neglected because the other face of the cubic contributes an identical term but in the opposing direction. For example. . but provided to those who wonder why body forces can contribute to the torque while pressure does not.48) where η is the local coordinate in the y direction stating at y and mostly used between y < η < y + dy.53) This analysis can be done on the other two directions and hence the general conclusion is that GT + τij = τji (8. End Advance material The net torque in the z-direction around the particle’s center would then be (τyx ) dx dy dz − 2 τxy + τyx + ∂τxy ∂x ∂τxy ∂x dx dy dz 2 + (τxy ) dx dy dz − 2 Izz (8.48) into (8. This point is for self convincing since it deals with a “strange” and problematic “animals” of integral of inﬁnitesimal length.

However. since Potto Project books are used extensively and numerous people asked to include this notation it was added. . can be neglected11 . z and the j is any of the other x. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS where i is one of x. For the case of GT = 0 the stress tensor become symmetrical. -8.11) is equivalent to Newton second law for ﬂuids.” 11 In the Dimensional Analysis a discussion about this eﬀect hopefully will be presented.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation τzz + ∂τzz dz ∂z ∂τ y y + ∂ y dy τ yy Z τxz τxx τxy τxx + ∂τxz dx ∂x ∂τxx dx ∂x τxz + τxy + τyy ∂τxy dx ∂x y τzz x Fig.11) is also applicable for the small inﬁnitesimal cubic. One direction of the vector equation will be derived for x Cartesian coordinate (see Figure ??). and internal forces.55) 8. z 10 . for almost all practical purposes. For surface forces that acting on the cubic are surface forces.7. If the body forces eﬀect is neglected or do not exist in the problem then regardless the coordinate system τij = τji (i = j) (8. The body force that acting on inﬁnitesimal cubic is i · f B = f B x dx dy dz (8. Equation (6. The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces. It is believed that this notation should and can be used only after the physical meaning was “digested. y. Later it will be used and generalized. gravitation forces. y. The magnetic body forces on the other hand is signiﬁcant and has to be included in the calculations.216 CHAPTER 8. this change. However. The gravity is a body force that is considered in many kind of calculations and this force cause a change in symmetry of the stress tensor. All shear stress shown in surface x and x + dx.56) 10 The index notation is not the main mode of presentation in this book. Previously it was shown that equation (6.

The shear stresses can be expanded into Taylor series as τix |i+di = τix + ∂ (τix ) di + · · · ∂i i (8.58) The same can be written for z direction.61) for y coordinate is ρ DUy = Dt ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy + + ∂x ∂y ∂z + ρ fG y (8.62) The same can be obtained for the z component and generally it is as ρ DUi = Dt ∂τii ∂τji ∂τki + + ∂i ∂j ∂j + ρ fG i (8.59) where i in this case is x.58) becomes internal forces surface forces body forces DUx & & ρ& & = dx dy dz Dt ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z & & & & dx dy dz dx dy dz & & + fG x ρ & & (8. or z. The surface forces in x direction on the x surface on are dAx dAx fxx = τxx |x+dx × dy dz − τxx |x × dy dz The surface forces in x direction on the y surface on are dAy dAy (8. Hence.5.63) can be written in a vector form which combined all three components into one equation. Equation (8.57) fxy = τyx |y+dy × dx dz − τyx |y × dx dz (8. the total net force results from the shear stress in the x direction is fx = ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz (8. The dot product yields the force in the directing of x.8. y.61) equation (8.63) Advance material can be skipped Where i is the balance direction and j and k are two other coordinates. The vector form is ρ U DU = Dt · τ (i) + ρ fG (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 217 Where B is in the body force direction and f B is the body force per unit mass.57) and (8.60) after rearrangement equations such as (8. The advantage of the vector from allows the usage of the diﬀerent coordinates.64) .

a linear relationship between the shear stress to the rate of shear strain. The similarity to solids the increase shear stress in ﬂuids yields larger deformations. when applying the shear stress in ﬂuids. Notice the three combinations of the deformation shown by purple color relative to blue color. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS τ (i) = τix i + τiy j + τiz k is part of the shear stress tensor and i can be any of the x. The relationship between the stress tensor and deformation depends on the classes of materials the stresses acts on. or z. Or in index (Einstein) notation as ρ DUi ∂τji = + ρ fG i Dt ∂xi (8. -8. the control volume is at a square shape and location as depicted in Figure 8. b.65) End Advance material Equations (8. In contrast. The control volume moves to a new location. and c.8 (by the blue color). As engineers do in general. the simplest model is assumed which referred as the solid continuum model. the result is a continuous deformation. reduction of the shear stress does not return the material to its original state as in solids. there is no left over stresses (In over words when the “no shear stress” situation exist the rate of deformation or strain is zero). The rotation is the second movement that referred to change in of the relative orientation inside the control x’ 45◦ .218 where here CHAPTER 8.64) requires that stress tensor be deﬁned. Furthermore. y. At time t + dt the control volume undergoes three diﬀerent changes.8.65) or (8. In solid material the shear stress yields a ﬁx amount of deformation. There is no preference in the orientation (also call isentropic ﬂuid). Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation. At time t. rotates and changes the shape (the blow color in in Figure (8. a.8)). Thus this “solid” model is a tions: = y B + + ∂Uy U + dt y ∂y D @ t + dt Uy dt A A @t Uxdt Uy + ∂Uy dt ∂x C x y’ linear relationship with three main assump- Fig. The translational movement is referred to a movement of body without change of the body and without rotation. the deformation can be viewed as a function of the velocity ﬁeld. Additionally. In this model the (shear) stresses and rate of strains are assumed to be linearly related.

is the diagonal component which dealt below.69) D y τxx τxy A τx y ’ ’ τx x ’ ’ C τyx τyy x y’ τyz = µ Dγyz =µ Dt dUz dUy + dy dz (8. µ is the “normal” or “ordinary” viscosity coeﬃcient which the linear coeﬃcient of proportionality the shear and it is assumed to be a property of the ﬂuid. For the assumption of linear ﬂuid12 τxy = µ Dγxy =µ Dt dUy dUx + dx dy B (8. -8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 219 volume. . The deformation of the control volume has several components. Dγij =µ Dt dUj dUi + di dj x’ and for the directions of y z as 45◦ (8. The only missing thing. 12 While 13 The Fig. at this stage. In general equation (8.9. the relationship between the two of stress tensor are found.68) can be written as τij = µ where i = j and i = x or y or z.70) Note that the viscosity coeﬃcient (the linear coeﬃcient13 ) is assumed to be the same regardless of the direction.68) where. The shear stress is related to the change in angle of the control volume lower left corner. ﬁrst assumption is mentioned above. The angle between x to the new location of the control volume can be approximate for a small angle as dγx = tan dt Uy + dUy dx dx − Uy dx = tan dUy dx ∼ dUy = dx (8. However.67) In these derivatives. under isentropic material it is assumed that the contribution of all the shear stresses contribute equally. It can be noticed at this stage.71) not marked as important equation this equation is is source of the derivation. This assumption is referred as isotropic viscosity. Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations.5. The third change is the misconﬁguration or control volume deformation.66) The total angle deformation (two sides x and y) is dUy dUx Dγxy = + Dt dx dy dU (8. the symmetry dxy = dUx was not assumed and or required because dy rotation of the control volume. In a similar fashion it can be written to other directions for x z as τxz = µ Dγxz =µ Dt dUz dUx + dx dz (8.8.

√ shear the stresses are acting in this direction.x. y) is frame related to the strain rates in the (x’ .75) (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Normal Stress The normal stress.76) (8. τii (where i is either . b. For example. and d in the Figure are related to the incremental linear strains. The rate of strain in the x direction is c (8. The linear deformations in the x’ and y’ directions which are rotated 45◦ relative to the x and y axes can be expressed in both coordinates system. The dx is construct so it equals to dy. Figure 8. It can be noticed that “dx’ ” surface is 2 times larger than dx and dy surfaces.74) (8. c.72) dividing by dx and some rearrangements utilizing the identity τxy = τyx results in τxx + τyy + τyx = τx’ x’ 2 Setting the similar analysis in the y’ results in τxx + τyy − τyx = τy’ y’ 2 Subtracting (8. y.9.73) Equation (8. The angular strain rate in the (x.77) d x= dx . The forces acting in the direction of x ’ are combination several terms. the sides AB and AC rotate in unequal amount which make one diagonal line longer and one diagonal line shorter. The diagonal lines (line BC and line AD in Figure 8. In addition.8) in the control volume move to the new locations.74) from (8.73) results in 2 τyx = τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ or dividing by 2 equation (8.10(a) depicts the deformations of the triangular particles between time t and t + dt. z) appears in shear matrix diagonal. y’ coordinates) and the angular strain rate in the regular (x. y coordinates). y’ ) frame.220 CHAPTER 8. on the “x” surface (lower surface) and the “y” (left) surface. The relationship can be obtained by changing the coordinates orientation as depicted by Figure 8.75) relates the diﬀerence between the normal shear stress and the shear stresses in x’ . The small deformations a . To ﬁnd the main (on the diagonal) stress the coordinates are rotate by 45◦ . The normal shear stress relates to the change in the diagonal line length change. The force balance in the x’ is Ax cos θx dy τxx √ 1 1 1 1 √ + dx τyy √ + dx τyx √ + dy τxy √ = dx 2 τx’ x’ 2 2 2 2 Ay cos θy Ay cos θy Ax cos θy Ax’ (8.75) becomes τyx = 1 (τx x − τy’ y’ ) 2 ’’ (8.

(8. and d y is its linear strain in the y-direction.78) The total change in the deformation angle is related to tan θ.5.8. The rate of the strain in y direction is d y = a dx (8. the ratio strain in the x direction is 2 2 d x’ = (c + b) + (a + d) √ 2dx (c + b) (c + b) √ + √ + f (dx’ ) 2 √ 2 2dx ∼0 (8.10(b)).80) Equation (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION b 221 b y’ y x’ a 45◦ y a d+a c+b d c 45◦ y’ x’ x (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular.77).80) can be interpreted as (using equations (8. in both sides (d/dx+b/dy) which in turn is related to combination of the two sides angles. The linear strain in the x direction can be computed by observing Figure 8. d x is the linear strain (increase in length divided by length) of the particle in the x direction. Thus. -8. The hypotenuse of the triangle is oriented in the x’ direction (again observe Figure 8. Fig. The linear angular deformation in xy direction is dγxy = b+d dx (8. Deformation of the diﬀerent triangles for the calculations of the normal stress.10(b).81) .79)) d x’ = 1 2 a+b+c+d dx = 1 (d 2 y +d y + dγxy ) (8. x (b) Deformation of the straight angle triangle. It ◦ can be approximated that the change is about 45 because changes are inﬁnitesimally small.79) Here. Hence. cos 45◦ or sin 45◦ times the change contribute as ﬁrst approximation to change.78). and (8. The original length of the √ 2 2 hypotenuse 2dx. The change in the hypotenuse length is (c + b) + (a + d) .10.

(8.68) it can be observed that the right hand side can be replaced by τxy /µ.82) results in d x’ −d y’ = dγxy (8.11. -8.87) and (8. The linear deformation is the diﬀerence between the two sides as D x’ ∂Ux’ = Dt ∂x’ (8.85) From equation (8.90) .82) Combining equation (8. For example in y’ –z’ plain one can obtained τx’ x’ − τz’ z’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uz’ − ∂x’ ∂z’ (8. (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS In the same fashion the strain in y’ coordinate can be interpreted to be d y’ = 1 (d 2 y +d y − dγxy ) (8.87) can be written in the y’ and is similar by substituting the coordinates.86) Uy’ + ∂Uy ’ ’ dy dt ∂y ’ Uy’dt The same way it can written for the y’ coordinate.222 CHAPTER 8.83) Equation (8.85) can be continue and replaced as D x’ D y’ 1 − = (τx x − τy’ y’ ) Dt Dt 2µ ’ ’ Figure 8.88) ∂Ux ’ ’ Ux ’ + dx dt ∂x ’ x’ Equation (8. ∂Uy’ D y’ = Dt ∂y’ (8. The rate of strain relations can be substituted by the velocity and equations (8.88) changes into τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ − ∂x’ ∂y’ Fig.89) Similar two equations can be obtained in the other two plains. Dashed squares denotes the movement without the linear change.11 depicts the approximate linear deformation of the element.83) into D x’ D y’ Dγxy − = Dt Dt Dt D x’ D y’ τxy − = Dt Dt µ (8.84) From (8.81) with equation (8.87) y’ (8.75) τxy be substituted and equation (8.83) describing in Lagrangian coordinates a single particle. Changing it to the Eulerian coordinates and location diﬀerential transform equation (8. Linear strain of the element purple denotes t and blue is for t + dt.

Cambridge University Press. An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. With this deﬁnition and noticing that the coordinate system x’ –y’ has no special signiﬁcance and hence equation (8.8.141. K. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION Adding equations (8.92) The further rearranging the results by dividing by 3 so that “mechanical pressure τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ ∂Ux’ 2 +2 µ − µ 3 ∂x’ 3 ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.91) rearranging equation (8. The mechanical pressure can be deﬁned as averaging of the normal stress acting on a inﬁnitesimal sphere. identical only in the limits not in mechanical measurements.93) must be valid in any coordinate system thus equation (8. 1967. Batchelor.91) transforms it into 3 τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ + 6 µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ ∂Ux’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.95) It can be observed that the non main (diagonal) terms of the stress tensor are represented by an equation like (8. .89) and (8.93) The “mechanical” pressure is the (negative) average value of pressure in directions of x’ –y’ –z’ . In situations where the main diagonal terms of the stress tensor are not the same in all directions (in some viscous ﬂows) this property can be served as a measure of the local normal stress.93) can be written as τxx = −Pm + 2 µ ∂Ux 2 + µ ∂x 3 ·U (8. This pressure is a true scalar value of the ﬂow ﬁeld since the propriety is averaged or almost14 invariant to the coordinate transformation.71). Commonality engineers like to combined the two diﬀerence expressions into one as 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.96) Advance material can be skipped 14 It 15 G.5. It can be shown that this two deﬁnitions are “identical” in the limits15 .90) results in 2 4 223 (3 − 1) τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ − τz’ z’ = (6 − 2) µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. p.94) Where Pm is the mechanical pressure and is deﬁned as Pm = − τxx + τyy + τzz 3 (8.

While this expression has the advantage of compact writing.97) End Advance material where δij is the Kronecker delta what is δij = 1 when i = j and δij = 0 otherwise. this association was established.98) The value of λ is obtained experimentally. This coeﬃcient is referred in the literature by several terms such as the “expansion viscosity” “second coeﬃcient of viscosity” and “bulk viscosity. According to second law of thermodynamic derivations (not shown here and are under construction) demonstrate that λ must be positive. This correction results in P = Pm + λ ·U (8. First.3 . To reduced one unknown (the shear stress) equation (8. as τij = − P + 2 µ−λ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.” Here the term bulk viscosity will be adapted.9. The linkage was established between the stress int he rotated coordinates to the deformation. The dimension of the bulk viscosity. it does not add any additional information. Equation (8. are similar to the viscosity µ.224 or index notation 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 CHAPTER 8. if the derivations before were to include additional terms.2. connection between τxy and the deformation was built.100) 16 Since the publishing the version 0. Using the coordinates transformation. The thermodynamic pressure always tends to follow the mechanical pressure during a change. λ.0 several people ask me to summarize conceptually the issues.99) can be written in terms of the thermodynamic pressure P . Then the association between normal stress and perpendicular stress was constructed. With God help. The expansion rate of change and the ﬂuid molecular structure through λ control the diﬀerence. Second Viscosity Coeﬃcient The coeﬃcient 2/3µ is experimental and relates to viscosity. an additional correction will be needed.99) ·U (8. However. This expression suggests a new deﬁnition of the thermodynamical pressure is 2 P = Pm + µ 3 Summary of The Stress Tensor The above derivations were provided as a long mathematical explanation16 . it will be provide before version 0. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.61) the relationship between the stress tensor and the velocity were to be established.

τxy . Thus.101). λ is large (3 times µ) but the net eﬀect is small because in that cases · U −→ 0. this coeﬃcient or the whole eﬀect is vanished17 . For simple gas (dilute monatomic gases) it can be shown that λ vanishes.107) 17 The reason that the eﬀect vanish is because · U = 0.101) To explain equation (8. it can be written for spesiﬁc coordinates.102) For the total eﬀect. is τxy = τyx = ∂Uy ∂Ux + ∂x ∂y (8. the total eﬀect of the dilation on the ﬂow is very small.104) ∂Uy ∂y (8.100) into equation (8. Clearly for incompressible ﬂow. neglecting this eﬀect results in τij = −P δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8. The physical meaning of · U represents the relative volume rate of change. In material such as water.5. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 225 The signiﬁcance of the diﬀerence between the thermodynamic pressure and the mechanical pressure associated with ﬂuid dilation which connected by · U . For example. for the τxx it can be written that τxx = −P + 2 and the y coordinate the equation is τyy = −P + 2 however the mix stress. . can be over 100 times larger than µ. In fact this eﬀect is so insigniﬁcant that there is diﬃculty in to construct experiments so this eﬀect can be measured. Only in micro ﬂuids and small and molecular scale such as in shock waves this eﬀect has some signiﬁcance.8. λ.61) which results in ρ DUx Dt =− ∂ P+ 2 3µ −λ ∂x ·U +µ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 f +f B x (8.103) ∂Ux ∂x (8. substitute equation (8.106) Por in index form as ρ D Ui ∂ =− Dt ∂xi P+ 2 µ−λ 3 ·U + ∂ ∂xj µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi + f Bi (8. In most cases. For complex liquids this coeﬃcient.105) or in a vector form as ρ U DU =− P + Dt 1 µ+λ 3 ( ·U) + µ 2 U +fB (8.

In the literature.112) + ρgz 8. pressure. .106) is reduced to 2 U DU =− P + Dt U +fB (8.108) or in the index notation it is written ρ ∂P ∂ 2U D Ui =− +µ + f Bi Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (8. pressure (at the interface direction) and shear stress (perpendicular to the area). thus equation (8. These conditions described physical situations that are believed or should exist or approximated. These conditions can be categorized by the velocity. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS · U vanishes. The solid surface is rough thus the liquid participles (or molecules) are slowed to be at the solid surface velocity. In y coordinate the momentum equation is ρ ∂Uy + ∂t ∂Uy ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v − +µ + 2 + 2 + ρgy 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z Ux (8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces 8.110) + ρgx g Where gx is the the body force in the x direction (i ·g ).111) in z coordinate is ρ ∂Uz + ∂t ∂Uz ∂Uz ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz − +µ + + ∂z ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8.226 For incompressible ﬂow the term ρ CHAPTER 8. this condition is referred as the “no slip” condition. or in more general terms as the shear stress conditions (mostly at the interface). the shear tensor will be separated into two categories.6. A common velocity condition is that the liquid has the same value as the solid interface velocity.109) The momentum equation in Cartesian coordinate can be written explicitly for x coordinate as ρ ∂Ux + ∂t ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 2 ∂P ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ 2 Ux − +µ + + ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8.1 Boundary Conditions Categories The governing equations that were developed earlier requires some boundary conditions and initial conditions. For this discussion.

