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# Basics of Fluid Mechanics

Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. 2729 West Jarvis Ave Chicago, IL 60645-1335 email:barmeir at gmail.com

Copyright © 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 by Genick Bar-Meir See the ﬁle copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions. Version (0.3.0.2 November 18, 2010)

‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”

from The Metalogicon by John in 1159

CONTENTS

Nomenclature GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . 2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS . . . 8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . . . . . . ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents How to contribute to this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steven from artofproblemsolving.com . . . . . . . . . . . Dan H. Olson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard Hackbarth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Herbolenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eliezer Bar-Meir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Henry Schoumertate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your name here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions . . . . . Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 189 size 2.6M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 0.1 April 22, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS pages 151 size 1.3M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xliii Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlix Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlix

1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? . . . . . 1.2 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Kinds of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids . . 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity . . . . 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity 1.6 Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Fluid Density . . . . . . . 1.6.2 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . 1.7 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.1 Wetting of Surfaces . . . .

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2 Review of Thermodynamics 2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Mechanics 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body . . . . . 3.2 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Actual Center of Mass . . . . 3.2.2 Aproximate Center of Area . . 3.3 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass . . 3.3.2 Moment of Inertia for Area . . 3.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia 3.3.4 Product of Inertia . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia . . . . 3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . 3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque . . . 3.5.1 Tables of geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Fluids Statics 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field . . 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field . 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field . . .

CONTENTS 4.3.4 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density . 4.3.6 Liquid Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid in a Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density . . Fluid Forces on Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buoyancy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rayleigh–Taylor Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v 76 80 82 83 83 85 87 87 96 104 111 121 122

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4.6

4.7

I

Integral Analysis

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129 129 130 131 133 133 140 142 148 151 153 153 153 154 155 155 156 160 163 164 171 172 175

5 Mass Conservation 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Control Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Non Deformable Control Volume . . . . . 5.3.2 Constant Density Fluids . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . 5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship 5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation . . . . . .

6 Momentum Conservation 6.1 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 External Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System . . 6.1.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow . 6.2 Momentum Equation Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow 6.2.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State . . . . 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Qualitative Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . . . . . 177 177 189 190 191 191 193 193 194 194 196

7 Energy Conservation 7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Energy Equation in Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State . 7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate . . . . . . . . 7.4.2 Linear Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System . . . . . 7.4.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform

II

Diﬀerential Analysis

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199 199 200 203 205 210 210 211 212 216 226 226 230 240 245 245 245 246 247 248 249 253 254 257 258 260 261 262 264

8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Mass Conservation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Conservation of General Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations 8.3.2 Examples of Generalized of Quantities . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (Navier-Stokes) . . . . . . . 8.7.1 Interfacial Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 What to Expect From This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . 9.5.1 Co–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . 9.7 Homogeneous Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.1 Pressure Loss Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8 Solid–Liquid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL . . . . 9.8.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS 9.9 Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . 9.9.1 Horizontal Counter–Current 9.9.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow 9.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii 265 267 268 275 277 277 278 280 282 288 288 289 291 294 296 299 301 303 303 304 305

A Mathematics For Fluid Mechanics A.1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors . . . . . . . . A.1.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations . . . . A.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Variables Separation or Segregation . . . . . . A.2.3 Non–Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . A.2.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations . . . . . . A.2.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation . . . . . . . A.2.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE . . . . . . . . . . A.2.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation A.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.1 First-order equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.4 Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Index 307 Subjects Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Authors Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

viii CONTENTS .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of wetting and non–wetting ﬂuids. Description of liquid surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of how the center of mass is calculated . . . . . . . . . . .21 3. . . . . .6 1. . The raising height as a function of the radii . . . . . . . . Surface tension control volume analysis . . . . . . . . Rotating disc in a steady state . . Forces in Contact angle . Nitrogen and Argon viscosity. . .LIST OF FIGURES 1. . . . . 2 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 17 18 21 25 29 30 32 32 34 36 37 50 51 52 53 54 ix . . . . . . .2 3. . .4 3. . . . . . . .5 1. . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Density as a function of the size of sample.15 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature . Two liquid layers under pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 1. . The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. . . . . .13 1. . . . . . . . . The raising height as a function of the radius . . . . . . . . .4 1. . .5 Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. . . . . .12 1. . . . . . . .7 1. . . Glass tube inserted into mercury . . . .19 1. . . . . . The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear stress . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. .18 1. . . . . . . . . .16 1. . . . . .14 1. . . . . . . . Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature . . . . . Water viscosity as a function temperature. . . . Description of the extinguish nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . The diﬀerence of power ﬂuids. . Air viscosity as a function of the temperature. .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . The shear stress as a function of the shear rate. .8 1. .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The schematic that explains the summation of moment of inertia. . . . . Thin body center of mass/area schematic. . . . .9 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 1. . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 1. . . . . . . . . .17 1. . . Schematics to describe the shear stress in ﬂuid mechanics .

.4 4. .25 4. . . Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. . The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. . . . . . . . . Polynomial shape dam description . . .7 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure lines in a static constant density ﬂuid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . The general forces acting on submerged area . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 . . . . . . . . . . .moment of inertia and center of area Triangle for example 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . A square element for the calculations of inertia. . . . . . . . . . The eﬀects of multi layers density on static forces . . . . . Schematic of a thin wall ﬂoating body . . . . . .10 3. . .33 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 4. . . . . . . . . . .11 3. . . . . . . . . . .34 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two adjoin layers for stability analysis . .13 4. . . . Schematic of sensitive measurement device. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The forces on curved area. .8 4.10 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 4. . . . . . . . . . .28 4. . . . The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart . . . Description of rectangular in x–y plane.21 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 4. . . . . . .6 4. . . . . . . . . Circular shape Dam . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 4. . . . . . . . .29 4. . .18 4. . . . . . Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane . . . . . . . . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x 3. . . . . .27 4. . .35 LIST OF FIGURES Cylinder with an element for calculation moment of inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. .9 4. . . . .9 3.14 4. . . . . . . .22 4. . . . . Rectangular area under pressure. . . . . . . . . . .20 4.19 4. . . . . . . . . . . . The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder . . . . . . Moment on arc element around Point “O” . Schematic to explain the angular angle . . . . . . . . . . The varying gravity eﬀects on density and pressure . . . . . . . .12 3. . Moment of inertia for rectangular . . . . .6 3. . . .8 3. . . . . . . Inverted manometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of parabola . . .24 4. . . . . Area above the dam arc calculation for the center. . . . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 4. . . . . .32 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. . . . . . . . . . . The ratio of the moment of inertia 2D to 3D. . A schematic to explain the atmospheric pressure measurement . . . . . Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. . . . .2 4. . . . . 55 55 56 56 57 57 58 60 65 68 68 69 70 72 72 75 78 80 84 84 85 85 86 87 88 89 91 92 95 96 97 98 99 100 100 102 102 104 105 105 111 111 112 Description of a ﬂuid element in accelerated system. . Schematic of ﬂoating cubic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 4. . . .31 4. . . . Schematic of Immersed Cylinder . . . . . Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body. . Schematic of gas measurement utilizing the “U” tube. Schematic of submerged area. . . . . . . . . . . Product of inertia for triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle. .12 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 4. . . . . . Inclined manometer . . . . A cart slide on inclined plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 4. The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .10 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three liquids layers under rotation . . . . . . . . Toy Sled pushed by the liquid jet . . . . Schematics of area impinged by a jet . . . . . . .8 5. . . 202 . . . . . . . . . .36 4. .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . xi 113 114 114 116 117 118 119 121 122 124 125 126 129 130 131 132 135 138 143 148 149 150 151 152 154 157 159 161 162 163 166 167 171 173 176 178 180 181 190 The explaination for the direction relative to surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piston control volume . .46 4. . .2 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A new control volume to ﬁnd the velocity in discharge tank .3 7. . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 4. . . . . Stability of two triangles put tougher . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. . . . . . . . . . Propeller schematic to explain the change of momentum . . . . . . . . . Filling of the bucket and choices of the control volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . The cross section of the interface for max liquid. . . .3 6. . . . . Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 4. . . . .12 6. . .5 6. . . . . Discharge from a Large Container . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . Schematic of a tank seating on wheels . . . A rocket with a moving control volume . . . . .39 4. . . . . . . . .6 5.43 4. .6 6. . . . . . . . . . The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram Nozzle schematics water rocket . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 5. .44 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . Kinetic Energy and Averaged Velocity Flow in an oscillating manometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocity for a circular shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body. . . . . . . . . . . .11 5. . . The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume .7 5. Height of the liquid for example 5.2 Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis. . . .10 6. . . . . . Control volume and system in motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . Control volume usage to calculate local averaged velocity Control volume and system in the motion . . . .9 6. . . . . . . . Boat for example 5. . . . . . . . Schematics of ﬂow in a pipe with varying density . The eﬀects of liquid movement on the GM . .41 4. . . . Boundary Layer control mass . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . .11 7. . . . . . . . . . . . Nozzle schematic for forces calculations . .7 6. . . . The work on the control volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 . . . . . . . . . The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio. . . . . .40 4. . . . . . . . . .9 5. . . . .4 . . . . . . . . Flow out of un symmetrical tank .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates . . . . . Schematics of velocities at the interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of depression to explain the Rayleigh–Taylor instability Description of depression to explain the instability . . . . . .

. . . A ﬂow map to explain the horizontal counter–current ﬂow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . The control volume in pipe ﬂow . . . . . . .17 8. . . . . . . . .12 9. . . . .13 9. . . . Deformations of diﬀerent rectangles . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–Dimensional free surface . .16 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular .9 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow driven by surface tension . One dimensional ﬂow with shear between plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 A. . . . . . . . . . . . Stress diagram on a tetrahedron shape . . . . . . . .11 8. . . . . . A diagram to explain the ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . Flow between two plates top moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear strain of the element . . . Cylindrical Coordinate System . . . Vector in Cartesian coordinates system . . . . . . . . . . .15 9. .5 8. . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender The tringle angles sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii 8. . . . . . . The general Orthogonal with unit vectors . .9 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spherical Coordinate System . Liquid ﬂow due to gravity . . . .3 9. . . . . . .7 Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. . . . . . The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow.16 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General forces diagram to calculated the in a two dimension geometry. . . . . . . Flow in kerosene lamp . . . . . . . .11 9.1 A. . . . The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . .3 A. . . . . . . . . . . .5 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 205 213 214 216 218 219 221 221 221 222 227 229 230 230 232 233 236 238 240 247 249 250 250 251 252 253 263 264 265 266 266 267 268 268 274 277 278 284 285 286 287 305 8. . . . . . Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. . . . .14 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . The right hand rule . . . . . . . . .13 8. . . . . . . . Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes with the liquids ﬂow is faster. . . . . . . . . . . Diagram to analysis the shear stress tensor . . . . . .10 9. .14 8. . . .4 A. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. . . . . . . . . . .7 9. . . . . Image of counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas/solid–gas conﬁgurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Deformations of the straight angle triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . . . .19 8. Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the liquids ﬂow is very slow. . . . . . . . . . . . The terminal velocity that left the solid particles.5 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A dimensional vertical ﬂow map low gravity against gravity. . Mass ﬂow in coating process . . . . . . . . . . . . Flood in vertical pipe. Counter–current ﬂow in a can. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 A. . . . . . . .18 8. . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 9. . .10 LIST OF FIGURES Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . .15 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow of Liquid between concentric cylinders .7 8. . . . . Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . Moments of Inertia full shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties at the critical stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. . . The surface tension for selected materials. .1 1. . . . . .1 3. . .2 1. . . .5 1. . 288 xiii . . . . . . . . . . . . The contact angle for air/water with selected materials. . . . Viscosity of selected liquids . . . . . xl 13 13 14 15 23 33 38 39 40 46 63 64 Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . continue . . . . . . . . . . . . Bulk modulus for selected materials . . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) . Viscosity of selected gases .LIST OF TABLES 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . A. . . .2 Books Under Potto Project . . . . . . . . . . . continue . . . .

xiv LIST OF TABLES .

23). see equation (4. see equation (2. page 65 Body force. page 45 Speciﬁc volume heat. see equation (2.v..11).26). page 42 Internal Energy per unit mass. page 41 M µ µ0 F ext U Ξ A a Bf c. page 155 The velocity taken with the direction. see equation (4.9). page 12 External forces by non–ﬂuids means.6). see equation (6. see equation (2.22). page 261 The area of surface. page 153 Martinelli parameter.0). see equation (2.1). page 43 subscribe for control volume.38). see equation (2. page 42 xv . see equation (1.17).121). see equation (6. see equation (6. page 97 The acceleration of object or system. see equation (2.3).NOMENCLATURE ¯ R τ Universal gas constant. page 171 viscosity at input temperature T. see equation (9. see equation (1.43).7). page 45 Internal energy. page 12 reference viscosity at reference temperature.17). see equation (2. see equation (6. page 130 Speciﬁc pressure heat. Cp Cv EU Eu Angular Momentum.1). Ti0 . page 154 Units length.0). see equation (5. page 45 The shear stress Tenser.

page 81 general Body force.24). page 12 input temperature in degrees Kelvin. page 44 Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1. see equation (5. page 62 reference temperature in degrees Kelvin. page 178 Angular momentum. page 67 Subscribe says. see equation (4. page 45 Fluid thermal conductivity. page 42 The energy transfered to the system between state 1 and state 2. page 12 velocity .18).4). see equation (3.1.89). see equation (2. see equation (1.17). see equation (4.2). see equation (2. see equation (2. see equation (7. see equation (2. see equation (1.66).17).3).xvi Ei G gG H h k kT L System energy at state i. see equation (1.40).0).14). see equation (2. page 42 The gravitation constant. page 61 LIST OF TABLES Patmos Atmospheric Pressure. page 42 The work done by the system between state 1 and state 2. see equation (2.2). see equation (2. page 65 Enthalpy.6).27). page 42 Work per unit mass. see equation (2.13). see equation (4. see equation (3.18). page 12 Torque. page 89 q Q12 R S Suth Tτ Ti0 Tin U w W12 z says Energy per unit mass. page 42 the coordinate in z direction.2). see equation (4. see equation (2.0).6). page 42 Speciﬁc gas constant.17).42). page 44 the ratio of the speciﬁc heats. page 46 Entropy of the system. see equation (2. page 130 . see equation (2. page 44 Speciﬁc enthalpy.

3.com.3.2 Nov 19.The Book Change Log Version 0.3 M 358 pages) Build the chapter log ﬁle for latex (macro) process Steven from www. Version 0. Addtion of several examples. Add several examples on surface tension. 2010 (3. Add discussion change of bulk modulus of mixture.0. Improvement of properties chapter. xvii . Add discussion change of density on buck modulus calculations as example as integral equation.0. 2010 (3.1 Nov 12.3 M 362 pages) Further imporved the script for the chapter log ﬁle for latex (macro) process. Improve English in several chapters.artofproblemsolving. Improve English in several chapters. Minimal discussion of converting integral equation to diﬀerential equations.

0 Oct 24.3 M 338 pages) Initial release of the diﬀerential equations chapter.2. Add example.9.6 March 10. Improve the emphasis macro for the important equation and useful equation. 2010 (3. 2010 (3. 2010 (3.0.2.3 M 344 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Thermo chapter. change to the new empheq format and improve cylinder ﬁgure. Add example of falling liquid gravity as driving force in presence of shear stress.9 M 280 pages) add example to Mechanical Chapter and some spelling corrected. Minor correction to to the wording in page 11 viscosity density issue (thanks to Prashant Balan). Correct the ideal gas relationship typo thanks to Michal Zadrozny.2.3. Improve English in static and mostly in diﬀerential analysis chapter.1 Oct 11. 2010 (2.3 M 354 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Static chapter. Version 0. Add discussion about inclined manometer Improve many ﬁgures and equations in Static chapter.xviii LIST OF TABLES Version 0. Add example to dif chap on concentric cylinders poiseuille ﬂow. Version 0. . Add to the appendix the diﬀerentiation of vector operations. Version 0.9 Sep 20.

Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir . English corrections.9 M 280 pages) The energy conservation chapter was released. Add the macro to improve emphases equation thanks to Steven from www. English corrections.1. English corrections. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0.8 M 241 pages) The momentum conservation chapter was released. Some additions to momentum conservation chapter.9 Dec 01.com. Corrections to Static Chapter. Some additions to mass conservation chapter on averaged velocity. Two open questions were released.com. Add the macro protect to insert ﬁgure in lower right corner thanks to Steven from www.artofproblemsolving.LIST OF TABLES xix Version 0. 2009 (2. Additions to the mathematical appendix on variables separation in second order ode equations.com. Add the open question concept.artofproblemsolving. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0. Add example on angular rotation to statics chapter.6 M 219 pages) The mass conservation chapter was released. Add the macro ekes to equations in examples thanks to Steven from www.2. 2010 (2. Add example about the the third component of the velocity.2. 2010 (2. Additions to the mathematical appendix on vector algebra.3 Jan 01. Add Reynold’s Transform explanation.4 March 01.artofproblemsolving.

8a July 5. . Remove the multiphase chapter (it is not for public consumption yet). Version 0.5 Nov 01.1 Sep 17. Version 0.1. 2009 (2.1. Add the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. 2008 (1. Improve the dwarﬁng macro to allow ﬂexibility with sub title.6 Jun 30. Improve the Index (thanks to Irene). Version 0. Correcting the gas properties tables (thanks to Heru and Micheal) Move the gas tables to common area to all the books.5 M 203 pages) First true draft for the mass conservation. 2008 (2.8. Version 0.4 M 189 pages) Add the chapter on introduction to muli–phase ﬂow Again additional improvement to the index (thanks to Irene).6 M 183 pages) Fixing some long titles issues. 2009 (2.5 M 197 pages) Continue ﬁxing the long titles issues. Improve the doChap scrip to break up the book to chapters.8 Aug 6.1.1.3 M 151 pages) Fix the English in the introduction chapter.8.xx LIST OF TABLES Version 0.1. Add the ﬁrst draft of the temperature-velocity diagram to the Therm’s chapter. Add some examples to static chapter. 2009 (2. Add an example to mechanics chapter. (thanks to Tousher).

4 M 155 pages) Add the constant table list for the introduction chapter. Add the product of inertia to mechanics chapter. viscosity and other properties of ﬂuid. 2008 Version 0.5 Jun 5.1.1.1. Version 0.1a April 23.1a April 23.1 May 8. Version 0. Fix minor issues (English) in the introduction chapter.4 M 149 pages) Add the introduction. 2008 (1.LIST OF TABLES xxi Version 0. Version 0. 2008 (1. The static chapter was released (the most extensive and detailed chapter). Fix very minor issues (English) in the static chapter.1 M 111 pages) Major English corrections for the three chapters. 2008 The Thermodynamics chapter was released. . The mechanics chapter was released. 2008 (1.5a Jun 11. Minor corrections for all three chapters.

xxii LIST OF TABLES .

Boston. you are required to furnish the author with two (2) copies of the printed book. 51 Franklin St. this License preserves for the author and xxiii . textbook. The change of the license is to prevent from situations that the author has to buy his own book. either commercially or noncommercially. but changing it is not allowed. November 2002 Copyright ©2000.2001. Preamble The purpose of this License is to make a manual. Fifth Floor.” Version 1. or other functional and useful document ”free” in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the eﬀective freedom to copy and redistribute it.2. ”If you print more than 200 copies.Notice of Copyright For This Document: This document is published under modiﬁed FDL. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. Secondarily. The Potto Project License doesn’t long apply to this document and associated docoments. GNU Free Documentation License The modiﬁcation is that under section 3 “copying in quantity” should be add in the end.2002 Free Software Foundation. Inc. with or without modifying it.

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and no BackCover Texts. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents To use this License in a document you have written. replace the ”with. and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. with no Invariant Sections. If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If you have Invariant Sections.Texts. merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.” line with this: with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ”GNU Free Documentation License”. such as the GNU General Public License. to permit their use in free software. with the FrontCover Texts being LIST.xxx LIST OF TABLES version” applies to it. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that speciﬁed version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. . we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license.. include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page: Copyright ©YEAR YOUR NAME. Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts. or some other combination of the three. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License.. Permission is granted to copy. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code. you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. no Front-Cover Texts. Version 1. distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.

you must follow the same guidelines as for any other GDL copyrighted work. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge. etc. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as ”minor. contact info. just smaller in the sense of less text changed. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own. date.com Steven from artofproblemsolving. and resources to make this a better book! Date(s) of contribution(s): 1999 to present Nature of contribution: Original author.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s).CONTRIBUTOR LIST How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work. this book is open to revisions and expansions by any interested parties. time. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted. etc. Minor contributions (typo corrections.com Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005. Dec. The only ”catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due. Credits All entries have been arranged in alphabetical order of surname (hopefully. 2009 xxxi . Contact at: barmeir at gmail.” it is in no way inferior to the eﬀort or value of a ”major” contribution.

xxxii LIST OF TABLES Nature of contribution: LaTeX formatting. John Herbolenes Date(s) of contribution(s): August 2009 Nature of contribution: Provide some example for the static chapter.net . Dec 2009 Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Mass. Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Momentum. Dan H. Henry Schoumertate Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Discussion on the mathematics of Reynolds Transforms. Eliezer Bar-Meir Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009. Your name here Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution Nature of contribution: Insert text here. describing how you contributed to the book. Contact at: my email@provider. Richard Hackbarth Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. help on building the useful equation and important equation macros. Nature of contribution: In 2009 creating the exEq macro to have diﬀerent counter for example. Olson Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English.

CREDITS xxxiii Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions R.38) by Michal Zadrozny. help with the original img macro and other ( LaTeX issues). Corretion to equation (2. January 2008. Gupta. Tousher Yang April 2008. (Nov 2010) . review of statics and thermo chapters. (Nov 2010) Corretion to wording in viscosity density Prashant Balan.

xxxiv LIST OF TABLES .

As the change in the view occurred. Dr. He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models. the author’s models were used in numerical works. In his early part of his professional life. and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD97-2333 grants for minor aspects of that models. books and software. The author enjoys to encourage his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams.E. Currently. For example. this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas. application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc. British industry. the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP97-0489 and PB98-0007. These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants).About This Author Genick Bar-Meir holds a Ph. and Canada. it was commonly believed and taught that there is only weak and strong shock and it is continue by Prandtl–Meyer function. Moreover.D. in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. Bar-Meir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability. R. in GM. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the ﬁeld of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes ﬂuid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design. he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and softwares for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue). Bar-Meir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers. Bar– 1 Where the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists.G. All the models have practical applicability. the critical piston velocity in a partially ﬁlled chamber (related to hydraulic jump). Eckert. Spain. xxxv . Bar-Meir was the last student of the late Dr. In the area of compressible ﬂow. Now. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 .

he often feels clueless about computers and programing. Bar-Meir demonstrated that ﬂuids must have wavy surface when the materials ﬂow together. In his book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics”. practically from scratch. The common explanation to Prandtl–Meyer function shows that ﬂow can turn in a sharp corner. .xxxvi LIST OF TABLES Meir discovered the analytical solution for oblique shock and showed that there is a quiet buﬀer between the oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer. He built a model to explain the ﬂooding problem (two phase ﬂow) based on the physics. The author lives with his wife and three children. Engineers have constructed design that based on this conclusion. The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea oﬃcer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground. While he is known to look like he knows about many things. He also constructed and explained many new categories for two ﬂow regimes. Bar-Meir demonstrated that common Prandtl–Meyer explanation violates the conservation of mass and therefor the turn must be around a ﬁnite radius. He also build analytical solution to several moving shock cases. the author just know to learn quickly. All the previous models for the ﬂooding phenomenon did not have a physical explanation to the dryness. He described and categorized the ﬁlling and evacuating of chamber by compressible ﬂuid in which he also found analytical solutions to cases where the working ﬂuid was ideal gas. A past project of his was building a four stories house. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores. The author’s explanations on missing diameter and other issues in fanno ﬂow and ““naughty professor’s question”” are used in the industry.

harvard. when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal ﬁrm. but also by coming to understand and be able to solve 2 After the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v. The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system. There is always someone who can add to the book. The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals. Writing a book in the technical ﬁeld is not the same as writing a novel. punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work. It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation. the creation of the POTTO Project. said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness. The Potto Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges.law. It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States). judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work. The study of technical material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material.edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft for more information) copyrights practically remain indeﬁnitely with the holder (not the creator). On one hand. The ﬁrst issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. As R. Ashcroﬀ (see http://cyber. one should increase wisdom.Prologue For The POTTO Project This books series was born out of frustrations in two respects. like an open source. 3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see http://en.wikipedia. The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice. This project is to increase wisdom and humility. particularly the copyright law with the “inﬁnite2 ” time with the copyright holders. the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand. xxxvii . However. is a new idea3 . It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped. Hence.org/wiki/Main Page). As individuals we have to obey the law. Kook. one of this author’s sages.

but also students who happened to be doing their homework. The answer varies from individual to individual. contributing to these books will help one to understand the material better. 77:139. 1989 (see for information http://www. ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence. For some contributors/authors. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises.” American Scientist. Whatever the reasons. the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence. For others. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject. The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections. To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted. One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the profession. the writing of or contributing to this kind of books will serve as a social function. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software 4 see also in Franks.ex. the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material. Thus. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books. If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identiﬁed. For some authors. In these cases.. It is not just for experts to contribute. When an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking.ac. in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected ﬁeld. they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. the books on compressible ﬂow and die casting became the most popular books in their respective area. In a way. The social function can have at least two components.xxxviii LIST OF TABLES related problems. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds. The desire to be an author of a well–known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the eﬀort. For example. The student’s contributions can be done by adding a question and perhaps the solution.uk/bugclub/raiders. the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private aﬀair. One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. so can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself. Thus. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that speciﬁc section (even within question/answer sections). one also begins to better understand the material. It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books. While one can be as creative as possible. Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the ﬁrst question the undersigned was asked.html) . For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks. While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey. The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics. Nigel R. the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful intelligence to carry out this attack4 . there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material.

These books contain innovative ideas which make some chapters the best in the world. The combined number downloads of these books is over half a million (December 2009) or in a rate of 20. Unlike a regular book. In the last 5 years three textbooks have been constructed which are available for download. For example. the chapters on Fanno ﬂow and Oblique shock contain many original ideas such as the full analytical solution to the oblique shock. Additionally. contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book. many algorithms for calculating Fanno ﬂow parameters which are not found in any other book. Nevertheless. The book on compressible ﬂow is also used by “young engineers and scientists” in NASA according to Dr. But more than that. these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving. graphs and etc. chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written. the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts. while in other cases only the gate keeper. better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books.) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it. This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper). It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book. Thus. Potto has auxiliary materials such as the gas dynamics tables (the largest compressible ﬂow tables collection in the world). In addition. Potto books on compressible ﬂow and ﬂuid mechanics are used as the main textbook or as a reference book in several universities around the world. The books are used in more than 165 diﬀerent countries around the world.000 copies a month. NASA Langley Research Center.CREDITS xxxix process. These data (tables. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work. It is hoped that the books will be error-free.” In this process. These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the books with time (the organizer(s)). the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book. Farassat. Gas Dynamics Calculator (Potto-GDC). Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “ﬂesh and skin. Every month people from about 110 diﬀerent countries download these books. other books contain data5 which can be typeset in A LTEX. etc. Even if not complete. The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas: 5 Data are not copyrighted. some errors are possible and expected. Thus. These books should be considered more as a project than to ﬁt the traditional deﬁnition of “plain” books. .

0 0.xl Table -1.0.3 0.0.0 0. Books under development in Potto project. in Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage.0. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written. traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s). etc. and special cases.4.0. a process in which books . and the Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active. LIST OF TABLES Project Name Compressible Flow Die Casting Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Progress beta alpha NSY alpha NSY Remarks Version 0.0.0.0 0. But such a thing is hard to deﬁne and should be enough for this stage.1 0. While some terms are deﬁned in a relatively clear fashion.2 0.0. ﬁgures.8.0.01 TelAviv’notes 0.1. advanced topics. However.) are already presented.0. The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as numerous examples for every section. other deﬁnitions give merely a hint on the status. in Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form.1 0. The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept.0 NSY = Not Started Yet The meaning of the progress is as: The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in a rough draft. and all of the examples and data (tables.0 Based on Eckert Availability for Public Download Mechanics Open Channel Flow Statics Strength of Material Thermodynamics Two/Multi ﬂow phases NSY NSY early alpha NSY early alpha NSY ﬁrst chapter 0. but it has roots in the way science progresses.0 0.

pieces of material and data can be used by diﬀerent books. Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects. because of the open nature of this project. These chores can be done independently from each other and by more than one individual. who passed way some years ago.. many of whom volunteered to help. the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. Abiword. and perhaps troﬀ. and writing the A LTEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format. Schlichting. and Microsoft Word software. creating diagrams and ﬁgures. have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for A these writings.e. such as OpenOﬃce. only LTEX. Again. Word processors. But more A than that. writing examples. especially LTEX. i. any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software. are not appropriate for these projects. which include the actual writing of the text. are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality. A new version is created every several years. Further.CREDITS xli have a new version every a few years. There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away. The text processes. . However. projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative eﬀort of many individuals. 6 Originally authored by Dr. 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project.

xlii LIST OF TABLES .

The number of downloads of this book results from this quality. Version 0.3M The topic of ﬂuid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering.8 August 6.1 April 22. it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering. This author was bothered by this explanation. so much energy). the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all. it was proven that this wavy interface is created due to the need to satisfy the continuous velocity and shear stress at the interface and not a disturbance. number of downloads per month is about 5000 copies. chemical engineering. Even in this early development stage. he spend time to study the wave phenomenon at the interface of open channel ﬂow. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the xliii . While it is a hard work to discover and develop and bring this information to the students. and electrical engineering. 2008 pages 189 size 2. While the emphasis is somewhat diﬀerent in this book. Potto project books are characterized by high quality which marked by presentation of the new developments and clear explanations. This issue is related to renewal energy of extracting energy from brine solution (think about the Dead Sea. This explanation (on the wavy interface) demonstrates this characteristic of Potto project books. in this version. it is very satisfying for the author. The introduction to multi–phase is another example to this quality. aerospace engineering.6M When this author was an undergraduate student. The common explanation to the wave existence was that there is always a disturbance which causes instability. In fact. Now.Prologue For This Book Version 0. and civil engineering. 2008 pages 151 size 1.1.

this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc). Ernst Schmidt. met its opposition. deals with a basic introduction to the ﬂuid properties and concepts (under construction). POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. ideal ﬂow will be presented with the issues of added mass and added forces (under construction). dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction). With all the above. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics. as a traditional textbook. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E. The book is organized into several chapters which. show me what is wrong”. An introduction to multi–phase ﬂow.xliv LIST OF TABLES previous geniuses who work in this ﬁeld. The topic of ﬂuid mechanics was chosen just to ﬁll the introduction chapter to compressible ﬂow. At this stage. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one. Clearly. When the Static Chapter was written. Indeed. and their colleagues. however. . However.R. must be taught in engineering classes. Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. In this book it is hoped to insert. One of the diﬀerence in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase ﬂow. this is the only reply. Today.G. Up to Egret’s book. aside from his research activity. In writing the chapter on ﬂuid statics. This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. the previous book. it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the ﬁeld but change some of the way things are taught. The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. multiphase is an advance topic. The next two chapters will deals with open channel ﬂow and gas dynamics. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. on compressible ﬂow. wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. not a traditional topic. he just doesn’t know from where and what. there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic. It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase ﬂuid. His book met strong criticism in which some called to “burn” his book. Eckert. what and when a certain model is suitable than other models. As traditional texts in this ﬁeld. For example. Eckert. The next topic is statics. anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing. there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is wrong. will be presented next (again under construction).

The chapters are not written in order. and is copyleft by him. this book avoids this kind of issues. The approach adapted in this book is practical. After a while it seems that is easier to write a whole book than the two original planned chapters. Streeter and Wylie. There are numerous books on ﬂuid mechanics but none of which is open content. The ﬁrst 4 chapters were written ﬁrst because they were supposed to be modiﬁed and used as ﬂuid mechanics introduction in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow.How This Book Was Written This book started because I needed an introduction to the compressible ﬂow book. The presentation of some of the chapters is slightly diﬀerent from other books because the usability of the computers.” Later. it was assumed that introductory book on ﬂuid mechanics should not contained many new ideas but should be modern in the material presentation. The book does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provides the graphical explanation of things. this book was written on Linux (Micro$oftLess book). Of course. Otherwise. The ﬁgure in cover page was created by Genick Bar-Meir. So. multi–phase ﬂow chapter was written. and more hands–on approach. The graphics were done by TGIF. and Shames books were adapted and used as a scaﬀolding for this book. In writing this book. The structure of Hansen. This statement really meant that the book is intent to be used by students to solve their exams and also used by practitioners when they search for solutions for practical problems. the best graphic program that this author experienced so far. issue of proofs so and so are here only either to explain a point or have a solution of exams. a program that currently cannot be used on new Linux systems. and hope to ﬁnd a way to use gaspell. xlv . This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). The ﬁgures were done by gle. This author was inﬂuenced by Streeter and Wylie book which was his undergrad textbooks. The spell checking was done by ispell.

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Nevertheless. and emptiness was upon the face and files. naturally. of the bits moved upon said. etc. marked with a Mata mark. say. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus. the power and glory of the mighty God. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the ﬂuid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. Like all volunteer work. And the Author there be words. Basics of Fluid Mechanics. the book is not well organized. This book contains many worked examples. increase your understanding of the many aspects of ﬂuid mechanics. this manuscript is ﬁrst and foremost a textbook. 9 At 8 To xlvii . I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are. the present. I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future. I believe professionals working in many engineering ﬁelds will beneﬁt from this information." 8 . Moreover. Let This book. statics’ equations. This book is only to explain his power. and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress. This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. and there were words.9 Reading everything will. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to perfect them. And the Fingers of the Author the face of the keyboard. I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book. due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations. rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task. I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. which can be very useful for many. without form. describes the fundamentals of ﬂuid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others. These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped. there is a limit on how much eﬀort I was able to put into the book and its organization. For example.Preface "In the beginning. you can read just chapter (4). physics. if you need information about. The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. the POTTO project was and void. However.

I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed). graphic ability. R.com”. If you have Internet e-mail access. this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism. The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed. This material never went through a close content review. While close content peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. or proofreading. However. errors. editing. A I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing. I also would like to thank to Jannie McRotien (Open Channel Flow chapter) and Tousher Yang for their advices. ideas. Incorrect language. While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction.com”. I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. I would like to especially thank to my adviser. They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. Eckert. whose work was the inspiration for this book. graphic design.xlviii LIST OF TABLES Furthermore. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well. In practice. Dr. E. directly or indirectly. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your comment(s). I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one. There are also notes in the margin. but those are solely for the author’s purposes. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement. you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail. I am particularly interested in the best arrangement of the book. isn’t it?). Several people have helped me with this book. other email that imply that someone will take care of this author aren’t appreciated. ideas for new areas to cover. 10 Dr. Naturally. it brought or cause the expansion of the explanation for the oblique shock. ignore them please. rewritten sections. LTEX knowledge. You may contact me via Email at “barmeir@gmail. I am interested in it all. . this book contains material that never was published before (sorry cannot avoid it). If you want to be involved in the editing. please drop me a line. Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall10 . and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project. more mathematics (or less mathematics). literature review is always good. and assistance. G. Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. more fundamental material.

there are speciﬁc issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein. Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved. many chapters are missing. Additional material can be provided to give a diﬀerent angle on the issue at hand. At this stage. mistakes. There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. Material can be further illuminate. Some parts were taken from Fundamentals of Die Casting Design book and are in a process of improvement. It is hoped the A changes in TEX and LTEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. It is hoped that the style ﬁle will be converged to the ﬁnal form rapidly. approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this Meta sample this part. Nevertheless. illustration or photo of experiment. Meta End You are always welcome to add a new material: problem. Properties The chapter isn’t in development stage yet. xlix . These omissions. question.To Do List and Road Map This book isn’t complete and probably never will be completed. Speciﬁc missing parts from every chapters are discussed below. Open Channel Flow The chapter isn’t in the development stage yet.

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Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces. After it was established that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. Furthermore. but a closer look reveals that the glass is a liquid with a large viscosity. In fact. It is known that these materials have the ability to drown people. Materials like sand (some call it quick sand) and grains should be treated as liquids. The ﬂuid mechanics study involve many ﬁelds that have no clear boundary between them. A proof of the glass “liquidity” is the change of the glass thickness in high windows in European Churches after hundred years. ﬂuid statics. motions. the discussion in this book is limited to simple and (mostly) Newtonian (sometimes power ﬂuids) ﬂuids which will be deﬁned later.1 for the complex relationships between the diﬀerent branches which only part of it should be drawn in the same time. or ﬂow round bodies (solid or otherwise). almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a ﬂuid mechanics problem. This study area deals with many and diversiﬁed problems such as surface tension.).CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1. Researchers distinguish between orderly ﬂow and chaotic ﬂow as the laminar ﬂow and the turbulent ﬂow. ﬂow in enclose bodies. glass appears as a solid material. The ﬂuid mechanics can also be distinguish between a single phase ﬂow and multiphase ﬂow (ﬂow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material). etc. the boundary between the solid mechanics and ﬂuid mechanics is some kind of gray shed and not a sharp distinction (see Figure 1. ﬂow stability. and statical conditions in continuous material. For example. The last boundary (as all the boundaries in ﬂuid mechanics) 1 . Even material such as aluminum just below the mushy zone also behaves as a liquid similarly to butter.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all ﬂuids under static and dynamic situations. The bottom part of the glass is thicker than the top part.

ﬂow with two phases (or materials) can be treated as a single phase (for example.1. the study must make arbitrary boundaries between ﬁelds. engineers in software company (EKK Inc. air with dust particle). Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches.com/HTML ) analyzed a ﬂow of a complete still liquid assuming a . isn’t sharp because ﬂuid can go through a phase change (condensation or evaporation) in the middle or during the ﬂow and switch from a single phase ﬂow to a multi phase ﬂow. http://ekkinc. For example. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Continuous Mechanics Solid Mechanics something between Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics Fluid Dynamics Boundaries problems Multi phase flow Internal Flow Laminar Flow Stability problems Turbulent Flow Fig. After it was made clear that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. It is this author’s personal experience that the knowledge and ability to know in what area the situation lay is one of the main problems. when a general model is need because more parameters are eﬀecting the situation. Then the dimensional analysis will be used explain why in certain cases one distinguish area/principle is more relevant than the other and some eﬀects can be neglected. Moreover. -1. Or.2 CHAPTER 1.

The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Diﬀerential Analysis. At some point. As in thermodynamics. people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed. Euler. the simpliﬁed private cases must be explained. to be followed by stability. people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. 1. The ideal ﬂow (frictionless ﬂow) should be expanded compared to the regular treatment.C. chapters on open channel ﬂow (as a sub class of the multiphase ﬂow) and compressible ﬂow (with the latest developments) are provided. BRIEF HISTORY 3 complex turbulent ﬂow model. turbulence. a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created. conﬂicts with the reality. These two approaches have justiﬁcations and positive points. For example. Yet. This discrepancy between theory and practice is called the “D’Alembert paradox” and serves to demonstrate the limitations of theory alone in solving ﬂuid problems. At that stage theory and experiments had some discrepancy. Torricelli. Naturally. larger tunnels built for a larger water supply.) on the principles of buoyancy.1. When cities increased to a larger size. the knowledge of ﬂuid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo. aqueducts were constructed.” For example the concept of ideal liquid that leads to motion with no resistance. For example. These aqueducts reached their greatest size and grandeur in those of the City of Rome and China. This fact was acknowledged by D’Alembert who stated that. The ﬁrst approach introduces the ﬂuid kinematic and then the basic governing equations. Newton. and D’Alembert. boundary layer and internal and external ﬂow . two diﬀerent of school of thoughts were created: the ﬁrst be- . He also made several attempts to study the ﬂight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces. Thus. There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of ﬂuid mechanics materials.2. Bernoulli family. etc. Such absurd analysis are common among engineers who do not know which model can be applied. with the exception Archimedes (250 B. Before dealing with the boundaries. The ﬁrst progress in ﬂuid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) who built the ﬁrst chambered canal lock near Milan. This book is unique in providing chapter on multiphase ﬂow. and continue with Empirical Analysis. almost all knowledge of the ancients can be summarized as application of instincts. These two approaches pose a dilemma to anyone who writes an introductory book for the ﬂuid mechanics. After his initial work. there isn’t a clear winner. There were no calculations even with the great need for water supply and transportation. one of the main goals of this book is to explain what model should be applied. Later. “The theory of ﬂuids must necessarily be based upon experiment. This book attempts to ﬁnd a hybrid approach in which the kinematic is presented ﬁrst (aside to standard initial four chapters) follow by Integral analysis and continued by Diﬀerential analysis. Reviewing many books on ﬂuid mechanics made it clear.2 Brief History The need to have some understanding of ﬂuid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply.

Fabre. the empirical formulas generated by ﬁtting curves to experimental data (even sometime merely presenting the results in tabular form) resulting in formulas that the relationship between the physics and properties made very little sense. Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortexes (1858). the demand for vigorous scientiﬁc knowledge that can be applied to various liquids as opposed to formula for every ﬂuid was created by the expansion of many industries. Hagen. Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximated solutions representing speciﬁc cases. transformed the ﬂuid mechanics to modern science that we have known today. Weisbach. Coulomb. as in thermodynamics. Stanton. were considered unsolvable during the mid nineteen century because of the high complexity. There are many open source programs that can analyze many ﬂuid mechanics situations. In the middle of the nineteen century. Today many problems can be analyzed by using the numerical tools and provide reasonable results. Dupuit. This problem led to two consequences. and Kelvin. and the Kutta-Joukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). Gas Dynamics. The Navier-Stokes equations. The introduction of the computers during the 60s and much more powerful personal computer has changed the ﬁeld. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory ﬂow (1894). Therefore. Rayleigh. and Poisseuille. resistance by Darcy. Thus. Chezy. Bhuckingham. Dubuat. there are many . and the second believed that solution is the pure practical (experimental) aspect of ﬂuid mechanics. But. The experimentalists. Hydraulics. On the theoretical side. for example. people cannot relinquish control. Fanning. This demand coupled with new several novel concepts like the theoretical and experimental researches of Reynolds. While the understanding of the fundamentals did not change much. the way how it was calculated changed. and Froude’s idea of the use of models change the science of the ﬂuid mechanics. La Grange. the development of dimensional analysis by Rayleigh. At the end of the twenty century. mainly in pipes and open channels area. at the same time proposed many correlations to many ﬂuid mechanics problems. and Blasius and several other individuals as Nikuradse. von Karman. Thus. considerable contribution were made by Euler. Bossut. and many others. These programs in many cases can capture all the appropriate parameters and adequately provide a reasonable description of the physics. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS lieved that the solution will come from theoretical aspect alone. On the “experimental” side. after World War Two. and Aeronautics. Helmhoitz. and Manning. The obvious happened without theoretical guidance. Perhaps the most radical concept that eﬀects the ﬂuid mechanics is of Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer which is a combination of the modeling and dimensional analysis that leads to modern ﬂuid mechanics. ﬁrst Navier in the molecular level and later Stokes from continuous point of view succeeded in creating governing equations for real ﬂuid motion. Taylor.4 CHAPTER 1. which describes the ﬂow (or even Euler equations). This concept leads to mathematical basis for many approximations. Prandtl and his students Blasius. d’Aubisson. Rose. Ganguillet. Meyer. Kirchhoﬀ. creating a matching between the two school of thoughts: experimental and theoretical. were Brahms. However. Rankine. As results it created today “strange” names: Hydrodynamics. many call Prandtl as the father of modern ﬂuid mechanics.

In this book. Thus. The second quantity discussed here is the area. It must be remember that force is a vector.1. these kinds of areas should be addressed inﬁnitesimally and locally. It is evident from this discussion that when a liquid is at rest. The gas ﬁlls the volume and liquid cannot.g it has a direction. EKK.3 Kinds of Fluids Some diﬀerentiate ﬂuid from solid by the reaction to shear stress. The ﬁrst is force which was reviewed in physics. It is also said that liquid cannot return to their original state after the deformation. sharp even though in reality this diﬀerence isn’t sharp. The diﬀerence between a gas phase to a liquid phase above the critical point are practically minor. In the best scenario. There are several quantities that have to be addressed in this discussion. no weather prediction program can produce good engineering quality results (where the snow will fall within 50 kilometers accuracy. Thus. The ﬂuid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases.3. For example. The area is measured in [m2 ]. which is force per area has a new meaning. This test creates a new material group that shows dual behaviors. The direction of area is perpendicular to the area. assuming turbulent ﬂow for still ﬂow simply provides erroneous results (see for example. KINDS OF FLUIDS 5 other cases that numerical analysis cannot provide any meaningful result (trends). It is a known fact said that the ﬂuid continuously and permanently deformed under shear stress while solid exhibits a ﬁnite deformation which does not change with time. one in the area direction and two perpendicular to the area. e. This diﬀerentiation leads to three groups of materials: solids and liquids. for most practical purposes considered. the pressure has three components. The pressure component in the area . and it is referred to the direction of the area. The main diﬀerence between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost ﬁx volume. For example. Gas has no free interface/surface (since it does ﬁll the entire volume). So. For the discussion here. the emphasis is on the physics. The traditional quantity. so at this stage the tensor will have to be broken into its components. The unit used to measure is [N]. Later. the discussion on the mathematical meaning will be presented (later version). these programs are as good as the input provided. This diﬀerence can be. the change of water pressure by 1000% only change the volume by less than 1 percent. if the change of pressure is signiﬁcantly less than that. Building a car with this accuracy is a disaster). Area of three–dimensional object has no single direction. Inc). In gaseous phase. it behaves like solid and under others it behaves like liquid (see Figure 1. no shear stress is applied. 1. the pressure will not aﬀect the volume. This quantity was discussed in physics class but here it has an additional meaning. But below the critical point. then the change of volume is at best 5%. Hence. a change in the volume by more 5% will required tens of thousands percent change of the pressure. any change in pressure directly aﬀects the volume. This is a result of division of a vector by a vector and it is referred to as tensor. under certain limits. The study of this kind of material called rheology and it will (almost) not be discussed in this book.1).

The density can be changed and it is a function of time and space (location) but must have a continues property. h) (1. The upper plate velocity generally will be U = f (A. the aim is to develop diﬀerential equation. -1. The other two components are referred as the shear stresses.6 CHAPTER 1. In solid mechanics. F.2) Where A is the area. that is. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS direction is called pressure (great way to confuse.3). -1. it was shown that when the force per area increases. After certain sample size. When this assumption is broken. the shear stress is h β considered as the ratio of the force acting on y area in the direction of the forces perpendicular x to area. thus the small distance analysis is applicable. Density as a function of ρ= ∆m ∆V −→ε ∆V lim the size of sample. Figure 1. U0x F However. In this discussion. (1. the density is deﬁned as Fig. It referred to density that is independent of the sampling size. The units used for the pressure components is [N/m2 ]. Thus. the principles of statistical mechanics must be utilized. ﬂuid cannot pull directly but through a solid surface.1) It must be noted that ε is chosen so that the continuous assumption is not broken.4 Shear Stress ∆ℓ The shear stress is part of the pressure tensor.3. (1. From solid mechanics study.2.2 shows the density as log ℓ a function of the sample size.2 for point where the green lines converge to constant density). Experiments show that the increase of height will increase the velocity up to a certain range. h is the distance between the plates. isn’t it?). then. here it will be treated as a separate issue. Consider moving the plate with a zero lubricant (h ∼ 0) (results in large force) or a large amount of lubricant (smaller force). it did not reach/reduced to the size where the atoms or molecular statistical calculations are signiﬁcant (see Figure 1. the density remains constant. . Consider liquid that undergoes a shear stress between a Fig. The density is a property which requires that ρ liquid to be continuous. the velocity of the plate increases also. Diﬀerent from solid. 1. Schematics to describe the shear short distance of two plates as shown in Figure stress in ﬂuid mechanics. It doesn’t mean ǫ that a sharp and abrupt change in the density cannot occur. the F denotes the force.

9) Combining equation (1. -1. In steady state.4) (1. the following can be written U∝ Equations (1. Hence. then it can be written for small a angel that dU δβ = δt dy (1.9) with equation (1.1.4.3) (1.10) If the velocity proﬁle is linear between the plate (it will be shown later that it is consistent with derivations of velocity).11) .5) it follows that ratio of the velocity to height is proportional to shear stress. the distance the t0 < t1 < t2 < t3 upper plate moves after small amount of time.4. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear geometry stress as progression of time. the regular approximation provides Fig.6) yields τxy = µ δβ δt (1.4 it can be noticed that for a small angle.8) From equation (1. SHEAR STRESS For cases where the dependency is linear.4) and (1.7) From Figure 1. δt is d = U δt (1. d = U δt = h δβ (1. applying the coeﬃcient to obtain a new equality as τxy = µ U h (1.5) From equations (1.8) it follows that U =h δβ δt (1.3) can be rearranged to be U F ∝ h A Shear stress was deﬁned as τxy = F A hF A 7 (1.6) Where µ is called the absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity which will be discussed later in this chapter in great length.

1: A space of 1 [cm] width between two large plane surfaces is ﬁlled with glycerin. Assume steady state conditions. is due to the existence of cohesion and interaction between ﬂuid molecules.8 CHAPTER 1. the viscosity is the resistance to the ﬂow (ﬂux) or the movement.069 × 0.2[m] and 0.2: Castor oil at 25◦ C ﬁlls the space between two concentric cylinders of 0. This approximation is appropriate for many other ﬂuids but only within some ranges. Many ﬂuids fall into this category such as air.5 A µU ∼ = 53.45[N ] h 0. Equation (1. which is exhibited by all ﬂuids. when the outer cylinder remains stationary. Calculate the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder at 12 rpm. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Materials which obey equation (1. Calculate the force that is required to drag a very thin plate of 1 [m2 ] at a speed of 0. The property of viscosity.1 [m]. Thus. In fact. The units of absolute viscosity are [N sec/m2 ]. It can be assumed that the plates remains in equidistant from each other and steady state is achieved instantly.12) Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids which the ratio is constant. water etc. For this kind of substance τxy = µ dU dy (1.1[m] diameters with height of 0. the following can be written (see equation (1.01 End Solution Example 1. Solution .10) referred to as Newtonian ﬂuid. Some referred to shear stress as viscous ﬂux of x–momentum in the y–direction. Example 1. this interpretation is more suitable to explain the molecular mechanism of the viscosity. the notation of τxy is easier to understand and visualize.5 m/sec.9) can be interpreted as momentum in the x direction transferred into the y direction. The units of shear stress are the same as ﬂux per time as following F kg m 1 mU ˙ = 2 m2 A sec A kg m 1 sec sec m2 Thus. These cohesion and interactions hamper the ﬂux in y–direction.6)) F = 1 × 1. Solution Assuming Newtonian ﬂow.

5.986 0. In liquids. temperature variation has an opposite eﬀect on the viscosities of liqτ0 uids and gases. exchange of momentum between layers brought as a result of molecular movement normal to the general direction of ﬂow. Thus.1. VISCOSITY The velocity is rps 9 ˙ U = r θ = 2 π ri rps = 2 × π × 0. liquid viscosities decrease as temperature increases. However. Thus. The diﬀerent of power ﬂuids families. -1.4 ¡ M= ∼ .1). the moment can be calculated as the force times the distance as ri 2 π ri h M =F In this case ro − ri = h thus. This molecular activity is known to increase with temperature. the molecules are more dx compact and cohesion is more dominate. ic op molecules are sparse and cohetr o ix th sion is negligible. the momentum exchange due to molecular movement is small compared to the cohesive forces between the molecules.4 π ri Where rps is revolution per second. the Fig.1 General S Bi imp ng le ha m Viscosity varies widely with temperature.0078[N m] h ¡ End Solution 1. tic pl do ne Ne ic eu ct ei pe ps R re ho wt on ia n r-P hi as lip po ff di la ta nt . The diﬀerence is due to their fundamentally different mechanism creating visτ cosity characteristics. This theory indicates that gas viscosities vary directly with the square root of temperature.1 × 12/60 = 0. ri = A µU ro − ri µ 2 π 2 0. This reasoning is a result of the considerations of the kinetic theory. the viscosity is primarily dependent on the magnitude of these cohesive forces.5. and it resists the ﬂow.13 h 0. In gases. while in the dU liquids. The same way as in example (1.5 Viscosity 1. thus.5. Since these forces decrease rapidly with increases of temperature. in gases. the viscosity of gases will increase with temperature.

-1.10 CHAPTER 1. 1. The shear stress as a function and it can be written as of the shear rate. the pressure has minor eﬀect on the viscosity. It must be stress that the viscosity in the dome is meaningless.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids In equation (1. Figure 1.6. From the physical point of view. There is a large class of materials which shows a non-linear relationship with velocity for any shear stress. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Fig. The viscosity coeﬃcient is . Oils have the greatest increase of viscosity with pressure which is a good thing for many engineering purposes. On the liquid side below the critical point. The lines in the above diagrams are only to show constant pressure lines.6 demonstrates that viscosity increases slightly with pressure. This relationship is referred to as power relationship Fig. K) in equation (1. There is no such a thing of viscosity at 30% liquid. It simply depends on the structure of the ﬂow as will be discussed in the chapter on multi phase ﬂow. the coeﬃcient depends on the velocity gradient. Well above the critical point. When n = 1 equation represent Newtonian ﬂuid and K becomes the familiar µ. Not all the materials obey this relationship. but this variation is negligible for most engineering problems. -1. viscosity τ =K dU dx n−1 dU dx (1.5.13) The new coeﬃcients (n. This class of materials can be approximated by a single polynomial term that is a = bxn . Nitrogen (left) and Argon (right) viscosity as a function of the temperature and pressure after Lemmon and Jacobsen.7.5). the relationship between the velocity and the shear stress was assumed to be linear.13) are constant. both materials are only a function of the temperature.

0006 0.0018 0.0002 5.of the temperature. S. the ﬂuid is pseudoplastic. 1.0028 0.0012 0.002 0.13) are referred to as purely viscous ﬂuids. Martys. For example. cosity is deﬁned as 0. F.e-05 0. When n. The increase of the absolute viscosity with the temperature is enough to overcome the increase of density and thus.003 0.16) The gas density decreases with the temperature.0008 0. Fluids that show increase in the viscosity (with increase of the shear) referred to as thixotropic and those that show decrease are called reopectic ﬂuids (see Figure 1. Materials which behave up to a certain shear stress as a solid and above it as a liquid are referred as Bingham liquids.001 sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1.7. the liquid is dilettante. for most practical purposes. -1. Skalny.3 Kinematic Viscosity Air absolute & kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. 1 C.. The reason for this new deﬁnition is that some experimental data are given in this form. The kinematic vis. de Larrard and N.15) There are materials that simple Bingham model does not provide dequate explanation and a more sophisticate model is required. However. The above equation shows that the dimensions of ν to be square meter per second.5.0004 0. is above one. according to Ferraris at el1 concrete behaves as shown in Figure 1. [m2 /sec]. this kind of ﬁgures isn’t used in regular engineering practice.0022 0.0024 0.0016 0. 215-241 (2001) m ν[ sec ] 2 . the kinematic viscosity also increase with the temperature for many materials. VISCOSITY 11 always positive. This fact explains Fig.000015 0.0014 0. However.5. The Newtonian part of the model has to be replaced by power liquid.8.e-06 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. The general relationship for simple Bingham ﬂow is τxy = −µ ± τ0 if |τyx | > τ0 (1.00002 The kinematic viscosity is another way to look at the viscosity.000025 0. which are acceleration units (a combination of kinematic terms). 2008 ν= µ ρ (1.0026 0. the “liquid side” is like Newtonian ﬂuid for large shear stress. Air viscosity as a function the name “kinematic” viscosity. In the simple case. The kinematic viscosity embraces both the viscosity and density properties of a ﬂuid. Ferraris. When n is below one.1. Materials Science of Concrete VI. Many ﬂuids satisfy the above equation. These results also explained better using the new deﬁnition.14) dUx =0 dy if |τyx | < τ0 (1. Mindess and J. The liquids which satisfy equation (1.5). eds.

001 0.00001827 × × 0.8 and Fig. Ti0 input temperature in degrees Kelvin reference temperature in degrees Kelvin Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1. Use the data provide in Table 1. The observed viscosity is about ∼ 3. .555 × 524. Solution Applying the constants from Suthelnd’s table provides 0.555 Tin + Suth Where µ µ0 Tin Ti0 Suth . provides reasonable results2 for the range of −40◦ C to 1600◦ C m ν[ sec ] 2 µ[ N sec ] m2 0.51 10−5 N sec m2 The viscosity increases almost by 40%.5.002 0.1. Some common materials (pure and mixture) tion temperature. 2008 0. the viscosity can be considered constant in many cases.3: Calculate the viscosity of air at 800K based on Sutherland’s equation. -1.555 × 800 + 120 800 524. T T0 3 2 (1.1 Example 1.0015 The absolute viscosity of many ﬂuids relatively doesn’t change with the pressure but very sensitive to temperature. For many gases. The variations of air and water as a function of the temperature at atmospheric pressure are plotted in Figures 1.4 Estimation of The Viscosity Water absolute and kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0.07 3 2 ∼ 2. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1.710−5 .9. Sutherland’s equation is used and according to the literature.17) viscosity at input temperature T reference viscosity at reference temperature.07 + 120 µ = 0.555 Ti0 + Suth µ = µ0 0. End Solution Liquid Metals 2 This author is ambivalent about statement. have expressions that provide an estimate.12 CHAPTER 1.0005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. Water viscosity as a func1. For isothermal ﬂow.9.

0001781 0.0002018 0.2.0000109 0. The list for Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients for selected materials. .93 540.05 528.5.07 527.00001827 0. Viscosity of selected gases.99 526.0000076 0. Substance formula i − C4 H10 CH4 CO2 O2 Hg Temperature T [◦ C] 23 20 20 20 380 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.0000203 0.0000654 oxygen mercury vapor Table -1. VISCOSITY 13 coeﬃcients chemical formula Material ammonia standard air carbon dioxide carbon monoxide hydrogen nitrogen oxygen sulfur dioxide CO2 CO H2 N2 O2 SO2 N H3 Sutherland 370 120 240 118 72 111 127 416 TiO [K] 527.57 µ0 (N sec/m2 ) 0.00001480 0.00000982 0.67 528.1.0000146 0.1.67 524.0000876 0.0001254 Table -1.00001720 0.67 518.

069 Olive Oil Castor Oil Clucuse Corn Oil SAE 30 SAE 50 SAE 70 Ketchup Ketchup Benzene Firm glass Glycerol Table -1.098 0. .001547 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Substance formula (C2 H5 )O C6 H6 Br2 C2 H5 OH Hg H2 SO4 Temperature T [◦ C] 20 20 26 20 25 25 25 25 25 20 ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C 20 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.200 0.000647 0.084 0.072 0.54 1. Viscosity of selected liquids.6 0.000652 ∼ 1 × 107 1.000245 0.001194 0.986 5-20 0.3.15-0.05 0.01915 0.000946 0.14 CHAPTER 1.

3 5.4 305. ∼ 1[bar]. Figure 1. Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature.8823 73. the metal behavior can be estimated as a Newtonian material (further reading can be done in this author’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design”).1. then the critical . The lines of constant relative pressure.5.10. The properties at the critical stage and their values of selected materials. VISCOSITY chemical component H2 He Ne Ar Xe Air “mix” CO2 O2 C 2 H6 CH4 Water Molecular Weight 2. many aluminum alloys are behaving as a Newtonian liquid until the ﬁrst solidiﬁcation appears (assuming steady state thermodynamics properties).97 44.Fig. for practical purpose. Furthermore.865925 50.0 0. -1. The lower pressure is. µc is the viscosity at critical condition and µ is the viscosity at any given condition.40685 22.5 2.096 K Pc [Bar] 12. this graph also shows the trends.) sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1.54 15. 2008 The General Viscosity Graphs In case “ordinary” ﬂuids where information is limit. Vol.4 190.5 151 289.7685 36. The critical pressure can be evaluated in the following three ways.04 Tc [K] 33.26 44.S.016 4.11 the relative viscosity µr = µ/µc is plotted as a function of relative temperature. 258. The simplest way is by obtaining the data from Table 1. Hougen et al suggested to use graph similar to compressibility chart. Even when there is a solidiﬁ. Government Printing Oﬃce.9 15 Table -1. cation (mushy zone).636 58.10 exhibits several liquid metals (from The Reactor Handbook. other points can be estimated.01 32.5 1.4 49.6 26.0 Li Na K Hg Pb Liquid metal can be considered as a Newtonian ﬂuid for many applications. Liquid Metal viscosity 2.183 39.4 or similar information.9696 2.289945 27.2 154. Washington D. Pr = P/Pc are drawn.83865 46.3 28.0 21.47 2.3 19.4.003 20. In this graph.00 30. 19.944 131. In Figure 1. if one point is well documented.07 16.358525 48. The second way.064 [MPa] µc [ N sec ] m2 3. Tr .0 15. Furthermore.256425 48.C. Atomic Energy Commission AECD-3646 U. May 1995 p.0 18. if the information is available and is close enough to the critical point.8 132 304.7 647.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.

only the mixture of low density gases is discussed for analytical expression. when none is available.18) The third way. Example 1. 26 No.11 it can be obtained µr ∼ 1. is by utilizing the following approximation µc = M Tc vc 2/3 ˜ (1.11 (1.2 and the predicted viscosity is T able µ = µc µ µc = 18 × 1. Makita. Or ˜ √ µc = M Pc 2/3 Tc −1/6 (1.4 50. Solution The critical condition of oxygen are Pc = 50. For most 3 Kyama. Rev. In this book.16 viscosity is obtained as CHAPTER 1.2 = 21.20) Calculate the reduced pressure and the reduced temperature and from the Figure 1.35 373. End Solution Viscosity of Mixtures In general the viscosity of liquid mixture has to be evaluated experimentally.15 ∼ 2.11 obtain the reduced viscosity.35[Bar] Tc = 154. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS given µc = µ µr ﬁgure 1.41 154.6[N sec/m2 ] The observed value is 24[N sec/m2 ]3 .19) Where vc is the critical molecular volume and M is molecular weight. 2 1956. Physical Chemistry Japan Vol.4: Estimate the viscosity of oxygen. . there isn’t silver bullet to estimate the viscosity.4 µc = 18 value of the reduced temperature is Tr ∼ The value of the reduced pressure is Pr ∼ 20 ∼ 0. Even for homogeneous mixture.4 N sec m2 The From Figure 1. O2 at 100◦ C and 20[Bar].