The diﬀerence between the small scale and the large scale is that the slip can be neglected in the large scale while the slip cannot be neglected in the small scale.113) as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = f (Q. t) = 0 (8. 1–Dimensional free surface describing n and b. The slip condition (as oppose to “no slip” condition) exist in situations where the scale is very small and the velocity is relatively very small. The perpendicular relative velocity at the surface must be zero and therefore f (x) y Df r = 0 on the surface f (r . t) = 0 as the equation which describes the bounding surface. The slip condition cannot be ignored in some regions. the “no slip” condition is applicable to the ideal ﬂuid (“inviscid ﬂows”) because this kind of ﬂow normally deals with large scales. The condition becomes as 0= ∂f ∂f ∂f + Ux + Uy ∂t ∂x ∂y (8. Mathematically the “no slip” condition is written as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = 0 (8.6. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 227 This boundary condition was experimentally observed under many conditions yet it is not universal true. The location of the (free) moving boundary can be given as r f (r .Fig. -8. y).113) where n is referred to the area direction (perpendicular to the area).113) can be mathematically represented in direction another way for free surface conditions. Another condition which aﬀects whether the slip condition exist is who rapidly of the velocity change. etc) (8.8. the diﬀerence in the velocities vanishes as the scale increases. While this condition (8. In another view.113) is given in a vector form.117) . the free surface in the two dimensional case is represented as f (t. a requiret n ment on the acceleration (velocity) is given in unknown posiflow tion. t pendicular velocity at the interface must be zero. The ”slip” condition is written in similar fashion to equation (8. it is more common to write this condition as a given velocity at a certain point U( ) = U (8.116) Dt This condition is called the kinematic boundary condition. The condition (8.12. when the ﬂow is with a strong velocity ﬂuctuations. x.115) As oppose to a given velocity at particular point. The slip condition is dealing with a diﬀerence in the velocity between the solid (or other material) and the ﬂuid media. scale. For example. To make sure that all the x material is accounted for in the control volume (does not cross b the free surface) the relative per.114) Note.

DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution of this condition sometime is extremely hard to handle because the location is not given but the derivative on unknown location. the jump in a shear stress (without a jump in density) does break a physical law. Furthermore. and the density has a jump while the shear stress are continuous (in some case continuously approach zero value). it just for completeness and can be ignored for most purposes. While a jump in density does not break any physical laws (at least those present in the solution). In same instances.12) and R1 and R2 are principal radii. The shear stress diﬀerence is ∆τ (n) = 0 = ∆τ (n) upper − ∆τ (n) lower surface surface (8. The free surface is a special case of moving surfaces where the surface between two distinct ﬂuids. Oﬀ course.118) where the index (n) indicate that shear stress are normal (in the surface area). The jump in the density (between the two ﬂuids) creates a surface tension which oﬀset the jump in the shear stress. In index notation equation (8.119) is written18 as τij nj + σ ni (1) 1 1 + R1 R2 = τij nj (2) (8. This condition is expressed mathematically equating the shear stress diﬀerence to the forces results due the surface tension.228 CHAPTER 8. The condition with curved surface are out the scope of this book yet mathematically the condition is given as without explanation. One of results of the free surface condition (or in general.119) (8.120) t · τ (t) = −t · where n is the unit normal and t is a unit tangent to the surface (notice that direction pointed out of the “center” see Figure 8. There are situations where the transition should be analyzed as a continuous transition between two phases. this condition will not be discussed (at least not plane to be written). . In reality the interface between these two ﬂuids is not a sharp transition but only approximation (see for the surface theory). there situations where the ﬂuid (above one of the sides) should be considered as weightless material. In these cases the assumptions are that transition occurs in a sharp line. n · τ (n) = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 σ (8. this condition cannot be tolerated since inﬁnite velocity (acceleration) is impossible. the moving surface condition) is that integration constant is unknown). this constant is determined from the volume conservation. A jump in the shear stress creates inﬁnite force on the adjoin thin layer. In this book. If the surface is straight there is no jump in the shear stress. the transition is idealized an almost jump (a few molecules thickness).121) 18 There is no additional beneﬁt in this writing. The jump in shear stress can appear when the density has a jump in density. In other cases.

For example in one dimensional19 n= t= (−f (x). Anal. Jean. For example. f (x)) 1 + (f (x)) 2 (8. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 229 where 1 is the upper surface and 2 is the lower surface. in the kerosene lamp the burning occur at the surface of the lamp and the liquid is at the bottom. 1) 1 + (f (x)) (1. 197–217. The shear stress carry the material as if part of it was a solid Fig. -8.55). The last condition is similar the pressure condition is of prescribed shear stress or some relationship to it. Rational Mech. The equation is given by ∂f ∂f + Ux = Uy ∂t ∂x (8. In ﬂuid (mostly liquid) shear stress pulling side (surface) will have limited eﬀect and but sometime is signiﬁcant and more rarely dominate. . M. Free surface of the steady ﬂow of a Newtonian ﬂuid in a ﬁnite channel. The liquid does not move up due the gravity (actually it is against the gravity) but because the surface tension move the liquid up. Shear Stress and Surface Tension as Driving Force If the ﬂuid was solid material. Consider for example the case shown in Figure 8. Kerosene lamp.6. 3.8. In this category include the boundary conditions with issue of surface tension which were discussed earlier.123) The Pressure Condition The second condition that commonality prescribed at the interface is that the static pressure at speciﬁc value.13. The static pressure is measured perpendicular to the ﬂow ﬂow direction. material. Arch. The gravity can be considered as a constant force in most case (see for dimensional analysis for the reasons). no. It can be noticed that the boundary conditions that involve the surface tension are of the kind that where the something is given on boundary but no at speciﬁc location. 74 (1980). 19 A one example of a reference not in particularly important or signiﬁcant just a random example.122) 2 the unit vector is given as two vector in x and y and the radius is given by equation (1. shear stress (including the surface tension) and the pressure.13. The gravity is a common body force which is considered in many ﬂuid mechanics problems. pulling the side will pull all the material. Gravity as Driving Force The body forces in general and gravity as a particular body force driving the ﬂow beside the velocity.

20 The diﬀerence is measured at the bottom point of the plate. In this Fig. Uℓ y flow direction dy x z Fig. First. The velocity at U(ri) = 0 mix zone the outer surface is unknown. In that case. Flow between two plates top moving at U to the right (as positive). U which is deﬁned as positive when it move with the ﬂow. example dealing won one phase are present. somewhere downstream the temperature gradient is insigniﬁcant. For further enhance the understanding some of the derivations are repeated. book.13 can be used and idealized as a ﬂow around an inner rode.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (Navier-Stokes) Examples of an one-dimensional ﬂow driven by the shear stress and pressure are presented. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS To understand how to apply the surface tension boundary condition.230 CHAPTER 8. The only (almost) propelling source of the ﬂow is the surface gradient.6: Incompressible liquid ﬂows between two inﬁnite plates from the left to the right (as shown in Figure 8. } } } 8.15). the physical condition in Figure 8. The surface tension is a function of the temperature therefor the gradient in surface tension is results of temperature gradient. examples with two phase are presented.15. Schematic of kerosene lamp. the velocity at the gradent surface of the inner rode is zero. Even in that case. this eﬀect is not discussed. The distance between the plates is . . The ﬂuid surrounds the rode temperature and ﬂows upwards. -8. the surface tension gradient remains. The control volume shown in darker colors. However the diameter at the depend on the surface tension. Later. One radius toward the center of the rode while the other is inﬁnite (approximated). It can be notice that under the assumption here there are two principal radii. However.14. Example 8. The boundary condition at outer surface given by a jump of the shear ∂U ∂σ constant = µ T ∂r ∂h stress. In the case. -8. the contribution due to the curvature is zero in the direction of the ﬂow. The upper surface is moving in Velocity. The static pressure per length is given as ∆P 20 .

124) The momentum is not accumulated (steady state and constant density).127) On the upper surface is diﬀerent by Taylor explanation as ∼ =0 dU d2 U d3 U 2 τ xy = µ + dy + dy + · · · dy 2 3 dy dy The net eﬀect of these two will be diﬀerence between them µ dU d2 U dU ∼ d2 U + dy − µ = µ 2 dy dy dy 2 dy dy (8.126) The shear stress on the lower surface based on Newtonian ﬂuid is τ xy = −µ dU dy (8.125) Thus.128) (8. the mass conservation yields =0 231 d dt ρdV = − cv cv ρ Urn dA = 0 (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Solution In this example.129) The assumptions is that there is no pressure diﬀerence in the z direction.7. the velocity in and out are the same (constant density). the ﬂow in and the ﬂow out are equal.130) The momentum equation in the x direction then results (no gravity eﬀects) in − dP d2 U =µ 2 dx dy (8. Furthermore. Further because no change of the thus ρ Ux Urn dA = 0 A (8.131) . The momentum conservation is − cv P dA + cv τ xy dA = 0 (8. The only diﬀerence in the pressure is in the x direction and thus P− P+ dP dx dx =− dP dx dx (8.8.

2 0.6 0.75 Ψ = 2.134) (8. the left hand side is equal to constant. Equation (8.132) Applying the boundary conditions results in =Ψ Ux (y) = y y y 2 dP 1− + U0 2µ dx For the case where the pressure gradient is zero the velocity is linear as was discussed earlier in Chapter 1.6 0. dition21 .1 0. The “standard” boundary conditions is non–vanishing pressure gradient (that is the pressure exist) and velocity of the upper or lower surface or Fig. It is common to assume that the between two plates when Ψ change value be“no slip” condition on the boundaries con. One dimensional ﬂow with a shear both. No assumption was imposed on the pressure distribution.25 1.75 Ψ = 1.25 Ψ = −0.25 Ψ = 1.0 0.3 0.4 0.2 0. 2010 Ux (y = 0) = 0 Ux (y = ) = U The solution of the “ordinary” diﬀerential equation (8.75 Ψ = 0.75 Ψ = −0.75 green line to 3 the blue line.tween -1.0 y ℓ October 4.7 0.131) is Ux = − 1 dP 2 y + c2 y + c3 2 dx (8.131) was constructed under Velocity distributions in one dimensional ﬂow several assumptions which include the direction of the ﬂow.25 Ψ = 2.8 0.9 1. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Equation (8.232 CHAPTER 8. In that case. However.2 Ψ = −1.135) Cylindrical Coordinates Similarly the problem of one dimensional ﬂow can be constructed for cylindrical coordinates.131) is a partial diﬀerential equation but can be treated as ordinary diﬀerential equation in the z direction of the pressure diﬀerence is uniform. The boundaries conditions are 1.75 Ψ = −1.133) (8.8 Ux Uℓ 0.5 0.25 Ψ = 0.16. Newtonian ﬂuid. The problem is still one dimensional because the ﬂow velocity is a function 21 A discussion about the boundary will be presented.4 0. . -8.0 0.0 0. if the plates or the boundary conditions do not move the solution is Ux (y) = dP y 1− U0 2µ dx End Solution 2 + y (8.

138) Uz Urn dA = − z Uz+dz 2 dA Uz 2 dA =ρ z Uz+dz 2 − Uz 2 dA (8.17a is − P dA + τ dA = ρ Uz Urn dA (8. Thus.137) Pz + ∂P dz − Pz ∂z π r2 = ∂P dz π r2 ∂z (8. Poiseuille study ﬂow in a small diameters (he was not familiar with the concept of Reynolds numbers).139) The term Uz+dz − Uz is zero because Uz+dz − Uz as can be shown by conservation of the mass for any element.140) .8.17. -8. The analysis can be carried out by two diﬀerent approaches: one is a kind of short cut and one for the full analysis. Fig.7.17a is dUz τ dA = µ 2 π r dz dr The pressure integral is P dA = (Pzd z − Pz ) π r2 = The last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = ρ ρ z+dz 2 2 dA (8. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates. of (only) radius. The momentum equation for the control volume shown in the Figure 8.136) The shear stress in the front and back surfaces do no act in the z direction. the last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = 0 (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) 233 r θ dz r θ dz r θ flow Directi o r z n r θ flow Directi o z n dr Fig a. Hence. The control volume of liquid element in “short cut” Fig b. This ﬂow referred as Poiseuille ﬂow after Jean Louis Poiseuille a French Physician who investigated ﬂow of blood in veins. The full analysis will be presented to review the the previous analysis of building the equation. The shear stress on the circumferential part small dark blue shown in Figure 8.

17a. However. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Substituting equation (8.137) and (8.147) The shear stress can be expressed in a Taylor series as τ (z + dz) = µ 22 Asymmetrical dU dr + r d2 U dr2 dr + · · · r (8.148) element or function is −f (x) = f (−x) .138) into equation (8. this chapter deals with construction of diﬀerential analysis more general analysis is provided. The shear stress in the z direction can be on the control volume (again the front and the back do not contribute here) is expressed τ dA = µ dU dA dr (8.141) Equation (8.142) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation for which only one boundary condition is needed. Integrating equation (8.136) since the condition did not change. While the above analysis provides a solution.143) Where R is the outer radius of pipe or cylinder. The integration constant obtained via the application of the boundary condition which is c1 = − The solution is Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r R 1− µ ∂z R 2 1 ∂P 2 R µ ∂z (8.146) The trick in the construction of control volumes such as the above can shorten the solution of problems. The governing equation can be constructed by this smaller control volume for various boundary condition. in this analysis the control volume that will be used is of Figure 8. The “no slip” condition is assumed Uz (r = R) = 0 (8. The applicable equation is still (8.144) It can be noticed that asymmetrical element22 was eliminated due to the smart short cut.136) results in µ Which shrinks to 2 µ dUz ∂P =− r dr ∂z (8. However. it has several deﬁciencies which include the ability to incorporate diﬀerent boundary conditions such as pipe within a pipe.234 CHAPTER 8.142) results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 µ ∂z (8.142) dUz ∂P & & 2&¡ & = − π r dz dz π 2 & &r £ dr ∂z (8.145) (8.

150) Substituting equation (8.7.152) can be integrated since the left right side is a function of r and right is a function of x. However.152) is the governing equation only the z direction.154) The symmetry requirement (derivative at r = 0 is equal zero force the coeﬃcient c1 to be zero.8.149) (8.152) or its solution (8.154) can be used to solve problem that are not symmetrical. the governing equation (8. Example 8. The only diﬀerence is the boundary conditions for demonstration of this point see the following example 8.153) Equation (8.7: .151) Equation (8.150) and equation (8. The double integration results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 r + c2 2 µ dz (8.7. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) The net change in the shear stress is d2 U τ dA = µ 2 2 π r dz dr dr The pressure diﬀerence P dA = ∂P dz 2 π r dr dz dA A 235 (8. The boundary conditions “no slip” at the outer radius and symmetry at the center which are Uz (r = 0) = 0 dU dr (r = 0) = 0 (8.148) remembering that velocity is canceled into (8.136) results in µ Or µ d2 U ∂P =− dr2 dz (8. The same result is obtained.152) d2 U ∂P 2 π r dz dr = − dz 2 π r dr dr2 dz (8.

It turn out that the “simple” solution is the ﬂow ﬁrst mode that appear in reality. or z coordinate.7.c) 0 0 (8.b) Dividing equation (8.d) . In fact there is no physical reason why the ﬂow should be only one dimensional. The situation is best suitable to solved in cylindrical coordinates.VII.155) The steady state governing equation is ρ ¡ =0=− 0 ∂P +µ ∂z 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂Uz ∂r =0 + ··· ρ gz + $$ (8. Flow of liquid between concentric cylinders for example 8. it is possible to satisfy the boundary conditions. For this mode the ﬂow is assumed to be one dimensional.c) and second integration results in ∂Uz 1 ∂P c1 = r+ ∂r 2 µ ∂z r (8. the appropriate version of the Navier–Stokes equation will be used. Calculate the ﬂow rate for a given pressure gradient. It can be noticed that it this case the change with time is zero but also the there is no acceleration (convective acceleration) is zero =f (t) =0 ∂U ∂Uz Uφ z ρ + Ur + ∂r r ∂t =0 Uz =f (φ) =0 ∂Uz ∂Uz +Uz =0 ∂φ ∂z ro flow Directi o ut r in z n (8. One of the solution of this problems is one dimensional.VII. After the previous example. the velocity isn’t a function of the angle. Build the velocity proﬁle when the ﬂow is one directional and viscosity is Newtonian.18. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS r θ θ r Fig.VII.VII. However. Assume that the velocity at the surface of the cylinders is zero calculate the velocity proﬁle. Solution CHAPTER 8. That is.a) required boundary conditions which are Uz (r = ri ) = Uz (r = ro ) = Integrating equation (8.VII.236 A liquid with constant density is ﬂowing between two cylinders as shown in Figure 8.a) The PDE above (8.a) once results in r ∂Uz 1 ∂P 2 = r + c1 ∂r 2 µ ∂z (8.VII. -8. Thus only equation in z coordinate is needed. In this solution will be discussing the ﬂow ﬁrst mode.VII.18.

VII. This problem study by Nusselt23 which developed the basics equations.8.8: In many situations in nature and many industrial processes liquid ﬂows downstream 23 German mechanical engineer.VII.h) ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz 1 ∂P 2 ro + c1 ln ro + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.VII. Comprehensive discussion about this problem can be found this author Master thesis. 1957 in Munchen 24 Extensive discussion can be found in this author master thesis.VII. 1882 September 1. Furthermore.7. .VII.VII.d) results in Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 ln r + c2 4 µ ∂z 237 (8. this analysis is a building bloc for heat and mass transfer understanding24 . Ernst Kraft Wilhelm Nusselt born November 25.f) with the second boundary condition yields 0= The solution is c1 c2 = 1 ln 4µ 1 ln 4µ ro ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 dz (8.e) Applying the ﬁrst boundary condition results in 0= 1 ∂P 2 ri + c1 ln ri + c2 4 µ ∂z (8. This problem is related to many industrial process and is fundamental in understanding many industrial processes.j) The next example deals with the gravity as body force in two dimensional ﬂow. Example 8.VII.i) ro ri ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz ro Uz (r)dA (8.g) = The solution is then Uz (r) = 1 ∂P 2 1 r + ln 4 µ ∂z 4µ 1 + ln 4µ The ﬂow rate is then Q= ri End Solution ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 ln r dz (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Integration of equation (8.

The ﬁrst term of the convective acceleration is zero under the assumption of this example ﬂow is fully developed and hence not a function of x (nothing to be “improved”). The governing in the x direction is =f (t) ∂U x ρ + ∂t =0 −0 ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz Ux + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z =0 ∼0 =0 =0 (8. The second and the third terms in the convective acceleration are zero because the velocity at that direction is zero (Uy = Uz = 0). Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence for example 8. Fully developed ﬂow means that the ﬁrst term of the velocity Laplacian is zero ( ∂Ux ≡ 0). For simplicg sin θ ity. As it will be shown later. The dominate force is the gravity. pump Solution This problem is satiable to Cartesian coordinates in which x coordinate is pointed in the ﬂow direction and y perpendicular to ﬂow direction (depicted in Figure 8. Calculate the velocity proﬁle.238 CHAPTER 8. For this system. assume that the y gas density is zero (located outside the liqx uid domain).19. The pressure is almost constant along the x coordinate. Assume that the ﬂow is one Fig. the gravity in the x direction is g sin θ while the direction of y the gravity is g cos θ. . the pressure loss in the gas phase (mostly air) is negligible.a) − g sin θ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂P ∂ 2 Ux + ρ gx +µ + + ∂x2 ∂x ∂y 2 ∂z 2 The ﬁrst term of the acceleration is zero because the ﬂow is in a steady state. For this example.VIII. -8.19.1 dimensional in the x direction. The surface has no curvature and hence the pressure at liquid side similar to the gas phase and the only change in liquid is in the y direction. The last term of the velocity Laplacian is zero because no velocity in ∂x the z direction. Write the governing equations for this situation. Assume that “scale” is large h enough so that the “no slip” condition prevail at the plate (bottom). Hence the pressure at the gas phase is almost constant hence the pressure at the interface in the liquid is constant. assume that the ﬂow is two dimenθ g cos θ g θ sional.19). DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS on inclined plate at θ as shown in Figure 8. Assume that the ﬂow obtains a steady state after some length (and the acceleration vanished).

EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Thus.VIII.VIII.VIII.i) Ux dA = A 0 g sin θ τair 2 h y − y2 − ν µ dy (8.b) yields ρ ∂Ux = g sin θ y + c1 (8.VIII. the governing equation can not be suﬃcient from the mathematical point of view.VIII.b) With boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom because the large scale and steady state Ux (y = 0) = 0 (8.c) The boundary at the interface is simpliﬁed to be ∂Ux ∂y = τair (∼ 0) y=0 (8.d) If there is additional requirement.a) is reduced to 0=µ ∂ 2 Ux + ρ g sin θ ∂y 2 239 (8.g) The second integration applying the second boundary condition yields c2 = 0 results in τair g sin θ 2 y h − y2 − Ux = (8.h) ν µ When the shear stress caused by the air is neglected.j) Where W here is the width into the page of the ﬂow.VIII.8.k) .VIII.e) ∂y µ The integration constant can be obtain by applying the condition (8.VIII. Which results in Q g sin θ 2 h3 τair h = − W ν 3 µ (8. the velocity proﬁle is Ux = The ﬂow rate per unit width is Q = W h g sin θ 2 h y − y2 ν (8. such a speciﬁc velocity at the surface.f) τair 1 g sin θ h + µ ν µ ρ (8. equation (8.VIII.VIII.VIII. Integration of equation (8.7.VIII.d) as τair Solving for c1 results in c1 = ∂Ux =µ ∂y y = −ρ g sin θ h +c1 µ h (8.VIII.

Flow of liquid in partially ﬁlled duct. The Fig. two of the boundary conditions for these equations are the identical and thus the six boundary conditions are really only 4 boundary conditions. 8.9: A simpliﬁed ﬂow version the kerosene lump is of liquid moving up on a solid core. The phenomenon is explained by the fact that there is somewhere instability which is transferred into the ﬂow.1 Interfacial Instability In Example 8. Two boundary conditions must be satisﬁed at the interface.20. Example 8. These experiments were to study the formation of small and big waves at the interface. Thus. The second domain (the gas phase) provides another equation with two constants but again three boundary conditions need to satisﬁed. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Q 2 W = g sin θ 2 h − τair Ux = h ν 3 µ (8. -8. However.8 no requirement was made sa as for the velocity at the interface (the upm e air so ve (g lu loc per boundary). . The ﬂow surface is curved and thus pressure is not equal on both sides of the interface. Assume that radios of the liquid and solid core are given and the ﬂow is at steady state.240 The average velocity is then CHAPTER 8.7. No matter how low ﬂow rate was small and big occurred. Calculate the minimum shear stress that required to operate the lump (alternatively. This explanation bothered this author. the maximum height).VIII. The vanishing shear stress as tio it ) n y y at the interface was the only requirement x w ate was applied. there is total of three boundary conditions25 to be satisﬁed. thus current explanation was developed to explain the wavy phenomenon occurs. If the air is considered two r( liq uid governing equations must be solved one ) ah for the air (gas) phase and one for water h (liquid) phase. 25 The author was hired to do experiments on thin ﬁlm (gravity ﬂow). The ﬂow in the kerosene lamp is depends on the surface tension.l) Note the shear stress at the interface can be positive or negative and hence can increase or decrease the ﬂow rate and the averaged velocity. End Solution In the following following example the issue of driving force of the ﬂow through curved interface is examined. For the liquid. solution to the diﬀerential governing equations provides only two constants. The experiments were conducted on a solid concrete laboratory and the ﬂow was in a very stable system. the boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom surface of liquid must be satisﬁed.

162) (8.160) yields ρg ρ (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) The governing equation solution26 for the gas phase (h ≥ y ≥ a h) is Ux g = g sin θ 2 y + c1 y + c2 2 νg 241 (8.161) which leads c4 = 0 Applying equation (8.7. the shear stress must be continuous µg ∂Uxg ∂Ux =µ ∂y ∂y (8.8.163) µg µ g sin θ h + c1 µg = g sin θ h + c3 µ νg ν Combining boundary conditions equation(8.157) The gas velocity at the upper interface is vanished thus Ux g [(1 + a) h] = 0 At the interface the “no slip” condition is regularly applied and thus Ux g (h) = Ux (h) Also at the interface (a straight surface).160) (8.158) results in 0= g sin θ 2 h (1 + a)2 + c1 h (1 + a) + c2 2 νg (8.162) results in g sin θ 2 g sin θ 2 h + c1 h + c2 = h + c3 h 2 νg 2ν 26 This (8.159) (8.164) (8.156) Note.161) The same can be said for boundary condition (8.b) and subtitling ν = µ/ρ.158) Assuming “no slip” for the liquid at the bottom boundary as Ux (0) = 0 The boundary condition (8.165) equation results from double integrating of equation (8. the constants c1 and c2 are dimensional which mean that they have physical units (c1 −→ [1/sec] The governing equation in the liquid phase (0 ≥ y ≥ h) is Ux = g sin θ 2 y + c3 y + c4 2ν (8.159) with (8.VIII. .

(8. So equation (8.164) and (8.166) c1 = − c2 = sin θ g h2 ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) − g h2 ν 2 ρg ν sin θ (g h ρg (2 a ρg ν ρ − 1) − a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) End Advance material c3 = When solving this kinds of mathematical problem the engineers reduce it to minimum amount of parameters to reduce the labor involve.167) can be written as (1 + a) = C1 + C2 2 (8.170) This presentation provide similarity and it will be shown in the Dimensional analysis chapter better physical understanding of the situation.165) 1+ νg c1 ρ µ νg c3 = + g h sin θ ρg µg g h sin θ (8.162).171) .169) Or rearranging equation (8.162) transformed by some simple rearrangement to be C1 C2 (1 + a) = And equation (8.168) 2 νg h c1 ¡ 2 h£ g sin θ + 2 νg c2 νg 2 νg h c3 ¡ = + 2 sin θ h2 g sin θ ν g h£ (8.242 CHAPTER 8.164) 1 2 2 2 νg c1 2 c2 νg + g h sin θ g h2 sin θ (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Advance material can be skipped The solution of equation (8.169) C1 C2 C3 νg 2 νg c1 2 νg c2 2 νg c3 −1= + 2 − ν h g sin θ h g sin θ g h sin θ (8. Equation (8.165) is obtained by computer algebra (see in the code) to be sin θ (g h ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) + a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) (8.167) C1 1 µ 2 µg C3 1+ and equation (8.

Combining inﬁnite size domain of one ﬂuid with ﬁnite size on the other one side results in unstable interface. What happen when the lighter ﬂuid.168) ρ C1 µ C3 −1= − ρg 2 µg 2 and equation (8. There is no way obtain one dimensional solution for such case and there is a component in the y direction.177) The two diﬀerent ﬂuids28 have ﬂow have a solution as long as the distance is ﬁnite reasonable similar.170) νg − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 ν 243 (8. ﬂow at inﬁnite is zero.8.172) (8.174) The set of equation can be solved for the any ratio of the density and dynamic viscosity. 28 This 27 Later . The requirement of the shear stress in the inﬁnite is zero as well.175) − C2 = µg ρ +a µ ρg 2 (8.173) This process that was shown here is referred as non–dimensionalization27 .176) C3 = − µg ρ + a2 + 2 a + 2 µ ρg (8. is inﬁnite long. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Further rearranging equation (8. mostly the gas.173) to be µg ρ − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 µ ρg (8. The solution for the constant is C1 = ρg µg µg − 2 + a2 + 2 a +2 ρ µ µ µg µg −2 +3 + a2 µ µ µg µ µg −1 −2 µ (8. The boundary conditions of ﬂow with inﬁnite depth is that ﬂow at the interface is zero. This is one of the source of the instability at the interface. The ratio of the dynamics viscosity can be eliminated from equation (8.7. it will be move to the Dimensional Chapter topic will be covered in dimensional analysis in more extensively. The point here the understanding issue related to boundary condition not per se solution of the problem.

DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS .244 CHAPTER 8.

is required for many engineering problems. As result. In the past. Additionally. his analysis is in the twilight zone not in the real world. it is believed that the interactions/calculations requires a full year class and hence.there are two possibilities (1) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing in well homogeneous mixed (where the main problem 1 An example. The author believes that the trends and eﬀects of multiphase ﬂow could and should be introduced and considered by engineers. in many books the representations is by writing the whole set governing equations. only the trends and simple calculations are described. It is recognized that multiphase ﬂow is still evolving. In fact. The knowledge in this topic without any doubts. working for the government who analyzed ﬁling cavity with liquid metal (aluminum). Here. there was a Ph. Initially the models were using simple assumptions. this class will be the only opportunity to be exposed to this topic.CHAPTER 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9. This chapter provides information that is more or less in consensus2 .1 Introduction Traditionally. Calculations of many kinds of ﬂow deals with more than one phase or material ﬂow1 . Thus. the topic of multi–phase ﬂow is ignored in an introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics. 2 Or when the scientiﬁc principles simply dictate. For many engineers. 9.D. the nature of multiphase ﬂow requires solving many equations. This book attempts to describe these issues as a fundamentals of physical aspects and less as a literature review. who did not consider the ﬂow as two–phase ﬂow and ignoring the air. there is not a consensus to the exact map of many ﬂow regimes.2 History The study of multi–phase ﬂow started for practical purposes after World War II. books on multiphase ﬂow were written more as a literature review or heavy on the mathematics. 245 . For simple models.

3 What to Expect From This Chapter As oppose to the tradition of the other chapters in this book and all other Potto project books. researchers started to look for diﬀerent ﬂow regimes and provided diﬀerent models.246 CHAPTER 9. and importance to real world. The ﬂow patterns or regimes were not considered. and more importantly. will know and understand the trends. If the pressure loss was linear then the total loss will be the summation of the two pressure losses (of the lighter liquid (gas) and the heavy liquid). partial discussion on speed of sound of diﬀerent regimes. Which leads to the concept of ﬂow regime maps. the concept of ﬂow regimes. This chapter will provide: a category of combination of phases. phase change or transfer processes during ﬂow. It is an attempt to explain and convince all the readers that the multi–phase ﬂow must be included in introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics3 . 9. Taitle–Duckler’s map is not applicable for microgravity. a description of what to expect in this chapter is provided. this chapter will not provide a discussion of transient problems. For example. double choking phenomenon (hopefully). However. Taitle and Duckler’s map is not universal and it is only applied to certain liquid–gas conditions. Researchers that followed Lockhart and Martinelli looked for a diﬀerent map for diﬀerent combination of phases. and actual calculation of pressure of the diﬀerent regimes. Under this assumption the total is not linear and experimental correlation was made. Also the researchers looked at the situation when the diﬀerent regimes are applicable. (2) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing separately where the actual total loss pressure can be correlated based on the separate pressure loss of each of the material. Hence. Taitle and Duckler suggested a map based on ﬁve non-dimensional groups which are considered as the most useful today. this chapter will explain the core concepts of the multiphase ﬂow and their relationship. However. . MULTI–PHASE FLOW to ﬁnd the viscosity). ﬂow parameters eﬀects on the ﬂow regimes. This was suggested by Lockhart and Martinelli who use a model where the ﬂow of the two ﬂuids are independent of each other. and calculation of pressure drop of simple homogeneous model. It turned out this idea provides a good crude results in some cases. multi–phase ﬂow parameters deﬁnitions. This chapter will introduce these concepts so that the engineer not only be able to understand a conversation on multi-phase but also. They postulate that there is a relationship between the pressure loss of a single phase and combine phases pressure loss as a function of the pressure loss of the other phase. When it became apparent that speciﬁc models were needed for diﬀerent situations.

It also provides an opportunity to bring the latest advances in the ﬁelds since this author does not need to “sell” the book to a publisher or convince a “committee. or a large acceleration. However. many proprieties of air are calculated as if the air is made of well mixed gases of Nitrogen and Oxygen. there are situations when air ﬂow has to be considered as multiphase ﬂow and this eﬀect has to be taken into account. The results of the calculations of a mixture do not change much if it is assumed that the air ﬂow as stratiﬁed ﬂow 4 of many concentration layers (thus. this assumption will not be appropriate when the air is stratiﬁed because of large body forces. For example. 9. Hence. Adopting this assumption might lead to a larger error.9. While the diﬀerence of the concentration between the top to button is insigniﬁcant. The number of the downloads of the book on Fundamental of compressible ﬂow has exceed more than 100. -9.1. the homogeneous assumption is enough and suitable. This fact is due to the shear number of the downloaded Potto books. KIND OF MULTI-PHASE FLOW Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid 247 Gas Solid soid Liquid Solid Solid Soid Fig.” 4 Diﬀerent concentration of oxygen as a function of the height. Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. many layers (inﬁnite) of diﬀerent materials). In our calculation. Air is not a pure material but a mixture of many gases. it is assumed that air is made of only gases.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow All the ﬂows are a form of multiphase ﬂow. consider air ﬂow that was discussed and presented earlier as a single phase ﬂow. The creation 3 This author feels that he is in an unique position to inﬂuence many in the ﬁeld of ﬂuid mechanics.000 in about two and half years. nonetheless it exists. The discussion in the previous chapters is only as approximation when multiphase can be “reduced” into a single phase ﬂow. In fact. Practically for many cases.4. .

There are many more categories. In a four (4) miles long train. The body inhales solid particle with breathing air. it is more common to categorize the ﬂow by the distinct phases that ﬂow in the tube. there are two possibilities for two diﬀerent materials to ﬂow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination). The multiphase is an important part of many processes. Many industrial process also include liquid-liquid such as painting. for an example. However. living bodies (bio–ﬂuids). the cleanness of air can reduce the speed of sound. Jr. for example. paint spray. For example. Thus. mud ﬂow etc. The liquid–solid.248 CHAPTER 9. 1887). March 29.. Many natural phenomenon are multiphase ﬂow. the cleanness of the air or the fact that air is a mixture is ignored. Many industries are involved with this ﬂow category such as dust collection. In the past. ﬂuidized bed. is only an extreme case of liquid-gas ﬂow and is a sub category of the multiphase ﬂow. Generally. 9. solid propellant rocket. rain. and industries.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid ﬂow will be discussed as a special case. The same can be said for gas–gas ﬂow. the breaks in long trains were activated by reduction of the compressed line (a patent no. spray casting. hydraulic with two or more kind of liquids. Liquid–liquid ﬂow is probably the most common ﬂow in the nature. This ﬂow is used by engineers to reduce the cost of moving crude oil through a long pipes system. they can be solid–liquid. The “average” viscosity is meaningless since in many cases the water follows around the oil. In almost all situations. The materials can ﬂow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current ﬂow. For the gas. MULTI–PHASE FLOW of clean room is a proof that air contains small particles. Flow of air is actually the ﬂow of several light liquids (gases). although important. Since there are three phases. This notion eliminates many other ﬂow categories that can and should be included in multiphase ﬂow. This ﬂow also appears in any industrial process that are involved in solidiﬁcation (for example die casting) and in moving solid particles. One way to categorize the multiphase is by the materials ﬂows. The water ﬂow is the source of the friction. 360070 issued to George Westinghouse. Open Channel ﬂow is. The multiphase can be found in nature. solid–gas. a 10% change of the speed of sound due to dust particles in air could reduce the stopping time by 2 seconds (50 meter diﬀerence in stopping) and can cause an accident. Yet. the ﬂow of oil and water in one pipe is a multiphase ﬂow. The engineering accuracy is enough to totally ignore it. plasma and river ﬂow with live creatures (small organisms to large ﬁsh) ﬂow of ice berg. Gas–solid can be found in sand storms. For example. there are situations where cleanness of the air can aﬀect the ﬂow. This category should include any distinction of phase/material. sand and grain (which are “solids”) ﬂow with rocks and is referred to solid–solid ﬂow. liquid–gas and solid–liquid–gas ﬂow. When the . in nature can be blood ﬂow. and river ﬂow. the breaks would started to work after about 20 seconds in the last wagon. and avalanches. the density is a strong function of the temperature and pressure. The category of liquid–gas should be really viewed as the extreme case of liquid-liquid where the density ratio is extremely large.

5.5. This deﬁnition (open channel ﬂow) continues for small amount of lighter liquid as long as the heavier ﬂow can be calculated as open channel ﬂow (ignoring the lighter liquid). the counter–current ﬂow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical ﬂow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics. When the ﬂow rate of the lighter liquid is almost zero. 5 With the exception of the extremely smaller diameter where Rayleigh–Taylor instability is an important issue. and annular ﬂow. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 249 materials ﬂow in the opposite direction. the co-current is the more common. It is common to diﬀerentiate between the vertical (and near vertical) and horizontal (and near horizontal).1 Horizontal Flow The typical regimes for horizontal ﬂow are stratiﬁed ﬂow (open channel ﬂow. The vertical conﬁguration has two cases. dispersed Heavy Liquid bubble ﬂow. . The main diﬀerence between the liquid–liquid ﬂow to gas-liquid ﬂow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density. plug ﬂow.2. The other characteristic that is diﬀerent between the gas ﬂow and the liquid ﬂow is the variation of the density. For example. Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when bottom and lighter liquid ﬂows on the the liquids ﬂow is very slow. 5 top as depicted in Figure 9. the ﬂow is referred to as open channel ﬂow. the limits between the ﬂow regimes are considerably diﬀerent.9. There is no exact meaning to the word “near vertical” or “near horizontal” and there is no consensus on the limiting angles (not to mention to have limits as a function with any parameter that determine the limiting angle). For low velocity (low ﬂow rate) of the two liquids.1 Co–Current Flow In Co–Current ﬂow. the ﬂow of gas–liquid can have several ﬂow regimes in one situation while the ﬂow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one ﬂow regime. The geometries (even the boundaries) of open channel ﬂow are very diverse. The channel ﬂow will be discussed in a greater detail in Open Channel Flow chapter. The ﬂow in inclined angle (that not covered by the word “near”) exhibits ﬂow regimes not much diﬀerent from the other two. Yet. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as horizontal ﬂow. the heavy liquid ﬂows on the Fig. For example. and what ever between them. Additionally. Thus. the counter–current ﬂow must have special conﬁgurations of long length of ﬂow. 9.5. Generally. The ﬂow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the ﬂuids. it is referred as counter–current. Light Liquid and non open channel ﬂow). two liquids can have three main categories: vertical. This issue of incline ﬂow will not be covered in this chapter. 9. horizontal.2. Open channel ﬂow appears in many nature (river) as well in industrial process such as the die casting process where liquid metal is injected into a cylinder (tube) shape. up or down. a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric ﬂow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. water and air ﬂow as oppose to water and oil ﬂow.1. -9. In general.