11.2 Pr=0. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. n µmix = i=1 xi µi n j=1 xi Φij 2 (1. xi is the mole fraction of component i. cases. The mixture viscosity is highly nonlinear function of the fractions of the components.22) Here. . -1. 2008 Fig. The dimensionless parameter Φij is equal to one when i = j. the following Wilke’s correlation for gas at low density provides a result in a reasonable range.5. n is the number of the chemical components in the mixture.21) where Φi j is deﬁned as 1 Φij = √ 8 Mi 1+ Mj 1+ µi µj 4 Mj Mi (1. VISCOSITY 17 Reduced Viscosity 2 10 liquid 5 dense gas Reduced Viscosity µ µc 2 two-phase region 1 critical point Pr=LD Pr=0.5 Pr=1 Pr=2 Pr=3 Pr=5 Pr=25 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 2 2 3 T Tc 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Reduced Temperature May 27. The subscript i should be used for the j index. and µi is the viscosity of component i.1.

18

6

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

5

Tr=0.8 Tr=1 Tr=1.1 Tr=1.2 Tr=1.4 Tr=1.6 Tr=2 Tr=3

µ µ0

4

Reduced viscosity

3

2

1 -1 10

2

5

1

2

5

10

2

P Reduced Pressure [ Pc ]

June 2, 2008

Fig. -1.12. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.

Example 1.5: Calculate the viscosity of a mixture (air) made of 20% oxygen, O2 and 80% nitrogen N2 for the temperature of 20◦ C. Solution The following table summarize the known details i 1 2 Component O2 N2 Molecular Weight, M 32. 28. Mole Fraction, x 0.2 0.8 Viscosity, µ 0.0000203 0.00001754

1.5. VISCOSITY i 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 Mi /Mj 1.0 1.143 0.875 1.0 µi /µj 1.0 1.157 .86 1.0 Φij 1.0 1.0024 0.996 1.0

19

µmix ∼

**0.2 × 0.0000203 0.8 × 0.00001754 N sec + ∼ 0.0000181 0.2 × 1.0 + 0.8 × 1.0024 0.2 × 0.996 + 0.8 × 1.0 m2
**

N sec m2

The observed value is ∼ 0.0000182

.

End Solution

In very low pressure, in theory, the viscosity is only a function of the temperature with a “simple” molecular structure. For gases with very long molecular structure or complexity structure these formulas cannot be applied. For some mixtures of two liquids it was observed that at a low shear stress, the viscosity is dominated by a liquid with high viscosity and at high shear stress to be dominated by a liquid with the low viscosity liquid. The higher viscosity is more dominate at low shear stress. Reiner and Phillippoﬀ suggested the following formula 1 µ0 − µ∞ τ xy dUx µ + 2 = ∞ (1.23) τxy dy 1 + τs Where the term µ∞ is the experimental value at high shear stress. The term µ0 is the experimental viscosity at shear stress approaching zero. The term τs is the characteristic shear stress of the mixture. An example for values for this formula, for Molten Sulfur at temperature 120◦ C are µ∞ = 0.0215 N sec , µ0 = 0.00105 N sec , m2 m2 and τs = 0.0000073 kN . This equation (1.23) provides reasonable value only up to 2 m τ = 0.001 kN . m2 Figure 1.12 can be used for a crude estimate of dense gases mixture. To estimate the viscosity of the mixture with n component Hougen and Watson’s method for pseudocritial properties is adapted. It this method the following is deﬁned as

n

Pc

mix

=

i=1

xi Pc

i

(1.24)

n

Tc

mix

=

i=1

xi Tc

i

(1.25)

20 and

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

n

µc

mix

=

i=1

xi µc

i

(1.26)

Example 1.6: An inside cylinder with a radius of 0.1 [m] rotates concentrically within a ﬁxed cylinder of 0.101 [m] radius and the cylinders length is 0.2 [m]. It is given that a moment of 1 [N × m] is required to maintain an angular velocity of 31.4 revolution per second. Estimate the liquid viscosity used between the cylinders. Solution The moment or the torque is transmitted through the liquid to the outer cylinder. Control volume around the inner cylinder shows that moment is a function of the area and shear stress. The shear stress calculations can be estimated as a linear between the two concentric cylinders. The velocity at the inner cylinders surface is Ui = r ω = 0.1 × 1[rad/second] = 0.1[m/s] (1.VI.a)

The velocity at the outer cylinder surface is zero. The velocity gradient may be assumed to be linear, hence, dU ∼ 0.1 − 0 (1.VI.b) = 100sec−1 = dr 0.101 − 0.1 The used moment is dU M =µ = 100 ×2 × 0.1 × π × 0.2 = dr

End Solution dU dr

(1.VI.c)

Example 1.7: A square block weighing 1.0 [kN] with a side surfaces area of 0.1 [m2 ] slides down an incline surface with an angle of 20◦ C. The surface is covered with oil ﬁlm. The oil force a distance between the block and the inclined surface of 1 × 10−6 [m] thick. What is the speed of the block at steady state? Assuming a linear velocity proﬁle in the oil and that the whole oil is under steady state. The viscosity of the oil is 3 × 10−5 [m2 /sec]. Solution The shear stress at the surface is estimated for steady state by τ =µ U dU = 3 × 10−5 × = 30 U dx 1 × 10−6 (1.VII.a)

1.6. FLUID PROPERTIES The total ﬁction force is then f = τ A = 0.1 × 30, U = 3 U The gravity force that act against the friction is equal to the friction hence Fg = m g sin 20◦ = 3 U =⇒ U = m g sin 20◦ = 3

21

(1.VII.b)

(1.VII.c)

End Solution

Example 1.8: Develop an expression for estimate of the torque required to rotate a disc in a narrow gap. The edge eﬀects can be neglected. The gap is given and equal to δ and the rotation speed is ω. The shear stress can be assumed to be linear. Solution

δ

Fig. -1.13. Rotating disc in a steady state.

In this cases the shear stress is a function of the radius, r and expression has to be developed for it. In addition the diﬀerential area also increases and is a function of r. The shear stress can be estimated as U ωr τ ∼µ =µ = δ δ This shear stress can be integrated for the entire area as

R R

(1.VIII.a)

T =

0

2 r τ dA = 2

0

2µr

ωr 2 π r dr δ

(1.VIII.b)

The results of the integration is F = π µ ω R4 δ (1.VIII.c)

End Solution

1.6 Fluid Properties

The ﬂuids have many properties which are similar to solid. A discussion of viscosity and surface tension should be part of this section but because special importance these topics have a separate sections. The rest of the properties lumped into this section.

22

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

1.6.1

Fluid Density

The density is a property that is simple to analyzed and understand. Examples to described usage of property are provided. Example 1.9: A steel tank ﬁlled with water undergoes heating from 27◦ C to 127◦ C. The initial pressure can be assumed to atmospheric. Due to the change temperature the tank (the steel) undergoes linear expansion of 8 10−6 per ◦ C. State your assumptions. Solution The expansion of the steel tank will be due to two contributions: one from the thermal Expansion and two pressure increase in the tank. For this example, it is assumed that the expansion due to pressure increase is negligible. The tank volume change under the assumptions the tank walls remain straight is

thermal expansion

V2 = V1 (1 + α∆ T )

3

(1.IX.a)

The more accurate calculations require looking into the steam tables. As approximation the relationship between the pressure and density in the liquid phase as ρ2 = ρ1 1 E = P2 − P1 E − ∆P 1− E (1.IX.b)

where E denotes the modulus of elasticity for the water 2.15 109 (N/m2 ) The water mass in the tank remain constant m1 = m2 −→ ρ1 V1 = ρ2 V2 . The change of density is reversed of the change of volume. ρ2 V1 E = = ρ1 V2 E − ∆P or using equation (1.IX.a) (1 + α∆ T ) =

3

(1.IX.c)

E − ∆P E

(1.IX.d)

**or expanding the cubical equation and neglecting high power terms of α. E (1 + α∆ T ) − E = P2 − P1 =⇒ P2 ∼ P1 + (3 α + · · · )E P1 = 3 × 8 10−6 × 100 × 2.15 109 =
**

End Solution

3

(1.IX.e)

1.6. FLUID PROPERTIES

23

1.6.2

Bulk Modulus

Similar to solids (hook’s law), liquids have a property that describes the volume change as results of pressure change for constant temperature. It can be noted that this property is not the result of the equation of state but related to it. Bulk modulus is usually obtained from experimental or theoretical or semi theoretical (theory with experimental work) to ﬁt energy–volume data. Most (theoretical) studies are obtained by uniformly changing the unit cells in global energy variations especially for isotropic systems ( where the molecules has a structure with cubic symmetries). The bulk modulus is deﬁned as BT = −v ∂P ∂v (1.27)

T

**Using the identity of v = 1/ρ transfers equation (1.27) into BT = ρ ∂P ∂ρ (1.28)
**

T

**The bulk modulus for several liquids is presented in Table 1.5.
**

Table -1.5. The bulk modulus for selected material with the critical temperature and pressure na −→ not available and nf −→ not found (exist but was not found in the literature).

chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerol Mercury Methyl Alcohol Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Paraﬃn Oil SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water

Bulk Modulus 109 N m 2.49 0.80 1.10 1.32 1.06 1.3 4.03-4.52 26.2-28.5 0.97 2.20 1.60 1.62 1.5 2.34 1.09 1.28 2.15-2.174

Tc 593K 508 K 562 K 556.4 K 514 K nf 850 K 1750 K Est 513 nf nf nf na na 591.79 K na 647.096 K

Pc 57.8 [Bar] 48 [Bar] 4.74 [MPa] 4.49 [MPa] 6.3 [Mpa] nf 7.5 [Bar] 172.00 [MPa] Est 78.5 [Bar] nf nf nf na na 4.109 [MPa] na 22.064 [MPa]

In the literature, additional expansions for similar parameters are deﬁned. The

24

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

**thermal expansion is deﬁned as βP = 1 v ∂v ∂T (1.29)
**

P

This parameter indicates the change of volume due to temperature change when the pressure is constant. Another deﬁnition is referred as coeﬃcient of tension and it is deﬁned as βv = 1 P ∂P ∂T (1.30)

v

This parameter indicates the change of the pressure due to the change of temperature (where v = constant). These deﬁnitions are related to each other. This relationship is obtained by the observation that the pressure as a function of the temperature and speciﬁc volume as P = f (T, v) The full pressure derivative is dP = ∂P ∂T dT +

v

(1.31)

∂P ∂v

dv

T

(1.32)

**On constant pressure lines, dP = 0, and therefore equation (1.32) is 0= ∂P ∂T dT +
**

v

∂P ∂v

dv

T

(1.33)

From equation (1.33) follows that ∂P ∂T ∂P ∂v

dv dT

=−

P =const

v

(1.34)

T

Equation (1.34) indicates that relationship for these three coeﬃcients is βT = − βv βP (1.35)

The last equation (1.35) sometimes is used in measurement of the bulk modulus. The increase of the pressure increases the bulk modulus due to the molecules increase of the rejecting forces between each other when they are closer. In contrast, the temperature increase results in reduction of the bulk of modulus because the molecular are further away.

1.6. FLUID PROPERTIES

25

Example 1.10: Calculate the modulus of liquid elasticity that reduced 0.035 per cent of its volume by applying a pressure of 5[Bar]. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus βT = −v v 5 ∂P ∼ ∆P = ∼ 14285.714[Bar] ∂v ∆v 0.00035

End Solution

Example 1.11: Calculate the pressure needed to apply on water to reduce its volume by 1 per cent. Assume the temperature to be 20◦ C. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus ∆P ∼ βT ∆v ∼ 2.15 109 .01 = 2.15 107 [N/m2 ] = 215[Bar] v

End Solution

Example 1.12: Two layers of two diﬀerent liquids are contained in a very solid tank. Initially the pressure in the tank is P0 . The liquids are compressed due to the pressure increases. The new pressure is P1 . The area of the tank is A and liquid A height is h1 and liquid B height is h2 . Estimate the change of the heights of the liquids depicted in the Figure 1.14. State your assumptions. Solution The volume change in a liquid is BT ∼ = Hence the change for the any liquid is ∆h = ∆P h ∆P = A BT /V BT (1.XII.b) ∆P ∆V /V (1.XII.a)

air (or gas)

Oil (liquid 1)

h1

Water (liquid 2)

h2

Fig. -1.14. Two liquid layers under pressure.

26

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

The total change when the hydrostatic pressure is ignored. ∆h1+2 = ∆P h1 h2 + BT 1 BT 2 (1.XII.c)

End Solution

Example 1.13: The hydrostatic pressure was neglected in example 1.12. In some place the ocean deep is many kilometers (the deepest places is more than 10 kilometers). For this example, calculate the density change in the bottom of 10 kilometers using two methods. In one method assume that the density is remain constant until the bottom. In the second method assume that the density is a function of the pressure. Solution For the the ﬁrst method the density is BT ∼ = ∆P ∆P =⇒ ∆V = V ∆V /V BT (1.XIII.a)

The density at the surface is ρ = m/V and the density at point x from the surface the density is m m ρ(x) = =⇒ ρ(x) = ∆P V − ∆V (1.XIII.b) V −V BT In the Chapter on static it will be shown that the change pressure is

x

∆P = g

0

ρ(x)dx

(1.XIII.c)

**Combining equation (1.XIII.b) with equation (1.XIII.c) yields m ρ(x) = x g ρ(x)dx 0 V −V BT Equation can be rearranged to be m ρ(x) = x g ρ(x)dx V 1− BT 0 =⇒ ρ(x) = ρ0 g 1− BT
**

x

(1.XIII.d)

ρ(x)dx

0

(1.XIII.e)

**Equation (1.XIII.e) is an integral equation which is discussed in the appendix4 . . It is convenient to change further equation (1.XIII.e) to 1−
**

4 Under

g BT

x

ρ(x)dx =

0

ρ0 ρ(x)

(1.XIII.f)

construction

1.6. FLUID PROPERTIES

27

The integral equation (1.XIII.f) can be converted to diﬀerential equation when the two sides under diﬀerentiation g ρ0 d ρ(x) ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ(x)2 dx or g ρ(x)3 d ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ0 dx ρ0 BT =x+c 2 g ρ2 ρ0 BT 2 g (x + c) (1.XIII.g)

(1.XIII.h)

The solution is

(1.XIII.i)

or rearranged as ρ= (1.XIII.j)

The integration constant can be found by the fact that the density at the x = 0 is ρ0 ρ0 = Hence the solution is ρ = ρ0 ρ0 BT 2 g ρ 0 x + BT (1.XIII.l) ρ0 BT BT =⇒ c = 2 g (c) 2 g ρ0 (1.XIII.k)

**In the “constant” density approach, the density at the bottom using equation (1.XIII.e) is ρ0 ρ0 BT ρ= =⇒ g (1.XIII.m) BT − g ρ0 x 1− g ρ0 x BT
**

End Solution

Advance material can be skipped

1.6.2.1

Bulk Modulus of Mixtures

In the discussion above it was assumed that the liquid is pure. In this short section a discussion about the bulk modulus averaged is presented. When more than one liquid are exposed to pressure the value of these two (or more liquids) can have to be added in special way. The deﬁnition of the bulk modulus is given by equation (1.27) or (1.28) and can be written (where the partial derivative can looks as delta ∆ as ∂V = V ∂P ∼ V ∆P = BT BT (1.36)

The total change is compromised by the change of individual liquids or phases if two materials are present. Even in some cases of emulsion (a suspension of small globules

28

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

of one liquid in a second liquid with which the ﬁrst will not mix) the total change is the summation of the individuals change. In case the total change isn’t, in special mixture, another approach with taking into account the energy-volume is needed. Thus, the total change is ∂V = ∂V1 + ∂V2 + · · · ∂Vi ∼ ∆V1 + ∆V2 + · · · ∆Vi = Substituting equation (1.36) into equation (1.37) results in ∂V = V2 ∂P Vi ∂P ∼ V1 ∆P V2 ∆P Vi ∆P V1 ∂P + + ··· + + + ··· + = BT 1 BT 2 BT i BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.38) (1.37)

Under the main assumption in this model the total volume is comprised of the individual volume hence, V = x1 V + x1 V + · · · + xi V (1.39)

Where x1 , x2 and xi are the fraction volume such as xi = Vi /V . Hence, using this identity and the fact that the pressure is change for all the phase uniformly equation (1.39) can be written as ∂V = V ∂P x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i ∼ V ∆P = x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.40)

Rearranging equation (1.40) yields v ∂P ∼ ∆P = =v ∂v ∆v 1 x2 xi x1 + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.41)

Equation (1.41) suggested an averaged new bulk modulus BT mix = 1 x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.42)

In that case the equation for mixture can be written as v ∂P = BT mix ∂v (1.43)

End Advance material

1.7 Surface Tension

The surface tension manifested itself by a rise or depression of the liquid at the free surface edge. Surface tension is also responsible for the creation of the drops and

1.7. SURFACE TENSION

29

bubbles. It also responsible for the breakage of a liquid jet into other medium/phase to many drops (atomization). The surface tension is force per length and is measured by [N/m] and is acting to stretch the surface. Surface tension results from a sharp change in the density between two adjoined phases or materials. There is a common misconception for the source of the surface tension. In many (physics, surface tension, and ﬂuid mechanics) books explained that the surface tension is a result from unbalance molecular cohesive forces. This explanation is wrong since it is in conﬂict with Newton’s second law (see example ?). This erroneous explanation can be traced to Adam’s book but earlier source may be found. The relationship between the surface tension and the pres2dβ1 sure on the two sides of the sury face is based on geometry. Con2dβ2 sider a small element of surface. dℓ2 The pressure on one side is Pi and the pressure on the other side is Po . When the surface tension R1 is constant, the horizontal forces R2 dℓ1 cancel each other because symx metry. In the vertical direction, the surface tension forces are puling the surface upward. Thus, the pressure diﬀerence has to balance the surface tension. The forces in Fig. -1.15. Surface tension control volume analysis describing principals radii. the vertical direction reads (Pi − Po ) d

1

d

2

= ∆Pd

1

d

2

= 2 σd

1

sin β1 + 2 σd

2

sin β2

(1.44)

For a very small area, the angles are very small and thus (sin β ∼ β). Furthermore, it can be noticed that d i ∼ 2 Ri dβi . Thus, the equation (1.44) can be simpliﬁed as ∆P = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (1.45)

Equation (1.45) predicts that pressure diﬀerence increase with inverse of the radius. There are two extreme cases: one) radius of inﬁnite and radius of ﬁnite size. The second with two equal radii. The ﬁrst case is for an inﬁnite long cylinder for which the equation (1.45) is reduced to ∆P = σ 1 R (1.46)

Other extreme is for a sphere for which the main radii are the same and equation (1.45) is reduced to 2σ (1.47) ∆P = R

30

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

Where R is the radius of the sphere. A soap bubble is made of two layers, inner and outer, thus the pressure inside the bubble is ∆P = 4σ R (1.48)

Example 1.14: A glass tube is inserted into bath of mercury. It was observed that contact angle between the glass and mercury is 55◦ C. The inner diameter is 0.02[m] and 55◦ the outer diameter is 0.021[m]. Estimate the force due to the surface P = ρhg tension (tube is depicted in Figure 0.02[m] σ 1.16). It can be assume that the h 0.025[m] contact angle is the same for the inside and outside part of the tube. Estimate the depression size. As55◦ sume that the surface tension for this combination of material is 0.5 Fig. -1.16. Glass tube inserted into mercury. [N/m] Solution The mercury as free body that several forces act on it. F = σ2 π cos 55◦ C (Di + Do ) (1.XIV.a)

This force is upward and the horizontal force almost canceled. However, if the inside and the outside diameters are considerable diﬀerent the results is F = σ2 π sin 55◦ C (Do − Do ) (1.XIV.b)

**The balance of the forces on the meniscus show under the magniﬁed glass are
**

A

b & W P π r2 = σ 2 π r + & or

∼0 ∼0

(1.XIV.c)

b & g ρ h π r2 = σ 2 π r + & W Or after simpliﬁcation h= 2σ gρr

(1.XIV.d)

(1.XIV.e)

End Solution

The relationship between pressure diﬀerence and the radius is described by equation (1.47) for reversible process. The work for n bubbles is then 4 π σ n rf 2 − r0 2 . which contains n bubbles with equal radii. The reversible process requires very slow compression.XVI. Thus. The balance between gravity and surface tension is σ 2 π (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) = ρ g h π(ro )2 − π(ri )2 Which can be simpliﬁed as h= 2 σ (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) ρ g ((ro )2 − (ri )2 ) (1.XVI.1 Wetting of Surfaces . It is worth noting that for very slow process. End Solution Example 1. The work is rf w= r0 ∆P (v)dv (1. equation (1. Hence the work is ∆P rf dv w= r0 2σ 4 π r2 dr = 8 π σ r rf r0 rdr = 4 π σ rf 2 − r0 2 (1. the temperature must remain constant due to heat transfer.49) The minimum work will be for a reversible process.1. Solution The diﬀerence lie in the fact that “missing”cylinder add additional force and reduce the amount of liquid that has to raise.b) (1.XVI.7.b) can be simpliﬁed 2σ h= (1. Calculate the minimum work required to increase the pressure in tank by ∆P .XVI. that is the work is done on the system. It can be noticed that the work is negative. r0 is the radius at the initial stage and rf is the radius at the ﬁnal stage.15: A Tank ﬁlled with liquid. SURFACE TENSION 31 Example 1. Solution The work is due to the change of the bubbles volume.7.50) Where.16: Develop expression for rise of the liquid due to surface tension in concentric cylinders.c) ρ g (ro − ri ) End Solution 1. Assume that the liquid bulk modulus is inﬁnity. r.a) The maximum is obtained when cos θi = cos θo = 1.

51) G For β = π/2 =⇒ tan β = ∞. -1. The surface tension is a molec. thus depend on the locale non–wetting ﬂuids. -1. Description of wetting and ular phenomenon. Regardless to the magnitude of the surface tensions (except to zero) the forces cannot be balanced for the description of straight lines. The contact angle is determined by NonWetting whether the surface tension between the gas Wetting fluid solid (gs) is larger or smaller then the surface fluid tension of liquid solid (ls) and the local geometry. This contact point occurs due to free surface reaching a solid boundary. a contact angle is created to balance it. The surface tension occurs between gas phase (G) to liquid phase (L) and also occurs between the solid (S) and the liqFig. and gas can be ignored.18.Fig. liquid. gas medium and the solid surface.51). If the angle of the contact between three materials is larger than 90◦ then it is non-wetting.52) (1. This fact is the reason that no reliable data can be provided with the exception to pure substances and perfect . There is a common deﬁnition of wetting the surface. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS To explain the source of the contact angle.17. uid phases as well as between the gas phase and the solid phase.53) (1. For example. On the other hand. thus. Thus.18).51) yields σgs − σls = Fsolid tan β (1. structure of the surface and it provides the balance for these local structures. The surface tension forces must be balanced. In Figure 1. if the angle is below than 90◦ the material is wetting the surface (see Figure 1. Forces in Contact angle. And a small change on the solid surface can change the wetting condition to non–wetting. forces diagram is shown when control volume is chosen so that the masses of the solid. The angle is determined by properties of the liquid. In fact there are commercial sprays that are intent to change the surface from wetting to non wetting. forces balanced along the line of solid boundary is σgs − σls − σlg cos β = 0 and in the tangent direction to the solid line the forces balance is Fsolid = σlg sin β substituting equation (1.52) into equation (1. consider the point where three phases became in conS L tact. The gas solid surface tension is diﬀerent from the liquid solid surface tension and hence violating equation (1. It must be noted that the solid boundary isn’t straight.17. the solid reaction force must be zero.32 CHAPTER 1. The connection of the three phases–materials–mediums creates two situations which are categorized as wetting or non–wetting.

7 Gaetner. This statement is correct in most cases. distilled water with selected materials to demonstrate the inconsistency. Ser.. Eng.I.. Y. 9.4 π/3. vol 1 pp 365 . 4 Arefeva E.517. Vol. when solid surface is made or cotted with certain materials. N. Pages 509 . International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer.74 π/4. ASME. V. Siegel.7 π/4. V. (1966) “On the mechanism of boiling heat transfer”.1. 3 Tolubinsky.” Injenerno Fizitcheskij Jurnal.” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer. Keshock (1975) “Eﬀects of reduced gravity on nucleate boiling bubble dynamics in saturated water.74 to π/3. F. No 1. G. Prog. (1960) “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer. R. G. water is described in many books as a wetting ﬂuid. R. and Dhir. and Westwater. The contact angle for air.” Chem.N. and Ostrovsky. E.. Warrier.83 π/3. K. Vol. A. Aladev O. pages 1465-1470.2 π/4 π/3 π/2 Source [1] [2] [1] [3] [4] [5] [4] [4] [4] [7] [8] 1 R. . 1975 2 Bergles A. 124.. No 12. papes 717 -728.5 π/3.7. 5 Labuntsov D. J.I. SURFACE TENSION 33 geometries.. chemical component Steel Steel. (2002) “Onset of Nucleate Boiling and Active Nucleation Site Density during Subcooled Flow Boiling. the water is changed to be wetting (for example 3M selling product to “change” water to non–wetting)..7 π/6 to π/4.” AIChE Journal Volume 10 Issue 4.T. and Rohsenow W. ”The determination of forced convection surface– boiling heat transfer.. E.83 π/4. 6 Basu. J.372. M. W.. Table -1.Nickel Nickel Nickel Chrome-Nickel Steel Silver Zink Bronze Copper Copper Copper Contact Angle π/3. 11-17 1(7) In Russian. So.6. however. 56. Symp.. I. Energetika I transport. the wetness of ﬂuids is a function of the solid as well. For example.76 to π/3. (1958) “wlijanii smatchivaemosti na teploobmen pri kipenii. (1939) “Approximate theory of heat transfer by developed nucleate boiling” In Sussian Izvestiya An SSSR . Heat Transfer.

and Dhir. Substituting equation (1. and the contact angle consider simple “wetting” liquid contacting a solid material in two– dimensional shape as depicted in Figure 1.57) . In Figure 1.55) can be derived either by forcing a circle at three points at (x. is ˙ 1 + h(x) R(x) = ¨ h(x) 2 3/2 (1.46) and using the pressure diﬀerence yields σ g h(x). the Figure 1.19. Equation (1.55) into equation (1. The surface tension reduces the pressure in the liquid above the liquid line (the dotted line in Fig. x+dx.56) 2 3/2 ˙ 1 + h(x) ¨ h(x) Equation (1. This problem is a two dimensional problem and equation (1. H. V. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 8 Wang. Heat Transfer 115. 659-669 To explain the contour of the surface. -1.. ρ = (1.” J. C. K.19 describes the raising of the liquid as results of the surface tension.. pp.19). and x+2dx) and thus ﬁnding the the diameter or by geometrical analysis of triangles build on points x and x+dx (perpendicular to the tangent at these points).46) is applicable to it.54) R(x) 0 0 0 The radius of any continuous function.56) is non–linear diﬀerential equation for height and can be written as 1-D Surface Due to Surface Tension ghρ σ dh 1+ dx 2 3/2 − d2 h =0 dx2 (1. Appalling equation (1. is the atmospheric pressure. “Eﬀect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface. the P h pressure diﬀerence between the two sides of P P free surface has to be balanced by the surface tension.34 CHAPTER 1. on the gas side. h = h(x). (1993).54) yields σ g h(x) ρ = (1. To solve the shape of the liquid surface.19.55) ˙ Where h is the derivative of h with respect to x. Description of liquid surface. The pressure just below the surface is −g h(x) ρ (this pressure diﬀerence will be explained in more details in Chapter 4). The pressure.

the height and the derivative of the height must by zero so constant + 0 = −1/1 and hence.62) can be rearranged to be ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp (1. The units of this ˙ constant are meter squared.62) Equation (1.59) into ¨ ˙ identities h 1 h dh = Lp ξdξ (1 + ξ 2 ) 3/2 (1.60) becomes h2 + constant = − 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1.56) is ghρ = ¨ σh ˙ 1 + h2 Integrating equation (1. h = ξ = dξ transforms equation (1. constant = −1 . The diﬀerential dh is h. Equation (1.61) At inﬁnity.58) dh (1.63) Squaring both sides and moving the one to the right side yields ˙ h2 = 5 This 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1. .59) The constant Lp σ/ρ g is referred to as Laplace’s capillarity constant.62) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation that can be solved by variables separation5 .7.1. Shamefully. 1− h2 = 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1.58) transforms into gρ h dh = σ ¨ h ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 3/2 (1. An try) and the derivative at hx alternative presentation of equation (1. this author doesn’t know how to show it in a two lines derivations.60) After the integration equation (1.64) p equation has an analytical solution which is x = Lp 4 − (h/Lp)2 − Lp acosh(2 Lp/h) + constant where Lp is the Laplace constant. Using dummy variable and the ˙ = ξ and hence. SURFACE TENSION 35 ˙ With the boundary conditions that specify either the derivative h(x = r) = 0 (symme˙ = β or heights in two points or other combinations.