4. all the two phase ﬂow are categorized by wavy ﬂow which will proven later. -9. The pressure drop of this kind of regime is signiﬁcantly larger than the stratiﬁed ﬂow. Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the closer/sooner. the ﬂow pattern is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow. The superﬁcial velocity is referred to as the velocity that any phase will have if the other phase was not exist. At this stage. The “average” viscosity depends on the ﬂow and thus making it as insigniﬁcant way to do the calculations. Plug ﬂow is characterized by regions of lighter liquid ﬁlled with drops of the heavier liquid with Plug (or Slug) of the heavier liquid (with bubble of the lighter liquid). Thus. then the wave cannot reach to the crown and the shape is deformed to the point that all the heavier liquid is around the periphery. Light Liquid Light Liquid Some referred to this regime as wavy stratiﬁed ﬂow Heavy Liquid Heavy Liquid but this deﬁnition is not accepted by all as a category by itself. If the heavier liquid ﬂow rate is larger6 than the distance. the possibility to go through slug ﬂow regime depends on if there is enough liquid ﬂow rate. For liquid which the density is a strong and primary function of the pressure.250 CHAPTER 9. all the ﬂow is wavy.3. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as annular ﬂow. and other physical properties of the ﬂuids but also on the material of the conduit.3). The wave shape is created to keep the gas and the liquid velocity equal and at the same time to have shear stress to be balance by surface tension. MULTI–PHASE FLOW As the lighter liquid (or the gas phase) ﬂow rate increases (superﬁcial velocity). -9. If the heavier ﬂow rate is small. liquid ﬂow rate. All liquids are compressible Heavy Liquid to some degree. Further increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate move the ﬂow regime into annular ﬂow. Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in There are two paths that can occur on the heavier horizontal tubes. the friction between the phases increase. . The slug ﬂow cannot be assumed to be as homogeneous ﬂow nor it can exhibit some average viscosity. The conﬁguration of the cross section not only depend on the surface tension. when the lighter liquid ﬂow increases. the ﬂow that starts liquids ﬂow is faster. thus it is arbitrary deﬁnition. liquid level is higher. as a stratiﬁed ﬂow will turned into a slug ﬂow or stratiﬁed wavy7 ﬂow after a certain distance depends on the heavy ﬂow rate (if 6 The 7 Well. Choking occurs in compressible Light Liquid ﬂow when the ﬂow rate is above a certain point. Fig. These plugs are separated by large “chunks” that almost ﬁll the entire tube. Thus.4). the heavier liquid wave reaches to the crown of the pipe. The plugs are ﬂowing in a succession (see Figure 9. At some point. As the lighter liquid velocity increases two things can happen (1) wave size increase and (2) the shape of cross section continue to deform. for the wave to reach the conduit crown is smaller. choking occurs relatively Fig. This friction is one of the cause for the instability which manifested itself as waves and changing the surface from straight line to a diﬀerent conﬁguration (see Figure 9. In fact.

ﬂow that had slug ﬂow in its path can be returned as stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow. As in many ﬂuid mechanics and magnetic ﬁelds.1. However. Flow that is under small angle from the horizontal will be similar to the horizontal ﬂow. The results of the above discussion are depicted in Figure 9. e.5. the vertical ﬂow against the gravity is more common used. There is a difference between ﬂowing with the gravity and ﬂowing against the gravity. The angle decreases with the length of the pipe. liquid–liquid ﬂow has a maximum combined of the ﬂow rate (both phases). as in compressible ﬂow. there is no consensus how far is the “near” means. Qualitatively.5.2 Vertical Flow The vertical ﬂow has two possibilities. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 251 this category is accepted). For example. the ﬂow become annular or the ﬂow will choke. This phenomenon is refer to as hysteresis. Hence. Besides the length. weak to strong surface tension eﬀects (air/water in “normal” gravity). this map is only characteristics of the “normal” conditions. After a certain distance. This maximum is known as double choking phenomenon. the “near” angle depends on the length of the pipe. the return path is not move the exact same way. with the gravity or against it.5. Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. other parameters can aﬀect the “near.g. in normal gravitation. There is even a possibility to return on diﬀerent ﬂow regime. -9.5. The reverse way is referred to the process where the starting point is high ﬂow rate and the ﬂow rate is decreasing. The buoyancy .9. etc.” Dispersed Bubble Liquid Superficial Velocity Elongated Bubble Slug Flow Annular Flow Stratified Flow Wavy Stratified Open Channel Flow Gas Superficial Velocity Fig. In engineering application. The choking can occur before the annular ﬂow regime is obtained depending on the velocity and compressibility of the lighter liquid. As many things in multiphase. 9.

Thus. Thus. is acting in two diﬀerent directions for these two ﬂow regimes. Notice.6. . The main reason that causes the diﬀerence is that the heavier liquid is more dominated by gravity (body forces) while the lighter liquid is dominated by the pressure driving forces. Further increase of lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the slug size as more bubbles collide to create “super slug”. the ﬂow starts as a bubble ﬂow. Flow Against Gravity For vertical ﬂow against gravity. The opposite is for the ﬂow with gravity.252 CHAPTER 9. the lighter liquid has a buoyancy that acts as an “extra force” to move it faster and this eﬀect is opposite for the heavier liquid. it can be noted the diﬀerence in the mechanism that create annular ﬂow for vertical and horizontal ﬂow. The increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the number of bubbles until some bubbles start to collide. they create a large bubble and the ﬂow is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow (see Figure 9. Any further increase transforms the outer liquid layer into bubbles in the inner liquid. The choking can occur at any point depends on the ﬂuids and temperature and pressure. The ﬂow is less stable as more turbulent ﬂow and several “super slug” or churn ﬂow appears in more chaotic way. When many bubbles collide. the diﬀerent mechanism in creating the plug ﬂow in horizontal ﬂow compared to the vertical ﬂow. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. -9. Flow of near vertical against the gravity in two–phase does not deviate from vertical. there are diﬀerent ﬂow regimes for these two situations. For the ﬂow against gravity. After additional increase of “super slug” . the ﬂow regime is referred as elongated bubble ﬂow.6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Bubble Flow Slug or Plug Flow Churn Flow Annular Flow Dispersed Flow Fig. The heavier liquid has to occupy almost the entire cross section before it can ﬂow because of the gravity forces.6). see Figure 9. the ﬂow cannot start as a stratiﬁed ﬂow. all these “elongated slug” unite to become an annular ﬂow. Again.

Here. The initial part for this ﬂow is more signiﬁcant. the regime liquid ﬁlls the entire void and the gas is in small bubble and this ﬂow referred to as bubbly ﬂow. the ﬂow continues in a stratiﬁed conﬁguration.1. The interaction between the phases is minimal and can be Fig. Liquid Flow Rate 9. Since the heavy liquid can be supplied from the “wrong” point/side.9. In cases where the surface tension is very important. At a higher rate of liquid ﬂow and a low ﬂow rate of gas.Reynolds. A good example for this ﬂow regime is a water fall. When the ﬂow rate of the gas increases further. The common map is based on dimensionless parameters. the vertical conﬁguration. The liquid–liquid (also . A dimensional vertical ﬂow map considered as the “open channel ﬂow” of under very low gravity against the gravity.3 Vertical Flow Under Micro Gravity 253 The above discussion mostly explained the Dispersed Dispersed ﬂow in a vertical conﬁguration when the Bubble Bubble surface tension can be neglected. As the gas ﬂow increases. In the literature. The ﬂow starts as disTrickling persed bubble (some call it as “gas conFlow Spray or tinuous”) because the gas phase occupies Mist Flow most of column.7.5. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 9. the liquid becomes more turbulent and some parts enter into the gas phase as drops.7). Figure 9. this ﬂow can starts with stratiﬁed ﬂow. and Weber numbers. respectively. it is presented in a dimension form to explain the trends (see Figure 9. Pulsing For example. there is pulse ﬂow in which liquid is moving in frequent pulses. the points where these transitions occur are diﬀerent from the horizontal ﬂow. for the convenience of the terms “gas and liquid” will be used to signify the lighter and heavier liquid. both will be united in this discussion. In the medium range of the ﬂow rate of gas and liquid. The liquid ﬂows through Gas Flow Rage a trickle or channeled ﬂow that only partially wets part of the tube. The ordinate is a combination of ﬂow rate ratio and density ratio. The abscissa is a function of combination of Froude .6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions Since the gas–liquid system is a speciﬁc case of the liquid–liquid system. While this author is not aware of an actual model. However.6.7 presented in dimensionless coordinates. After the ﬂow has settled. -9. The transitions between the ﬂow regimes is similar to stratiﬁed ﬂow. it must be possible to construct a model that connects this conﬁguration with the stratiﬁed ﬂow where the transitions will be dependent on the angle of inclinations. out in space between gas and liquid (large density diﬀerence) the situaPulsing & Bubbling tion is diﬀerent. all the gas phase change into tiny drops of liquid and this kind of regime referred to as mist ﬂow. However. the initial part has a larger section compared to the ﬂow against the gravity ﬂow. Flow With The Gravity As opposed to the ﬂow against gravity.

4) mL ˙ A (9. The total volumetric volume vary along the tube length and is Q = QL + QG (9. over its cross section. It has to be noted that this mass velocity does not exist in reality.1) It is common to deﬁne the mass velocity instead of the regular velocity because the “regular” velocity changes along the length of the pipe.7) .254 CHAPTER 9.3) It has to be emphasized that this mass velocity is the actual velocity.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions The total mass ﬂow rate through the tube is the sum of the mass ﬂow rates of the two phases m = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ˙ (9. some variables are deﬁned so that the ﬂow can be described as a one-dimensional ﬂow. the only serious missing point in this discussion is the change of the ﬂow along the distance of the tube. MULTI–PHASE FLOW gas–liquid) ﬂow is an extremely complex three–dimensional transient problem since the ﬂow conditions in a pipe may vary along its length. This method is the most common and important to analyze two-phase ﬂow pressure drop and other parameters.5) For liquid with very high bulk modulus (almost constant density). The liquid mass velocity is GL = The mass ﬂow of the tube is then G= m ˙ A (9. To simplify the descriptions of the problem and yet to retain the important features of the ﬂow. The gas mass velocity is GG = mG ˙ A (9.2) Where A is the entire area of the tube. The volumetric ﬂow rate is not constant (since the density is not constant) along the ﬂow rate and it is deﬁned as QG = and for the liquid QL = GL ρL (9.6) GG = UsG ρG (9. the volumetric ﬂow rate can be considered as constant. Perhaps. and with time.6. 9.

8) In a similar fashion.6.11) Since UsL = QL and similarly for the gas then Um = UsG + UsL (9. .13) Where Um is the averaged velocity. LH is not constant for the same reasons the void fraction is not constant.9) This fraction is vary along tube length since the gas density is not constant along the tube length. The ratio of the gas ﬂow cross sectional area to the total cross sectional area is referred as the void fraction and deﬁned as α= AG A (9.12) GG Xm ˙ = = QG ρG ρG A (9. The gas superﬁcial velocity is therefore deﬁned as UsG = The liquid superﬁcial velocity is UsL = GL (1 − X) m ˙ = = QL ρL ρL A (9.10) It must be noted that Liquid holdup. a superﬁcial velocity is commonly deﬁned in which if only one phase is using the entire tube. The average superﬁcial velocity of the gas and liquid are diﬀerent. The liquid fraction or liquid holdup is LH = 1 − α = AL A (9.” The last two factions remain constant along the tube length as long the gas and liquid masses remain constant. Also. it can be noted that the slip velocity is not constant along the tube. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 255 Ratio of the gas ﬂow rate to the total ﬂow rate is called the ’quality’ or the “dryness fraction” and is given by X= GG mG ˙ = m ˙ G (9. the value of (1 − X) is referred to as the “wetness fraction.14) Slip ratio is usually greater than unity. the ratio of these velocities is referred to as the slip velocity and is deﬁned as the following SLP = UG UL (9. Thus. The actual velocities depend on the other phase since the actual cross section the phase ﬂows is dependent on the other phase. Thus.9. It can be noticed that Um is not constant along the tube.

19) The relationship between X and α is AG X= mG ˙ ρG UG A α ρG UG α = = (9.16) results in mG ˙ mL ˙ ρaverage = ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ = ˙ X m (1 − X) m ˙ QG + QL + ρG ρL QG QL (9.15) This density represents the density taken at the “frozen” cross section (assume the volume is the cross section times inﬁnitesimal thickness of dx). the mixture density is deﬁned as ρm = α ρG + (1 − α) ρL (9.1) and (9.16) Where Q is the volumetric ﬂow rate. MULTI–PHASE FLOW For the same velocity of phases (SLP = 1).21) .18) vaverage = 1 ρaverage = X (1 − X) + = X vG + (1 − X) vL ρG ρL (9. thus equation (9.256 CHAPTER 9. The average density of the material ﬂowing in the tube can be evaluated by looking at the deﬁnition of density. for the ﬂowing material it is ρ= m ˙ Q (9.20) mG + mL ˙ ˙ ρL UL A(1 − α) +ρG UG A α ρL UL (1 − α) + ρG UG α AL If the slip is one SLP = 1.17) Equation (9.20) becomes X= ρG α ρL (1 − α) + ρG α (9.17) can be simpliﬁed by canceling the m and noticing the (1−X)+X = 1 ˙ to become + (1−X) ρL The average speciﬁc volume of the ﬂow is then X ρG ρaverage = 1 (9. Substituting equations (9.7) into equation (9. The density of any material is deﬁned as ρ = m/V and thus.

23) Example 9. these segments are not deﬁned but results of the conditions imposed on the ﬂow. it was assumed that the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes can be neglected at least for the pressure loss (not correct for the heat transfer). it is worthwhile to appreciate the complexity of the ﬂow.7 Homogeneous Models Before discussing the homogeneous models.24) as − dP S m dUm ˙ = − τw − + ρm g sin θ dx A A dx (9.25) The energy equation can be approximated as dw d dq − =m ˙ dx dx dx hm + Um 2 + g x sin θ 2 (9. The single phase was studied earlier in this book and there is a considerable amount of information about it.1: Under what conditions equation (9. For the construction of ﬂuid basic equations. Now.13)) is Um = QL + QG = UsL + UsG = Um A (9. the simplest is to used it for approximation. The average velocity (see also equation (9. and the ﬂow is continuous only in many chunks (small segments). In fact.26) . HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 257 9.9.7. Furthermore.22) It can be noted that the continuity equation is satisﬁed as m = ρm Um A ˙ (9.24) or modifying equation (9. Thus. it was assumed that the ﬂow is continuous. this assumption has to be broken.23) is correct? Solution Under construction End Solution The governing momentum equation can be approximated as m ˙ dUm dP = −A − S τw − A ρm g sin θ dx dx (9. the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes are examples of typical conﬁguration of segments of continuous ﬂow. Initially.

Yet. this friction factor was not measured for the “averaged” viscosity of the two phase ﬂow. since there isn’t anything better. . the gravitation pressure loss reduce the pressure and thus the density must change and hence. In that case. 9.1.7.31) Where C and n are constants which depend on the ﬂow regimes (turbulent or laminar ﬂow). MULTI–PHASE FLOW 9. for small distances (dx) and some situations.28) Where S is the perimeter of the ﬂuid. For example. the total pressure loss can be written as f riction acceleration gravity dP dP dP dP + + = (9. acceleration.27) dx dx f dx a dx g Every part of the total pressure loss will be discussed in the following section.258 CHAPTER 9. In fact. from equation (9. this dependency can be neglected. and body force(gravitation).1 Pressure Loss Components In a tube ﬂowing upward in incline angle θ. For calculating the frictional pressure loss in the pipe is − dP dx = f 4 τw D (9.7.30) The friction factor is measured for a single phase ﬂow where the average velocity is directly related to the wall shear stress.25. These losses are non-linear and depend on each other.1 Friction Pressure Loss The frictional pressure loss for a conduit can be calculated as − dP dx = f S τw A (9. the experimental data that was developed and measured for single ﬂow is used.079 and n = 0. However. the pressure loss is aﬀected by friction loss.29) The wall shear stress can be estimated by τw = f ρm Um 2 2 (9. The friction factor is obtained by using the correlation f =C ρm Um D µm −n (9. There is not available experimental data for the relationship of the averaged velocity of the two (or more) phases and wall shear stress. For turbulent ﬂow C = 0.25). For laminar ﬂow C = 16 and n = 1. acceleration must occur.

the friction loss can be estimated.34) The acceleration pressure loss can be estimated by − dP dx =m ˙ a dUm dx (9. 9. dA/ dx = 0. Duckler suggest the following µm = µG QG µL QL + QG + QL QG + QL (9.35) can be written as − dP dx =m ˙ a d dx m ˙ A ρm (9.35) The acceleration pressure loss (can be positive or negative) results from change of density and the change of cross section. Equation (9.7. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 259 There are several suggestions for the average viscosity.7.33) Or simply make the average viscosity depends on the mass fraction as µm = X µG + (1 − X) µL Using this formula.18) average viscosity as µaverage = 1 X µG (1−X) µL + (9.32) Duckler linear formula does not provide always good approximation and Cichilli suggest similar to equation (9. For the last point.9. The third special case is for constant density of one phase only. . dρL / dx = 0. In second case is where the mass ﬂow rates of gas and liquid is constant in which the derivative of X is zero.2 Acceleration Pressure Loss (9.1. The ﬁrst case where the cross section is constant.36) becomes pressure loss due to pressure loss due to density change area change 2 =m ˙ 1 1 d 1 dA + 2 dx A dx ρm ρm A − dP dx (9.36) Or in an explicit way equation (9. dX/ dx = 0. the private case is where densities are constant for both phases. For example.37) a There are several special cases.