66) can be integrated to yield dh = x + constant 2 1 −1 2 1 − 2h Lp - (1. The raising height as a gas density and r is the radius of tube. But this simplistic equation is unusable and useless unless the contact angle (assuming that the contact angel is constant or a repressive average can be found or provided or can be measured) is given.1 Capillarity h The capillary forces referred to the fact that surface tension causes liquid to rise or penetrate into area (volume). therefore this discussion on surface tension equation will be limited.67) The constant is determined by the boundary condition at x = 0.6. However. However. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The last stage of the separation is taking the square root of both sides to be dh ˙ h= = dx or dh 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1. For example if h(x − 0) = h0 then constant = h0 . { . This equation is studied extensively in classes on surface tension. 1.36 CHAPTER 1. -1. this equation describes the dimensionless parameter that aﬀects this phenomenon and this parameter will be studied in Chapter ?.68) 0 Theory actual working range R Where ∆ρ is the diﬀerence of liquid density to the Fig.65) = dx −1 (1. It can be shown that the height that the liquid raised in a tube due to the surface tension is h= 2 σ cos β g ∆ρ r (1. otherwise it will not be there.1.66) Equation (1. This book is introductory.7. The maximum that the contact angle can be obtained in 6 Actually. Furthermore. function of the radii.20. that information conﬂict each other and no real information is available see Table 1. in reality there is no readily information for contact angle6 and therefore this equation is useful to show the treads. there are information about the contact angle.

the gravity is working against the surface tension and reducing the range and quality of the predictions of equation (1.5 1.69) Figure 1.2 1.7.Fig.0728 22σ = ∼ 2.20 as blue line. The depression of the liquid occurs in a “negative” contact angle similarly to “wetting.2 0. The height based on equation (1.9 1. On the other hand. The liquid at a certain pressure will be vaporized and will breakdown the model upon this equation was constructed. The actual dimension for many liquids (even water) is about 1-5 [mm]. Solution The pressure inside the droplet is given by equation (1. The measurements of the height of distilled water and mercury are presented in Figure 1.6 0.3 0. for ex. The conclusion of this discussion are shown in Figure 1.69) is shown in Figure 1. The discussion above was referred to “wetting” contact angle.20.68) becomes hmax = 2σ g ∆ρ r (1.68) when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1.8 2. You can assume that temperature is 20◦ C.4 0.69) provides reasonable results only in a certain range.57) approaches the strait line (the liquid line) strong gravity eﬀect. equation (1.0 Distilled water [23 C] Mercury [25 C] Equation 0. The surface tension depends on the two materials or mediums that it separates.8 Height [cm] 0. The experimental results of these materials are with agreement with the discussion above.0 0. The actual height is shown in the red line. SURFACE TENSION 37 equation (1.7 Radii [cm] May 29. the surface tension issue is important only in case where the radius is very small and gravity is negligible.57) proved better results because the curve approaches hemispherical sphere (small gravity eﬀect).1. For a small tube radius.17: Calculate the diameter of a water droplet to attain pressure diﬀerence of 1000[N/m2 ].6 0.21. h is similar to equation (1.69) with a minus sign.21 exhibits the height as a function of Capilary Height the radius of the tube. 2008 Example 1. In conclusion. high height which indicates a negative pressure.2 1. Furthermore. Equation (1.69).0 0.21. For large radii equation (1.69) indicates that the function of the radius. D = 2R = 4 × 0.4 2. In that case equation (1. 1.912 10−4 [m] ∆P 1000 End Solution .47). This angle is obtained when a perfect half a sphere shape exist of the liquid surface. the small scale indicates that the simplistic and continuous approach is not appropriate and a diﬀerent model is needed.1 2. However. The surface tension of a selected material is given in Table 1.” The depression height. The raising height as a tremely small radii equation (1.7. -1.

Therefore.0366[N ] In this value the gravity is not accounted for.6 25. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Example 1.1120 -0.04[m] diameter from a water surface at 20◦ C.4 mN m T 20◦ C 22◦ C correction mN mK n/a -0.38 CHAPTER 1.001 [m]. the maximum Force is obtained when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1.04 × 0. F = 4 π r σ = 4 × π × 0.02 cm.0002 End Solution Example 1. The surface tension for selected materials at temperature 20◦ C when not mentioned. the pressure diﬀerence between the inside and outside droplet is 1[kPa].7. End Solution Example 1. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Aniline Surface Tension 27.0[N/m2 ] r 0.0728 ∼ . Solution F = 2(2 π r σ) cos β The actual force is unknown since the contact angle is unknown.19: Calculate the maximum force necessary to lift a thin wire ring of 0.20: A small liquid drop is surrounded with the air and has a diameter of 0.20 43. However.1085 . Solution using equation ∆P = 2σ 2 × 0.18: Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between a droplet of water at 20◦ C when the droplet has a diameter of 0. Estimate the surface tension? Solution To be continue End Solution Table -1. Neglect the weight of the ring.0728 ∼ ∼ 728.

70 38.50 28.0777 -0.30 23.12 425-465.00 41.1117 n/a -0.067 -0.12 33.1484 -0.2049 -0.1177 -0.91 14.0832 -0. SURFACE TENSION Table -1.50 36.1191 -0.8 32.40 32.20 24.95 34.0-48.85 11.00 45.0773 -0.88 39.70 58.0902 -0.0972 -0.1.7.1484 -0.1291 -0.10 29.0 22.0598 n/a -0.1308 -0.1211 -0.1372 .1118 n/a n/a -0.30 43.10 32.50 24.0935 -0.7.1063 -0.95 36.1172 -0.20 47.60 27.0842 n/a -0.1066 -0.50 41.70 38.1160 -0.50 23.0920 -0.0 12.15 43.70 26.1160 -0.6 5.20 ∼ 21 64.1011 n/a -0.3 22.0890 -0.1159 -0.60 22.1037 -0. The surface tension for selected materials (continue) 39 chemical component Benzene Benzylalcohol Benzylbenzoate Bromobenzene Bromobenzene Bromoform Butyronitrile Carbon disulﬁd Quinoline Chloro benzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopentanol Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon disulﬁd Chlorobutane Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylbromide Ethylene glycol Formamide Gasoline Glycerol Helium Mercury Methanol Methyl naphthalene Methyl Alcohol Neon Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Perﬂuoroheptane Perﬂuorohexane Perﬂuorooctane Phenylisothiocyanate Propanol Pyridine Surface Tension 28.10 22.0966 -0.1295 -0.1094 -0.0 0.00 mN m T 25◦ C −269◦ C −247◦ C 25◦ C - correction mN mK -0.90 43.

1104 .40 CHAPTER 1.10 28.80 30.7.1100 n/a n/a -0.90 -0.60 n/a 54-69 28.1101 -0. The surface tension for selected materials (continue) chemical component Pyrrol SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water o-Xylene m-Xylene Surface Tension mN m T - correction mN mK 36.1514 -0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Table -1.4 27 72.1189 n/a -0.

In this deﬁnition.CHAPTER 2 Review of Thermodynamics In this chapter. a review of several deﬁnitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented. It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isn’t. This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material. The ﬁrst issue that must be addressed. it is assumed that the system speed is signiﬁcantly lower than that of the speed of light. Work In mechanics. that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive. there is a transfer of energy so that its eﬀect can cause work. In fact for almost all engineering purpose this law is reduced to two separate laws of mass conservation and energy conservation. the mass can be assumed constant even though the true conservation law applied to the combination of mass energy (see Einstein’s law). System This term will be used in this book and it is deﬁned as a continuous (at least partially) ﬁxed quantity of matter.1 Basic Deﬁnitions The following basic deﬁnitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this book. Two. The dimensions of this material can be changed. So.1) This deﬁnition can be expanded to include two issues. 41 . the work was deﬁned as mechanical work = F•d = P dV (2. 2.

REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Our system can receive energy. is the internal energy per unit mass. From the ﬁrst law it directly implies that for process without heat transfer (adiabatic process) the following is true W12 = E1 − E2 (2. The internal energy is denoted in this book as EU and it will be treated as a state property. There are several deﬁnitions/separations of the kind of works and they include kinetic energy. and electrical energy. potential energy (gravity). The statement describing the law is the following. Thermodynamics First Law This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system.5) is transformed into Spesiﬁc Energy Equation U1 2 U2 2 + gz1 + Eu 1 + q = + gz2 + Eu 2 + w 2 2 (2. The kinetic energy is K. Q12 − W12 = E2 − E1 (2.3) is that the way the work is done and/or intermediate states are irrelevant to ﬁnal results. m is the mass and the z is the vertical height from a datum. For example for pure/homogeneous and simple gases it depends on two properties like temperature and pressure. . etc as long the mass remain constant the deﬁnition is not broken. The potential energy of the system is depended on the body force.E. The “new” internal energy. Eu .2) The system energy is a state property. A common body force is the gravity. For such body force.42 CHAPTER 2. the conservation is applied to all systems.6) 2 (2. chemical potential. Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating systems. The internal energy is the energy that depends on the other properties of the system. etc.4) Thus the energy equation can be written as Total Energy Equation mU1 mU2 2 + mgz1 + EU 1 + Q = + mgz2 + EU 2 + W 2 2 For the unit mass of the system equation (2. the potential energy is mgz where g is the gravity force (acceleration).5) where q is the energy per unit mass and w is the work per unit mass. = mU 2 2 (2. work.3) Interesting results of equation (2.

D/Dt is used instead of the common notation because it referred to system property derivative.9) reduced to Time Dependent Energy Equation D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt (2. choosing any point in time will make it correct. The most common mathematical form is Clausius inequality which state that δQ ≥0 T (2. Bf .8) For the case were the body force. δQ =0 T (2.12) The last integral can go though several states. This observation leads to the deﬁnition of entropy and designated as S and the derivative of entropy is ds ≡ δQ T rev (2. No matter which deﬁnition is used to describe the second law it will end in a mathematical form. is constant with time like in the case of gravity equation (2. Hence. Thus diﬀerentiating the energy equation with respect to time yields the rate of change energy equation. If there is no lost. BASIC DEFINITIONS 43 Since the above equations are true between arbitrary points. the integral is independent of the path. Thermodynamics Second Law There are several deﬁnitions of the second law.7) In the same manner.11) The integration symbol with the circle represent integral of cycle (therefor circle) in with system return to the same condition. the work change rate transfered through the boundaries of the system is DW ˙ =W Dt Since the system is with a ﬁxed mass. it is referred as a reversible process and the inequality change to equality.13) .1.9) (2.2. The rate of change of the energy transfer is DQ ˙ =Q Dt (2. the rate energy equation is DU D Bf z D EU ˙ ˙ + mU +m Q−W = Dt Dt Dt (2.10) The time derivative operator. These states are independent of the path the system goes through.

Thus. For reversible process equation (2. the process in which it is reversible and adiabatic. the reverse conclusion that zero change of entropy leads to reversible process. the entropy remains constant and referred to as isentropic process.17) yields (one form of) Gibbs Equation T dS = dH − V dP (2. h.18) For isentropic process. H = EU + P V The speciﬁc enthalpy is enthalpy per unit mass and denoted as. Enthalpy It is a common practice to deﬁne a new property.14) One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis is for reversible and adiabatic process dS = 0. Or in a diﬀerential form as dH = dEU + dP V + P dV Combining equations (2.16) (2. Thus. The equation (2.18) the (2. It can be noted that there is a possibility that a process can be irreversible and the right amount of heat transfer to have zero change entropy change. isn’t correct.12) can be written as δQ = T dS and the work that the system is doing on the surroundings is δW = P dV Substituting equations (2.17) is reduced to dH = V dP .15) Even though the derivation of the above equations were done assuming that there is no change of kinetic or potential energy. which is the combination of already deﬁned properties. equation (2.21) ρ . the enthalpy of the system.10) results in T dS = d EU + P dV (2.17) (2.17) in mass unit is dP T ds = du + P dv = dh − (2. Furthermore.44 CHAPTER 2.20) (2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Performing integration between two states results in 2 S2 − S1 = 1 δQ = T rev 2 dS 1 (2.15) (2. it still remail valid for all situations.19) (2. it can be shown that it is valid for reversible and irreversible processes.16) into (2.

pressure. This approximation less strong for liquid but not by that much and in most cases it applied to the calculations. BASIC DEFINITIONS when the density enters through the relationship of ρ = 1/v. Equation of state Equation of state is a relation between state variables.1. The ratio the speciﬁc heat of gases is larger than one. Commonly the diﬀerence for solid is ignored and both are assumed to be the same and therefore referred as C.2.24) For solid. k. The ﬁrst change of the internal energy and it is deﬁned as the following Spesiﬁc Volume Heat Cv ≡ ∂Eu ∂T (2.26) . 45 Speciﬁc Heats The change of internal energy and enthalpy requires new deﬁnitions. Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp k≡ Cv (2.23) The ratio between the speciﬁc pressure heat and the speciﬁc volume heat is called the ratio of the speciﬁc heat and it is denoted as.25) Application of Avogadro’s law.22) And since the change of the enthalpy involve some kind of work is deﬁned as Spesiﬁc Pressure Heat Cp ≡ ∂h ∂T (2. and speciﬁc volume deﬁne the equation of state for gases. and it is deﬁned as P = ρRT (2. Normally the relationship of temperature. The simplest equation of state referred to as ideal gas.” This constant to match the standard units results in ¯ R = 8. that ”all gases at the same pressures and temperatures have the same number of molecules per unit of volume. the ratio of the speciﬁc heats is almost 1 and therefore the diﬀerence between them is almost zero.3145 kj kmol K (2.” allows the calculation of a “universal gas constant.

667 1.51835 0.2537 1.7448 1.5203 1.41195 0.28700 0.013 114.0299 1.29680 0.400 1. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Thus.7113 0.044 1.999 44.667 1.25983 0.237 1.0416 1.1926 14.18892 0.948 58.5734 0.186 1.054 4.6385 0.01 28.016 16.7445 1.970 39.4909 1.28) .0035 0.015 R kj KgK CP kj KgK Cv kj KgK k Air Argon Butane Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam 0.230 31.27) The speciﬁc constants for select gas at 300K is provided in table 2.3122 1.097 18.2518 3. Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] Gas Chemical Formula Ar C4 H10 CO2 CO C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8 H18 O2 C 3 H8 H2 O Molecular Weight 28.8418 1.29637 2.07 28.04 20.27650 0.0849 1.299 1.7662 1.6794 1.1156 10.6529 0.8723 0. the speciﬁc gas can be calculate as R= ¯ R M (2.48152 1.6179 0. Table -2.003 2.14304 0.393 1.091 1.409 1.1.7164 0.7165 0.126 1.9216 1.7354 0.25) of state for perfect gas it follows d(P v) = RdT For perfect gas dh = dEu + d(P v) = dEu + d(RT ) = f (T ) (only) (2.07703 4.46 CHAPTER 2.124 44.667 1.07279 0.327 From equation (2.18855 0.4897 1.01 30.1.4108 1.400 1.289 1.20813 0.29683 0.0413 1.2091 2.12418 0.183 28.5482 5.400 1.29) (2.6618 1.

1.35) transformed into k T2 P2 s2 − s1 = ln − ln R k − 1 T1 P1 For isentropic process.38) .28) and subsisting into equation (2. These values depend on the molecular degrees of freedom (more explanation can be obtained in Van Wylen “F.2. k value ranges from unity to about 1. The entropy for ideal gas can be simpliﬁed as the following 2 s2 − s1 = 1 dh dP − T ρT (2. of Classical thermodynamics.667.34) Using the identities developed so far one can ﬁnd that 2 s2 − s1 = 1 Cp dT − T 2 1 R dP T2 P2 = Cp ln − R ln P T1 P1 (2.30) and dividing by dT yields Cp − Cv = R This relationship is valid only for ideal/perfect gases. ∆s = 0.37) as Ideal Gas Isontropic Relationships T2 = T1 P2 P1 k−1 k = V1 V2 k−1 (2.1). the following is obtained T2 ln = ln T1 P2 P1 k−1 k (2.36) (2.35) Or using speciﬁc heat ratio equation (2.33) The speciﬁc heat ratio.” The values of several gases can be approximated as ideal gas and are provided in Table (2.32) (2.37) There are several famous identities that results from equation (2. BASIC DEFINITIONS From the deﬁnition of enthalpy it follows that d(P v) = dh − dEu 47 (2. The ratio of the speciﬁc heats can be expressed in several forms as Cv to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cv = R k−1 (2.31) Cp to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp = kR k−1 (2.30) Utilizing equation (2.

This correction factor referred as the compressibility factor and deﬁned as Z deviation from the Ideal Gas Model PV Z= RT (2.39) . The real gas has a correction factor to account for the deviations from the ideal gas model.48 CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS The ideal gas model is a simpliﬁed version of the real behavior of real gas.

The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity “regular acceleration” angular acceleration centrifugal acceleration Coriolis acceleration a= dU = dt d2R dt2 + R× R dω dt +ω × R × ω +2 dR dt ×ω R (3. t in a location.CHAPTER 3 Review of Mechanics This author would like to express his gratitude to Dan Olsen (former Minneapolis city Engineer) and his friend Richard Hackbarth. This chapter provides a review of important deﬁnitions and concepts from Mechanics (statics and dynamics). These concepts and deﬁnitions will be used in this book and a review is needed. 3. It also can be noticed that this derivative is present derivation of any victory.1) Notice that ω can have three dimensional components.1: A water jet is supposed be used to extinguish the ﬁre in a building as depicted in Figure 49 . change in R direction change in perpendicular to R U = dR = dt dR dt + R ω ×R (3.2) Example 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body A point body is location at time. The velocity is derivative of the change of the location and using the chain role (for the direction and one for the magnitude) results. R .

I.I. . Assume that gravity is g and the distance of the nozzle from the building is a and height of the window from the nozzle is b.c) These nonlinear equations (3.I. There there are three unknowns.a) and substituting into equations (3. (3. and time.d) results in tan θ = 1 b + a 2 (3.11 . The equation for the x coordinate is a = U cos θ t (3.I.b) and (3.I. it b proposed to calculate the velocity a of the point particle to toward the window.d) End Solution 1 While the simple example does not provide exact use of the above equation it provides experience of going over the motions of kinematics. t and three equations. θ.I.I. Calculate what is the veFig.I. U sin θ U cos θ θ Solution The initial velocity is unknown and denoted as U which two components.1.I. at what angle the jet has to be shot so that velocity will be horizontal at the window. For given velocity.I.a) The distance for y equation for coordinate (zero is at the window) is 0=− g t2 + U sin θ t − b 2 (3.I. U .c) can be solved explicitly. dow. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3. To simplify the calculations. The velocity at x is Ux = U cos θ and the velocity in y direction is Uy = U sin θ.I. -3.b) and (3.I.50 CHAPTER 3.I. Isolating t from (3.I.c) b= and equation (3.b) The velocity for the y coordinate at the window is zero u(t) = 0 = −g t + U sin θ (3. Description of the extinguish locity so that the jet reach the winnozzle aimed at the building window.a).e) −g a2 + a tan θ 2 U 2 cos2 θ (3.a) becomes √ ag −g a 0= + U cos θ =⇒ U = U cos θ cos θ Substituting (3.f) (3.e) into (3. What is the angle that jet has to be aimed.

This concept is derived from the fact that a body has a center of mass/gravity which interacts with other bodies and that this force acts on the center (equivalent force). -3. . x.4) where xi is the direction of either. It is convenient to use the Cartesian system to explain this concept. CENTER OF MASS 51 3.2. Suppose that the body has a distribution of the mass (density. even for solid and uniform density the line density is a function of the geometry. the center will be deﬁned as 1 x= ¯ m dm y x ρ(x)dV V (3. In x coordinate. the center of mass is required to make the calculations. The center of mass doesn’t depend on the coordinate system and on the way it is calculated. the x mass.Fig. the the line density is referred to density mass per unit length in the x direction. The density.2. the body will not rotate. center of the mass and two.1 Actual Center of Mass In many engineering problems. Note. The physical meaning of the center of mass is that if a straight line force acts on the body in away through the center of gravity. the dV element has ﬁnite dimendV sions in y–z plane and inﬁnitesimal dimension in x direction see Figure 3. y or z. etc. center of area (two–dimensional body with equal distribution mass).2. It turns out that this concept is very useful in calculating rotations. In same is calculated.2.3) z Here. Also. if a body will be held by one point it will be enough to hold the body in the direction of the center of mass. The density “normally” deﬁned as mass per volume. rho) as a function of the location. Here.2 Center of Mass The center of mass is divided into two sections. ﬁrst. Thus. 3. m is the total mass of the object. moment of inertia. ρ(xi ) is the line density as function of xi . if the body isn’t be held through the center of mass.3. In other words. then a moment in additional to force is required (to prevent the body for rotating). It can be noticed that center of mass in the x–direction isn’t aﬀected by the distribu. Description of how the center of mass tion in the y nor by z directions. fashion the center of mass can be deﬁned in the other directions as following xi of Center Mass 1 xi = ¯ xi ρ(xi )dV m V (3.

6) when the integral now over only the area as oppose over the volume. There are cases where the body can be approximated as a twodimensional shape because the body is with a thin with uniform density. 3. ρ and the thickness.8) .2. t.3) can be transferred into 1 x= ¯ tA ρ V dm z x x ρ t dA V (3.2 Aproximate Center of Area t dA Y In the previous case.7) If the density is constant then equation (3. Thus.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass The moment of inertia turns out to be an essential part for the calculations of rotating bodies. Consider a uniform thin body with constant thickness shown in Figure 3. Thin body center of mass/area The density. -3. the moment of inertia is divided into moment of inertia of mass and area. 3. ρ.7) can be transformed into Irr m = ρ r2 dV V (3. Furthermore. the body was a three dimensional shape. it turns out that the moment of inertia has much wider applicability.3 Moment of Inertia As it was divided for the body center of mass.3 which has density.3. are constant and can be canceled. Finding the centroid location should be done in the most convenient coordinate system since the location is coordinate independent.5) Fig. equation (3.52 CHAPTER 3. Moment of inertia of mass is deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Irr m = ρr2 dm m (3. schematic.3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.5) can be transferred into Aproxiate xi of Center Mass xi = ¯ 1 A xi dA A (3. Thus equation (3.

2.9) The body has a diﬀerent moment of inertia for every coordinate/axis and they are Ixx = Iyy = Izz = V V V rx 2 dm = ry 2 dm = rz 2 dm = (3. but dependent on the location of axis of rotation relative to the body.14) ∆y x z’ ∆x x’ In the same fashion for other two coordinates as Iyy = A x2 + z 2 dA Fig.15) mation of moment of inertia. t and uniform density the following can be written moment of inertia for area Ixx m = r2 dm = ρ t m A r2 dA (3. .3. equation (3. rk = Im m (y 2 + z 2 ) dm (x2 + z 2 ) dm V (x2 + y 2 ) dm V V (3.11) The moment of inertia about axis is x can be deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Ixx m Ixx = r2 dA = ρt A where r is distance of dA from the axis x and t is the thickness. The schematic that explains the sum- (3.10) 3. MOMENT OF INERTIA 53 The moment of inertia is independent of the coordinate system used for the calculation.2 3.4. Any point distance can be calculated from axis x as y (3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Area General Discussion For body with thickness.13) y’ C z Thus.3. -3.3.12) x= y2 + z2 (3. Some people deﬁne the radius of gyration as an equivalent concepts for the center of mass concept and which means if all the mass were to locate in the one point/distance and to obtain the same of moment of inertia.12) can be written as Ixx = A y +z 2 2 dA (3.

21) x If the same areas are similar thus n Fig. Ixx = i=1 Ixxi = n Ixxi (3.54 CHAPTER 3.19) Hence.5. n 2 1 y Ixx = i=1 Ixx i (3.20) The moment of inertia of several areas is the sum of moment inertia of each area see Figure 3. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. the relationship between the moment of inertia at xx and parallel axis x x is Parallel Axis Equation Ix x = Ixx + r2 A z (3.17) equation (3. The knowledge about one axis can help calculating the moment of inertia for a parallel axis.3. The second therm is zero because it integral of center about center thus is zero.18) The ﬁrst term in equation (3. The moment of inertia for axis x is Ix x = A r dA = A 2 y 2 +z 2 dA = A (y + ∆y) + (z + ∆z) 2 2 dA (3.2 The Parallel Axis Theorem The moment of inertial can be calculated for any axis.5 and therefore. The third term is a new term and can be written as constant r2 2 A 2 A 2 2 (∆y) + (∆z) A dA = (∆y) + (∆z) dA = r2 A (3.16) 3.18) on the right hand side is the moment of inertia about axis x and the second them is zero.2. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Izz = A x2 + y 2 dA (3. Let Ixx the moment of inertia about axis xx which is at the center of mass/area.22) .17) can be expended as Ixx =0 Ix x = A y 2 + z 2 dA + 2 A (y ∆y + z ∆z) dA + A (∆y) + (∆z) 2 2 dA (3. -3.

MOMENT OF INERTIA h 55 Equation (3.14) as following 0 y z b dx a x Ixx = A 2 2 y +z dA = 0 a dA z 2 bdz = a b 3 3 This value will be used in later examples.3. -3. Solution The element can be calculated using cylindrical coordinate.22) is very useful in the calculation of the moment of inertia utilizing the moment of inertia of known bodies. End Solution Fig. Cylinder with an element for calculaof the tion moment of inertia. r0 . the moment of inertial of half a circle is half of whole circle for axis a the center of circle. .7 around x coordinate.2: Calculate the moment of inertia for the mass of the cylinder about center axis which height of h and radius. -3. Fig.6. The material is with an uniform density and homogeneous.3. as shown in Figure 3. Solution The moment of inertia is calculated utilizing equation (3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia Example 3. Here the convenient element is a shell of thickness dr which shown in Figure 3.6.3: Calculate the moment of inertia of the rectangular shape shown in Figure 3. dr r 3.7. The moment of inertia can then move the center of area. Description of rectangular in x–y plane for calculation of moment of inertia.6 as Irr = ρ V r dm = ρ 0 2 r0 dV r h 2 π r dr = ρ h 2 π 2 r0 4 1 1 = ρhπr0 4 = m r0 2 4 2 2 The radius of gyration is rk = 1 2 mr0 2 r0 =√ m 2 End Solution Example 3. For example.3.

a2 /t2 is the only contributor to the error2 . -3. I can be noticed that the error is signiﬁcant very fast even for small values of t/a while the with of the box. A square element for the calculations of inertia of two-dimensional to three– dimensional deviations.23) dz dIx x m b a3 = ρdy + z2 12 2 r r A 2 ba A a b (3.25) Comparison with the thin body results in Ixx ρ t b a3 1 (3. Ad.24) The total moment of inertia can be obtained by integration of equation (3. consider a simple shape to see the eﬀects of this assumption. Solution The moment of inertia of transverse slice about y (see Figure mech:ﬁg:squareEll) is Ixx t dIxx m = ρ dy The transformation into from local axis x to center axis.9. February 28.24) to write as t/2 Fig.9. b has no eﬀect on the error. Ixx m = ρ −t/2 b a3 a b t 2 + a3 b + z 2 b a dz = ρ t 12 12 (3.26) = 2 = 3 t2 Ixx m t ba + ba 1 + a2 Ixx Ixxm It can be noticed right away that equation (3.26) indicates that ratio approaches one when thickness ratio is approaches zero. t compare the results to a square shape with zero thickness. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Example 3.56 CHAPTER 3.8.4: To study the assumption of zero thickness. Ixx m (t → 0) → 1. This author suggests to call this ratio as the B number. 2008 t a End Solution ratio is a dimensionless number that commonly has no special name. The results are present in Figure 3. 2 This . Calculate the moment of inertia about the center of mass of a square shape with a thickness. -3. The ratio of the moment of inertia of ditionally it can be noticed that the ratio two-dimensional to three–dimensional. x can be done as following Ixx b a3 12 (3.Fig.

3. calculate the area ﬁrst.a) The second integration ( no need to use (3. Rectangular Moment of inertia. Solution For y = b the value of x = Fig. -3. Parabola for calculations of moment of inertia. The moment of inertia for a long element with a distance y shown in Figure 3.10 is a r2 d Izz |dy = y 2 + x2 dy dx = −a 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 (3. b/α. Solution dx dy y r x 57 2b 2a Fig.11.6: Calculate the center of area and moment of inertia for the parabola.3. First the area inside the parabola calculated as √ b/α dA/2 A=2 0 2(3 α − 1) (b − αξ )dξ = 3 2 b α 3 2 .20). Use this area to calculate moment of inertia.10. -3. why?) is b Izz = −b 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 4ab (3. Hint.V. MOMENT OF INERTIA Example 3. Using this method calculate the entire rectangular.V.5: Calculate the rectangular moment of Inertia for the rotation trough center in zz axis (axis of rotation is out of the page). Hint.c) Example 3. y = αx2 . depicted in Figure 3.b) Results in Izz = Or a 2 a b3 + 2 a3 b = A 3 End Solution (2a)2 + (2b)2 12 (3. There are several ways to approach the calculation (diﬀerent inﬁnitesimal area).V.11. construct a small element and build longer build out of the small one.

What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on left. α ξ 2 + b−αξ the element area is used before and therefore 2 √ 1 xc = A 0 xc b/α (b − αξ 2 ) αξ + 2 2 dA (b − αξ 2 )dξ = 3αb 15 α − 5 (3.7: Calculate the moment of inertia of strait angle triangle about its y axis as shown in the Figure on the right.27) can be done in two steps ﬁrst calculate the moment of inertia in this coordinate system and then move the coordinate system to center. . Triangle for example 3. Utilizing equation (3.6). Assume that base is a and the height is h. What is the moment inertia when a −→ 0.27) The moment of inertia of the area about the center can be found using in equation (3. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on bottom. The center of every 2 element is at.7.14) and doing the integration from 0 to maximum y provides dA b Ix Utilizing equation (3.12. -3. What is the moment inertia when h −→ 0. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The center of area can be calculated utilizing equation (3.20) x =4 0 ξ2 ξ 2 b7/2 dξ = √ α 7 α Ix x A (∆x=xc )2 Ixx = Ix x − A ∆x2 = 4 b7/2 3 α − 1 √ − 3 7 α √ b α 3 2 3αb 15 α − 5 2 or after working the details results in Ixx = b 20 b3 − 14 b2 √ 35 α End Solution Example 3. Solution The right edge line equation can be calculated as x y = 1− h a Y h dy X a Fig.58 CHAPTER 3.

the product of inertia for x and y axises is Ixy = A x ydA (3. The product of inertia deﬁned as Ix i x j = xi xj dA A (3.3.29) Product of inertia can be positive or negative value as oppose the moment of inertia.3)) y 3 h a 1− dy a3 h h = 3 4 0 For two triangles attached to each other the moment of inertia will be sum as The rest is under construction. End Solution a3 h 2 3.3.30) results in 0 0 Ixy ∆y A x dA x ∆ydA + ∆x A y dA ∆x ydA + ∆x ∆y A Ix y = A x ydA + A ∆x ∆ydA A (3. The calculation of the product of inertia isn’t diﬀerent much for the calculation of the moment of inertia.3.31) A . MOMENT OF INERTIA or x y = 1− a h 59 Now using the moment of inertia of rectangle on the side (y) coordinate (see example (3.4 Product of Inertia In addition to the moment of inertia. Ix y = A x y dA = A (x + ∆x) (y + ∆y)dA (3. Here only the product of the area is deﬁned and discussed.30) expanding equation (3. Transfer of Axis Theorem Same as for moment of inertia there is also similar theorem. The units of the product of inertia are the same as for moment of inertia. the product of inertia is commonly used.28) For example.