.1. (a and b) can be calculated with integration as b ∆Pab = a dP dx dx (9. Lockhart and Martinelli built model based on the assumption that the separated pressure loss are independent from each other. φG = dP dx dP dx (9.41) SG f TP Where the T P denotes the two phases and SG denotes the pressure loss for the single gas phase.7.38) The density change during the ﬂow can be represented as a function of density.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model The second method is by assumption that every phase ﬂow separately One such popular model by Lockhart and Martinelli8 .260 9.4 Total Pressure Loss The total pressure between two points. The density in equation (9. Taitle .7. Lockhart Martinelli parameters are deﬁned as the ratio of the pressure loss of two phases and pressure of a single phase. private communication with Y.38) is the density without the “movement” (the “static” density). 8 This method was considered a military secret. Equivalent deﬁnition for the liquid side is φL = dP dx dP dx (9.1. 9. there are two parameters as shown below.42) SL f TP Where the SL denotes the pressure loss for the single liquid phase.7. Thus.3 Gravity Pressure Loss CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Gravity was discussed in Chapter 4 and is dP dx = g ρm sin θ g (9.40) 9.39) and therefore f riction acceleration gravity ∆Pab = ∆Pab f + ∆Pab a + ∆Pab g (9.

In solid–liquid. analysis of small coal particles in water is diﬀerent from large coal particles in water. For example. 2. The density of the solid can be above or below the liquid. It is assumed that the pressure loss for both phases are equal.8. cubic. The ﬂow against the gravity and lighter density solid particles. it is assumed that the surface tension is insigniﬁcant compared to the gravity forces.” Therefor.9. in this discussion. and geometry. 9. Consider the case where the solid is heavier than the liquid phase. .43) SG f SL where Ξ is Martinelli parameter. To insert the Diagram. The ﬂow with the gravity and heavier density solid particles. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 261 The ratio of the pressure loss for a single liquid phase and the pressure loss for a single gas phase is Ξ= dP dx dP dx (9. the pressure loss is dP dx = G 2 fG UG 2 ρl DG (9. etc). distribution.45) For the gas phase. The ﬂow with the gravity and lighter density solid particles. It is also assumed that the “liquids” density does not change signiﬁcantly and it is far from the choking point. Thus. The word “solid” is not really mean solid but a combination of many solid particles.44) SL The pressure loss for the liquid phase is dP dx = L 2 fL UL 2 ρl DL (9.there will be a discussion about diﬀerent particle size and diﬀerent geometry (round. the eﬀect of the surface tension are very minimal and can be ignored.8 Solid–Liquid Flow Solid–liquid system is simpler to analyze than the liquid-liquid system. dP dx = SG dP dx (9. In that case there are four possibilities for vertical ﬂow: 1. Diﬀerent combination of solid particle creates diﬀerent “liquid.46) Simpliﬁed model is when there is no interaction between the two phases. 3. The uniformity is categorizing the particle sizes.

there are two sets of similar characteristics.49) Equation (9.47) Where CD ∞ is the drag coeﬃcient and is a function of Reynolds number.48) Inserting equating (9. A particle in a middle of the vertical liquid ﬂow experience several forces. The Reynolds number deﬁned as Re = UL D ρL µL (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 4. CD ∞ is complicated function of the Reynolds number.51) 24 Re (9. The discussion here is about the last case (4) because very little is known about the other cases. Re. The ﬂow against the gravity and heavier density solid particles. The force balance of spherical particle in ﬁeld viscous ﬂuid (creeping ﬂow) is gravity and buoyancy forces π D g (ρS − ρL ) 6 3 drag forces = CD ∞ π D2 ρL UL 2 8 (9. When the liquid velocity is very small. the liquid cannot carry the solid particles because there is not enough resistance to lift up the solid particles. and D is the equivalent radius of the particles. The drag coeﬃcient.50) For larger Reynolds numbers. the Newton’s Law region. The ﬁrst regime is for Re < 1 where Stokes’ Law can be approximated as CD ∞ = In transitional region 1 < Re < 1000 CD ∞ = 24 Re 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 (9.44 (9. All these possibilities are diﬀerent.262 CHAPTER 9.49) relates the liquid velocity that needed to maintain the particle “ﬂoating” to the liquid and particles properties. The ﬁrst set is similar because the solid particles are moving faster than the liquid velocity and vice versa for the second set (slower than the liquid). possibility.8. is nearly constant as CD ∞ = 0. However. 1 and 4 and the second set is 2 and 3. However.48) into equation (9.47) become CD ∞ (UL ) f (Re) UL 2 = 4 D g (ρS − ρL ) 3 ρL (9. it can be approximated for several regimes.52) .1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL Solid–liquid ﬂow has several combination ﬂow regimes. CD ∞ . 9.

The simplest assumption that the change of the cross section of the ﬂuid create a parameter that multiply the single particle as CD ∞ |α = CD ∞ f (α) (9. When the velocity is lower.9.8. For particles. As the solid particles are not pushed by a pump but moved by the forces the ﬂuid applies to them. the case of liquid. For the case of gas. Further increase of the ﬂuid ﬂow increases the empty spots to the whole ﬂow. Additional increase in the ﬂuid velocity causes large turbulence and the ordinary domes are replaced by churn type ﬂow or large bubbles that are almost empty of the solid particles. the function f (α) is not a linear function. the velocity is small to lift the particle unless the density diﬀerence is very small (that very small force can lift the particles). In the literature there are many functions for various conditions. Additional increase of the ﬂuid velocity will move all the particles and this Fig. This regimes is referred to as Pneumatic conveying (see Figure 9. the minimum velocity is a range of velocity rather than a sharp transition point. Thus. the particle will sink into the liquid. This slug ﬂow is when slug shape (domes) are almost empty of the solid particle.53) When the subscript α is indicating the void. the Reynolds number is in the second range9 . then the actual velocity that every particle experience depends on the void fraction. the solid particles Packed can be supplied at diﬀerent rate. US|avarge . particles flow the particles are what some call ﬁxed ﬂuidized bed. It has to remember that not all the particle are uniform in size or shape. Minimum velocity is the velocity when the particle is “ﬂoating”. Consequently. in many cases the middle region is applicable. So far the discussion was about single particle. the sparse solid particles are dispersed all over. the particle will drift with the liquid. When there are more than one particle in the cross section.8. Yet. -9. further increase will create a slug ﬂow. For small gas/liquid velocity. Thus. The terminal velocity that left the solid is referred to as fully ﬂuidized bed. Increasing the ﬂuid velocity beyond a minimum will move the parti∆Ptube cles and it is referred to as mix ﬂuidized bed. For the ﬁrst region. 9 It be wonderful if ﬂow was in the last range? The critical velocity could be found immediately. In very large range (especially for gas) the choking might be approached. In that case. If the velocity is larger. When the velocity of liquid is higher than the minimum velocity many particles will be ﬂoating. partialy Fully the discussion will be focus on the ﬂuid solid fluidized velocity. the only velocity that can be applied is Trasiton the ﬂuid velocity.9). Thus. additional increase create “tunnels” of empty almost from solid particles. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 263 In most cases of solid-liquid system.

2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity This situation is minimal and very few cases exist. The ﬂow can have slug ﬂow but more likely will be in fast Fluidization regime. Thus. There is no known ﬂow map for this kind of ﬂow that this author is aware of. One of the main diﬀerence between the liquid and gas ﬂow in this category is the speed of sound. the length of conduit is very limited. Hence. the velocity √ of gas is limited when reaching the Mach somewhere between 1/ k and 1 since the gas will be choked (neglecting the double choking phenomenon). The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow. In the gas phase. The buoyancy is accelerating the particle .264 CHAPTER 9.9. there is very little knowledge about the solid–liquid when the solid density is smaller than the liquid density. The issue of minimum terminal velocity is not exist and therefor there is no ﬁxed or mixed ﬂuidized bed. the ﬂuid density can be higher than the solid (especially with micro gravity). the speed of sound is reduced dramatically with increase of the solid particles concentration (further reading Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” chapter on Fanno Flow by this author is recommended). There was very little investigations and known about the solid–liquid ﬂowing down (with the gravity). 9. The speed of sound of the liquid does not change much. However. The ﬂow is fully ﬂuidized for any liquid ﬂow rate. this limitation does not (eﬀectively) exist for most cases of solid–liquid ﬂow. -9. several conclusions and/or expectations can be drawn. it must be pointed out that even in solid–gas.8. Nevertheless. The forces that act on the spherical particle are the buoyancy force and drag force. Furthermore. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fixed Bed Mixed Bed Slug or Plug Flow Turbulent Regimes Fast Fluidization Pneumatic Conveying Fig. Hence.

The pressure diﬀerence in the interface must Fig. The ﬂow regimes will be similar but the transition will be in diﬀerent points. The two phase regimes “occurs” mainly in entrance to the cavity.10. Most people know that two holes are needed to empty the can easily and continuously. Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. cannot compensate for the Flow pressure gradient. Liquid Body Foreces . this author have not seen any evidence that show the annular ﬂow does not appear in solid–liquid ﬂow. For example.9 Counter–Current Flow This discussion will be only on liquid–liquid systems (which also includes liquid-gas systems). Initially the solid particles will be carried by the liquid to the top. This kind of ﬂow is probably the most common to be realized by the masses. -9. In short tube. Flow The inertia components of the ﬂow. it can observed that increase of the liquid velocity will increase the solid particle velocity at the same amount. Further increase of the liquid velocity appear as somewhat similar to slug ﬂow. However. when cavity is ﬁlled or emptied with a liquid. opening a can of milk or juice. the counter–current ﬂow can have opposite pressure gradient for short conduit. the possibility to have counter–current ﬂow is limited to having short length of tubes. But in most cases.54. some of the particles enter into the liquid core.54) 6 8 From equation 9. the or Dripping Flow pressure diﬀerence in one phase can be f (D/L. However. The counter-current ﬂow occurs. the liquid will ﬂow in pulse regime. UL /US → 0. for a small ﬂuid velocity the velocity ratio is very large. Hence.9. the ﬂow will be in a pulse regime. In most cases. In only certain conﬁgurations of the inﬁnite long pipes the counter–current ﬂow can exist. 9. When the liquid velocity increase and became turbulent. For example. Annular Extented Flow In that case. the pressure diﬀerence and Open Channel gravity (body forces) dominates the ﬂow. the heavy phase (liquid) is pushed by the gravity and lighter phase (gas) is driven by the pressure diﬀerence. Otherwise.9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW and drag force are reducing the speed as 2 265 π D3 g(ρS − ρL ) CD ∞ π D2 ρL (US − UL ) = (9. for large velocity of the ﬂuid it can be observed that UL /US → 1. Thus. The aﬀective body force “seems” by the particles can be in some cases larger than the gravity. The solid–liquid horizontal ﬂow has some similarity to horizontal gas–liquid ﬂow. Typically if only one hole is opened on the top of the can. be ﬁnite. for Pulse Flow Inpossible long tubes. physical properties) positive while the pressure diﬀerence in the other phase can be negative. for example.

the phases ﬂow turns into diﬀerent direction (see Figure 9. There are more things to be examined and to be studied. Counter–current ﬂow in a can (the left ﬁgure) has only one hole thus pulse ﬂow and a ﬂow with two holes (right picture).266 CHAPTER 9. . the pressure in the can increase.12. Fig. or small wood particles) by rotating the container. Then. The name pulse ﬂow is used to signify that the ﬂow is ﬂowing in pulses that occurs in a certain frequency. -9. water solution. it can be noticed that the solid–gas is faster than the liquid–gas ﬂow. elongated pulse ﬂow was observed but measured. In this ﬂow regime. 10 Caution! this statement should be considered as “so far found”. The air is “attempting” to enter the cavity to ﬁll the vacuum created thus forcing pulse ﬂow. due to the gravity. This is opposed to counter–current solid–gas ﬂow when almost no pulse was observed. liquid ﬂows through one hole and the air through the second hole and the ﬂow will be continuous. There must be other ﬂow regimes that were not observed or deﬁned. the heavy liquid is leaving the can. The container is made of two compartments. It also can be noticed that if there is one hole (oriﬁce) and a long and narrow tube. -9. Initially.11. This ﬁeld hasn’t been well explored. Picture of Counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas and solid–gas conﬁgurations. There are three ﬂow regimes10 that have been observed. Then the pressure in the can is reduced compared to the outside and some lighter liquid (gas)entered into the can. For example. Even though the solid–gas ratio is smaller.). MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fig.11 depicts emptying of can ﬁlled with liquid. The ﬁrst ﬂow pattern is pulse ﬂow regime.12). the liquid will stay in the cavity (neglecting other phenomena such as dripping ﬂow. If there are two holes. in some cases. Figure 9. The upper compartment is ﬁlled with the heavy phase (liquid.

The driving force is the second parameter which eﬀects the ﬂow existence.7).9. The duration the cycle depends on several factors. Extended open channel ﬂow retains the characteristic of open channel that the lighter liquid (almost) does not eﬀect the heavier liquid ﬂow. At this point. The ratio of the diameter to the Fig.13. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 267 and some heavy liquid will starts to ﬂow. In many situations. no counter–current ﬂow is possible. 9.” In the vertical co–current ﬂow there are two possibilities. Flood in vertical pipe. Example of such ﬂow in the nature is water falls in which water ﬂows down and air (wind) ﬂows up.9. but somehow it contradicts with the experimental evidence. the volume ﬂow rate of the two phase is almost equal. -9. In very small Steam Flow diameters of tubes the counter–current ﬂow is not possible because of the surface tension (see section 4. the counter–current ﬂow has no possibility for these two cases. In horizontal tubes. the discussion was focused on the vertical tubes. length with some combinations of the physical properties (surface tension etc) determines the point where the counter ﬂow can start.7) page 122) it can be considered stable for small diameters. A ﬂow in a very narrow tube with heavy ﬂuid above the lighter ﬂuid should be considered as a separate issue. Thus it should be considered as non existent ﬂow. Horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent from vertical ﬂow from the stability issues. the ﬂow regime in the can moves from pulse to annular ﬂow. Further increase of the body force will move the ﬂow to be in the extended “open channel ﬂow. When the driving (body) force is very small.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow Up to this point. Probably.9. As opposed to the co–current ﬂow. The analysis is provided. However. one or more of the assumptions that the analysis based is erroneous). A heavier liquid layer can ﬂow above a lighter liquid. Consider the can in zero gravity ﬁeld. if the can was on the sun (ignoring the heat transfer issue). This situation is unstable for large diameter but as in static (see section (4. no counter–current ﬂow possible. The analysis of the frequency is much more complex issue and will not be dealt here. . there is an additional ﬂow regime which is stratiﬁed . The cycle duration can be replaced by frequency. ﬂow with gravity or against it. Additional increase of the diameter will change the ﬂow regime into extended open channel ﬂow. the pulsing ﬂow will start and larger diameter will increase the ﬂow and turn the ﬂow into annular ﬂow. This process continue until almost the liquid is evacuated (some liquid stay due the surface tension). Annular Flow in Counter–current ﬂow The other ﬂow regime is annular ﬂow in which the heavier phase is on the periphery of Water the conduit (In the literature. The heavy liquid will ﬂow with the body forces (gravity). there are someFlow one who claims that heavy liquid will be inside).

In some situations. that is stratiﬁed ﬂow are discussed here. The liquid ﬂow rate. The liquid velocity at very low gas velocity is constant but not uniform. Further increase of the gas velocity will reduce the average liquid velocity. coexist. the ﬁre can be too large or/and the water supply failed below a critical value the water turn into steam.15. Thus. this increase terminates the two phase ﬂow possibility. Thus. The steam will ﬂow in the opposite direction. the ﬂow will be stratiﬁed counter–current ﬂow. When there is no water (in liquid phase). The model can be improved by considering turbulence. Additionally. horizontal counter–current ﬂow.14. Fig. QL . However. closing the window of this kind of ﬂow. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Single phase Flow or Dripping Flow When the ﬂow rate of both ﬂuids is very small. A ﬂow map to explain the cal ﬂow unless the angle of inclination is very small.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow The limits of one kind the counter–current ﬂow regimes. both conditions cannot ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. . Further increase of the ﬂow will result in a single phase ﬂow regime. mass transfer. A diagram to explain the As it will be shown later. To analyze this situation consider a two dimensional conduit with a liquid inserted in the left side as depicted in Figure 9.14. The stratiﬁed counter ﬂow has a lower pressure loss (for the liquid side). -9. physical properties) from the vertical ﬂow and is shown in Figure 9. the ﬁre could melt or damage the boiler. The change to pulse ﬂow increases the pressure loss dramatically. wavy interface. The ﬂow map of the horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent f (D/L. It is assumed that both ﬂuids are W ξ x y ﬂowing in a laminar regime and steady state. is unknown. etc11 .Fig. 11 The circular conﬁguration is under construction and will be appeared as a separated article momentarily. This problem appears in nuclear engineering (or boiler engineering) where there is a need to make sure that liquid (water) inserted into the pipe reaching the heating zone.15. A simpliﬁed model for this situation is for a two dimensional conﬁguration where the liquid is D ﬂowing down and the gas is ﬂowing up as shown h in Figure 9. A ﬂow in an angle of inclination is closer to verti. The ﬂow will change to pulse ﬂow when the heavy liquid ﬂow rate increases. The boundLiquid Gas Flow ary conditions for the liquid is that velocity at the Flow wall is zero and the velocity at the interface is the same for both phases UG = UL or τi |G = τi |L .13. the pressure diﬀerence in the (x direction) is known and equal to zero. Additional increase of the gas velocity will bring it to a point where the liquid will ﬂow in a reverse direction and/or disappear (dried out). Liquid Flow Rate Pulse Flow Straitified Flow 9.268 CHAPTER 9. -9.9. it is assumed that the entrance eﬀects L can be neglected.

55) The integration constant. the liquid ﬂow rate is a function of the boundary conditions.60) dUy = ρL g (x − h) + τi dx (9. The underline rational for this assumption is that gas density does not change signiﬁcantly for short pipes (for more information look for the book “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” in Potto book series in the Fanno ﬂow chapter.). On the liquid side.59) (9.9.62) Uy = (9. the gravitational force has to be balanced by the shear forces as dτxy = ρL g dx The integration of equation (9. Thus. Assuming the pressure diﬀerence in the ﬂow direction for the gas is constant and uniform.9.60) can be integrate to yield Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + + C2 2 µL (9.63) . τi = ρL g h + C1 The integration constant is then Ci = τi − ρL g h which leads to τxy = ρL g (x − h) + τi Substituting the newtonian ﬂuid relationship into equation (9.57) The liquid velocity at the wall. Hence.61) (9. [U (x = 0) = 0].55) results in τxy = ρL g x + C1 (9. C1 . COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 269 This model is presented to exhibits the trends and the special features of counter-current ﬂow. is zero and the integration coeﬃcient can be found to be C2 = 0 The liquid velocity proﬁle is then ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (9.58) (9. The liquid ﬁlm thickness is unknown and can be expressed as a function of the above boundary conditions.56) (9. can be found from the boundary condition where τxy (x = h) = τi . It is assumed that the last assumption does not contribute or change signiﬁcantly the results.58) to obtained µL or in a simpliﬁed form as dUy ρL g (x − h) τi = + dx µL µL Equation (9.