34) can be transform into Ix x 0 0 0 Iy y 0 0 0 Iz z (3. . REVIEW OF MECHANICS = Ixy + ∆x ∆y A (3. -3.8: Calculate the product of inertia of straight edge triangle. Example 3.35) referred as principle system.32) There are several relationships should be mentioned Ixy = Iyx (3.3.33) Symmetrical area has zero product of inertia because integration of odd function (asymmmertial function) left part cancel the right part. Product of inertia for triangle.60 The ﬁnal form is Ix y CHAPTER 3.34) In linear algebra it was shown that for some angle equation (3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia The inertia matrix or inertia tensor is Ixx −Iyx −Izx −Ixy Iyy −Izy −Ixz −Iyz Izz (3.13. The total product of inertia is ∆x ∆y A b ′ y y x a ′ x Ix y =0+ a 3 b 3 ab 2 = a2 b2 18 Fig. Solution The equation of the line is a y = x+a b The product of inertia at the center is zero.35) System which creates equation (3. End Solution 3.

dm. The body forces are forces that act from a distance like magnetic ﬁeld or gravity. the derivative can be taken out of the integral and the alternative form can be written as F= D Dt D2 Dt2 ρ U dV V (3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque The angular momentum of body. ˙ 3. F= ρ rdV V (3.36) can be transformed to a continuous form as D (ρ U ) F= dV (3. The external forces are typically divided into two categories: body forces and surface forces.40) The angular momentum of the entire system is calculated by integration (summation) of all the particles in the system as Ls = m r × U dm (3. This law apply to any body and any body can “broken” into many small bodies which connected to each other. r × ω. Since the derivative with respect to time is independent of the volume. for every action by body A on Body B there is opposite reaction by body B on body A. 2 (Ur × ω).39) where r is the location of the particles from the origin. U is a derivative of the location with respect to time. is deﬁned as L = r × Udm (3. the system acceleration called the internal forces. stresses). NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 61 3. The radial velocity is denoted as Ur .4.41) .4 Newton’s Laws of Motion These laws can be summarized in two statements one. The surface forces are forces that act on the surface of the body (pressure.37) Dt V The external forces are equal to internal forces the forces between the “small” bodies are cancel each other. it can be treated as the regular derivative. Coriolis. The same as in the dynamic class. which can expressed in mathematical form as D (m U ) (3. Angular. Two. thus. Yet this examination provides a tool to study what happened in the ﬂuid during operation of the forces.3.38) The velocity. ω×(r × ω).36) F= Dt It can be noted that D replaces the traditional d since the additional meaning which be added. The acceleration is divided into three categories: Centrifugal. These small “bodies” when became small enough equation (3. Yet.

The torque of entire system is Tτ s = D DL = Dt Dt (r × Udm) m (3.40) provides ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ L = r × U = x y 0 = (x v − y u)k (3. in the same fashion. (3.44) To understand these equations a bit better. in analogous to the momentum change of time which is the force. consider a particle moving in x–y plane.5.42) to calculate the torque as ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ Tτ = r × F = x y 0 = (x Fx − y Fy )k Fx Fy 0 (3. as F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ Utilizing equation i j. The force can be written. A force is acting on the particle in the same plane (x–y) plane.46) Since the torque is a derivative with respect to the time of the angular momentum it is also can be written as xFx − yFy = D [(xv − yu) dm] Dt (3. The velocity can be written as U = uˆ + vˆ and the location from the origin can be written as r = xˆ + yˆ i j i j.47) The torque is a vector and the various components can be represented as Tτ x = ˆ • i D Dt r × U dm m (3.45) u v 0 Utilizing equation (3. it can be proved utilizing vector mechanics) that Tτ = D D Dr D2 r (r × U) = (r × )= Dt Dt Dt Dt2 (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The change with time of angular momentum is called torque. Tτ = DL D = (r × Udm) Dt Dt (3.43) m It can be noticed (well. .62 CHAPTER 3. 3.1 Tables of geometries Th following tables present several moment of inertias of commonly used geometries.42) where Tτ is the torque.48) In the same way the component in y and z can be obtained.

3.1.5. 2 2 ab ab3 12 XX Triangle b b/3 a a 3 ab 3 ab3 36 XX Circle a=b b b/2 b 2 π b2 4 πb4 64 a Ellipse XX a>b b b/2 b b 2 2 π ab 4 Ab2 64 a y = αx2 Parabola a XX b xc 3αb 15 α−5 6α−2 3 × 3 b 2 α √ b (20 b3 −14 b2 ) √ 35 α . ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE 63 Table -3. Moments of Inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity (full shapes) Shape Name Picture description xc . yc A Ixx XX Rectangle b b/2 a b a .

Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity Shape Name Picture description r xc .64 CHAPTER 3.2. yc A Ixx Quadrant of Circle XX 4r 3π 4r 3π π r2 4 4 π r 4 ( 16 − 9π ) r Ellipsoidal Quadrant XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Half of Elliptic XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Circular Sector XX α α 0 2α r2 r4 4 (α− 1 sin 2α) 2 r XX Circular Sector α α 2 r sin α 3 α 2 r sin α 3 α Ix 2α r2 r4 4 x = r (α+ 1 sin 2α) 2 . REVIEW OF MECHANICS Table -3.

the student will be exposed to stability analysis probably for the ﬁrst time. The ﬁrst assumption is that the change in the pressure is a continuous function. that pressure can increase and later decrease. a as shown in Figure 4.g.2 The Hydrostatic Equation A ﬂuid element with dimensions of DC. -4. Description of a ﬂuid element in accel- Equation (4. z).1) can be reduced and simpliﬁed for the case of no acceleration. a = 0. 4. gG (x. The system is in a body force ﬁeld. Furthermore.1. with acceleration.1 Introduction The simplest situation that can occur in the study of ﬂuid is when the ﬂuid is at rest or queasy rest.1. and dz is motionless in the accelerated system. y. The changes of the second derivative pressure are not signiﬁcant compared to the ﬁrst derivative (∂P/∂n × d >> ∂ 2 P/∂n2 ). where n is the steepest 65 . dy. several assumptions must be made. This topic was introduced to most students in previous study of rigid body. Fig. Later. However. In these derivations. There is no requirement that the pressure has to be a monotonous function e. the methods discussed here will be expanded to more complicated dynamics situations. The combination of an acceleration and the body force results in eﬀective body force which is gG − a = geﬀ y P P+ ∂P dy dxdz ∂y P+ dy ∂P dz dxdy ∂z P+ ∂P dx dydz ∂x dz dx z P x (4.CHAPTER 4 Fluids Statics 4.1) erated system under body forces. here this topic will be more vigorously examined.

as a scalar function (there no reference to the shear stress in part of the pressure) the gradient is a vector. The second point is that the gradient is a vector (that is.7) . This mathematical operation has a geometrical interpretation. FLUIDS STATICS direction of the pressure derivative and d is the inﬁnitesimal length. Even though.3) The term in the parentheses in equation (4. For example. now. The body (element) is in rest and therefore the net force is zero F= total surface F+ body F (4.3) referred to in the literature as the pressure gradient (see for more explanation in the Mathematics Appendix). the pressure is treated.4) In general. the dot product results in in · gradP = in · P = ∂P ∂n (4. it has a direction). if the coordinates were to “rotate/transform” to a new system which has a diﬀerent orientation.2) In the same fashion. the utilizing the above derivations one can obtain −gradP dx dy dz + ρ geﬀ dx dy dz = 0 or Pressure Gradient gradP = P = ρ geﬀ (4.66 CHAPTER 4. As before. the eﬀective gravity force is utilized in case where the gravity is the only body force and in an accelerated system. P . If the pressure. the dot product of the following is i · gradP = i · P = ∂P ∂x (4.5) where in is the unit vector in the n direction and ∂/∂n is a derivative in that direction. This mathematical statement simply requires that the pressure can deviate in such a way that the average on inﬁnitesimal area can be found and expressed as only one direction.6) Hence. the calculations of the three directions result in the total net pressure force as F =− surface ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂y (4. The net pressure force on the faces in the x direction results in dF = − ∂P ∂x dydx ˆ i (4. was a two–dimensional height (that is only a function of x and y) then the gradient is the steepest ascent of the height (to the valley).8) (4.

Traditionally. These equations are ∂P ∂P = =0 ∂x ∂y and Pressure Change ∂P = −ρ g ∂z Equations (4.13) The integration constant is determined from the initial conditions or another point.4. z) = −ρgz + constant (4. T (in a way no function of the location) are constant. First.13) becomes P (z) − P0 = −ρg(z − z0 ) (4. P .3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field In this section.8) results into three simple partial diﬀerential equations.10) and constant in equation (4. ρ.12) can be absorbed by the integration of equation (4. 4. The eﬀective body force is ˆ geﬀ = −g k (4. the z coordinate is used as the (negative) direction of the gravity1 .3. y. However.8) as the Fluid Static Equation. For example. a discussion on a simple condition and will continue in more challenging situations. This equation can be integrated and therefore solved.11) (4. There are ﬁelds where x or y are designed to the direction of the gravity and opposite direction. 4.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field The simplest case is when the density. y) = constant (4. For this reason sometime there will be a deviation from the above statement. if at point z0 the pressure is P0 then the equation (4. .10) can be integrated to yield P (x.9) Utilizing equation (4. pressure.11) and therefore P (x.14) 1 This situation were the tradition is appropriated. and temperature.12) (4. there are several physical implications to this equation which should be discussed and are presented here.3. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 67 Some refer to equation (4. it will be used. a discussion on the pressure and the density in various conditions is presented.9) and substituting it into equation (4.

The reason that a a solid boundary doesn’t break the continuity of the pressure lines is because there is always a path to some of the planes.2.3.3. Consider a situation described in Figure 4.1 Pressure Measurement Measuring the Atmospheric Pressure One of the application of this concept is the idea of measuring the atmospheric pressure.3.3.2 4.68 CHAPTER 4. that is h ≡ −(z − z0 ) so equation (4. 4. It is convenient to reverse the direction of z to get rid of the negative sign and Fig. -4.14) becomes Pressure relationship P (h) − P0 = ρgh (4. Pressure lines in a static ﬂuid with a constant density. Using liquid with a very low vapor pressure like mercury. the right hand side of the equation (4.2.15) In the literature.15) is deﬁned as piezometric pressure. It is evident from equation (4. The pressure above the liquid on the right side is the vapor pressure.13) that the pressure depends only on z and/or the constant pressure lines are in the plane of x and y. Figure 4. The liquid is ﬁlling the tube and is brought into a steady state.2 describes the constant ρgh pressure lines in the container under the gravity body force. -4. The pressure lines are continuous even in area where there is a discontinuous ﬂuid. . FLUIDS STATICS Constant Pressure Lines Fig. A schematic to explain the measure to deﬁne h as the dependent of the ﬂuid of the atmospheric pressure. will result in a device that can measure the pressure without additional information (the temperature).

For smaller width. the ratio between two sides will be as ρ1 h1 = ρ2 h2 → h2 = α h1 2 This example was requested by several students who found their instructor solution unsatisfactory.4. Pa = 13545.76 [m] and the gravity acceleration is 9. The ratio of the Fig. Solution The pressure is uniform or constant plane perpendicular to the gravity.85 × 9. Gas The pressure.39[P a] ∼ 1. The high of the Mercury is 0. knowing any point on this plane provides the pressure anywhere on the plane.01[Bar] The vapor pressure is about 1 × 10−4 percent of the total results.16) The main reason the mercury is used because its of large density and the fact that it is in a liquid phase in most of the measurement range.76 ∼ 101095. U tube is L. The mercury density is 13545.3.000179264[kPa]. L. The partial pressure of mercury is in the range of the 0.15) can be utilized and it can be noticed that pressure at point a is Pa = ρ g h + Pvapor The density of the mercury is given along with the gravity and therefore.000001793[Bar] which is insigniﬁcant compared to the total measurement as can be observed from the above example.85[kg/m3 ].82[m/sec].3. If the width of the U tube is equal or larger than total length of the two liquids then the whole liquid will be in bottom part. The third reason is the low vapor (partial) pressure of the mercury.1: Calculate the atmospheric pressure at 20◦ C. Hence. Locate the liquids surfaces. h . P valve 2 1 Example 4.82 × 0. The atmospheric pressure at point a is the same as the pressure on the right hand side of the tube. Solution The question is to ﬁnd the equilibrium point where two liquids balance each other.4. The description of the height is given in Figure 4. -4. Equation (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 69 Example 4.2: A liquid2 a in amount Ha and a liquid b in amount Hb in to an U tube. The width of the utilizing the “U” tube. Assume that the mercury vapor pressure is 0. End Solution (4. Schematic of gas measurement liquid densities is α = ρ1 /ρ2 .

.Fig. The gas density is signiﬁcantly lower than the liquid density and therefore can be neglected. Schematic of sensitive measurement device.17) Since the atmospheric pressure was measured previously (the technique was shown in the previous section) the pressure of the chamber can be measured. The additional equation is the mass conservation as Ha = h 2 + L + h 3 The solution is h2 = (Ha − L) ρa − Hb ρb 2 ρa End Solution 4.5. the balance is h1 ρb + h2 ρa = h3 ρa where h1 is the height of liquid b where h2 is the height of “extra” liquid a and same side as liquid b and where h3 is the height of liquid b on the other side. imal interference to the gas (some gas enters to the tube).3. the gas is prevented from escaping and its pressure can be measured with a min.70 The mass conservation results in CHAPTER 4. One A2 h2 ρ2 technique is to attached “U” tube ρ2 to the chamber and measure the ρ2 pressure. This way. When in this case h1 is equal to Hb .4). Consider a chamber ﬁlled with gas needed to be ρ1 measured (see Figure 4. -4. FLUIDS STATICS Ha + Hb = L + h 1 + h 2 Thus two equations and two unknowns provide the solution which is h1 = Ha + Hb − L 1+α When Ha > L and ρa (Ha − L) ≥ ρb (or the opposite) the liquid a will be on the two sides of the U tube. The pressure at point “1” is P1 = Patmos + ρg h (4.2. Thus.2 Pressure Measurement The idea describes the atmoh1 P1 P2 A1 A1 spheric measurement can be exρ1 ρ1 tended to measure the pressure gas chambers.

the density of one side was neglected (the gas side) compared to other side (liquid).18) becomes P1 − P2 = g h2 ρ2 − ρ1 1 − or the height is h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + ρ1 A2 A1 (4. The calculations as results of this additional parameter does not cause signiﬁcant complications.4. Here. the volume ratio. it provides the relationship between h1 and h2 . The pressure diﬀerence can be expressed as P1 − P2 = g [ρ2 h2 − ρ1 (h1 + h2 )] (4. But this ratio easily can be inserted into the derivations.3.22) becomes h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) (4. The densities of the liquids are chosen to be much heavier than the measured gas density. engineers invented more sensitive measuring device. This technique utilizes the opposite range. Additionally. it can be observed that h1 is relatively small because A1 >> A2 .23) .19) If the light liquid volume in the two containers is known.3 Magniﬁed Pressure Measurement 71 For situations where the pressure diﬀerence is very small. If the pressure diﬀerences between P1 and P2 is small this instrument can “magniﬁed” height.5 shows a typical and simple schematic of such an instrument. The densities of the liquid are chosen so that they are close to each other but not equal. For example. Thus. A2 /A1 << 1. Additional parameter. will be introduced when the volumes ratio isn’t equal.18) the gas density was neglected. This device is build around the fact that the height is a function of the densities diﬀerence. This device is based on the following mathematical explanation. this ratio equals to one and it simplify the equation (4.22) A2 A1 (4.20) Liquid volumes do not necessarily have to be equal. With the equation for height (4. Figure 4.18) It can be noticed that the “missing height” is canceled between the two sides.20) equation (4.2.20). then equation (4.3. in writing equation (4. It can be noticed that h1 can be positive or negative or zero and it depends on the ratio that two containers ﬁlled with the light density liquid. h1 and provide “better” accuracy reading. In the previous technique. the pressure balance (only diﬀerences) is P1 + g ρ1 (h1 + h2 ) = P2 + g h2 ρ2 (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 4. In steady state. if the volumes in two containers is equal then −h1 A1 = h2 A2 −→ h1 = − h2 A2 A1 (4.21) For the small value of the area ratio. The two sides of the densities are very close to each other so the height became large.

72 CHAPTER 4. Schematic of inverted manometer. As in the previous “magniﬁed” manometer if the density diﬀerence is very small the height become very sensitive the change of pressure.7.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field There are several cases that will be discussed here which are categorized as gases. a location can be calibrated on the inclined leg as zero3 . In this method.7). This idea is similar to “magniﬁed” manometer but in reversed. the tube leg is inclined relatively to gravity (depicted in Figure 4. ρ2 .26) 1 For the similar density of ρ1 = ρ2 and for a = b equation (4.26) becomes P2 − P1 = (ρ1 − ρ) g h (4. Due to surface tension cause air entrapment especially in rapid change of the pressure or height. liquids and other. caption.27) Fig. it can be written the pressure on left is equal to pressure on the right legs (see Figure 4. The pressure line are same for the both legs on line ZZ. Inverted U-tube manometer The diﬀerence in the pressure of two diﬀerent liquids is measured by this manometer. Thus. . 4.6).3.25) leads to P2 − P1 = ρ2 (b + h) g − ρ1 a g − ρ h g (4.25) a b 2 (4.6. the equation of state is simply the ideal gas model 3 The personal experience of this author while working in ship that this manometer is signiﬁcantly inaccurate (to be the ﬁrst thing to be replaced on the ship).23) as “magniﬁcation factor” since it replace the regular density. FLUIDS STATICS Some refer to the density diﬀerence shown in equation (4.17) is then Poutside P1 dy θ dℓ Fig. -4. -4. P1 − Poutside = ρ g d (4. Inclined Manometer One of the old methods of pressure measurement is the inclined manometer. The equation (4. In the gas phase. This method is attempt to increase the accuracy by “extending” length visible of the tube.24) If there is insigniﬁcant change in volume (the area ratio between tube and inclined leg is signiﬁcant). right leg left leg Z Z h P2 − ρ2 (b + h) g = P1 − ρ1 a − ρ h) g Rearranging equation (4.

they are presented here for students who need to answer questions on this issue.30) It is convenient to rearrange equation (4.32) (4.33) Equation (4. Equation (4.30) to the following P = P0 e − g(z−zo ) RT (4. As ﬁrst approximation.29) can be integrated from point “0” to any point to yield ln P g =− (z − z0 ) P0 RT „ « (4.11) becomes ∂P gP =− ∂z RT (4.28) Separating the variables and changing the partial derivatives to full derivative (just a notation for this case) results in dP g dz =− P RT Equation (4. density and location. However.31) can be expanded to show the diﬀerence to standard assumption of constant pressure as − h ρ0 g P0 P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 RT 6RT Or in a simpliﬁed form where the transformation of h = (z − z0 ) to be correction factor h2 P ρ0 g h − + ··· =1+ 6 P0 P0 2 (4. 4 These derivations are left for a mathematical mind person. the ideal gas model can be employed to describe the density.3. . The equation of state for liquid can be approximated or replaced by utilizing the bulk modulus. These deviations have a limited practical purpose.29) (4.33) is useful in mathematical derivations but should be ignored for practical use4 .3. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 73 or the ideal gas with the compressibility factor (sometime referred to as real gas). Thus equation (4. These relationships will be used to ﬁnd the functionality between pressure.4. 4.3.1 Gas Phase under Hydrostatic Pressure Ideal Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The gas density vary gradually with the pressure.31) Here the pressure ratio is related to the height exponentially.

Another point that is worth discussing is the relationship of Z to other gas properties. The simplest approach is to assume that the bulk modulus is constant (or has some representative average). The modiﬁed equation is P = P0 Or in a series form which is P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 Z RT 6Z RT 2 e „ − g (z−zo ) Z RT « (4.28)) is ρ = BT ∂ρ ∂P (4. The compressibility is deﬁned in equation (2. the relationship is very complicated and in some ranges Z cannot be assumed constant.28). The governing diﬀerential density equation (see equation (1. can be assumed constant and therefore can be swallowed into equations (4. So. Fortunately. only one hydrostatic equation depends on density equation. Z.39) . there are two diﬀerential equations that needed to be solved.31) and (4. here.3.2 Liquid Phase Under Hydrostatic Pressure The bulk modulus was deﬁned in equation (1.39). For a large range of P/Pc and T /Tc .36) The variables for equation (4.35) Without going through the mathematics. the diﬀerential equation for density should be solved ﬁrst.3.32). Z enter the equation as h/Z and not just h. In these cases. FLUIDS STATICS Real Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The mathematical derivations for ideal gas can be reused as a foundation for the real gas model (P = ZρRT ). the ﬁrst approximation should be noticed that the compressibility factor.34) (4. 4. In general.38) Equation (4.38) can be represented in a more convenient form as Density variation ρ = ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.37) yields P − P0 = BT ln ρ ρ0 (4.37) The integration of equation (4.36) should be separated and then the integration can be carried out as P ρ dP = P0 ρ0 BT dρ ρ (4. the value of the compressibility factor. For these cases. a numerical integration must be carried out.74 CHAPTER 4.

The solution is a reverse function (that is not P = f (z) but z = f (P)) it is a monotonous function which is easy to solve for any numerical value (that is only one z corresponds to any Pressure).45) An approximation of equation (4. Additional discussion will be presented in the dimensionless issues chapter (currently under construction). Fig. If at z = 0 the pressure is P0 and the density is ρ0 then the constant is Constant = This constant. -4.4.41) It can be noted that BT has units of pressure and therefore the ratio in front of the exponent in equation (4.44) compressibility in the liquid phase.44) is presented for historical reasons and in order to compare the constant density assumption.39) in equation (4. the solution is presented as P BT = ln P0 P0 g ρ0 z +1 +1 BT (4. Utilizing equation (4. The solution becomes BT g ρ0 BT g ρ0 (4. 2008 P −P0 BT Or in a dimensionless form Density in Liquids g ρ0 z BT e −1 = z g ρ0 BT (4.42) e P −P0 BT P −P0 BT −1 =z (4.43) and is plotted in Figure 4.46) . is a typical length of the problem.41) has units of length.8. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 75 Equation (4. The integration constant.40) can be integrated to yield BT g ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.43) March 11. with units of length. The exponent can be expanded as piezometric corrections pressure (P − P0 ) + BT 2 P − P0 BT 2 + BT 6 P − P0 BT 3 + ··· = z g ρ0 (4.8. Hydrostatic pressure when there is The solution is presented in equation (4.11) transformed into ∂P = −gρ0 ∂z Equation (4.39) is the counterpart for the equation of state of ideal gas for the liquid phase. BT /g ρ0 . can be evaluated at any speciﬁc point.40) e P −P0 BT = z + Constant (4. Sometimes.3.

Air can be a function of the temperature ﬁeld and the pressure.48) where the Constant is the integration constant which can be obtained by utilizing the initial condition. P/BT is small (<< 1).4 4. the density is aﬀected and thus the pressure is a location function (for example. If you know of this solution or similar please pass this information to this author. when the temperature ﬁeld is not uniform. However.47) where h here referred to height or distance.3.1 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations The Basic Analysis There are situations when the main change of the density results from other eﬀects. it can be observed that the correction is on the left hand side and not as the “traditional” correction on the piezometric pressure side.4. the temperature is T0 and using it leads to Temp variations T = T0 − Cx h (4. in the atmosphere the temperature is assumed to be a linear with the height under certain conditions. A bit more complicate case is when the gas is a function of the pressure and another parameter. the temperature–distance function can be written as T = Constant − Cx h (4.3. a simple case is examined for which the temperature is a linear function of the height as dT = −Cx dh (4.46) is reduced to the standard equation when the normalized pressure ratio.l) while here the ratio is expressed by diﬀerent equations.13 use the integral equation without the using any “equation of state.).13 is more general which provided a simple solution5 . the integral equation uses the fact the pressure is function of location.3: 4.XIII. . For the atmosphere. Here. Additionally. FLUIDS STATICS It can be noticed that equation (4.13 ratio of the density was expressed by equations (1.49) 5 This author is not aware of solution the “equation of state” neither the integral solution. In Example 1. Hence. For h = 0. it is commonly assumed that the temperature is a linear function of the height. The coparsson between the two methods is to be presented.” The method described in the Example 1.76 CHAPTER 4. The diﬀerence between the two equations is the fact that Example 1. The equation of state suggests that ∂P = g ρ0 f (P ) dz while the integral equation is ∆P = g ρ dz where no assumption is made on the relationship between the pressure and density. For example. Example 4.

. please.51) and reusing (the reverse deﬁnitions) the variables transformed the result into ln P g T0 − Cx h = ln P0 R Cx T0 (4.49) with (4..4. It can be recalled that the following expansions are g h ρ0 P0 correction factor P Cx = lim 1 − h h−>0 P0 T0 g R Cx =1− R g C x − g 2 h2 gh − − .50) Separating the variables in equation (4. just ignore it.53) Or in a more convenient form as Pressure in Atmosphere P = P0 g T0 − Cx h ( R Cx ) T0 (4. and the second approximation for a small temperature gradient.54) can be approximated by two approaches/ideas. T0 R 2 T0 2 R2 (4.54) It can be noticed that equation (4. This situation is roughly representing the pressure in the atmosphere and results in a temperature decrease. .52) After integration of equation (4.55) Equation (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Combining equation (4. Equation (4.50) and changing the formal ∂ to the informal d to obtain dP g dh =− P R (T0 − Cx h) (4. Using these deﬁnitions results in dP g dξ = P RCx ξ (4.55) shows that the ﬁrst two terms are the standard terms (negative sign is as expected i. h. It is worth to point out that the above statement 6 A colleague asked this author to insert this explanation for his students.54) is a monotonous function which decreases with height because the term in the brackets is less than one. The ﬁrst approximation for a small distance. It can be observed that Cx has a “double role” which can change the pressure ratio. If you feel that it is too simple.51) Deﬁning a new variable6 as ξ = (T0 − Cx h) for which ξ0 = T0 − Cx h0 and d/dξ = −Cx d/dh.e. negative direction).3. The correction factor occurs only at the third term which is important for larger heights.11) results in ∂P gP =− ∂h R (T0 − Cx h) 77 (4.

55) and (4. -4. The second approximation for small Cx is Cx P = lim 1− h Cx −>0 P0 T0 g R Cx = e gh −RT 0 − g h2 Cx 2 T0 2 R e gh −RT 0 − .25). FLUIDS STATICS has a qualitative meaning when additional parameter is added. this kind of analysis will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter7 .56) are not properly represented without the characteristic height. main possibilities one: the slab could return to the original layer or two: stay at the new layer (or even move further. higher heights). It has to be inserted to make the physical signiﬁcance clearer. it is sometimes important to obtain the density ratio. The two forces that act on the slab are the gravity force and the surroundings pressure (buoyant forces).56) shows that the correction factor (lapse coeﬃcient). A weak wind or other disturbances can make the unstable system to move to a new condition.4. a small slab of material moves from a layer at height. The ﬁrst case is referred to as the stable condition and the second case referred to as the unstable condition.78 CHAPTER 4. Cx . . h. the slab is in equilibrium with its surroundings before the movement (not necessarily stable). That is. to layer at height h + dh (see Figure 4. For engineering purposes.9.G. (4. to yield P P0 T0 T g R Cx ρ P T0 = = ρ0 P0 T 1− Cx h ( T0 ) 1+ Cx h T (4.54) represents only the pressure ratio. inﬂuences at only large values of height.54) and (4.49). Whether these forces are toward the original layer or not. Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. It has to be noted that these equations (4. The whole system falls apart and does not stay if the analysis predicts unstable conditions.2 The Stability Analysis It is interesting to study whether h + dh this solution (4.54) is stable and if so under what conditions. the body forces that acting on the slab are equal to zero. Eckert who was the pioneer of the dimensional analysis in heat transfer and was kind to show me some of his ideas. Under equilibrium. Clearly.56) Equation (4. equation (2. Equation (4. I am grateful to my adviser E. Suppose that h for some reason. 7 These concepts are very essential in all the thermo–ﬂuid science.R.57) Advance material can be skipped 4.9) What could happen? There are two Fig. This relationship can be obtained from combining equations (4. However. The simplest assumption to combine these equations is by assuming the ideal gas model. This question is determined by the net forces acting on the slab.3...

no signiﬁcant heat transfer occurs in the short period of time).58) The pressure and temperature change when the slab moves from layer at h to layer h + dh. the free expansion is not far way from the actual process. Thus. If ρ (h) > ρ(h + dh) then the situation is stable.. under the above discussion and simpliﬁcations. However. The two processes that occurred here are thermal and the change of pressure (at the speed of sound).3. The pressure ratio is given by equation (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 79 the surroundings “pressure” forces (buoyancy forces) are equal to gravity forces. The buoyancy forces are proportional to the ratio of the density of the slab to surrounding layer density. The term ρ (h) is slab from layer h that had undergone the free expansion. The process.55) and thus ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− gdh T (h) R 1/k (4. The reason that the free expansion is chosen to explain the process that the slab undergoes when it moves from layer h to layer h + dh is because it is the simplest. the pressure process is about thousands times faster then the thermal process.61) transformed into ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− ρ gdh P 1/k (4. The thermal process is in the range of [cm/sec] while the speed of sound is about 300 [m/sec].62) .54) but can be approximated by equation (4. can be assumed to be adiabatic (that is.61) in taylor series results in 1− ρ gdh P 1/k =1− g 2 ρ2 k − g 2 ρ2 dh2 g ρ dh − − . The little slab undergoes isentropic expansion as following for which (see equation (2.60) Again using the ideal gas model for equation (4. That is. ρ (h) undergoing a free expansion is higher or lower than the density of the layer h + dh.61) Expanding equation (4.4. In reality.25)) ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) P (h + dh) P (h) 1/k (4. The slab density at layer h+dh can be obtained using equation (4.. the stability question is whether the slab density from layer h.57) as following ρ(h + dh) P T0 = = ρ(h) P0 T g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1− 1+ T0 T (4. Pk 2 P 2 k2 (4. The second issue that occurs during the “expansion” is the shock (in the reverse case [h + dh] → h).59) When the symbol denotes the slab that moves from layer h to layer h + dh. this shock is insigniﬁcant (check book on Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics by this author on the French problem).

the unstable situation is continuously unstable.3. -4. .11) has two terms on the right hand side. It should be noted that this value should be changed a bit since the k should be replaced by polytropic expansion n.64) and using the ideal gas identity. 4. From a mathematical point of view. See example for the ﬂoating ice in cup. When lapse rate Cx is equal to the right hand side of the inequality. What is the source of the force(s) that make this situation when unstable continue to be unstable? Supposed that the situation became unstable and the layers have been exchanged. However. The varying gravity eﬀects on density and pressure. Thus. ρ and the body force.63) The comparison of the right hand terms of equations (4.80 CHAPTER 4.65) The analysis shows that the maximum amount depends on the gravity and gas properties. around this value additional analysis is needed 8 .64) After rearrangement of the inequality (4. Fig. to keep the inequality for a small dh only the ﬁrst term need to be compared as gρ g ρ Cx > − Pk P T (4.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density P b ρb rb r Until now the study focus on the change of density and pressure of the ﬂuid.62) provides the conditions to determine the stability. one has to bear in mind that this analysis only provides a range and isn’t exact.63) and (4. One of the common question this author has been asked is about the forces of continuation. This assumption must be deviated when the distance from the body source is signiﬁcantly change. the body 8 The g ∝ r2 same issue of the ﬂoating ice. g.58) and then it is expanded in taylor series as ρ(h + dh) = ρ(h) g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1− 1+ T0 T ∼1− g ρ Cx − P T dh + · · · (4. At ﬁrst glance. would the situation become stable now? One has to remember that temperature gradient forces continuous heat transfer which the source temperature change after the movement to the new layer. Equation (4. it transformed to Cx (k − 1) g ρ > T kP k−1 g Cx < k R (4. it is said that situation is neutral.10. The body force was assumed until now to be constant. Thus. FLUIDS STATICS The density at layer h + dh can be obtained from (4. the density.

The regular method of separation is employed to obtain P Pb dP G =− P RT r rb dr r2 (4. Assuming that the pressure is aﬀected by this gravity/body force. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.4. It can be noticed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .68) e G r−r − RT r r b b (4. ρb Pb 2 RT 2 rb (R T ) (4. . equation (4.67) where the subscript b denotes the conditions at the body surface.69) Equation (4.67) results in ln Or in a simpliﬁed form as P ρ = = ρb Pb P G =− Pb RT 1 1 − rb r (4.5.. equation (4. Again.66) where here G denotes the general gravity constant.69) can be expanded in taylor series as standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) = = 1− − + .1 Ideal Gas in Varying Gravity 81 In physics. The gravity force can be assumed that for inﬁnity.11) can be used (semi one directional situation) when r is used as direction and thus ∂P G = −ρ 2 ∂r r (4. As before. the discussion is separated into two diﬀerent issues..3.69) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance.will not be introduced here. 4. it was explained that the gravity is a function of the distance from the center of the plant/body. while the gravity force source in liquid can be the liquid itself. The gravity force is reversely proportional to r2 . The integration of equation (4.3. r → ∞ the pressure is about zero. The source of the gravity force in gas is another body. Thus.70) Notice that G isn’t our beloved and familiar g and also that G rb /RT is a dimensionless number (later in dimensionless chapter about it and its meaning). The issues of magnetohydrodynamics are too advance for undergraduate student and therefore. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD force is independent of the ﬂuid.

there are situations where the spherical coordinates must be considered and used. Z. Thus. numerical integration is a possible solution. it is left for the reader to apply according to problem.75) Since this author is not aware to which practical situation this solution should be applied.3. if applicable. is employed. As before taylor series for equation (4.69) is standard correction f actor P ρ 2 2 G Z R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) = = (4.3.000 [m].39) is used with the hydrostatic ﬂuid equation results in ∂P = −ρ0 ∂r which the solution of equation (4. the Cartesian coordinates provides suﬃcient treatment to the problem..2 Real Gas in Varying Gravity CHAPTER 4. equation (4. It has to remember when this assumption isn’t accurate enough. 4..5. If the liquid “equation of state” (4. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.5.73) 1− − + . It can be observed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .6 Liquid Phase While for most practical purposes.3.69) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. FLUIDS STATICS The regular assumption of constant compressibility. 4.71) With the same process as before for ideal gas case. one can obtain ρ P = = ρb Pb e G r−r −Z RT r r b b (4.67) is transformed into P Pb dP G =− P Z RT r rb dr r2 (4.74) is e P −P0 BT G r2 (4.3 Liquid in Under Varying Gravity For comparison reason consider the deepest location in the ocean which is about 11. .74) e P0 −P BT = Constant − B T g ρ0 r (4.82 4. ρb Pb 2 Z RT 2 rb (Z R T ) It can be noted that compressibility factor can act as increase or decrease of the ideal gas model depending on whether it is above one or below one.72) Equation (4.

4. the constant pressure plane is perpendicular to the direction of the eﬀective gravity. The general.79) and the angle/direction can be obtained from tanβ = a g (4. Equation (4.78) For example.80) Perhaps the best way to explain the linear acceleration is by examples. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM Derivations of the ﬂuid static in spherical coordinates are Pressure Spherical Coordinates 1 d r2 dP + 4 π Gρ = 0 r2 dr ρ dr Or in a vector form as 1 P ρ 83 (4. Example 4. the previous derivations can be easily extended.4. the linear acceleration have three components as opposed to the previous case of only one.8) can be transformed into a diﬀerent coordinate system where the main coordinate is in the direction of the eﬀective gravity. in a two dimensional system. Thus. for the eﬀective gravity where the magnitude of the eﬀective gravity is |gef f | = g 2 + a2 (4. Consider the following example to illustrate the situation. However.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System Up to this stage. body forces were considered as one-dimensional.77) 4.76) • + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4. As before.4. Generally the acceleration is divided into two categories: linear and angular and they will be discussed in this order. the previous method can be used and there is no need to solve new three (or two) diﬀerent equations.4: .4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System ˆ gef f = a ˆ + g k i (4.

The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart. The change of the acceleration form the right to left is like subtracting vector (addition negative vector). This question is one of the traditional question the ﬂuid static and is straight forward.12.5: Cart partially is ﬁlled with liquid and is sliding on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 4. -4. lar to the slope. -4.01◦ g 9. If there is a resistance what will be the angle? What happen when the slope angle is straight (the cart is dropping straight down)? Solution (a) The angle can be found when the acceleration of the cart is found.812 = 11. A cart slide on inclined plane. what happened to the liquid surface? What is the relative angle of the liquid surface for a container in an accelerated system of a = 5[m/sec]? Solution CHAPTER 4. Calculate the shape of the surface.11. This angle/direction can be found using the following a 5 tan−1 β = tan−1 = ∼ 27. End Solution (b) In case of resistance force (either of friction due to the air or resistance in the wheels) reduces the acceleration of the cart. The solution is obtained by ﬁnding the eﬀective angle body force.12. the acceleration in the cart direction is determined from a = g sin β (4. the liquid surface is parallel to the surface of the inclination surface. Thus. The eﬀective angle is obtained by adding vectors.Fig. FLUIDS STATICS 27.81) ) F (a β The eﬀective body force is acting perpendicu.81 The magnitude of the eﬀective acceleration is |gef f | = 52 + 9. If there is no resistance.015[m/sec2 ] End Solution Example 4. In that case the eﬀective body moves .1 a 5 m sec g geﬀ Fig. When the acceleration is changing from the right to the left.84 A tank ﬁlled with liquid is accelerated at a constant acceleration.

85) can be integrated as z − z0 = ω2 r2 2g (4.6 is provided.4.14. is now tan α = (c) In the case when the angle of the inclination turned to be straight (direct falling) the eﬀective body force is zero.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density For simpliﬁcation reasons. Schematic to explain the angular Notice that the integration constant was substituted by z0 . The net body force depends on the mass of the liquid and the net acceleration is Fnet a=g− (4. The angle of the line depends on the radius as dz g =− 2 (4. α < β. (4.82) m The angle of the surface.4.13. the ﬁrst case to deal with a rotation in a perpendicular to the gravity.84) z r ω2 r g geﬀ center of circulation Fig. example 4. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 85 closer to the gravity forces. -4. the pressure at any point in the liquid is the same and equal to the atmospheric pressure. So.87) P − P0 = ρg (z0 − z) + 2g To illustrate this point.85) dr ω r Equation (4. unit mass Fig. . -4. That is the eﬀective body force can be written as ˆ gef f = −g k + ω 2 r r ˆ The lines of constant pressure are not straight lines but lines of parabolic shape. The pressure is uniform in the tank and no pressure diﬀerence can be found. The constant pressure will be along Angular Acceleration System ω2 r2 (4. wi th fr o ti ic n net g − Fm g cosβ (4.4.83) a rf su ce α a β g sin β − Fnet m β g geﬀ 4. Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane.86) angle.

6.6: A “U” tube with a length of (1 + x)L is rotating at angular velocity of ω. What will be the correction factor if the curvature in the liquid in the tube is taken in to account.86) represent the pressure line. The center of rotation is a distance. Solution It ﬁrst assumed the height is uniform at the tube (see for the open question on this assumption). FLUIDS STATICS S ω L co xL Fig. End Solution Example 4.7: Assume the diameter of the U tube is Rt . -4. How would you suggest to deﬁne the height in the tube? Solution nt .15. Taking the “left” wing of U tube change in z direction zl − z0 The same can be said for the other side zr − z0 = ω 2 x2 L2 2g = change in r direction ω 2 L2 2g Thus subtracting the two equations above from each each other results in zr − zl = L ω 2 1 − x2 2g It can be noticed that this kind equipment can be used to ﬁnd the gravity.15. Expresses the relationship between the diﬀerent parameters of the problem. L from the “left” hand side. Because the asymmetrical nature of the problem there is diﬀerence in the heights in the U tube arms of S as shown in Figure 4. Thus. Example 4. Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. The pressure at the interface at the two sides of the tube is same. equation (4.86 Calculation of the correction factor dA Rotation center ns ta su pr es re lin e CHAPTER 4.

The distance of the inﬁnitesimal area from the rotation center is ?.5. The height of the inﬁnitesimal area is ?. -4. The volume above the lower point is ? which is only a function of the geometry. Example 4. how the calculations can be simpliﬁed will be shown.8: In the U tube in example 4.6 is rotating with upper part height of . F1 and F2 to maintain the gate in position. P can be expressed as a function ξ as the following P = g ρ ( + ξ)sinβ Fig. These calculations are divided into two categories. End Solution Example 4. Notice that the curvature in the two sides are diﬀerent from each other. Calculate the minimum forces. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 87 In Figure 4. a simple case will be examined. Solution The forces can be calculated by looking at the moment around point “O. 4.9: Consider a rectangular shape gate as shown in Figure 4. Initially.” The element of moment is a dξ for the width of the gate and is dF "0" β = 50 h ◦ A-A ξ ℓ = 5[m] ξ A-A a[m] dξ dM = P a dξ ( + ξ) dA F1 F2 b[m] The pressure.16. straight surfaces and curved surfaces. Assuming that the atmospheric pressure can be ignored. Later.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces A motivation is needed before going through the routine of derivations. .5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces The forces that ﬂuids (at static conditions) extracts on surfaces are very important for engineering purposes. At what rotating velocity liquid start to exit the U tube? If the rotation of U tube is exactly at the center.4. This section deals with these calculations. Rectangular area under pressure.15 shown the inﬁnitesimal area used in these calculations.16.5. what happen the rotation approach very large value? 4.

Schematic of submerged area to explain the center forces and moments.88) The solution of the above integral is M = g ρ a sin β 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 This value provides the moment that F1 and F2 should extract. which is b Ftotal = 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ The total force integration provides b Ftotal = g ρ a sin β 0 ( + ξ)dξ = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 The forces on the gate have to provide F1 + F2 = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 Additionally.88 The liquid total moment on the gate is b CHAPTER 4.17. the moment of forces around point “O” is F1 + F2 ( + b) = g ρ a sin β The solution of these equations is F1 = F2 = (3 + b) a b g ρ sin β 6 (3 + 2 b) a b g ρ sin β 6 End Solution "O" 3 b l 2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 The above calculations are time consuming and engineers always try to make life simpler. FLUIDS STATICS M= 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ( + ξ) The integral can be simpliﬁed as b M = g a ρ sin β 0 ( + ξ)2 dξ (4. It is the total force. -4. it can be observed that there is a moment of area in equation (4. Additional equation is needed. .88) and β ξ ξ ℓ0 dξ ℓ1 ξ Fig. Looking at the above calculations.

90) A+ 0 ξdA (4. The general forces acting on submerged area.89) In this case. The boundaries of the integral of equation (4. These tabulated values can be used to solve this kind of problems. the force is h(ξ) 1 F = A P dA = (Patmos + ρgh)dA = A Patmos + ρg 0 (ξ + 0 ) sin β dA (4.94) . -4.91) "O" y ξ0 β a F1 b My = ξ0 P (ξ)ξdA ξ sin β (4. The “atmospheric” pressure can be set to zero.93) F2 Or separating the parts as xc A ξ1 Fig.18.4. The symmetry is around any axes parallel to axis x.92) ξ1 ξ1 My = ξ0 (Patmos + g ρ h(ξ) )ξdA (4. the atmospheric pressure can include any additional liquid layer above layer “touching” area.5. First.89) can be further developed as Ftotal = A Patmos + ρ g sin β In a ﬁnal form as Total Force in Inclined Surface Ftotal = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( 0 + xc )] The moment of the liquid on the area around point “O” is ξ1 0 xc A 1 (4. These concepts have been introduced in Chapter 3. 89 Symmetrical Shapes Consider the two–dimensional symmetrical area that are under pressure as shown in Figure 4. Ix ξ1 x My = Patmos ξ0 ξdA +g ρ sin β ξ0 ξ 2 dA (4. The integral in equation (4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES also a center of area. Several represented areas for which moment of inertia and center of area have been tabulated in Chapter 3.17. The total force and moment that the liquid extracting on the area need to be calculated.89) refer to starting point and ending points not to the start area and end area.

97) ρ sin β − Patmos gb xc + 0 ρ sin β + g (b − a) Patmos g b A−. The forces balance reads F1 + F2 = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( and moments balance reads F1 a + F2 b = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx The solution of these equations is F1 = and F2 = Ix x x 0 + xc )] (4. Thus.99) In the solution.94) can be written in more compact form as Total Moment in Inclined Surface My = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx x (4. the atmospheric pressure can contain either an additional liquid layer above the “touching” area or even atmospheric pressure simply can be set up to zero. Equations (4. If the “atmospheric pressure” can be zero or include additional layer of liquid. Consider the general symmetrical body shown in ﬁgure 4. Additionally. and the distance a or b can be positive or negative.100) into Mx = A y (Patmos + ρ g ξ sin β) dA (4. The moment around the y axis is given by equation (4.91).19). Equation (4.95) can be combined the moment and force acting on the general area.90 CHAPTER 4.95) and the total force is given by (4. Ix x .96) (4. in non–symmetrical area there two diﬀerent moments and therefor three forces are required. Ix x ρ sin β (4. the forces can be negative or positive. However.18 which has two forces that balance the body. FLUIDS STATICS The moment of inertia.9 can be generalized to solve any two forces needed to balance the area/gate.91) and (4. In symmetrical area only two forces are required since the moment is one dimensional.101) .100) Substituting the components for the pressure transforms equation (4. The moment around the x axis (which was arbitrary chosen) should be Mx = A y P dA (4. is about the axis through point “O” into the page. This equation is for the additional moment around the x axis (see for explanation in Figure 4. additional equation is required.95) Example 4.98) ρ sin β − ρ sin β − Patmos ga xc + 0 ρ sin β + Patmos g aA g (b − a) (4.

19.100) can be written as A yc Ix y 91 Mx = Patmos A y dA +ρ g sin β A ξ y dA (4. Solution The three equations that needs to be solved are F1 + F2 + F3 = Ftotal The moment around x axis is F1 b = My The moment around y axis is F1 1 Fig.106) The right hand side of these equations are given before in equations (4.103). The moment of inertia of the triangle around x is made of two triangles (as shown in the Figure (4. These equations (4. two forces and moment) but no general solution is provided. (4.g.103) provide the base for solving any problem for straight area under pressure with uniform density. y (4.20. (4. The height of triangle 1 is ( 1 − 0 ) .95) and (4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The integral in equation (4. Example to illustrate the use of these equations is provided.91). There are many combinations of problems (e. -4.91).104) (4. The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. Triangle 1 can be calculated as the moment of inertia around its center which is 0 +2∗( 1 − 0 )/3.105) + F2 (a + 0) + F3 0 = Mx (4.102) The compact form can be written as Moment in Inclined Surface Mx = Patmos A yc + ρ g sin β Ix The product of inertia was presented in Chapter 3. (4.4.20) for triangle 1 and 2).95) and (4.10: Calculate the forces that are required to balance the triangular shape shown in the Figure 4.103) y ξ dA y x Example 4.5.

It can be noticed that upper line of the triangle is y = ( 1 − 0 )x + 0 . the moment of ∆x2 2 1 A2 Ixx 2 = b[a−( 1− 36 0 )] 3 + b[a−( 1 − 0 )] 3 + [a−( 1 − 0 )] 2 3 and the total moment of inertia Ixx = Ixx 1 + Ixx 2 The product of inertia of the triangle can be obtain by integration. The lower line of the b 0 triangle is y = ( 1 − b −a)x + 0 + a. moment of inertia about its center is Ixx = b( The moment of inertia for triangle 1 about y is A1 ∆x1 2 0 2 − 0) 3 /36.92 CHAPTER 4. b ( ( 1 − 0 −a)x ℓ1 y b 1 ℓ0 F3 a F1 2 F2 x + 0 +a Fig.20. The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. -4. FLUIDS STATICS 1 and its width b and thus. Ixx 1 = b( 3 1− 0) 36 + 1 b( 1− 0) 3 0) + 2( 1− 0) 3 The height of the triangle 2 is a − ( inertia about its center is − and its width b and thus. 72 „„ « « « „ 2 15 12 12 a− a 1 + 0 27− a 1 + a 0 g ρ sin β 72 „„ « « 24 1 48 +24 + a 0 Patmos a „„ 1 −14 a)− 0 « « 12 2 −27 + a 0 g ρ sin β + 72 End Solution . F2 ab 3 =− F3 ab 3 = − 72 « « 24 1 48 0 Patmos a −24 + a . 2 a b2 2 1 +2 a b 0 +a 2 Ixy = 0 b 1 − 0 )x + b 0 x y dx dy = b2 24 The solution of this set equations is A F1 = a b (g (6 3 „ (3 1 + 3 a) + 6 g „ 0) ρ sin β + 8 Patmos 24 12 a 1 .

95) and equation (4.5.109) according to equation (3. For non constant density the derivations aren’t “clean” but are similar. Why? Because of the buoyancy issue. these limitations diminish the usefulness of pressure center deﬁnitions. the pressure center in the x direction is xp = 1 F x P dA A (4. If density can be represented by average density.110) and in the same fashion in y direction yp = Ixy + yc yc A (4. the reader can ﬁnd that direct calculations can sometimes simplify the problem.103). . pressure centers are commonly deﬁned. it can be found by setting the atmospheric pressure and 0 to zero as following xp = Expanding Ix x g ρ sin β Ix x A ρ g sin β xc (4.2 Multiply Layers In the previous sections.” Thus. 4.112) 9 This statement also means that density is a monotonous function. Consider straight/ﬂat body that is under liquid with a varying density9 . the force that is acting on the body is Ftotal = A g ρ h dA ∼ ρ ¯ A g h dA (4.108) To show relationship between the pressure center and the other properties.111) It has to emphasis that these deﬁnitions are useful only for case where the atmospheric pressure can be neglected or canceled and where 0 is zero. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 4.1.107) In the same way. In fact.5. These deﬁnitions are mathematical in nature and has physical meaning of equivalent force that will act through this center. Thus.1. the pressure center in the y direction is deﬁned as yp = 1 F y P dA A (4.1 Pressure Center 93 In the literature. It also means that the density can be a non-continuous function. the density was assumed to be constant. The pressure center is the distance that will create the moment with the hydrostatic force on point “O.17) results in xp = Ixx + xc xc A (4. The deﬁnition is derived or obtained from equation (4.4.5.

117) If the atmospheric pressure also enters into the calculations one can ﬁnd that Total Static Moment n My = Patmos xc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4. The atmospheric pressure can be entered into the calculation in the same way as before. . the following can be said Ftotal = A g ρ h dA = A1 g ρ1 h dA + A2 g ρ2 h dA + · · · + An g ρn h dA (4. However. ρi is the density of the layer i and Ai and xc i are geometrical properties of the area which is in contact with that layer.116) After similar separation of the total integral. the atmospheric pressure can include all the layer(s) that do(es) not with the “contact” area. The moment around axis y. In cases where density is non–continuous.113) (4. the following can be written xc A1 x c A2 1 2 xc n An Ftotal = g sin β ρ1 ξ dA +ρ2 A1 A2 ξ dA + · · · + ρn An ξ dA Or in a compact form and in addition considering the “atmospheric” pressure can be written as Total Static Force n Ftotal = Patmos Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi xc i Ai (4.115) where the density. My under the same considerations as before is My = A g ρ ξ 2 sin β dA (4.118) In the same fashion one can obtain the moment for x axis as Total Static Moment n Mx = Patmos yc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x y i (4. FLUIDS STATICS In cases where average density cannot be represented reasonably10 . the reasonable average can be used. the integral has be carried out. but constant in segments. Moreover.114) As before for single density. if the variation of the density is within 10% and/or the accuracy of the calculation is minimal. one can ﬁnd that n My = g sin β i=1 ρi Ix x i (4.119) 10 A qualitative discussion on what is reasonably is not presented here.94 CHAPTER 4.

and ρ4 = 1000[kg/m3 ].115). ρ2 = 800[kg/m3 ]. a2 = 1. -4. as can be noticed that instead of using the regular atmospheric Fig. The last layer is made of water with density of 1000[kg/m3 ]. The angle of inclination is is β = 45◦ . The solution method of this example is applied for cases with less layers (for example by setting the speciﬁc height difference to be zero). ρ3 = 850[kg/m3 ]. Also neglect all mass transfer phenomena that may occur. The forces distances are a1 = 1. The densities are ρ1 = 500[kg/m3 ]. the following equations are obtained Thus. only two equations are h4 needed.11: Consider the hypothetical Figure 4. pressure can be used as ρ1 ρ2 ρ3 ρ4 β h1 a2 h3 h2 b2 b1 F2 F1 a1 ℓ The eﬀects of multi layers density on static Patmos = Patmos + ρ1 g h1 The distance for the center for each area is at the middle of each of the “small” rectangular. the ﬁrst equation is Atotal 3 F1 + F2 = Patmos (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β i=1 ρi+1 xci Ai .and h4 = 4[m].21. h3 = 3[m]. Example 4. The geometries of each areas are „ h2 a2 + sin β 2 h2 +h3 2 sin β h3 +h4 2 sin β h2 sin β −a2 36 «3 xc 1 = xc 2 = xc 3 = A1 = A2 = A3 = h2 sin β sin β sin β − a2 Ix x 1 = x 2 x 3 + (xc 1 ) A1 + (xc 2 ) A2 + (xc 3 ) A3 2 2 2 (h3 − h2 ) (h4 − h3 ) Ix Ix = = (h3 −h2 )3 36 sin β (h4 −h3 )3 36 sin β After inserting the values. h2 = 2[m].118) and (4. Equation ρ4 (4. Assume that the layers are stables without any movement between the liquids. Calculate the forces at points a1 and b1 .4.5[m].118) can be used by modifying it.5[m]. and b1 = 4. Solution y "O" Since there are only two unknowns. which are (4.5. pressure the new “atmospheric” forces. The heights are: h1 = 1[m]. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 95 To illustrate how to work with these equations the following example is provided.75[m].21.

. At this stage.120) z dAy dAx dA Here. [m4 ]) are: xc1 = 2.696 A2 = 3.718 The ﬁnal answer is F1 = 304809.2892 xc2 = 3. The forces on curved area.5355 xc3 = 4.215 Ix x 2 = 44.92[N ] End Solution 4. FLUIDS STATICS The second equation is (4.292 Ix x 3 = 86.96 CHAPTER 4.118) to be written for the moment around the point “O” as xc Atotal F1 a1 + F2 b1 = Patmos (b2 + a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β ρi+1 Ix 2 i=1 3 x i The solution for the above equation is 2 b1 g sin β P3 i=1 F1 = P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai −2 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 Ix x i − (b2 2 −2 b1 b2 +2 a2 b1 −a2 2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 2 g sin β ρi+1 Ix x i Patmos F2 = −2 a1 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai + (b2 2 +2 a1 b2 +a2 2 −2 a1 a2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos The solution isn’t provided in the complete long form since it makes things messy. the pressure is treated as a scalar function.535 Ix x 1 = 14. It is simpler to compute the terms separately. The element force is d F = −P n dA ˆ (4.535 A3 = 3. the conventional notation is used which is to denote the x y dAz Fig.22. The intermediate results in SI units ([m].5.79[N ] and F2 = 958923. -4. A mini source code for the calculations is provided in the the text source.9497 A1 = 2.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces The pressure is acting on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the surface (no shear forces assumption). [m2 ].

The moment due to the curved surface require integration to obtain the value. The force in the z direction is Fz = A h g ρdAz (4.4. . This force component can be combined with the other components in the other directions to be Ftotal = Fz 2 + Fx 2 + Fy 2 (4. So. only a dot product is needed as dFy = dF • ˆ j (4.124) The force which acting on the z direction is the weight of the liquid above the projected area plus the atmospheric pressure. dA. for example. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES area. There are no readily made expressions for these 3–dimensional geometries. “y z” is tan θzy Fz = Fy (4.126) and the angle in the other plane.122) From this analysis (equation (4. outward as positive.125) only the liquid above the body affecting the body And the angle in “x z” plane is tan θxz = Fz Fx (4. The total force on the area will be the integral of the unit force F=− A 97 P n dA ˆ (4.123) The same can be said for the x direction.23. However.5. for some geometries there are readily calculated center of mass and when combined with two other components provide the moment (force with direction line). -4. if the y component of the force is needed.121) The result of the integral is a vector. is simply the integral of the area perpendicular to y as Fy = A P dAy (4. Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body.127) Fig.122)) it can be observed that the force in the direction of y.

12: Calculate the force and the moment around point “O” that is acting on the dam (see Figure (4. For example. Fx = A P r cos θ dθ (4. direct and indirect.24)). the atmospheric pressure with it piezometric pressure is canceled by the upper part of the slot. The atmospheric pressure does cancel itself (at least if the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the dam is the same. When the area Ax is b r dθ cos θ. Additional point that is worth mentioning is that the depth where the cut–out occur is insigniﬁcant (neglecting the change in the density). The pressure is only a function of θ and it is P = Patmos + ρ g r sin θ The force that is acting on the x direction of the dam is Ax × P . Compare the diﬀerent methods of computations. FLUIDS STATICS Cut–Out Shapes Eﬀects There are bodies with a shape that the vertical direction (z direction) is “cut– out” aren’t continuous. Equation (4. Figure 4. You can assume that the liquid density is constant and equal to 1000 [kg/m3 ]. The dam is made of an arc with the angle of θ0 = 45◦ and radius of r = 2[m]. Thus. Example 4.8[m/sec2 ] and width of the dame is b = 4[m]. The gravity is 9. The diﬀerential area that will be used is.). -4.128) Note that the direction of the area is taken into account (sign). Calculations of forces on a circular shape dam.23 shows a ﬂoating body with cut–out slot into it. Inside the slot. Solution The force in the x direction is dAx δθ θ θ0 θ Y 4[m] x direction A θ Ax Ay Fig. The net force will be θ0 P dAx Fx = 0 ρ g r sin θ b r cos θ dθ results in The integration . The atmospheric pressure acts on the area with continuous lines.24. only the net force is the actual liquid in the slot which is acting on the body. b r dθ where b is the width of the dam (into the page).124) implicitly means that the net force on the body is z direction is only the actual liquid above it.98 CHAPTER 4.

25) as r sin θ0 ρgbr Fx = ρ g b r sin θ0 = sin2 θ 2 2 Ax xc θ r2 2 Fig. The arc center (see Figure 4. Notice that dAx (cos θ) and Ax (sin θ) are different.25) should be calculated as yc = yc Aarc − yc Atriangle A The center area above the dam requires to know the center area of the arc and triangle shapes. The force in the y direction is the area times width. Area above the dam arc subtract triangle.25.8 × 4 × 2 sin(45◦ ) = 19600. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES ρ g b r2 1 − cos2 (θ0 ) 2 99 Fx = A△ = r2 sin θ cos θ Aarc = r Alternative way to do this calculation is by calculating the pressure at mid point and then multiply it by the projected area.0[N ] 2 Since the last two equations are identical (use the sinuous theorem to prove it sin2 θ + cos2 = 1). Ax (see Figure 4. V A θ r2 r2 sin θ0 cos θ0 0 Fy = − − b g ρ ∼ 22375. just a demonstration! . -4.4.5.216[N ] 2 2 The center area ( purple area in Figure 4. clearly the discussion earlier was right (not a good proof LOL11 ). why? The values to evaluate the last equation are provided in the question and simplify subsidize into it as Fx = 1000 × 9.26) is at yc arc = 4 r sin2 3θ θ 2 11 Well. Some mathematics are required because the shift in the arc orientation.

-4.21[N × m] 9 The total moment is the combination of the two and it is Mtotal = 23191. and substituting the proper values results in Aarc θ r2 2 yc yc Atriangle cos θ 2 3θ θ 4 r sin yc r = 2 r cos θ sin θ r2 3θ 3 2 θ r2 r2 sin θ cos θ − 2 2 cos − Aarc Atriangle θ 2 θ 2 4 r sin 3θ θ 2 This value is the reverse value and it is yc r = 1.5[N × m] For direct integration of the moment is done as following O θ0 dF = P dA = 0 ρ g sin θ b r dθ θ θ/2 θ/2 π−θ 2 ℓ = 2 r sin θ 2 π 2 dF θ/2 Fig. yc = r − yc r = 2 − 1. Moment on arc element around Point “O.” .2 ∼ 7792. -4.348 × 22375.2. Area above the dam arc calculation for the center.65174 ∼ 0.100 CHAPTER 4.31759[N × m] The center pressure for x area is Ixx 3 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) Ixx 5 r cos θ0 r cosθ0 36 xp = xc + = = + r cosθ0 xc A 2 9 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) 2 xc The moment due to hydrostatic pressure is Mh = xp Fx = 5 r cosθ0 Fx ∼ 15399.1 and 3.65174[m] The result of the arc center from point “O” (above calculation area) is Fig.26.27.348[m] The moment is Mv = yc Fy ∼ 0. FLUIDS STATICS 4 r sin θ 2 All the other geometrical values are obtained from Tables 3.

this example provides for practical purposes of the general solution for curved surfaces. Example 4. End Solution To demonstrate this point further.4. It is much simpler now to use the second method. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES and element moment is θ 2 θ 2 101 dM = dF × = dF 2 r sin and the total moment is θ0 cos M= 0 dM θ0 or M= 0 ρ g sin θ b r 2 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 dθ The solution of the last equation is M= g r ρ (2 θ0 − sin (2 θ0 )) 4 The vertical force can be obtained by θ0 Fv = 0 P dAv P dAv or θ0 Fv = 0 ρ g r sin θ r dθ cos θ g r2 ρ 2 1 − cos (θ0 ) 2 Fv = Here. the traditional approach was presented ﬁrst. The reason that a polynomial function was chosen is that almost all the continuous functions can be represented by a Taylor series. and the direct approach was presented second. there are many programs or hand held devices that can carry numerical integration by inserting the function and the boundaries.5. and thus. In fact. consider a more general case of a polynomial function.13: .