The ﬂow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity across the entire liquid thickness of the ﬁlm.64) The velocity can vanish (zero) inside the ﬁlm in another point which can be obtained from 0= ρL g µL τi x x2 − hx + 2 µL (9.270 The velocity at the liquid–gas interface is Uy (x = h) = CHAPTER 9.70) .69).15). the ﬂow rate is zero when 3 τi = 2 g h ρL . h. This request is identical to the demand in which 2 g h ρL 3 τi critical = (9. The notation of τi 0 denotes the special value at which a starting shear stress value is obtained to have reversed ﬂow. Integration equation (9. The ﬁrst two solutions are identical in which the ﬁlm height is h = 0 and the liquid ﬂow rate is zero.66) The maximum x value is limited by the liquid ﬁlm thickness. Q = w h h Uy dx = 0 0 ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + dx 2 µL (9.65) is x|@UL =0 = 2 h − 2 τi µL g ρL (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW τi h ρL g h2 − µL 2 µL (9.69) is equated to zero.68) results in Q h2 (3 τi − 2 g h ρL ) = w 6 µL (9.69) It is interesting to ﬁnd the point where the liquid mass ﬂow rate is zero. The minimum shear stress that start to create reversible velocity is obtained when x = h which is 0= ρL g µL h2 τi h − hh + 2 µL h g ρL → τi0 = 2 (9.65) The solution for equation (9. The point where the liquid ﬂow rate is zero is important and it is referred to as initial ﬂashing point. There are three solutions for equation (9. also.68) Where w is the thickness of the conduit (see Figure 9.67) If the shear stress is below this critical shear stress τi0 then no part of the liquid will have a reversed velocity. But. This point can be obtained when equation (9.

70) has to be equal g h ρL to support the weight of the liquid. For this shear stress.9. for a given ﬁlm thickness. In reality the logarithmic equation should be used ( a discussion can be found in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” a Potto project book). The momentum balance on element in the gas side is dτxy G dP = dx dy (9.67)). Thus.72) Simplifying equation (9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 271 This critical shear stress.75) Where ∆y = L is the entire length of the ﬂow and ∆P is the pressure diﬀerence of the entire length.73) Again. the diﬀerential equation is ∆P d2 UG = dx2 µG L 12 Also (9.71) 6 µL The wall shear stress is the last thing that will be done on the liquid side. for simplicity reasons. . the linear equation is used. equation (9. For simplicity. The wall shear stress is τi Ucritical |interf ace = τL |@wall = µL dU dx x=0 ρL g 2 g h ρL 1 B0 = µL 2¨ x µL ¨ − h + 3 µL x=0 (9. Utilizing the Newtonian relationship.74) can be rewritten as dτxy G ∆P ∆P = = dx ∆y L (9.76) noticing that equation (9.72) the direction) 12 becomes (notice the change of the sign accounting for g h ρL 3 τL |@wall = (9.74) The pressure gradient is a function of the gas compressibility. This assumption means or implies that the gas is incompressible ﬂow. The shear stress on gas side is balanced by the pressure gradient in the y direction. the critical upward interface velocity is (2−1) 3 2 1 ρL g h2 (9. If the gas was compressible with an ideal gas equation of state then the pressure gradient is logarithmic.9. it is assumed that pressure gradient is linear. Here. reduces the ﬂow rate to zero or eﬀectively “drying” the liquid (which is diﬀerent then equation (9. the gas is assumed to be in a laminar ﬂow as well.

the gas velocity proﬁle is UG = ∆P ρL g h2 (x − D) ∆P (h + D) (x − D) x2 − D2 + − µG L 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9.76) can be integrated twice to yield UG = ∆P 2 x + C1 x + C2 µG L (9.82) With the integration constants evaluated. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Equation (9. in that case. equation (9.80) (a) (b) or (9. C1 can be evaluated as C1 = ρL g h 2 ∆P (h + D) − 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9.77) results in UG = 0 = ∆P D2 + C1 D + C2 µG L ∆P → C2 = − D 2 + C1 D µG L (9. it is easy to show that the gas shear stress is not equal to the liquid shear stress at the interface (when the velocities are assumed to be the equal).84) The velocity in Equation (9.84) is equal to the velocity equation (9. Mathematically these boundary conditions are UG (x = D) = 0 and UG (x = h) = UL (x = h) τG (x = h) = τL (x = h) Applying B.79)(a). becomes ρL g h2 ∆P = h2 − D2 + C1 (h − D) 6 µL µG L The last integration constant.78) Which leads to UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + C1 (x − D) µG L (9.64) when (x = h). . However.83) (9.78) into equation (9. of the equal velocities.C. cause this assumption to be not physical. The diﬀerence in shear stresses at the interface due to this assumption. (9.77) This velocity proﬁle must satisfy zero velocity at the right wall. The velocity at the interface is the same as the liquid phase velocity or the shear stress are equal.272 CHAPTER 9.81) At the other boundary condition.79) (9.

9. Then if the interface becomes wavy.86) (9.85) The expressions for the derivatives are gas side liquid side 2 h ∆P 2 g h ρL + µG C1 = L 3 As result. Since there no possibility to have both the shear stress and velocity on both sides of the interface.89) This gas interface velocity is diﬀerent than the velocity of the liquid side. This condition requires that µG dUG dUL = µL dx dx (9. the two conditions can co–exist. The shear stress at the interface must be equal.87) (9.90) x=D or in a simpliﬁed form as τG |@wall = 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 (9. The wall shear stress is τG |@wall = µG dUG dx = µG x=D ∆P 2 x + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9. It was assumed that the interface is straight but is impossible. the integration constant is C1 = The gas velocity proﬁle is then UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (x − D) 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9. The velocity at interface can have a “slip” in very low density and for short distances. if no special eﬀects occurs. diﬀerent thing(s) must happen.9. condition (9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 273 The second choice is to use the equal shear stresses at the interface.91) The Required Pressure Diﬀerence .88) The gas velocity at the interface is then UG |@x=h = ∆P h2 − D 2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (h − D) (9.79)(b).

94) results in 4ρgLh = (2 h − D) ∆P 3 or ∆P = 4ρgLh 3 (2 h − D) (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW The pressure diﬀerence to D create the ﬂooding (drying) has to take into account the fact that h W x y the surface is wavy.274 CHAPTER 9. This model and its assumptions are too simplistic and the actual pressure diﬀerence is larger. -9.16 describes the general forces that acts on the control volume.94) Simplifying equation (9. be between these two assumptions but not must be between them. The estimation of the pressure diﬀerence under the assumption of equal shear stress can be applied.93) result in ρgLh + L 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 D ∆P (9.96) (9. The gravity force on the gas can be neglected in most cases. Fig. To calculate the required pressure that cause the liquid to dry.92) The total momentum balance is (see Figure 9. The control volume include the gas and liquid volumes.16) A/w G A/w L f orce due to pressure FgL + L τw = L τw + Substituting the diﬀerent terms into (9. General forces diagram to calculated the in a The actual pressure diﬀerence can two dimension geometry. Figure 9. In D ∆P the same fashion the pressure difference under the assumption the equal velocity can be calculated.95) . The gravity force on the liquid is the liquid volume times the liquid volume as V olme/w FgL = ρ g hL (9. this explanation is to show magnitudes and trends and hence it provided here. the total balance is needed. However.93) =L g h ρL + D ∆P 3 (9.16. However. There are two forces that act against the gravity and two forces with the gravity. as ρgLh L ﬁrst estimate the waviness of the Lτw |L Lτw |G surface can be neglected.

the appropriate model for the ﬂow regime should be employed. . 9. the assumption of straight line is not appropriate when two liquid with diﬀerent viscosity are ﬂowing. Perhaps as a side conclusion but important. Unless the derivations or assumptions are wrong. MULTI–PHASE CONCLUSION 275 This analysis shows far more reaching conclusion that initial anticipation expected.96) indicates that when D > 2 h is a special case (extend open channel ﬂow). There are several points that should be noticed in this chapter. The homogeneous models or combined models like Lockhart–Martinelli can be employed in some cases. The interface between the two liquid ﬂowing together is wavy. this analysis equation (9.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion For the ﬁrst time multi–phase is included in a standard introductory textbook on ﬂuid mechanics. In that case.9. There are many ﬂow regimes in multi–phase ﬂow that “regular” ﬂuid cannot be used to solve it such as ﬂooding.10. In other case where more accurate measurement are needed a speciﬁc model is required.

MULTI–PHASE FLOW .276 CHAPTER 9.

Thus. Furthermore.APPENDIX A The Mathematics Backgrounds for Fluid Mechanics In this appendix a review of selected topics in mathematics related to ﬂuid mechanics is presented. Uy is the vector component in the y direction.1 Vectors Vector is a quantity with direction as oppose to scalar. nates depicted in Figure A.).1 where Ux is the vector component in the x direction. some of the material appears in specialty books such as third order diﬀerential equations (and thus it is expected that the student is not familiar with this material.dinates system. The length of the vector in Cartesian coordinates (the coordinates system is relevant) is U = Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 (A. There is very minimal original material which appears without proofs. These topics are present so that one with some minimal background could deal with the mathematics that encompass within basic ﬂuid mechanics. the 277 Fig. This appendix condenses material that spread in many various textbooks some of which are advance. Hence without additional reading.1. A. -A. and Uz is the vector component in the z direction. The material is not presented in “educational” order but in importance order. Vector in Cartesian coor- .1) z U Ux Uy y Uz x Vector can be normalized and in Cartesian coordi. this book on ﬂuid mechanics issues could be read by most readers.

(U + V ) + W = (U + V + W ) = U + (V + W ) 2.1. V )) (A.3) Vectors have some what similar rules to scalars which will be discussed in the next section.2) and general orthogonal coordinates U = U U1 U2 U3 = h1 + h2 + h3 U U U U (A. The right hand rule. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS U Ux ˆ Uy ˆ Uz ˆ = i+ j+ k U U U U U = (A. The results of this multiplication is scalar but has no negative value as in regular scalar multiplication. a (b U ) = a b U The multiplications and the divisions have somewhat diﬀerent meaning in a scalar operations. and h3 ) as angle U V U U × V = |U | · |V | sin (∠(U .278 unit vector is APPENDIX A. There are two kinds of multiplications for vectors. A.4) The second multiplication is the “cross” product which in vector as opposed to a scalar as in the “dot” product. The ﬁrst multiplication is the “dot” product which is deﬁned by equation (A. regular scalar multiplication angle between vectors W V U Fig. U ·V = U V U |U | · |V | cos (∠(U . The following are vectors. and W and for in this discussion a and b are scalars.1 Vector Algebra Vectors obey several standard mathematical operations which are applicable to scalars. The “cross” product is deﬁned in an orthogonal coordinate (h1 . h2 .5) . U + V = V + U 3. multiplication of U × V results in W . Additive inverse U − U = 0 U 5. U .2. Then the following can be said U U V 1. V )) n (A. Zero vector is such that U + 0 = U 4. V . a (U + V ) = a U + a V 6.4). -A.

This multiplication has a negative value which means that it is a change of the direction. In right hand orthogonal coordinate system h1 × h2 = h3 h2 × h3 = h1 h3 × h1 = h2 The “cross” product can be written as U × V = (U2 V3 − U3 V2 ) h1 + (U3 V1 − U1 V3 ) h2 + (U1 V2 − U2 V1 ) h3 Equation (A. For example. etc.9) in matrix form as h1 U × V = U2 V2 h2 U2 V2 h3 U3 V3 (A.10) (A. One of the consequence of this deﬁnitions in Cartesian coordinates is i =j =k =0 In general for orthogonal coordinates this condition is written as h1 × h1 = h1 = h2 = h3 = 0 where hi is the unit vector in the orthogonal system. or vector with the angle.A.8) The most complex of all these algebraic operations is the division. Multiplication combinations shows that there are at least four possibilities of combining the angle with scalar and vector.9) h2 × h1 = −h3 h3 × h2 = −h1 h1 × h3 = −h2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (A. The multiplication in vector world have two deﬁnition one which results in a scalar and one which results in a vector. the result of the division can be a scalar combined or associated with the angle (with cos or sin). Additionally note that order of multiplication is signiﬁcant.7) (A. Note that U and V are not necessarily orthogonal. and n is a unit vector perpendicular to both U and V which obeys the right hand rule. The reason that these current combinations. VECTORS 279 where θ is the angle between U and V . Additional possibility is that every combination of one vector element 1 This author did ﬁnd any physical meaning these combinations but there could be and those the word “little” is used.6) (A. these above four combinations are not the only possibilities (not including the left hand system). that is scalar associated with cos θ vectors is associated with sin θ.1. However. The previous experience is that help to deﬁne multiplication help to deﬁnition the division. is that these combinations have physical meaning. The right hand rule is referred to the direction of resulting vector. . The number of the possible combinations of the division is very large. It turn out that these combinations have very little1 physical meaning.

1. The three vectors have a need for additional notation such of vector of vector which is referred to as a tensor. =ˆ i ∂T ˆ ∂T ˆ ∂T +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors Diﬀerential operations can act on scalar functions as well on vector and vector functions. the gradient. Many of the operations of vector world. Since every vector element has three possible elements the total combination is 9 = 3 × 3. the temperature of the domain might be expressed as a scalar ﬁeld. There at least are two possibilities how to treat these elements.12) ˆ Where ˆ ˆ and k are denoting unit vectors in the x. A. One of these operations is nabla operator sometimes also called the “del operator.z). and z directions. For example. y.” Also note the multiplying matrices and inverse matrix are also available operation to these tensors. in Cartesian coordinates the operation is =ˆ i ∂ ∂ ˆ ∂ +ˆ j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. j. This tenser or the matrix can undergo regular linear algebra operations such as ﬁnding the eigenvalue values and the eigen “vectors. Gradient This operation acts on a scalar function and results in a vector whose components are derivatives in the principle directions of a coordinate system. derivatives of diﬀerent directions can represented as a vector or vector function. A scalar function is a function that provide a valued based on the coordinates (in Cartesian coordinates x. It turned out that combination of three vectors has a physical meaning. A compact presentation is a common way to handle the mathematics which simplify the calculations and explanations. respectively. The following combination is commonly suggested U2 U3 U1 V V1 V1 1 U U1 U2 U3 = (A.11) V2 V V2 V2 U2 U3 U1 V3 V3 V3 One such example of this division is the pressure which the explanation is commonality avoided or eliminated from the ﬂuid mechanics books including the direct approach in this book. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is divided by the other vector element. such as. More diﬀerential operations can on scalar function can results in vector or vector function. divergence. and the Laplacian are based or could be constructed from this single operator.” This operator is a diﬀerential vector. the curl. For example. In multivariate calculus.280 APPENDIX A.y.13) . i.

y. The divergence is the similar to “dot” product which results in scalar. A gradient acting on a scalar ﬁeld creates a vector ﬁeld. in Cartesian coordinate is results in div N = ·N= ∂Nx ∂Ny ∂Nz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. y. Applying a divergence on the result creates a scalar ﬁeld again. N . in honor of Pierre-Simon Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827). This operator also referred as the Laplacian operator. This combined operations is known as the “div grad” which is given in Cartesian coordinates by · = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. z)k i j The dot product of these two vectors. d‘Alembertian As a super–set for four coordinates (very minimal used in ﬂuid mechanics) and it reﬀed to as d’Alembertian or the wave operator. and it deﬁned as 2 = 2 − 1 ∂2 c2 ∂ 2 t (A.18) . z) = Nx (x.1. VECTORS 281 Divergence The same idea that was discussed in vector section there are two kinds of multiplication in the vector world and two will be for the diﬀerential operators.16) Note that the result is a vector. Curl Similar to the “cross product” a similar operation can be deﬁned for the nabla (note the “right hand rule” notation) for Cartesian coordinate as curl N = ×N = ∂Nz ∂Ny − ∂y ∂z ∂Nx ∂Nz − ∂z ∂x ˆ i+ ˆ+ j ∂Ny ∂Nx − ∂x ∂y ˆ k (A.15) (A. A vector domain (function) assigns a vector to each point such as velocity for example. y.14) The divergence results in a scalar function which similar to the concept of the vectors multiplication of the vectors magnitude by the cosine of the angle between the vectors.17) This combination is commonality denoted as 2 .A. z)ˆ + Ny (x. y. for Cartesian coordinates is ˆ N (x. Laplacian The new operation can be constructed from “dot” multiplication of the nabla. z)ˆ + Nz (x.

x3 .edu/mathews/c2003/HarmonicFunctionMod. For example.22) where e i is the unit vector in the i direction. 1801 – January 1.19) In Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem (Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky (September 24. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Divergence Theorem Mathematicians call to or refer to a subset of The Reynolds Transport Theorem as the Divergence Theorem. x3 .21) for harmonic function (solutions Laplace equation see2 Harminic functions) then the left side vanishes which is useful identity for ideal ﬂow analysis. The basic of these relationships is explored. If N is a gradient of a scalar ﬁeld Π(x.fullerton.20) V Note the strange notation of “Σ” which refers to the area. The notation is a bit diﬀerent from Gauss and it is written in Ostrogradsky notation as ∂Q ∂R ∂P + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz = Σ (P p + Qq + Rr) dΣ (A. Special case of equation (A. 1862). A. This results reduces equation. · · · )e3 + · · · (A. the dot product of operation 2 for more information http://math. This theorem is applicable for a ﬁx control volume and the derivative can enters into the integral. Thus. x2 . x2 . x3 . y. This subset can further produces several interesting identities. The cross and dot products when the come under diﬀerentiation can be look as scalar. z) then it can insert into identity to produce ( V · ( Φ)) dV = V 2 Φ dV = A Φ · n dA (A.1.html .282 APPENDIX A. Many engineering class present this theorem as a theorem on its merit without realizing that it is a subset of Reynolds Transport Theorem. In Gauss notation it is written as ( V · N ) dV = A N · n dA (A. normally for steady state. x2 . A vector is made of the several scalar functions such as R = f1 (x1 . · · · )e2 + f3 (x1 .21) Since the deﬁnition of Φ = N . · · · )e1 + f2 (x1 .3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations The vector operation sometime fell under (time or other) derivative. to a balance of the ﬂuxes through the surface. or called it Gauss’ Theorem (Carl Friedrich Gauss 30 April 1777 23 February 1855). the harmonic functions can be added or subtracted because inside the volume these functions contributions is eliminated throughout the volume.

R S d dR dS R (R · S ) = ·S + ·R dt dt dt And the the chain role for the cross operation is R S d dR dS R (R × S ) = ×S + ×R dt dt dt It follows that derivative (notice the similarity to scalar operations) of d dR R (R · R ) = 2 R dt at There are several identities that related to location.24) (A. There are several orthogonal coordinates which appears in ﬂuid mechanics operation which include this list: Cartesian coordinates.23) The ﬁrst part is zero because the cross product with itself is zero. the chain role is applicable.3. As in operation on scalar time derivative of dot or cross of constant velocity is zero. the most interesting is U d dU R (R × U ) = U × U + R × dt dt (A. VECTORS R · S = (xˆ + y 2 ˆ · (sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ can be written as i j) i j) R d (R · S ) d = dt dt It can be noticed that d x sin x + y 2 exp(y) R d (R · S ) = = dt dt dx d sin x d y 2 d y2 sin x + + exp(y) + exp(y) dt dt dt dt xˆ + y 2 ˆ · sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ i j i j 283 It can be noticed that the manipulation of the simple above example obeys the regular chain role. Parabolic cylindrical coordinates Paraboloidal coordinates. A. it can done for the cross product. Similarly.1. Cylindrical coordinates.1 Orthogonal Coordinates These vectors operations can appear in diﬀerent orthogonal coordinates system.A. Hence the chain role apply for dot operation. Ellipsoidal coordinates. Oblate spheroidal coordinates. and acceleration.1. Elliptic . Yet. Spherical coordinates. Parabolic coordinates. velocity. Prolate spheroidal coordinates. The results of operations of two vectors is similar to regular multiplication since the vectors operation obey “regular” addition and multiplication roles. The second part is zero because Newton law (acceleration is along the path of R).25) (A.

Historically. The coordinate θ is angle. r.28) The gradient in cylindrical coordinates is given by =r ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ +θ +z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (A. Note the advantage of cylindrical (polar) coordinates in description of geometry or location relative to a center point. The conversion between the Cartesian coordinate and the Cylindrical is r= x2 + y 2 θ = arctan y x y z=z (A.mcs.3. Conversation of the angel to units of length is done by length factor which is. These coordinates rer θ r duced the work. This kind sity uations occur in pipe ﬂow even if the pipe is not exactly symmetrical. Cylindrical Coordinates The cylindrical coordinates are commonz ality used in situations where there is line of e1 symmetry or kind of symmetry.st-and. Bispherical coordinates. θ. In Fig. in most cases.26) The reverse transformation is x = r cos θ y = r sin θ z=z (A. . Note that unite coordinates are denoted as r. The ﬁrst one represents the vector that is the direction of r while the second is the unit vector in the direction of the coordinate r.uk/Extras/Coolidge Polars. ”The Origin of Polar Coordinates”. The cylindrical coordinates are shown in Figure A.29) 3 Coolidge.27) The line element and volume element are ds = dr2 + (r dθ) + dz 2 2 dr r dθ dz (A. These three diﬀerent rs are some what similar to any of the Cartesian coordinate.3.ac. Bipolar cylindrical coordinates Conical coordinates. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS cylindrical coordinates. Cylindrical Coordinate System. American Mathematical Monthly 59: 7885. The new concept here is the length factor. x these coordinate were introduced for geometrical problems about 2000 years ago3 . The second coordinate θ has unite coordinate θ. Because there are so many coordinates system is reasonable to develop these operations for any for any coordinates system. http://www-history. the ﬁgure shows that the coordinates are r. because probθ x lem is reduced a two dimensions. Julian (1952).284 APPENDIX A. In this book the dimensional chapter shows that in physics that derivatives have to have same units in order to compare them or use them. → and z.html. Three common systems typical to ﬂuid mechanics will be presented and followed by a table and methods to present all the above equations. θ. and z. The meaning of − r and r are diﬀerent. Bi-cyclide coordinates and Cap-cyclide coordinates. -A. Flat-ring cyclide coordinates. in this case. Flat-disk cyclide coordinates. Toroidal coordinates.

The radius is the distance between the origin and the location.35) The gradient is =r ∂ ∂ ˆ1 ∂ + φ 1 +θ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. -A.30) (A. VECTORS The curl is written ×N = 1 ∂Nz ∂Nθ − r ∂θ ∂z 1 r The Laplacian is deﬁned by · = 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂ ∂r + 1 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 2 ∂θ 2 r ∂z r+ ∂Nr ∂Nz − ∂z ∂r ∂ (r Nθ ) ∂Nθ − ∂r ∂θ θ+ z 285 (A. boom explosion. Note that the ﬁrst angle (azimuth or longitude) θ range is between Fig. 0 < θ < 2 π while the second angle (colatitude) is only 0 < φ < π. The ﬁrst angle between projection on x − y plane and the positive x–axis. In ﬂuid y mechanics such situations exist in bubble dynamics.34) y = r sin φ sin θ z = r cos φ (A.33) Line element and element volume are ds = dr2 + (r cos θ dθ) + (r sin θ dφ) 2 2 dV = r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ (A. sound wave propagax tion etc. Spherical Coordinate System.A.1. The second angle is between the positive y–axis and the vector as shown in Figure ?? The conversion between Cartesian coordinates to Spherical coordinates x = r sin φ cos θ The reversed transformation is r= x2 + y 2 + z 2 φ = arccos z r (A.36) The divergence in spherical coordinate is ·N = 1 ∂ r2 Nr 1 ∂ (Nθ sin θ) 1 ∂Nφ + + r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A.4. A location is represented by a radius and two angles.31) (A.32) Spherical Coordinates z The spherical coordinates system is a φ r three-dimensional coordinates which is imθ provement or further modiﬁcations of the cylinφ r drical coordinates.37) . Spherical system used for z y x θ cases where spherical symmetry exist.

While the θ is the same the meaning is diﬀerent and diﬀerent notations need. there is dispute what with unit vectors. The units r and z are units ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ with length.41) Gradient The gradient in general coordinate for a scalar function T is the nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates as T = T T T e1 ∂T e2 ∂T e3 ∂T + + h1 ∂q 1 h2 ∂q 2 h3 ∂q 3 (A.42) .39) General Orthogonal Coordinates There are several orthogonal system and general form is needed.3.286 APPENDIX A. Since it is engineering book the h is adapted.40) The nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates is = e1 ∂ e2 ∂ e3 ∂ + + 1 2 h1 ∂q h2 ∂q h3 ∂q 3 (A. The derivative quantity will be denoted by q superscript. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The curl in spherical coordinates is ×N = 1 r sin θ 1 r 1 ∂ r2 ∂r ∂ (Nφ sin θ) ∂Nθ − ∂θ ∂φ 1 ∂Nr ∂ (rNφ ) − sin θ ∂φ ∂r ∂ ∂r 1 ∂ 2 sin θ ∂θ r r+ ˆ 1 ˆ θ + r ∂ ∂θ ∂ (rNθ ) ∂Nr − ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂2 r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2 (A. θ. However. -A.2. θ is lengthens unit vector and the coordinate distance coeﬃcient in this case Fig. Also note that the derivative of the coordinate in the case of cylindrical coordinate is ∂θ and unit ˆ vector is θ. the unit vectors are: r.5. In mathematics it is denoted as q while in engineering is denotes h. The coordinates distance coeﬃcient is in ase cre in e2 the change the diﬀerential to the actual distance. The general Orthogonal is r. The length of d d 2 = i=1 hk dq k 2 (A. The notation for the presentation is required general notation of the units vectors is ei and coordinates distance coeﬃcient is hi where 1 e1 q i is 1. and z . As in almost all cases.38) ˆ φ The Laplacian in spherical coordinates is 2 = r2 + sin θ + (A. For example in cylindrical coordinates. the proper notation for these coeﬃcients.

A.6.43) For general orthogonal coordinate system the curl is ∂ e1 ∂ (h3 N3 ) − 3 (h2 N2 ) + 2 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂ ∂ e3 ∂ ∂ (h1 N1 ) − 1 (h3 N3 ) + (h2 N2 ) − 2 (h1 N1 ) 3 1 ∂q ∂q h1 h2 ∂q ∂q ×N = e2 h3 h1 (A. Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender. 2 φ= + + Fig. 1 h1 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂q 287 (A. .1.44) The Laplacian of a scalar equals 1 ∂ h1 h2 h3 ∂q 1 h2 h3 ∂φ h1 ∂q 1 ∂ ∂q 2 h3 h1 ∂φ h2 ∂q 2 ∂ ∂q 3 h1 h2 ∂φ h3 ∂q 3 (A.45) The following table showing the diﬀerent values for selected orthogonal system. -A. VECTORS The divergence of a vector equals ·N = 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ (N1 h2 h3 ) + 2 (N2 h3 h1 ) + 3 (N3 h1 h2 ) .

ﬁrst derivative. the ﬁrst ODEs are easier to solve and they are the base for equations of higher order equation. Note that the derivatives are integers e. It is not intent to be a replacement to a standard textbook but as a quick reference.46) d An example of such linear operation L = dt + 1 acting on y is dy1 + y1 . A. The most general form is f u.47) 4 Note that mathematically. second derivative etc4 . .t dt =0 (A. Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) Orthogonal coordinates systems name Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical Paraboloidal Ellipsoidal Remarks 1 standard common common ? ? √ 1 1 1 u2 + v 2 √ h 2 1 r r u2 + v 2 3 1 1 r cos θ uv 1 x r r u λ q 2 y θ θ v µ 3 z z ϕ θ ν A.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) In this section a brief summary of ODE is presented. du .g. it is possible to deﬁne fraction of derivative. Ordinary diﬀerential equations are deﬁned by the order of the highest derivative. It is suggested that the reader interested in depth information should read “Diﬀerential Equations and Boundary Value Problems” by Boyce de–Prima or any other book in this area.288 APPENDIX A. If the highest derivative is ﬁrst order the equation is referred as ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation etc. However. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Table -A.2. ODE are categorized into linear and non-linear equations.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations As expect. The meaning of linear equation is that the operation is such that a L (u1 ) + b L (u2 ) = L (a u1 + b u2 ) (A. Or this dt dy2 operation on y2 is dt + y2 and the summation of operation the sum operation of +y L(y1 + y2 ) = y1dt 2 + y1 + y2 .1. The ﬁrst order equations have several forms and there is no one solution ﬁt all but families of solutions. there is no physical meaning to such a product according to this author believe.

c) can be transferred to u = c et For the initial condition of u(0) = u0 then u = u0 et End Solution 2 2 (1.1: Solve the following equation du = ut dt with the initial condition u(t = 0) = u0 .I. The initial condition is the value the function has at some points.2.b) (1.d) (1.I. u) dt 289 (A.48) can be written as F (t.48) can be written as du = X(t)dt U (u) (A.48) A.I.2 Variables Separation or Segregation In some cases equation (A.b) becomes du = u t dt =⇒ ln (u) + ln (c) = t2 2 (1.e) .I.2.I. Example A. The name initial condition is used because the values are given commonly at initial time.49) Equation can be integrated either analytically or numerically and the solution is du = U (u) X(t)dt (A.A.I.I.47) can be simpliﬁed to the ﬁrst form as du = F (t. (1. The separation yields du = t dt u The integration of equation (1. u) = X(t) U (u).50) The limits of the integral is (are) the initial condition(s).a) Solution The solution can be obtained by the variable separation method. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Sometimes equation (A. In that case it is said that F is spreadable and then equation (A.c) Equation (1.

57) e R g(x)dx (A. The general form of the equation is dy + g(x) y = m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.2.51) What is needed from N (x) is to provide a full diﬀerential such as N (x) dy d [N (x) g(x) y] + N (x) g(x) y = dx dx (A.2.52) (A.51) by unknown function N (x) transformed it to N (x) dy + N (x) g(x) y = N (x)m(x) dx (A.56) which indeed satisfy equation (A.1 APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The Integral Factor Equations Another method is referred to as integration factor which deals with a limited but very important class of equations.58) (A.52) becomes d [N (x) g(x) y] = N (x) m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.55) (A.59) N (x) A special case of g(t) = constant is shown next.57) by dx and integrating results in N (x) g(x) y = The solution is then N (x) m(x) dx y= g(x) N (x) m(x) dx (A. Thus equation (A.54) is integrated to be ln (N (x)) = g(x)dx =⇒ N (x) = e g(x)dx (A. .290 A.53). This family is part of a linear equations.54) Using the diﬀerentiation chain rule provides dv du du dx d N (x) =e dx g(x)dx g(x) (A.53) This condition (note that the previous methods is employed here) requires that d N (x) d N (x) = N (x) g(x) =⇒ = g(x) dx dx N (x) Equation (A.

2.2. Many non linear equations can be transformed into linear equations and then solved with the linear equation techniques. One such equation family is referred in the literature as the Bernoulli Equations5 .62) Example A. The actual solution is obtained by reversed equation which transferred solution to u = v (p−1) (A.a) to be confused with the Bernoulli equation without the s that referred to the energy equation.60) The transformation v = u1−p turns equation (A.61) The linearized equation can be solved using the linear methods.III.3 Non–Linear Equations Non-Linear equations are equations that the power of the function or the function derivative is not equal to one or their combination.60) into a linear equation which is dv + (1 − p) m(t) v = (1 − p) n(t) dt (A.3: Solve the following Bernoulli equation du + t2 u = sin(t) u3 dt 5 Not (1.59) provides y = e−x (ex + c) = 1 + c e−x End Solution A.2: Find the solution for a typical problem in ﬂuid mechanics (the problem of Stoke ﬂow or the parachute problem) of dy +y =1 dx Solution Substituting m(x) = 1 and g(x) = 1 into equation (A. This equation is non–linear part du + m(t)u = n(t) dt up (A.A. . ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 291 Example A.

b) equation (1.c) is u(t) = ce And the general solution is t3 − 3 −t3 3 1−p 1−p (1.4: Solve the equation du u = sin + dt t u4 − t4 t4 (1. The solution is then ln |t| = dv +c f (1.III. a t) dt (A.64) In another words if the substitution u = v t is inserted the function f become a function of only v it is homogeneous function.III.63) into t dv + v = f (1.65) Example A.III. For this case.III.a) .III.2. Example of such case u = u3 − t3 /t3 becomes u = v 3 + 1 . v) dt (A.63) for any real positive a.3.d) (1.IV.III. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS v = u2 (1.1 Homogeneous Equations Homogeneous function is given as du = f (u.292 Solution The transformation is APPENDIX A. v) − v (A.c) (1.e) private solution u= e e t3 3 sin (t) dt +c End Solution A.b) Using the deﬁnition (1. t) = f (a u.III. the transformation of u = v t transforms equation (A.a) becomes dv −2 t2 v = −2 sin(t) dt The homogeneous solution of equation (1.

a) Solution Segregating the variables to be du = u2 t2 dt (1. For this sort equations.2. The solution of this kind of equation is du = f (t) dt (A. In fact.IV.IV.b) (1. this kind of class of equations appears all over this book.e) A.2 Variables Separable Equations In ﬂuid mechanics and many other ﬁelds there are diﬀerential equations that referred to variables separable equations.IV.IV.c) (1.A.c) can be solved by variable separation as t dv = t dt sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v Integrating equation (1. it can be written that du = f (t)g(u) dt (A.5: Solve the following ODE du = −u2 t2 dt (1.IV.66) The main point is that f (t) and be segregated from g(u).67) g(u) Example A.2.3.IV.d) (1.d) results in dv t2 = +c sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v 2 The initial condition can be inserted via the boundary of the integral.V.V. End Solution 293 (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Solution Substituting u = v T yields du = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 dt or dv dv + v = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 =⇒ t = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v dt dt Now equation (1.b) .

and perturbation methods. Practically.V.2. the solution of the quadratic equation is a complex number which means that the solution has exponential and trigonometric functions as u = c1 eα t cos(βt) + c2 eα t sin(βt) (A.V.c) Rearranging equation (1.71) (A. There are additional methods such numerical analysis.2.72) . variable substitutions. Many of these methods will be eventually covered by this appendix. The simplest equations are with constant coeﬃcients such as a d2 u du +b + cu = 0 dt2 dt (A.d) End Solution A.c) becomes u= t3 −3 +c (1.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations The general idea of solving second order ODE is by converting them into ﬁrst order ODE. A. the second order ODE is transferred to ﬁrst order by substituting the one linear operator to two ﬁrst linear operators.294 APPENDIX A.70) In the case of b2 > 4 a c. One such case is the second order ODE with constant coeﬃcients. it is done by substituting est where s is characteristic constant and results in the quadratic equation a s2 + b s + s = 0 (A.68) In a way.V. transformation (like Laplace transform). MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Integrating equation (1.69) If b2 > 4 a c then there are two unique solutions for the quadratic equation and the general solution form is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t For the case of b2 = 4 a c the general solution is u = c1 es1 t + c2 t es1 t (A.3 Other Equations There are equations or methods that were not covered by the above methods.V.b) transformed into − 1 t3 = + c1 u 3 (1.3.

VI.VI.VI. Equations that not equal to zero in this form d2 u du (A. and −5. . the solution is u = k1 e−2 t + k2 e−5 t End Solution (1.74) Example A.b) are −2.A.2. If the function on the right hand side is polynomial than the solution is will n utotal = uh + i=1 up i (A.6: Solve the following ODE d2 u du +7 + 10 u = 0 dt2 dt (1.75) +b + c u = l(x) dt2 dt The solution of the homogeneous equation is zero that is the operation L(uh ) = 0.c) A.76) Where the solution uh is the solution of the homogeneous solution and up is the solution of the particular function l(x). where L is Linear operator. The additional solution of L(up ) is the total solution as a =0 L (utotal ) = L (uh ) +L (up ) =⇒ utotal = uh + up (A.b) (1.2.4.1 Non–Homogeneous Second ODE Homogeneous equation are equations that equal to zero. This fact can be used to solve non-homogeneous equation.77) The linearity of the operation creates the possibility of adding the solutions.a) Solution The characteristic equation is s2 + 7 s + 10 = 0 The solution of equation (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Where the real part is α= and the imaginary number is β= √ −b 2a 295 (A.VI.73) 4 a c − b2 2a (A. Thus.

VII. u.VII. Hence. ˙ ˙ ¨ equation (A.VII.VII.c) (1.78) then the equation (A.d) A.1 Segregation of Derivatives If the second order equation f (u. The derivative of u can be treated as a new function v and v = u. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Example A.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations Some of the techniques that were discussed in the previous section (ﬁrst order ODE) can be used for the second order ODE such as the variable separation.b) 6t + 5 36 18 t2 + 30 t + 19 108 9 t2 + 24 t + 17 54 (1.296 APPENDIX A.a) (1.79) .7: Solve the non-homogeneous equation d2 u du −5 + 6 u = t + t2 dt2 dt Solution The homogeneous solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t the particular solution for t is u(t) = and the particular solution of the t2 is u(t) = The total solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t + End Solution (1.78) can be integrated u u ˙ v f1 (u)u = ˙ u0 u0 ˙ f2 (u) u = ˙ ¨ v0 f2 (u) v ˙ (A. A.5.78) is referred to as a separable equation (some called it segregated equations). u) = 0 ˙ ¨ can be written or presented in the form f1 (u)u = f2 (u) u ˙ ˙ ¨ (A.2.2.