Polynomial shape dam description for the moment around point “O” and force calculations. Also calculate the horizontal and vertical forces.29. Solution CHAPTER 4.28) in this case is P h dA dF = (b − y) g ρ dx2 + dy 2 The size of the diﬀerential area is the square root of the dx2 and dy 2 (see Figure 4. expression of the distance and angle to point “O” are needed (see Figure 4. The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. The element force (see Figure 4. To evaluate the moment. From mathematics. it can be shown that dx2 + dy 2 = dx 1+ dy dx 2 The right side can be evaluated for any given function. -4. -4. It can be noticed that the diﬀerential area that is used here should be multiplied by the depth.28).29). The function of the dam shape is n y = i=1 ai xi and it is a monotonous function (this restriction can be relaxed somewhat). in this case describing the dam function is 1+ dy dx 2 n 2 O y dy dx ℓ dF b = 1+ i=1 i a (i) x (i) i−1 y θ The value of xb is where y = b and can be obtained by ﬁnding the ﬁrst and positive root of the equation of n x x 0= i=1 ai xi − b Fig. The distance between the point on the dam at x to the point “O” is (x) = (b − y)2 + (xb − x)2 .28 .102 For the liquid shown in Figure 4.calculate the moment around point “O” and the force created by the liquid per unit depth. For example.28. FLUIDS STATICS o y= b n i=1 ai x i dA dy y x dx Fig. The calculations are done per unit depth (into the page) and do not require the actual depth of the dam.

The distance is = The angle can be expressed as θ = tan−1 12 x5 − tan The total moment is √ 6 b (b − 2 2 x6 ) + 6 b −x 2 2 b − 2 x6 −1 6 b 2 −x M= 0 (x) cos θ(x) b − 2 x6 g ρ 1 + 12 x5 dx This integral doesn’t have analytical solution.5. The number “2” is a dimensional number with dy = 12 x5 dx units of [1/m ]. The derivative at x is and the derivative is dimensionless (a dimensionless number). The horizontal force is Fh = b ρ g b ρ g b2 = 2 2 The vertical force per unit depth is the volume above the dam as √ 6 b Fv = 0 b − 2x 6 5 b6 ρ g dx = ρ g 7 7 . consider the speciﬁc case of y = 2 x6 . In this case. for a given value b this integral can be evaluate. only one term is provided and xb can be calculated as following xb = Notice that 6 6 b 2 b 2 5 is measured in meters.4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The angle between the force and the distance to point “O” is θ(x) = tan−1 dy dx − tan−1 b−y xb − x 103 The element moment in this case is dF 2 dM = (x) (b − y) g ρ 1+ dy dx cos θ(x) dx To make this example less abstract. However.

he was able to cap. This analysis can be generalized by noticing two things. 12 This topic was the author’s class name in high school. However. the ﬂoating vessels structure (more than 150 years ago) show some understanding12 . This author ﬁnd this method to be simpler for complicated geometries while the indirect method has advantage for very simple geometries. trying to ﬁnd the center of the area will double the work. Thus even these bodies are in contact with each other. . The total forces the liquid exacts on a body are considered as a buoyancy issue. It was taught by people like these. This omission saves considerable time.129) to F = ρg V (4. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. Any body that has a projected area that has two sides. Here. -4. perhaps the name can explain it: Sea Oﬃcers High School. Rearranging equation (4. In fact. Another way to look at this point is by approximation. The forces on square geometry body are made only of vertical forces because the two sides cancel each other.30. the pressure on the two surfaces are diﬀerent. While Archimedes did not know much about integrals. The force due to the liquid pressure per unit depth (into the page) is 0 0 F = ρg ((h0 − a/2) − (h0 + a/2)) b = −ρ g a b = −ρgV In this case the be (4. While the question of the stability was not scientiﬁcally examined in the past. the imaginary pressure make it so that they cancel each other. more advance mathematics will be used. the horizontal forces are canceling each other. For any two rectangle bodies.Fig. To understand this issue. On the upper surface the pressure is ρg(h0 − a/2). On the lower surface the pressure is ρg(h0 + a/2). those will cancel each other.6 Buoyancy and Stability h r One of the oldest known scientiﬁc rea search on ﬂuid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carried by Archimedes. the calculations of the center of the area were not carried out. because this material is presented in a diﬀerent era.104 CHAPTER 4. If the reader wonders why such a class is taught in a high school. h0 as shown in Figure 4. Archimedes princib ple is related to question of density and volume. ship builders who know how to calculate GM but weren’t aware of scientiﬁc principles behind it. on the vertical direction. consider a cubical and a cylindrical body that is immersed in liquid and center in a depth of. The force to hold the cylinder at the place must be made of integration of the pressure around the surface of the square and cylinder bodies.129) represents a depth (into the page). End Solution 4. FLUIDS STATICS In going over these calculations. All the horizontal forces are canceled.130) The force on the immersed body is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid. 150 years ago and more. ture the essence.30.

134) The negative sign indicate that the force acting upwards. -4. In the case where thickness is half the maximum. t.132) Rearranging equation (4. ρs liquid density.131) 2π F = 0 ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) r dθ sin θ (4. .30. as a Fig. these examples are a must. shown in Figure 4. Assume that the wall thickness is small compared with the other dimensions (t << w and t << h).135) Typical examples to explain the buoyancy are of the vessel with thin walls put upside down into liquid. In illustration of this concept. The solution of equation (4.is ﬂoating in liquid with density.31.133) is F = −π r2 ρ g (4. any shape is made of many small rectangles. the total force is made of the sum of all the small rectangles which is the weight of the sum of all volume. ρl .6. The second example of the speed of the ﬂoating bodies. calculate the pressure inside the container. While the horizontal force is 2π Fv = 0 (h0 − r sin θ) cos θ dθ = 0 (4.32. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 105 On the other hand. Since there are no better examples.14: A cylindrical body.32 . h1 t w hin h Example 4. consider the cylindrical shape in Figure 4.131) r θ The total force will be the integral of the equation (4. ﬂoating body. The body was inserted into liquid in a such a way that the air had remained in it. T1 for the body to ﬂoat.31) is P dAvertical h0 dF = ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ r dθ (4. The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder. The force on every rectangular shape is made of its weight of the volume. Schematic of a thin wall function of the density of the wall. Express the maximum wall thickness.133) Fig. Thus. ρl and the surroundings air temperature.4.131) transforms it to 2π F = rgρ 0 (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ dθ (4. The container diameter is w. -4. The force per area (see Figure 4.

106 Solution The air mass in the container is V ρair CHAPTER 4. ρ π w2 h ρl g hin + Patmos = Pin = The last equation can be simpliﬁed into ρl g hin + Patmos = And the solution for hin is hin = − and hin = Patmos + Patmos R T1 R T1 hin π w2 h Patmos hin 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 2 g ρl 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 − Patmos 2 g ρl The solution must be positive. h1 has to be zero. the pressure at the interface can be written as Pin = ρl g hin On the other hand. so that the last solution is the only physical solution. FLUIDS STATICS mair = π w2 h The mass of the container is Patmos RT A mcontainer = π w2 + 2 π w h t ρs The liquid amount enters into the cavity is such that the air pressure in the cavity equals to the pressure at the interface (in the cavity). it can be inserted into the above equation. Thus. the height. the pressure at the interface from the air point of view (ideal gas model) should be mair R T1 Pin = hin π w2 V Since the air mass didn’t change and it is known. Note that for the maximum thickness. .

BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 107 Example 4. When the gravity approaches zero (macro gravity) then hin = Patmos h 2 ρl g 5 h 4 ρl 3 g 3 2 h 3 ρl 2 g 2 +h− − + ··· + ρl g Patmos Patmos 2 Patmos 3 This “strange” result shows that bodies don’t ﬂoat in the normal sense.6. When the ﬂoating is under vacuum condition. the following height can be expanded into hin = h Patmos Patmos + + ··· g ρl 2 g ρl which shows that the large quantity of liquid enters into the container as it is expected.4. the air. Thus. Advance material can be skipped Extreme Cases The solution demonstrates that when h −→ 0 then hin −→ 0. It is reasonable as the ﬁrst approximation to assume that the process is adiabatic and isentropic. the temperature in the cavity immediately after the insertion is . Thus.15: Calculate the minimum density an inﬁnitely long equilateral triangle (three equal sides) has to be so that the sharp end is in the water. End Advance material Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container. net displayed water π w2 (h − hin ) g container = π w 2 + 2 π w h t ρs g + π w 2 h air Patmos R T1 g If air mass is neglected the maximum thickness is tmax = 2 g h w ρl + Patmos w − w 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 (2 g w + 4 g h) ρl ρs The condition to have physical value for the maximum thickness is 2 g h ρl + Patmos ≥ The full solution is tmax = − ” “ √ w R 4 gh Patmos ρl +Patmos 2 −2 g h w R ρl −Patmos w R T1 +2 g h Patmos w ρl (2 g w+4 g h) R ρl ρs T1 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 In this analysis the air temperature in the container immediately after insertion in the liquid has diﬀerent value from the ﬁnal temperature.

108 Ti = Tf Pi Pf CHAPTER 4. Calculate acceleration and time for a body to reach the surface. but the liquid displacement is still unknown. h0 and left at rest. The body’s density is α ρl . where α is ratio between the body density to the liquid density and (0 < α < 1). FLUIDS STATICS The ﬁnal temperature and pressure were calculated previously. The thickness is known.16: A body is pushed into the liquid to a distance. which is ρl g hin + Patmos = π w2 (h − hin − h1 ) = π w2 + 2 π w h) t ρs g + π w2 h End Solution atmos π w2 h PR T1 R T1 (hin + h1 ) π w2 Patmos R T1 g Example 4. Is the body volume important? Solution The net force is liquid weight body weight F = V g ρl − V g α ρl = V g ρl (1 − α) But on the other side the internal force is m F = m a = V αρl a . The equation of state is Pi = mair R Ti Vi The new unknown must provide additional equation which is Vi = π w 2 h i Thickness Below The Maximum For the half thickness t = tmax the general solution for any given thickness below 2 maximum is presented. The pressure at the interface (after long time) is ρl g hin + Patmos = which can be simpliﬁed to h Patmos hin + h1 The second equation is Archimedes’ equation.

Consider the force that acts on a half sphere. the acceleration is a=g 1−α α 109 If the object is left at rest (no movement) thus time will be (h = 1/2 a t2 ) t= If the object is very light (α −→ 0) then tmin = 2hα + g √ √ √ 3 5 7 2 g h α2 3 2 g h α2 5 2 g h α2 + + + ··· 2g 8g 16 g 2 hα g(1 − α) From the above equation. End Solution Example 4.4. it can be observed that only the density ratio is important.6.17: In some situations. Find equivalent cylinder that has the same diameter that Solution The force act on the half sphere can be found by integrating the forces around the sphere. This idea can lead to experiment in “large gravity” because the acceleration can be magniﬁed and it is much more than the reverse of free falling. it is desired to ﬁnd equivalent of force of a certain shape to be replaced by another force of a “standard” shape. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Thus. The element force is dAx h 2 dA dF = (ρL − ρS ) g r cos φ cos θ cos θ cos φ r dθ dφ The total force is then π π 0 Fx = 0 (ρL − ρS ) g cos2 φ cos2 θ r3 dθ dφ The result of the integration the force on sphere is Fs = The force on equivalent cylinder is Fc = π r2 (ρL − ρS ) h π 2 (ρL − ρS ) r3 4 .

In this case there are two diﬀerent liquid densities. when x1 +h ρc h = x1 ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) dx After the integration the equation transferred into ρc h = (3 ρl − 3 ρh ) x12 + (3 h ρl − 3 h ρh ) x1 + h2 ρl + 2 h2 ρh 3h . There situations where density is a function of the depth. it was assumed that above liquid is a gas with inconsequential density. The net force down is the weight of the body ρc h A. In the same vein. Develp the relationship between the densities of liquids and solid and the location of the solid cubical. FLUIDS STATICS $ ! £ (ρL $$ ¡ π 2 $$− ρS ) r3 $ = & $$− ρS ) h π r2 (ρL $$ 4 Thus the height is h π = r 4 End Solution 1 Example 4. Body with density between the two liquids. Suppose that the above layer is another liquid which has a bit lighter density. Solution In discussion to this section it was shown that met force is the body volume times the the density of the liquid. the body can be separated into two which one in ﬁrst liquid and second in the second liquid. What will be location of solid body if the liquid density varied parabolically.18: In the introduction to this section. After rearrangement it became α= ρc − ρh ρl − ρh the second part deals with the case where the density varied parabolically. A is canceled on both sides. Where h is the height of the body and A is its cross section.110 These forces have to be equivalent and thus CHAPTER 4. This force is balance according to above explanation by the two liquid as ρc ¨A = ¨h (α ρl + (1 − α)ρh ) h¨ A¨ Where α is the fraction that is in low liquid. ρl < ρs < rhoh is ﬂating between the two liquids. The density as a function of x coordinate along h starting at point ρh is ρ(x) = ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) Thus the equilibration will be achieved.

-4. any experiment of this cubic wood shows that it is stable locally. x1 . Thus. HowG ever the buoyant center is the middle of the volume under the water (see Figure 4. TiltFig. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 111 And the location where the lower point of the body (the physical).33c . This analysis doesn’t violate the second law of thermodynamics. will be at √ 3 3 h2 ρl 2 + (4 ρc − 6 h2 ρh ) ρl + 3 h2 ρh 2 − 12 ρc ρh + 3 h ρl − 3 h ρh X1 = 6 ρh − 2 ρl For linear relationship the the following results can be obtained. Small amount of tilting of Fig.33 shows a body made of center hollow balloon and a heavy sphere connected by a thin and light rod.6. This B situation is similar to Figure 4.4. Moving bodies from an unstable position is in essence like a potential. These forces create a moment which wants to return the body to the resting (original) position. gravity center The buoyant center is below the midFull dle of the balloon. When tilting a larger amount than π/4 . Part of the block ﬂoats above water line. However. they have to accounted for. x1 = h ρl + h ρh − 6 ρc 2 ρl − 2 ρh In many cases in reality the variations occur in small zone compare to the size of the body. A wooden cubic (made of pine. End Solution 4. ing the body with a small angle from its resting position creates a shift in the forces direction (examine Figure 4. the balloon will be on the top and sphere on the bottom. Schematic of ﬂoating bodies. This arrangement has mass centroid close to the middle of the sphere. the cubic results in returning to the original position. if body is small compare the zone of variation.the body is unstable and any tilt from the original position creates moment that will further continue to move the body from its original position. However. When the body is at the position shown in Figure 4. Schematic of ﬂoating cubic. If this arrangec a ment is inserted into liquid and it will b be ﬂoating.1 Stability Empty buoyancy Figure 4.34.33c.33b). The cubic mass (gravity) centroid is in the middle of the cubic.34). for example) is inserted into water.6. -4. the calculations can be carried out under assumption sharp change.33.

the immersed part of the B B’ body center changes to a new location.112 CHAPTER 4.33c. in any of these six positions. FLUIDS STATICS . So the perpendicular distance. the body is “stable” in some β M δF ∆F points more than others in their vicinity. The center of the mass (gravity) is still in the old location since the body did not change. when given a tilted position.35. The right green area (volume) in Figure 4. It can be noticed that the distance BB is an approximation for small angles (neglecting the vertical component. When the body is tilted at δF ∆F GM a small angle. categories. should be BB = M W (4.35. the original state is referred as the stable body and vice versa. So. This analysis is based on the diﬀerence of the displaced liquid. BB .). The stability of the body is divided into three Fig. it results in a ﬂipping into the next stable position. β. This deviation of the buoyant center from the old buoyant center location. The displacement of the buoyant center can be calculated by examining the moment these forces are creating. Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. For small angle. β. W referred to the weight of the body. However.137) 13 It is correct to state: area only when the body is symmetrical. the moment is calculated as the integration of the small force shown in the Figure 4. B’ as shown in Figure 4. BB is the distance between points B and point B’. shown in Figure 4. when the body is not symmetrical. . These points are raised from the buoyant G dA force analysis.35 as ∆F . the body stability must be based on the diﬀerence between the body’s local positions rather than the “absolute” stability. The reason for this local stability of the cubic is that other positions are less stable. it is referred to as the neutral stable. If one draws the stability (later about this criterion) as a function of the rotation angle will show a sinusoidal function with four picks in a whole rotation. B’. move to a new buoyant center.35. The body. The cubic is stable in six positions (every cubic has six faces). the body is in situation like in 4. should to be calculated. the analysis is still correct because the volume and not the area is used.35 is displaced by the same area (really the volume) on left since the weight of the body didn’t change13 so the total immersed section is constant. BB W = M (4. B. If the new immerse volume creates a new center in such way that the couple forces (gravity and buoyancy) try to return the body. The third state is when the couple forces do have zero moment. In fact. -4. That is.136) Where M is the moment created by the displaced areas (volumes). and. The body weight creates opposite moment to balance the moment of the displaced liquid volume.

143) a L To understand these principles consider the following examples. Show that the block’s length. M. The location of the metacentric point can be obtained from the geometry as BM = BB sin β (4. Fig. .35.140) And combining equations (4.140) yields BM = For small angle (β ∼ 0) lim sin β ∼1 β (4. Construct a graph that shows the relationship of the GM as a function of ratio height to width.139) The point where the gravity force direction is intersecting with the center line of the cross section is referred as metacentric point.138) is referred to as the area moment of inertia and was discussed in Chapter 3. the geometrical quantities can be related as BM h h1 ρl Ixx GM = −BG ρs Vbody (4. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis.141) β→0 It is remarkable that the results is independent of the angle. is insigniﬁcant for this analysis. -4.19: A solid block of wood of uniform density. L.6.36. ρs = α ρl where ( 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 ) is ﬂoating in a liquid.138) The integral in the right side of equation (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY The moment M can be calculated as δF 113 M= A g ρl x β dA x = g ρl β dV A x2 dA (4. Looking at Figure 4. Example 4. The distance.4. BB can be written from equation (4.138) as BB = g ρl Ixx ρs Vbody (4.139) with (4.142) g ρl βIxx ρl Ixx ¡ = g ρs sin β Vbody ρs Vbody ¡ (4.

37.1 and is Ixx = La .2 1.3 1. FLUIDS STATICS Equation (4.4 April 16.144)). Thus.1 2.9 1.8 0.5 1. L.5 2. The distance BG obtained from Archimedes’ theorem and can be expressed as immersed V volume ρs W = ρs a h L = ρl a h1 L =⇒ h1 = h ρl Thus.2 0.1 1.114 Solution CHAPTER 4.5 0.2 α = 0.0 0.0 0. Notice that GM /h isn’t a function of the depth.146) can be expressed.7 0.8 0. .2 0.6 0. 2008 α 0.0 -0.146) End Solution One of the interesting point that the above analysis was that there is a point above which the ratio of the height to the body width is not stable any more. For cylinder (circle) the moment of inertia is Ixx = π b4 /64.6 0.38.7 α = 0.4 1.8 1. The distance BG is the same as for the square shape (cubic) (see above (4.0 1.0 square circle 0. 2008 Simplifying the above equation provides GM 1 = h 12 α a h 2 1 − (1 − α) (4.1 1.4 α = 0.0 0.0 2.8 2.9 1. the distance BG is (see Figure 4.5 0.5 -0.5 0. -4.7 0.6 0.9 ρs 1− ρl 0.143) requires that several quantities should be expressed.34) 3.0 0.5 0.0 a h April 16.1 Stability of Square Block h1 0.4 Ixx α = 0. In cylindrical shape equivalent equation to equation (4. -4.2 1.0 1. Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long.0 -0.0 α = 0.6 1.2 -0.0 1. The moment of 3 inertia for a block is given in Table 3. where α is the density ratio.0 Fig.0 0. The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio.145) 2 Fig.1 0.5 α = 0. Where L is the length into 12 the page.4 0. This equation leads to the condition where the maximum height above which the body is not stable any more as a ≥ h 6 (1 − α)α (4.8 0.2 BG = h ρs 1 h − h = 2 ρl 2 2 1− GM h ρs ρl (4.3 1.144) 2.3 0.3 0. the equation is Stability of Solid Blocks GM g = h 64 α b h 2 1 − (1 − α) 2 a h 3.5 L 3 a g ρl ¡ 12 − h GM = g ρs a h 2 L ¡ V α = 0.

The diﬀerence between the previous calculation and the moment of inertia around the diagonal is I diagonal axis √ ∆Ixx = 2a √ 3a 2 3 “normal axis 6 − a4 12 ∼ 0. Supposed that a/h −→ ˜ the body will be unstable. Principle Main Axises Any body has inﬁnite number of diﬀerent axises around which moment of inertia can be calculated. This is not a hypothetical question. a square shape body has larger moment of inertia around diagonal.6. On the other side if the a/h −→ ∞ the body is very stable. For stability analysis. It can be noticed that the square body is more stable than the circular shape body. the ship that was stable (positive GM ) leaving the initial port might became unstable (negative GM ) before reaching the destination port. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY And the condition for maximum height for stability is b ≥ h 32 (1 − α) α 115 This kind of analysis can be carried for different shapes and the results are shown for these two shapes in Figure 4. it must be stable at the “diagonal” axis. Assume that density ratio is ρl /ρs = ρ. This axis is where the main rotation of the body will occur. For example.07 a4 Which show that if the body is stable at main axises. In commercial ships. this problem is reduced to ﬁnd the stability for principle axis. So. With the exception of the circular shape. What is the ˜ minimum ratio of a/h that keep the body stable at half of the volume in liquid (water). Unstable Bodies What happen when one increases the height ratio above the maximum height ratio? The body will ﬂip into the side and turn to the next stable point (angle).38. ¯ . Thus. the fuel is stored at the bottom of the ship and thus the mass center (point G) is changing during the voyage.4.39. Example 4. This happens when a ship is overloaded with containers above the maximum height. every geometrical shape has an axis in which the moment of inertia is without the product of inertia. Some analysis of ﬂoating bodies are done by breaking the rotation of arbitrary axis to rotate around the two main axises. For each of these axises there is a diﬀerent moment of inertia. but rather practical. Suppose that two opposite sides triangle (prism) attached to each other to 0 create a long “ship” see Figure 4. it is enough to ﬁnd if the body is stable around the smallest moment of inertia.20: One way to make a ship to be a hydrodynamic is by making the body as narrow as possible.

The point B can be expressed as B= And thus the distance BG is BG = a 2 1− ρs ρl a ρs 2 ρl The limiting condition requires that GM = 0 so that ρl Ixx = BG ρs Vbody Or explicitly ρl ρs a2 h a h3 2 1− 1 a 4 h2 2 = a 2 1− ρs ρl After rearrangement and using the deﬁnitions of ξ = h/a ρρl /ρs results in ¯ ρ ξ2 ¯ 1− ξ 4 2 = 1− 1 ρ ¯ . To ﬁnd this ratio equation terms in (4. The Volume of the body is V =2 a2 h 2 = a2 h CHAPTER 4.116 Solution The answer to the question is that the limiting case where GM = 0.7) is Ixx = And the volume is Vbody = a2 h2 − a2 = a2 h 4 1− 1 a2 4 h2 a h3 2 The point B is a function of the density ratio of the solid and liquid. -4. Stability of two triangles put The moment of inertia is triage (see for explanation in example (3.143) have to found. Denote the liquid density as ρl and solid density as ρs . FLUIDS STATICS h a a Fig.39. tougher.

a ship that carries Gc wheat grains where the cargo is not propG G′ erly secured to the ship.1 Stability of Body with Shifting Mass Centroid Ships and other ﬂoating bodies carry liquid or have a load which changes the M mass location during tilting of the ﬂoating body. At the same time.40. These situations involve liquid with a low viscosity (like water. the slow reaction of the load.4. The movement of the load (grains. A body is loaded with liquid “B” and is ﬂoating in a liquid “A” as shown in Figure 4.40).1. for stability analysis.148) . There are situations where the real case approaches to this extreme.Fig. alcohol) and ship with low natural frequency (later on the frequency of the ships). Sometimes.6. After the about manipulation and selecting the positive value and to keep stability as √ x< 64 ρ4 −64 ρ3 +ρ2 −2 ρ+1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ ¯ + 2 √ 1 ρ ¯ −1 2ρ ¯ End Solution 4. it is used as a limit for the stability analysis. in this analysis. When the body is given a tilting position the body displaces the liquid on the outside. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 117 The solution of the above solution is obtained by squaring both sides and deﬁning a new variable such as x = ξ 2 . However. the dynamics are ignored and only the statics is examined (see Figure 4. here. Moreover.40.6. is enough to be ig. The moment created by the inside displaced liquid is Min = g ρl B βIxx B (4. furniture. account these shifting mass speeds. The change in the mass centroid of the liquid “A” then is Ixx B g ρl¨βIxx B = G1 G1 = ¡ ¨B g VB ¨B VB ρl¨ ¡ Inside liquid weight (4. the extreme case where the load reacts in the same speed as the tilting of the ship/ﬂoating body is examined. the liquid inside is changing its mass centroid. For practical purposes. and/or liquid) B does not occur in the same speed as the B′ body itself or the displaced outside liquid.147) Note that IxxB isn’t the same as the moment of inertia of the outside liquid interface. Exact analysis requires taking into the GM . For example. The eﬀects of liquid movement on nored. -4.

This control of the stability. GM .41.153) One way to reduce the eﬀect of the moving mass center due to liquid is done by substituting a single tank with several tanks. G1 G1 . 4. This point is the intersection of the center line with the vertical line form G . GM .2 Metacentric Height. Increasing the number of tanks reduces the moment of inertia. The moment of inertial of the combine two tanks is smaller than the moment of inertial of a single tank. it can be written as GG = g Wtotal n Gi Gi ρl i Vi = i=1 g Wtotal n i=1 Ixx b i Vb i (4.148) shows that GG is only a function of the geometry. The total change of the vessel is then calculated similarly to center area calculations. G Gc = GG sin β (4. X0 g mtotal GG = $mbody + g mf G1 G1 g $$$ ¡ (4.118 CHAPTER 4.152) If there are more than one tank partially ﬁlled with liquid. This quantity.6.154) T d h G Fig. is similar for all liquid tanks on the ﬂoating body. -4.149) ¡ For more than one tank. Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body. Measurement The metacentric height can be measured by ﬁnding the change in the angle when a weight is moved on the ﬂoating body.150) A new point can be deﬁned as Gc . T a distance. Movement of the liquid (mostly the fuel and water) provides way to control the stability.1. . of the ship. FLUIDS STATICS Equation (4. d then the moment created is Mweight = T d (4. The engineer could design the tanks in such a way that the moment of inertia is operationally changed. Moving the weight. the general formula is Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Ixx bi Vb i (4.151) The distance that was used before GM is replaced by the criterion for stability by Gc M and is expressed as Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 Ixx b − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Vb n i=1 (4. GM . can be achieved by having some tanks spanning across the entire body with tanks spanning on parts of the body.

6. However.157) with equation (4.158) (4. the stability analysis must take into account the changes of the displaced liquids of the two liquid layers. this density change helps to increase the stability of the ﬂoating bodies. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY This moment is balanced by Mrighting = Wtotal GM new θ (4. The change in height of G is g mtotal Gnew = g mship Gactual + g T h ¡ ¡ ¡ Combining equation (4. is the total weight of the ﬂoating body including measuring weight. The metacentric height is GM new = Td Wtotal θ (4. Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body. The calculations for such cases are a bit more complicated but based on the similar principles. When the body is submerged in a single ﬂuid layer. θ. it must be taken into account. equation (4. Consider the δβ ∆F M ∆F G GM B’ B b Fig. The angle.1. -4.157) The weight of the ship is obtained from looking at the ship depth. 4.3 Stability of Submerged Bodies The analysis of submerged bodied is diﬀerent from the stability when the body lay between two ﬂuid layers with diﬀerent density.1.4 Stability of None Systematical or “Strange” Bodies a While most ﬂoating bodies are symmetrical or semi–symmetrical. The calculation of GM can be improved by taking into account the eﬀect of the measuring weight. In cases where the density changes signiﬁcantly. Wtotal . the mass centroid must be below the buoyant centroid in order to have stable condition. When the ﬂoating object is immersed in the two layers. Generally. . For an example of such a case is an object ﬂoating in a solar pond where the upper layer is made of water with lower salinity than the bottom layer(change up to 20% of the density).6. is measured as the diﬀerence in the orientation of the ﬂoating body.156) results in GM a ctual = GM new mtotal T −h mship mship (4.6.155) 119 Where.42. all ﬂuids have density varied in some degree.4.156) provides the solution.156) If the change in the GM can be neglected. there are situations where the body has a “strange” and/or un-symmetrical body. Thus. This analysis is out of the scape of this book (for now). then none of the changes of buoyant centroid occurs. 4.

The center of the moment is needed be found.159) Where here is length of the rode (or the line/wire) connecting the mass with the rotation point. For the case of b < 3 a the calculation of moment of inertia are similar to the previous case. Thus.42).160) In the same fashion the frequency of the ﬂoating body is 1 2π V ρs GM Ibody (4. After the tilting.1. 4.120 CHAPTER 4. There are two situations that can occur. The body weight doesn’t change during the rotation that the green area on the left and the green area on right are the same (see Figure 4. However. The period of the cycle is 2 π /g. The moment of inertia should be calculated around this axis.42. The mathematical condition for the border is when b = 3 a. This point is the intersection of the liquid line with the brown middle line. The moment of inertia is calculated around this point (note the body is “ended” at end of the upper body). The amount of area under the liquid section depends on the tilting angle. the frequency of pendulum is 21π g which measured in Hz. the moment to return the body is larger than actually was calculated and the bodies tend to be more stable (also for other reasons). FLUIDS STATICS ﬁrst strange body that has an abrupt step change as shown in Figure 4. For the case where b < 3 a x some part is under the liquid.5 Neutral frequency of Floating Bodies This case is similar to pendulum (or mass attached to spring).6. the upper part of the body is above the liquid or part of the body is submerged under the water. The governing equation for the pendulum is ¨ β −gβ = 0 (4. The basic diﬀerential equation is used to balance and is rotation rotating moment ¨ Iβ − V ρs GM β =0 (4. Similar situation exists in the case of ﬂoating bodies.161) . This point is intersection point liquid with lower body and it is needed to be calculated. The moment created by change in the displaced liquid (area) act in the same fashion as the before. These calculations are done as if none of the body under the liquid.