VIII. Note that the derivative initial condition is used once.81) author worked (better word toyed) in (with) this area during his master but to his shame he did not produce any papers on this issue. The papers are still his drawer and waiting to a spare time.d) can be rearranged as du = arcsin dt t u 3 3 2 u0 2 − u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 (A.A.b) After the integration equation (1.c) becomes 3 3 2 u 2 − u0 2 3 = cos (v0 ) − cos (v) = cos du0 dt − cos du dt (1.VIII. Example A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 297 The integration results in a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which should be dealt with the previous methods.8: Solve the equation √ du u − sin dt With the initial condition of u(0) = 0 and “dt”? Solution Rearranging the ODE to be √ du u = sin dt & √ and transformation to v is √ u du = sin (v) dv (1.2.c) du dt d dt & du dt du dt du dt (1.a) du dt du dt d2 u =0 dt2 (t = 0) = 0 What happen to the extra Thus the extra dt is disappeared and equation (1.80) Using the ﬁrst order separation method yields dt = 0 u0 du 2 3 3 arcsin u0 2 −u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 =0 =1 (A. It can be noticed that the function initial condition is used twice. 6 This .VIII.a) becomes u du = sin d (1. This equation family is not well discussed in mathematical textbooks6 .VIII.d) Equation (1.VIII. ﬁrst with initial integration and second with the second integration. The physical reason is that the equation represents a strong eﬀect of the function at a certain point such surface tension problems.VIII.VIII.

5.81) shows that initial condition of the function is used twice while the initial of the derivative is used only once.3 Energy Equation ODE It is non–linear because the second derivative is square and the function multiply the second derivative.2. u d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 =0 (A. End Solution A.5.2.82) where a is constant.298 APPENDIX A.83) results in 1 dv dt =v =⇒ = v dv a dt a (A.2 Full Derivative Case Equations Another example of special case or families of second order diﬀerential equations which is results of the energy integral equation derivations as u − au du dt d2u d t2 =0 (A.85) + c2 (A.88) . Bifurcation to two solutions leads t 1 du + c = v 2 =⇒ =± a 2 dt which can be integrated as u= ± a 2t + c1 dt = ± a 3 2t + c1 a 3 2 2t + c1 a (A. d dt u du dt =0 (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The solution (A.84) which can be solved with the previous methods. One solution is u = k1 and the second solution is obtained by solving 1 = a The transform of v = du dt du dt d2u d t2 (A.86) A.87) It can be noticed that that c2 is actually two diﬀerent constants because the plus minus signs.

This kind of diﬀerential equation has been studied in the last 30 years to some degree.2.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation There are situations where ﬂuid mechanics7 leads to third order diﬀerential equation.A. Solving Third Order Linear Diﬀerential Equations in Terms of Second Order Equations Mark van Hoeij 8 “On 7 The .IX.2.IX.IX. the linear third-order diﬀerential equation” Springer Berlin Heidelberg. The solution to constant coeﬃcients is relatively simple and will be presented here.91) The solution is assumed to be of the form of est which general third order polonium. Solution to more complicate linear equations with non constant coeﬃcient (function of t) can be solved sometimes by Laplace transform or reduction of the equation to second order Olivier Vallee8 . 1999. Example A.c) A.90) +u=0 (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) after integration u du = k1 dt 299 (A.b) (1.9: Show that the solution of u is − √ 3 d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 (A. Third unsteady energy equation in accelerated coordinate leads to a third order diﬀerential equation. The general form for constant coeﬃcient is d3 u d2 u du +a 2 +b + cu = 0 3 dt dt dt (A. the general solution is depend on the solution of third order polonium.a) √ 3 u √ du 3 k1 − u3 √ = t + k2 2 u √ du 3 k − u3 √1 = t + k2 2 (1. Thus.89) Further rearrangement and integration leads to the solution which is u2 = t + k2 2 k1 For non–homogeneous equation they can be integrated as well.

97) D = Q3 + R 2 and where the deﬁnitions of Q and R are Q= and R= 9a1 a2 − 27a3 − 2a1 3 54 3a2 − a1 2 9 (A.95) R+ √ D. derivation of the leading equation (results of the ode) is reduced into quadratic equation and thus the same situation exist.99) (A.98) (A. For the case D = 0.100) Only three roots can exist for the Mach angle.93) (A. Thus. When the characteristic equation solution has three diﬀerent real roots the solution of the diﬀerential equation is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + c3 es3 t (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS order polonium has always one real solution.101) . (A. θ. In the last case where D < 0. if D > 0.96) T = and where the D is deﬁned as 3 R− √ D (A. s3 + a1 s2 + a2 s + a3 = 0 The solution is 1 s1 = − a1 + (S + T ) 3 1 1 1 √ s2 = − a1 − (S + T ) + i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 and 1 1 √ 1 s3 = − a1 − (S + T ) − i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 Where S= 3 (A. From a mathematical point of view. one root is real and two roots are complex. all the roots are real and at least two are identical.92) (A.94) (A.300 APPENDIX A. all the roots are real and unequal.

Sometimes the ODE is fourth order or higher the general solution is based in idea that equation is reduced into a lower order. Generally.2.102) Similarly derivations for the case of three identical real roots.109) (A.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE The ODE and partial diﬀerential equations (PDE) can be of any integer order.A.108) . Inserting es t into the ODE an u(n) + an−1 u(n−1) + an−2 u(n−2) + · · · + a1 u + a0 u = 0 yields characteristic equation an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + · · · + a1 s + a0 = 0 (A. the equation d4 u − u = 0 =⇒ dt4 can be written as combination of d2 −1 dt2 d2 +1 u=0 dt2 or d2 +1 dt2 d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A. the solution is u = (c1 sin b1 + c2 cos b1 ) ea1 t + c3 es3 t (A. for constant coeﬃcients ODE can be transformed into multiplication of smaller order linear operations.104).105). The solution of equation (A.107) was discussed earlier.107) (A.104) The order of operation is irrelevant as shown in equation (A. For the case of only one real root.2.106) are the solutions of (A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) In the case the solution to the characteristic has two identical real roots u = (c1 + c2 t) es1 t + c3 es2 t 301 (A.106) and equation (A. For example. Thus the solution of d2 +1 u=0 dt2 with the solution of d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A. A.105) d4 −1 u=0 dt4 (A. The general procedure is based on the above concept but is some what simpler.103) Where a1 is the real part of the complex root and b1 imaginary part of the root.

b) With the roots of the equation (1.g.X. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS If The Solution of Characteristic Equation all roots are real and diﬀerent e.g.b) (these roots can be found using numerical methods or Descartes’ Rule) are s1. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi . Thus the solution is u = c1 et + e2 t (c2 sin (t) + c3 cos (t)) + e3 t (c4 sin (3 t) + c5 cos (3 t)) End Solution (1.X.g. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn The Solution of Diﬀerential Equation Is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = c1 + c2 t + · · · + ck tk−1 es1 t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 + ck+2 t + · · · + ck+ t −1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + ck+3 esk+3 t + · · · + cn esn t Example A. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots.302 APPENDIX A.d) . sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots. s1 = s2 = · · · = sk and some diﬀerent e.g. roots are similar and some real and diﬀerent e.a) (1.10: Solve the ﬁfth order ODE d5 u d4 u d3 u d2 u du − 11 4 + 57 3 − 149 2 + 192 − 90 u = 0 5 dt dt dt dt dt Solution The characteristic equation is s5 − 11 s4 + 57 s3 − 149 s2 + 192 s − 90 = 0 (1.X.X.X. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi and some real and diﬀerent e.2 s3.4 s5 = = = 3 ± 3i 2±i 1 (1. s1 = s2 = s3 = s4 · · · = sn all roots are real but some are identical e.c) The roots are two pairs of complex numbers and one real number.g.

The physical meaning of the these deﬁnition is that these equations have diﬀerent characterizations. Generally. When the discriminant . .3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations Partial Diﬀerential Equations (PDE) are diﬀerential equations which include function includes the partial derivatives of two or more variables. Partial diﬀerential equations are categorized by the order of highest derivative. Example of such equation is F (ut . As one might expect PDE are harder to solve.111) Where subscripts refers to derivative based on it.112) is similar to the equations for a conic geometry: axx x2 + axy x y + ayy y 2 + · · · = 0 (A. The nature of the solution is based whether the equation is elliptic parabolic and hyperbolic. the same can be done for a second-order PDE. The meaning for initial conditions is that of solution depends on some early points of the ﬂow (the solution).8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation dn u dn−1 u du + k1 tn−1 n−1 + · · · + kn−1 t + kn u = a x dtn dt dt The homogeneous equation can be generalized to k0 tn (A.112) The coeﬃcients axx . when the discriminant is zero the equation are called parabolic. Equation (A. the PDE solution is done by transforming the PDE to one or more ODE. Generally. For example. . However. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 303 A.3.2. ayy might depend upon ”x” and ”y”. ux = ∂u . Many situations in ﬂuid mechanics can be described by PDE equations. axy . The general second-order PDE in two independent variables has the form axx uxx + 2axy uxy + ayy uyy + · · · = 0 (A.110) To be continue A. ux . The solution of elliptic equations depends on the boundary conditions The solution of parabolic equations depends on the boundary conditions but as well on the initial conditions.) = 0 (A.113) In the same manner that conic geometry equations are classiﬁed are based on the discriminant a2 − 4 axx ayy . The disxy criminant can be function of the x and y and thus can change sign and thus the characteristic of the equation. sometimes similar deﬁnition can be applied for other order. One example of such equation is heat equation. .A. The hyperbolic equations are associated with method of characteristics because physical situations depends only on the initial conditions. Normally. Note that ∂x partial derivative also include mix of derivatives such as ux y. this characterization is done for for second order.

.117) A possible way the equation (A.116) Rearranging equation (A.. The equations that not mentioned above are elliptic which appear in ideal ﬂow and subsonic ﬂow and sub critical open channel ﬂow. the constant is denoted as λ and with this deﬁnition the PDE is reduced into two ODE. Is it possible that these terms not equal to a constant? The answer is no if the assumption of the solution is correct. However. A.1 First-order equations First order equation can be written as u = ax ∂u ∂u + ay + . the physics dictates this character and will be used in the book.115) The solution is assume to be u = Y (y) X(x) and substitute into the (A. Hence. If it turned that assumption is wrong the ratio is not constant. ∂x ∂x (A. In ﬂuid mechanics this kind equation appear in supersonic ﬂow or in supper critical ﬂow in open channel ﬂow. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is larger then zero the equation is referred as hyperbolic equations. An example of ﬁrst order equation is ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y (A. The ﬁrst equation is X function 1 ∂X(x) =λ X(x) ∂x The second ODE is for Y 1 ∂Y (y) = −λ Y (y) ∂y (A.304 APPENDIX A.118) Equations (A.119) and (A.115) results in Y (y) ∂X(x) ∂Y (y) + X(x) =0 ∂x ∂y (A.116) yields 1 ∂X(x) 1 ∂Y (y) + =0 X(x) ∂x Y (y) ∂y (A.3.119) (A. .114) The interpretation the equation characteristic is complicated.117) can exist is that these two term equal to a constant.118) are ODE that can be solved with the methods described before for certain boundary condition.

-A.by ﬁnding the quadrant 2 2 α that lies in) 2 α 1 + cos α =± (same as above) 2 2 α 1 − cos α sin α 6. = = (Law of Sines) a b c 1. Area of triangle = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c). tan = = 2 sin α 1 + cos α for formulas 3-6. sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − sin β cos α 3. tan 2α = 1 − tan2 α 4. and opposite angles α. a+b+c (Heron’s Formula) where s = 2 β a c γ b α Fig. sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α 2. The tringle angles sides. and c. sin α 1 − cos α =± (determine whether it is + or . b. Area of triangle = 1 a b sin γ 2 6.7. sin2 α = 4. . c2 = a2 + b2 − 2 a b cos γ (Law of Cosines) 5. respectively 5. β. cos 1 − 2 cos(2α) 2 1 + 2 cos(2α) 2. cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β 4. tan(α − β) = tan α + tan β 1 − tan α tan β tan α − tan β 1 + tan α tan β 1. and γ.4. tan(α + β) = 6. cos2 α = 2 sin α sin β sin γ 3.A. TRIGONOMETRY 305 A.4 Trigonometry These trigonometrical identities were set up by Keone Hon with slight modiﬁcation 1. cos 2α = cos2 x − sin2 x = 2 cos2 x − 1 = 1 − 2 sin2 x 2 tan α 3. consider the triangle with sides of length a. cos(α − β) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β 5. sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α 2.

306 APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS .

67 Boundary Layer. 3. 114 Diﬀerential analysis. 200 Add mass. 282 Gravity varying Ideal gas. 73. 263 G Gas–gas ﬂow. 183 Counter–current Pulse ﬂow. 178 Convective acceleration. 170 Averaged kinetic energy. 183 Cut–out shapes. 191 Euler equations. 177 Fixed ﬂuidized bed. 12 Accelerated system. 194 Energy equation Frictionless Flow. 78. 78. 248 Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem. 183 Averaged momentum energy. 180 Flow regime map. 249. 212 Correction factor. 246 Flow regimes in one pipe. 3 Atmospheric pressure. 7. 266 Counter–current ﬂow. 105 buoyant force. angular. 236 Flow out tank. 193 Rotating Coordinate System. 81 . 83 Acceleration. 79. 267 F First Law of Thermodynamics. 251 E Energy conservation. 267 Extended Open channel ﬂow. 157 Average Velocity Integral Analysis.SUBJECTS INDEX 307 Subjects Index A absolute viscosity. 68 Average Momentum. 99 Archimedes. 168. 80 eﬀective. 130 Density ratio. 265 Annular ﬂow. 143 bulk modulus. 104. 23. 168 Arc shape. 27 buoyancy. 201 D D’Alembert paradox. 168. 11 Divergence Theorem. 98 Cylindrical Coordinates. 249 Compressibility factor. 250 Forces Curved surfaces. 177 Energy Equation Accelerated System. 8. 11. 31 Conduction. 96 Free expansion. 77 Correction factor for averaged velocity. 199 dilettante. 11 Body force. 282 Double choking phenomenon. 281 Deformable control volume. 65. 112 C Co–current ﬂow. 80 Fully ﬂuidized bed. 85 Add Force. 78. 200 Add momentum. 82 Concentrating surfaces raise. 66. 24 Bulk modulus of mixtures. 193 Linear accelerate System. 178 Conservative force. 154 B Bingham’s model. 191 Steady State. 193 Convection. 68. 263 Flow ﬁrst mode. 199 External forces. 3 d‘Alembertian Operator.

122. 217 Moving boundary. 233 Concentric cylinders. 226 Non–deformable control volume. 267 Horizontal ﬂow. 225 Minimum velocity solid–liquid ﬂow. 93 pseudoplastic. 140 Limitation of the integral approach. 249 Hydrostatic pressure. 266 purely viscous ﬂuids. 282 horizontal counter–current ﬂow. 228 Multi–phase ﬂow. 83 Linear operations. 112. 199 Neutral moment Zero moment. 72 Isotropic viscosity. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Accelerated system. 80 Leibniz integral rule. 291 Normal stress. 120 Piezometric pressure. 75 Liquid–Liquid Regimes. 251 Reynolds Transport Theorem. 228 Moving surface. 289 Integral analysis big picture. 153 Momentum conservation. 236 Polynomial function. 249 Real gas. 11 M “Magniﬁcation factor”. 220 K Kinematic boundary condition. 73 Return path for ﬂow regimes. 212 Momentum equation R Radiation. 178 Rayleigh–Taylor instability. 200 Inverted manometer. 112 Neutral stable. 130 Non–Linear Equations. 26 Interfacial instability. 190 L Lapse rate. 288 Liquid phase. 73 Inclined manometer. 263 Poiseuille ﬂow. 262 Mixed ﬂuidized bed. 123 Newtonian ﬂuids. 122. 72 Mass velocity. 11 O Open channel ﬂow. 11 Pulse ﬂow. 282 . 101 Pressure center. 219 N Navier-Stokes equations. constant of integration. 100 I Ideal gas. 72 Initial condition. 283 Oscillating manometer. 252 H Harmonic function. 260 P Pendulum action. 263 Momentum Conservation. 212 Lockhart martinelli model. 1. 254 Metacentric point. 8 No–slip condition. 82 APPENDIX A. 155 index notation. 189 Linear acceleration. 113 Micro ﬂuids. 65. 80. 249 Orthogonal Coordinates. 227 Moving surface Free surface. 140 Divergence Theorem.308 Real gas. 248 Local acceleration. 245 Multiphase ﬂow against the gravity. 227 kinematic viscosity. 68 Pneumatic conveying. 148 Integral equation. 148 small picture.

213 symmetry. 277 Vectors Algebra. 227 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow Gas dynamics aspects. 119 stratiﬁed ﬂow. 261 Solid–solid ﬂow. 266 Vertical ﬂow. 78 Unsteady State Momentum. 248 T Tank emptying parameters. 249 W Watson’s method. 248 Spherical coordinates. 187 Terminal velocity. 104 cubic. 189 Total moment. 163 V Vapor pressure.SUBJECTS INDEX Rocket mechanics. 99. 281 Westinghouse patent. 255 Void Fraction. 78. 213 substantial derivative. 224 Segregated equations. 80. 278 Vertical counter–current ﬂow. 78. 255 Reversal ﬂow. 19 Wave Operator. 255 Liquid holdup. 191 Second viscosity coeﬃcient. 11 Torricelli’s equation. 255 309 S Scalar function. 82 Stability analysis. 267 Stable condition. 296 shear stress. 68 Variables Separation 1st equation. 262 Thermal pressure. 261 Solid–liquid ﬂow. 112 Stability in counter–current ﬂow. 224 Thermodynamical pressure. 250 Sutherland’s equation. 79 stability analysis. 268 . 96 Second Law of Thermodynamics. 107 Turbomachinary. 88 Transition to continuous. 293 Vectors. 214. 211 Superﬁcial velocity. 6 Slip condition range. 224 thixotropic. 66. 249 Stress tensor. 153 Triangle shape. 171 Two–Phase Gas superﬁcial velocity. 164 Slip velocity. 255 Quality of dryness. 264 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow. 216 transformation. 255 Wetness fraction. 12 U Unstable condition. 214 Cartesian coordinates.

Ernst Kraft Wilhelm. 246 Taylor. 4 S Stanton. 248 L Leibniz. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Authors Index B Bhuckingham.I. Osborne. 199 e Duckler. 4 . 189 F Fanning. Barr´. Jean Louis. 233 Poisson.. 299 C Cichilli. 282 T Taitle. 199 Prandtl. 282 Poiseuille. 199 G Ganguillet. 122 H Helmholtz. 4 Stokes. 4 Nusselt. Claude–Louis. G. 246 M Manning. 140 Lockhart. 4 E Evangelista Torricelli. 4 K Kutta-Joukowski. 4 Blasius. Hermann von. Carl Friedrich. George Gabriel. 199 Nikuradse. 259 R Rayleigh. 4 W Weisbach. 237 O Olivier Vallee. Simon-Denis. 4 Blasiu. 122 Reynolds. 4 D Darcy. 4 de Saint Venant. 4 V von Karman. 140 Rose. 4 Martinelli.310 APPENDIX A. 4 Westinghouse. 246. 4 Froude. 4. 246 Meye. 4 Gauss. 282 N Navier. 259 P Pierre-Simon Laplace. 4 Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky.

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