In this section. Example 4.6. End Solution Fig. Calculate the maximum diameter needle that can be inserted into liquid without drowning. coating.4. Increase in GM increases the frequency of the ﬂoating body. Thus. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY and the period time is 2π Ibody V ρs GM 121 (4. the surface tension between the needle and the liquid hold the needle above the liquid.43. only simpliﬁed topics like constant value will be discussed.162) In general. If the ﬂoating body is used for transport humans and/or other creatures or sensitive cargo it requires to reduce the GM so that the traveling will be smother. Solution Under Construction End Solution . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. etc. Example 4. the body should be accelerate. the needle cannot be held by the liquid.21: In interaction of the molecules shown in Figure ? describe the existence of surface tension. Newton’s law states when there is unbalanced force. However. However. -4. Explain why this description is erroneous? Solution The upper layer of the molecules have unbalanced force towards the liquid phase. in this case. the common explanation is wrong.2 Surface Tension The surface tension is one of the mathematically complex topic and related to many phenomena like boiling. the liquid is not in motion.6. the larger GM the more stable the ﬂoating body is. After certain diameter.22: Needle is made of steel and is heavier than water and many other liquids. 4.

The ﬂuid above the depression is in equilibrium with the sounding pressure since the material is extending to inﬁnity. Any continues function can be expanded in serious of cosines. -4. the heavy ﬂuid will stay above the lighter ﬂuid. This analysis is referred to the case of inﬁnite or very large surface. if the surface forces (surface tension) are not suﬃcient.3. the situation is Fig. Supposed that a liquid density is arbitrary function of the height. liquid metal is injected in a cavity ﬁlled with air. The conditions that required from this function will be required from all the other functions. I.122 CHAPTER 4. example of a cosine function will be examined. For example in die casting. Taylor. the liquid ﬂuid zone and vice versa. density variations according to the bulk modulus (see section 4. In poor designs or other situations. Thus. The disturbance is of the following h = −hmax cos 2πx L (4. In that case. This distortion can be as a result of heavy ﬂuid above the lighter liquid. ρG .163) .44. the force that acting to get the above ﬂuid down is the buoyancy force of the ﬂuid in the depression. This instability deals with a dense. this situation x σ σ is considered to be stable. it can create a situation where the liquid metal is above the air but cannot penetrate into the cavity because of instability. the surface density. If the surface will disturbed. some air is not evacuated and stay in small cavity on the edges of the shape to be casted.3. There are situations where a heavy liquid layer is placed over a lighter ﬂuid layer. ρL . or water over air(gas–liquid). For example a heavy ﬂuid density. The depression is returned to its h original position if the surface forces are L large enough. heavy ﬂuid that is being placed above a lighter ﬂuid in a gravity ﬁeld perpendicular to interface.2) are always stable but unstable of the density is in the reversed order. As usual there is the neutral stable when the forces are equal. For perfectly straight interface. For example.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability RayleighTaylor instability (or RT instability) is named after Lord Rayleigh and G. Description of depression to explain unstable and the heavy liquid enters into the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. This analysis asks the question what happen when a small amount of liquid from above layer enter into the lower layer? Whether this liquid continue and will grow or will it return to its original conditions? The surface tension is the opposite mechanism that will returns the liquid to its original place. above lower ﬂuid with lower density. The simpliﬁed case is the two diﬀerent uniform densities. On the other hand. some of heavy liquid moves down. This condition is determined by competing forces. and the buoyancy forces. Thus. Thus. FLUIDS STATICS 4. This disturbance can grow or returned to its original situation. This situation has engineering implications in several industries. The original Rayleigh’s paper deals with the dynamics and density variations. Example for such systems are dense water over oil (liquid–liquid).

The ﬁrst derivative of cos around zero is sin which is approaching zero or equal to zero. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 123 where hmax is the maximum depression and L is the characteristic length of the depression.55) can be approximated as d2 h 1 = 2 R dx For equation (4. the lighter liquid will “prevent” it.168) (4. equation (1.46) the pressure diﬀerence or the pressure jump is due to the surface tension at this point must be PH − PL = 4 hmax σ π 2 L2 (4.45. The radius of any equation is expressed by equation (1. The weakest point is at x = 0 because symmetrical reasons the surface tension does not act against the gravity as shown in Figure (4. x.4. The point where the situation is neutral stable Lc = 4 π2 σ g (ρH − ρL ) (4.167) show that if the relationship is 4 σ π2 > g (ρH − ρL ) L2 (4. Thus.44). If all the heavy liquid “attempts” to move straight down. Consider the situation described in Figure 4.55).166) The pressure diﬀerence due to the gravity at the edge of the disturbance is then PH − PL = g (ρH − ρL ) hmax Comparing equations (4. The lighter liquid needs to move up at the same time but in a diﬀerent place.165) (4. Thus.45.166) and (4. if the center point of the depression can “hold” the intrusive ﬂuid then the whole system is stable.169) An alternative approach to analyze this instability is suggested here.7.167) It should be noted that hmax is irrelevant for this analysis as it is canceled.163) the radius is 1 4 π 2 hmax =− R L2 (4. In this process the heavier liquid “enter” the lighter liquid in one point and creates a depression as shown in Figure 4. The heavier liquid needs to move in one side and the lighter liquid in another location.164) According to equation (1. The depression has diﬀerent radius as a function of distance from the center of the depression. .

124 CHAPTER 4. At the top. the radius is r∼ 2πσ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. The “extra” lines of the depression should be ignored. At the bottom. against the gravity force which make the cylinder to be in equilibrium with its surroundings if the pressure at bottom is indeed ρ g h.173) (4. It can be approximated as a ﬂat cylinder that has depth of r π/4 (read the explanation in the example 4. For the depression. The horizontal forces around the control volume are canceling each other. the force is the integral around the depression.45. In reality. The ﬁrst control volume is made of a cylinder with a radius r and θ the second is the depression below it.Fig. Thus. -4. they are not part of the control volume.170) Fbottom ∼ π r2 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. At that case. the force is atmospheric pressure times the area. Additionally when the depression occurs.17) This value is exact if the shape is a perfect half sphere.171) The force that hold this column is the surface tension. θ = π/2. the force is ρ g h × A. the liquid level is reduced a bit and the lighter liquid is ﬁlling the missing portion.174) πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. the error is not signiﬁcant.45. considered two con2r trol volumes bounded by the blue lines in Figure 4.45.175) . the total force is then Fσ = 2 π r σ cos θ The forces balance on the depression is then 2 π r σ cos θ ∼ π r2 The radius is obtained by r∼ 2 π σ cos θ (ρL − ρG ) g (4.172) The maximum surface tension is when the angle. At the cylinder bot. This acts the instability. As shown in Figure 4. FLUIDS STATICS To analyze it. Description of depression to explain tom. the force at the top is the same force at the bottom of the cylinder. the force at the bottom is σ σ Fbottom ∼ π r2 The net force is then πr + h (ρL − ρG ) g + Patmos 4 πr 4 (4.

Thus. However.176) the angle was assumed to be 90 degrees. For the cylindrical geometry.46). These two scenarios should be inserting into equation 4.” The maximum possible radius of the depression depends on the geometry of the container. The density of the aluminum is 2400kg/m3 . Solution . The actual value of this angle is about π/4 to π/3 and in only extreme cases the angle exceed this value (considering dynamics). The purple color represents the maximum heavy liquid raising area. For example. Example 4. it can be written that the minimum radius is rmin tube = 2 2πσ g (ρL − ρG ) (4. This radius is limited because the lighter liquid has to enter at the same time into the heavier liquid zone. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 125 Fig.the depression is larger for square area.46.176. This analysis introduces a new dimensional number that will be discussed in a greater length in the Dimensionless chapter. this angle is never obtained. The actual area of the depression is only a fraction of the interfacial cross section and is a function.168 by introducing experimental coeﬃcient. The cross section of the interface.176) The actual radius will be much larger. the speciﬁc radius is limited.7. In equation (4. The yellow color represents the maximum lighter liquid that are “going down. In Figure 4. Assume that the surface tension is 400[mN/m]. -4. it was shown that the depression and the raised area are the same.23: Estimate the minimum radius to insert liquid aluminum into represent tube at temperature of 600[K]. the maximum depression radius is about half for the container radius (see Figure 4.4. The heavier liquid can stay on top of the lighter liquid without being turned upside down when the radius is smaller than the equation 4. Since the “exchange” volumes of these two process are the same.46.

-4. Open Question by April 15. Is there diﬀerence if the process is isentropic? If so what is the diﬀerence? .47.24: A canister shown in Figure 4.81 The minimum radius is r ∼ 0. The canister is rotate with circular velocity. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. Assume that the ﬂuids do not mix. the canister top center is connected to another tank with equal pressure to the canister before the rotation (the connection point). for known geometries of the ﬂuids. The density of air is negligible as can be seen from the temperature compare to the aluminum density.S.175) can be used. Three liquids layers under rotation with various critical situations. Example 4.126 CHAPTER 4. What happen after the canister start to be rotated? Calculated the volume that will enter or leave. End Solution Z L3 L2 L1 Fig.02[m] which demonstrates the assumption of h >> r was appropriate. ω. Is there a diﬀerence if the ﬂuids are compressible? Where is the maximum pressure points? For the case that the ﬂuids are compressible. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. You the ideal gas model.47 has three layer of diﬀerent ﬂuids with diﬀerent densities.4 2400 × 9. FLUIDS STATICS The depression radius is assume to be signiﬁcantly smaller and thus equation (4. Describe the interface of the ﬂuids consider all the limiting cases. σ r∼ 8 π 0. You can assume that the process is isothermal.

Part I Integral Analysis 127 .

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Langrange (1736–1813) who formulated the equations of motion for the moving ﬂuid particles. Even though this system looks reasonable. -5. When the ﬂuid system moves or changes. The use of the Eulerian methods leads to a set diﬀerentic control ation equations that is referred to volume as Navier–Stokes equations which are commonly used.CHAPTER 5 The Control Volume and Mass Conservation 5. The Eulerian method focuses on a deﬁned area or locaa system tion to ﬁnd the needed informab tion. This methods is referred as Eulerian method. L. This kind of analysis is reasonable and it referred to in the literature as the Lagrangian Analysis. Control volume and system before and after the later part of this book. This name is in honored J. the Lagrangian system turned out to be diﬃcult to solve and to analyze. These differential equations will be used in Fig.1 Introduction This chapter presents a discussion on the control volume and will be focused on the conservation of the mass. The main diﬃculty lies in the fact that every particle has to be traced to its original state.motion. This method applied and used in very few cases. 129 . The main target of such analysis is to ﬁnd the value of certain variables. Leonard Euler (1707–1783) suggested an alternative approach.1. In Euler’s approach the focus is on a deﬁned point or a deﬁned volume. Ad. one wants to ﬁnd or predict the velocities in the system.

energy. This coordinate system may be in a relative motion to another (almost absolute) coordinate system. The Eulerian method plays well with the physical intuition of most people. The green lines in Figure ?? represent the system. When a piston pushing gases a good choice of control volume is a deformable control volume that is a head the piston inside the cylinder as shown in Figure 5. the Eulerian system leads to integral equations which are the focus of this part of the book. some of the mass in the system exited the control volume which are marked “a” in Figure ??. Non–deformable control volume is a control volume which is ﬁxed in space relatively to an one coordinate system. Fig. Therefore a limited discussion on the Lagrangian system will be presented (later version). 5.130 CHAPTER 5.2 Control Volume The Eulerian method requires to deﬁne a control volume (some time more than one). The control volume is a deﬁned volume that was discussed earlier. At certain time the system and the control volume are identical location. Lagrangian equations are associated with the system while the Eulerian equation are associated with the control volume. The coordinate system could be ﬁxed to the conduit. The red dotted lines are the control volume. In the case where no mass crosses the boundaries. Every control volume is the focus of the certain interest and will be dealt with the basic equations. mass. non–deformable and deformable. entropy etc.2. Deformable control volume is a volume having part of all of its boundaries in motion during the process at hand. At the same time. -5. Flow in conduits can be analyzed by looking in a control volume between two locations. momentum. MASS CONSERVATION ditionally. This methods has its limitations and for some cases the Lagrangian is preferred (and sometimes the only possibility). the control volume is a system. The control volume should be chosen so that the analysis should be simple and dealt with as less as possible issues which are not in question. The material that remained in the control volume is marked as “b”. The control volume is diﬀerentiated into two categories of control volumes. . the control gains some material which is marked as “c”. The diﬀerence between the system and the control volume is shown in Figure ??. Two examples of control volume are presented to illustrate diﬀerence between a deformable control volume and non–deformable control volume.piston with in and out ﬂow. trol volume. After a certain time.2. Control volume of a moving The control volume chosen is non-deformable con.

The convention of direction ˆ is taken positive if ﬂow out the control volume and negative if the ﬂow is into the control volume.3.5) Ub n ˆ θ Uf −Ub Uf − Ub Where Uf is the liquid velocity and Ub is the boundary Fig.4) Control Volume and is a function of the time.3) The ﬁrst term in equation (5.v. The mass ﬂow out of the control volume is the system mass that is not included in the control volume. d ma d mc = + − Dt dt dt dt (5. the ﬂow out is d ma = dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. according Figure ??. the conservation equations will be applied to the control volume. + ma − mc (5. The actual velocity of the ﬂuid leaving the control volume is the relative velocity (see Figure 5. The velocity component that velocities at the interface.2)) results in 0= D msys d mc.3 Continuity Equation In this chapter and the next three chapters. The change with time (time derivative of equation (5. is perpendicular to the surface is − → Urn = −ˆ · Ur = Ur cos θ n (5.3).3. Thus.3).1) The system mass after some time. (5. In this chapter. The system mass change is D msys D = Dt Dt ρdV = 0 Vsys (5.7) .v.v. (t) d = dt dt ρ dV Vc.v.3) is the derivative of the mass in the control volume and at any given time is d mc.6) Where n is an unit vector perpendicular to the surface.5. Schematics of velocity (see Figure 5. CONTINUITY EQUATION 131 5. the mass conservation will be discussed. -5. is made of msys = mc. The interface of the control volume can move.2) The change of the system mass is by deﬁnition is zero. The relative velocity is − → − → − → Ur = Uf − Ub (5.

9) applying negative value to keep the convention. Schematics of ﬂow in in pipe with varying density as a function time for example 5.4.v. In the same manner. taking the positive or negative value of Urn with integration of the entire system as d mb d ma − = dt dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. Substituting equation (5.132 CHAPTER 5.1: The density changes in a pipe.v. ρ0 L t0 . MASS CONSERVATION It has to be emphasized that the density is taken at the surface thus the subscript s. the ﬂow rate in is d mb = dt ρs Urn dA Sc.3) results in d dt ρs dV = − c. Again notice the negative sign in surface integral. can be approximated as x 2 t ρ(x. due to temperature variation and other reasons.10) is essentially accounting of the mass.8) and (5.7) are similar and can be combined. Scv ρ Urn dA (5.9) into equation (5. Example 5. -5. The next example is provided to illustrate this concept. The change of mass change inside the control volume is net ﬂow in or out of the control system.1.10) Equation (5.8) It can be noticed that the two equations (5. The negative sign is because ﬂow out marked positive which reduces of the mass (negative derivative) in the control volume. (5. t) = 1− cos . X dx L Fig.

and time. Write the expression for the mass change in the pipe.4 length is L and its area is A. Vc.10) can be obtained by assuming constant density and the equation (5. CONTINUITY EQUATION 133 The conduit shown in Figure 5. and is the change of the mass in the control volume.5. x L 2 cos t t0 dx Flow Out = π R2 d dt L ρ0 1 − 0 x L 2 cos t π R2 L ρ0 dx = − sin t0 3 t0 t t0 The ﬂow out is a function of length. d dt ρ0 1 − c. Express the mass ﬂow in and/or out. ρ0 c. .11) Equation (5. θ and they can be taken out the integral as d dt which results in A ρdV = π R2 c. r and angle. L.10) become conservation of the volume. Using equation (5.v. the derivative in equation (5. End Solution 5. 5.10).10) can enter the integral since the boundaries are ﬁxed in time and hence.2 Constant Density Fluids Further simpliﬁcations of equations (5.1 Non Deformable Control Volume When the control volume is ﬁxed with time.v.3.v. t. Solution Here it is very convenient to choose a non-deformable control volume that is inside the conduit dV is chosen as π R2 dx. dρ dV = − dt ρ Urn dA Sc.10).v.v. and the mass in the conduit as function of time.11) is simpler than equation (5. the ﬂow out (or in) is ρ(t) dV d dt d ρdV = dt c. (5.v. x 1− L 2 cos t t0 π R2 dx The density is not a function of radius.3.3.

v. dρ dV +ρ dt n · Ub dA = ρ ˆ Sc.2 illustrates this point. The average velocity of the liquid at the exit of the ﬁlling pipe is Up and cross section of the pipe is Ap . And where Aj is the area of jet when touching the liquid boundary in bucket. This condition can be written mathematically as =0 d −→ dt or in a more explicit form as Vrn dA = 0 Sc. Sc. Example 5.14) where Ub is the boundary velocity and Ubn is the normal component of the boundary velocity. the net ﬂow (in and out) is zero. Sc.13) Notice that the density does not play a role in this equation since it is canceled out. (5. Urn dA (5.v.15) The meaning of the equation (5. Assume that the density is constant and at the boundary interface Aj = 0.2.2.3. The liquid ﬁlls a bucket with cross section area of A and instantaneous height is h.v. Hence. Ubn dA (5. The last assumption is result of the energy equation (with .v. Find the height as a function of the other parameters. Ubn dA = Sc. Physically. the meaning is that volume ﬂow rate in and the volume ﬂow rate out have to equal.15) is the net growth (or decrease) of the Control volume is by net volume ﬂow into it.2: Liquid ﬁlls a bucket as shown in Figure 5.v. MASS CONSERVATION Non Deformable Control Volume For this case the volume is constant therefore the mass is constant.134 5.7 Ap .v. c.1 CHAPTER 5.2 Deformable Control Volume The left hand side of question (5.v. Example 5. and hence the mass change of the control volume is zero.12) Vrn dA = Sin Sout Vrn dA = 0 (5. 5.10) can be examined further to develop a simpler equation by using the extend Leibniz integral rule for a constant density and result in thus. =0 =0 d dt ρ dV = c.3.5.

The relationship is function of the distance of the pipe from the boundary of the liquid. -5. The mass conservation of the liquid in the bucket is boundary change Ubn dA c. Urn dA where Ubn is the perpendicular component of velocity of the boundary. The control volume around the jet is deformable because the length of the jet shrinks with the time. The ﬁrst control is around the jet and second is around the liquid in the bucket. First. several assumptions must be made. However. c. no liquid leaves the jet and enters the air. the air eﬀects are negligible. (Uj + Ub ) dA .v. the liquid in the bucket has a straight surface. Solution This problem requires two deformable control volumes.v. Calculate the bucket liquid interface velocity.5. Filling of the bucket and choices of the deformable control volumes for example 5. ﬂow in = c. some inﬂuence of momentum equation).2. In reality. CONTINUITY EQUATION 135 Up Ap Ub Aj h Uj A Fig.5. Second. In this analysis.v. there are no evaporation or condensation processes. this eﬀect can be neglected for this range which this problem. the ratio is determined by height of the pipe from the liquid surface in the bucket. Substituting the known values for Urn results in Urn Ub dA = c.3. Fourth.v. Third. This assumption is a strong assumption for certain conditions but it will be not discussed here since it is advance topic.

II. Solution The applicable equation is Ubn dA = c.II.II. e.3: Balloon is attached to a rigid supply in which is supplied by a constant the mass rate. Urn dA The entrance is ﬁxed. End Solution Example 5. the side. c.II. When examining solution there are two limits.g. the velocity will be Ub = Up in the limiting case and not inﬁnity.b) are enough to solve for the two unknowns.a) To ﬁnd the jet velocity. MASS CONSERVATION The integration can be carried when the area of jet is assumed to be known as Ub A = Aj (Uj + Ub ) (5. Substituting the ﬁrst equation.136 CHAPTER 5.a) and (5.b) and using the ratio of Aj = 0. The ﬁrst limit is when Ap = A/0. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries assuming constant density.v.II. The other limit is that and Ap /A −→ 0 then Ap Ub = A which is the result for the “intuitive” solution.b) The above two equations (5. thus the relative velocity.7 Ap Ub (5. The reason for this diﬀerence is that the liquid already ﬁll the bucket and has not to move into bucket.II.II. Urn is Urn = −Up 0 @ the valve every else .c) The solution of equation (5.7 Ap It is interesting that many individuals intuitively will suggest that the solution is Ub Ap /A.II. (5.7 Ap results Up Ap − Ub A = −0. Uj . mi .c) is Ub = Ap A − 0. the second control volume around the jet is used as the following ﬂow in ﬂow out boundary change Up Ap − Aj (Ub + Uj ) = −Aj Ub (5.a) into (5.v. It also interesting to point out that if the ﬁlling was from other surface (not the top surface).7 which is Ap Ub = =∞ 0 The physical meaning is that surface is ﬁlled instantly.

The right side of equation (5.v.v.2.5. Substituting into the general equation yields A ρ 4 π r2 Ubr = ρ Up Ap = mi Hence.16) . (Ux x) · n dA + ˆ ˆ Sc.v. This simpliﬁcation provides very useful description for many ﬂuid ﬂow phenomena. (Ubr r) · n dA ˆ ˆ The ﬁrst integral is zero because it is like movement of solid body and also yield this value mathematically (excises for mathematical oriented student). Ubr = mi ρ 4 π r2 The center velocity is (also) exactly Ubr . Sc. The total velocity of boundary is Ut = mi (ˆ + r) x ˆ ρ 4 π r2 It can be noticed that the velocity at the opposite to the connection to the rigid pipe which is double of the center velocity.v. This assumptions leads d ρ2 U2 dA − ρ1 U1 dA = dt A2 A1 dV ρ(x) A(x) dx V (x) (5. thus the velocity has the following form Ub = Ux x + Ubr r ˆ ˆ Where x is unit coordinate in x direction and Ux is the velocity of the center and where ˆ r is unit coordinate in radius from the center of the balloon and Ubr is the velocity in ˆ that direction. CONTINUITY EQUATION 137 Assume equal distribution of the velocity in balloon surface and that the center of the balloon is moving.3 One–Dimensional Control Volume Additional simpliﬁcation of the continuity equation is of one dimensional ﬂow. The main assumption made in this model is that the proprieties in the across section are only function of x coordinate .3. End Solution 5. The second integral (notice n = r) yields ˆ ˆ (Ubr r) · n dA = 4 π r2 Ubr ˆ ˆ Sc.3.15) is the net change due to the boundary is center movement net boundary change (Ux x + Ubr r) · n dA = ˆ ˆ ˆ Sc.

18) For steady state and uniform density and velocity equation (5. MASS CONSERVATION When the density can be considered constant equation (5. Is there a critical value and then if exist ﬁnd the critical value of the system parameters.20) The next example is of semi one–dimensional example to illustrate equation (5. What happen if the h0 = 0? .138 CHAPTER 5. continuity equation is at its minimum form of U1 A1 = A2 U2 (5.16) to become ρ2 U2 dA = A2 A1 ρ1 U1 dA (5.6. min h Fig.17) For steady state but with variations of the velocity and variation of the density reduces equation (5. h as function of the time. determine the height. For the ﬁrst case. Assume that the height at time zero is h0 .16) is reduced to U2 dA − A2 A1 U1 dA = d dt A(x)dx (5.19) For incompressible ﬂow (constant density).4: Liquid ﬂows into tank in a constant mass ﬂow rate of a. The mass ﬂow rate out is √ function of the height. -5.18) reduces further to ρ1 A1 U1 = ρ2 A2 U2 (5. First assume that qout = b h second Assume as qout = b h. Example 5.4.16). Height of the liquid for example 5.

3. It can be noticed that control volume satisfy the demand of one dimensional since the ﬂow is only function of x coordinate. b t − ρ1L e e h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t +c e b1 t ρL With the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 the constant coeﬃcient can be found as h0 b 1 h0 b1 = 1 − c =⇒ c = 1 − m1 mi which the solution is h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t + 1− h0 b1 mi e b1 t ρL 0 0 It can be observed that if 1 = hmb1 is the critical point of this solution. the critical ratio state if the ﬂow in is larger or lower than the ﬂow out determine the condition of the height. If the reverse case appeared.16) is ﬂow out ﬂow in √ dh ρL = b h − mi dt with the general solution of √ hb ln −1 mi √ √ mi hb hb + − 1 = (t + c) ρL mi 2ρL . the governing equation (5. negative number for height is not possible and the height solution approach zero. Essentially.16) is dh ρL = dt solution is h= ﬂow out b1 h ﬂow in − mi private solution homogeneous solution b1 t mi + c1 ρ L b1 The solution has the homogeneous solution (solution without the mi ) and the solution of the mi part. However. If the term hmb1 i i is larger than one then the solution reduced to a negative number. CONTINUITY EQUATION Solution 139 The control volume for both cases is the same and it is around the liquid in the tank.5. For second case. For case one the right hand side term in equation (5.16) is d L dh ρ h dx = ρ L dt 0 dt Substituting into equation equation (5. the height will increase. The solution can rearranged to a new form (a discussion why this form is preferred will be provided in dimensional chapter).

archive.22) Initially.140 CHAPTER 5. This is engineering book and thus. y) dy ∂x2 dy ∂y ∂x1 dy ∂y 1 These 2 This (5. it will be provided.org/details/papersonmechanic01reynrich. . y)] ∂G dx2 ∂G ∂G dx1 ∂G = + (x2 .v. material is not necessarily but is added her for completeness. y) ∂y dy dy (5.21) This theorem named after Reynolds.24) diﬀerentiating (chain rule d uv = u dv + v du) by part of left hand side of the Leibniz integral rule (it can be shown which are identical) is 1 2 3 4 d [G(x2 . y) dx = x1 (y) x1 (y) dx2 dx1 ∂f dx + f (x2 . the exact mathematical proof is not the concern here. the Reynolds Transport Theorem will be reproofed and discussed. y) − G(x1 . y) − f (x1 . Osborne. (1842-1912) which is actually a three dimensional generalization of Leibniz integral rule1 . Leibniz integral rule2 is an one dimensional and it is deﬁned as d dy x2 (y) x2 (y) f (x. The ideas are the similar but extended some what. Assume that there is a function that satisfy the following x G(x. To make the previous derivation clearer. End Solution 5. y) = f (α.23) Notice that lower boundary of the integral is missing and is only the upper limit of the function is present3 . This author ﬁnd material just given so no questions will be asked. Nevertheless. The change of accumulative property will be then D Dt f ρdV = sys d dt f ρdV + c.25) papers can be read on-line at http://www. y) = ∂G ∂x (5. a proof will be provided and the physical meaning will be explained. For its derivative of equation (5. c.v f ρ Urn dA (5. speciﬁc enthalpy. y) dα (5.23) is f (x. MASS CONSERVATION The constant is obtained when the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 and it left as exercise for the reader. Suppose that g is intensive property (which can be a scalar or a vector) undergoes change with time.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem It can be noticed that the same derivations carried for the density can be carried for other intensive properties such as speciﬁc entropy. if there will be a demand for such. y) − − (x1 . 3 There was a suggestion to insert arbitrary constant which will be canceled and will a provide rigorous proof.

F . F .v.31) The change with time of the accumulative property. Suppose that a ﬂuid is ﬂowing in a conduit. F . with time. Urn = U1 − Ub . the ﬂow in (or out) will be the velocity of ﬂuid minus the boundary at x1 . y) dx ∂y (5. f is investigated or the accumulative property.30) Fout = f2 ρ Urn (5. The intensive property. Since the change is very short (diﬀerential). (5.27) The same can be said for the third term (3).25) is dx2 ∂G dx2 = f (x2 .5.29) If two limiting points (for the one dimensional) are moving with a diﬀerent coordinate system.32) .28) For one dimensional situation the change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f A(x)dx sys (5. Thus this explanation is a proof the Leibniz rule. between the boundaries is d dt ρ(x) f A(x) dA c. This limiting condition is the control volume for which some of the mass will leave or enter.26) The ﬁrst term (1) in equation (5.25) are actually (the x2 is treated as a diﬀerent variable) x2 (y) x1 (y) ∂ f (x.4. The interesting information that commonly needed is the change of the accumulative property. the mass will be diﬀerent and it will not be a system. y) ∂x2 dy dy (5. F . REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM 141 The terms 2 and 4 in equation (5. The above “proof” is mathematical in nature and physical explanation is also provided. F . The change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f dV sys (5. The accumulative ﬂow of the property in. The same can be said for the other side. is then F1 dx1 dt Fin = f1 ρ Urn The accumulative ﬂow of the property out. is then F2 dx2 dt (5.

V. later a discussion on relationship between velocity at interface to solid also referred as the (no) slip condition will be provided. It will be assumed that the velocity at the interface is zero. Example 5. The magical averaged velocity is obtained using the equation (5. Additionally.v.b) (5. Since the time variable.a) is R2 = Uave π R2 6 The solution of equation (b) results in average velocity as Umax π Uave = Umax 6 (5. Thus. This assumption is good for most cases with very few exceptions.V.V.33) 5. MASS CONSERVATION When put together it brings back the Leibniz integral rule. After magical mixing.5: Liquid enters a circular pipe with a linear velocity proﬁle as a function of the radius with maximum velocity of Umax .c) End Solution . For which R Umax 1 − 0 r R 2 π r dr = Uave π R2 (5. Write the equation which describes the velocity at the entrance. What is the magical averaged velocity at the exit? Assume no–slip condition.V. Solution The velocity proﬁle is linear with radius. t. the velocity became uniform. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has three components and only the perpendicular component enters into the calculations.5 Examples For Mass Conservation Several examples are provided to illustrate the topic. f ρ Urn dA (5.142 CHAPTER 5. the boundary condition is U (r = R) = 0 and U (r = 0) = Umax Therefore the velocity proﬁle is r U (r) = Umax 1 − R Where R is radius and r is the working radius (for the integration).a) The integration of the equation (5. Reynolds Transport theorem is a generalization of the Leibniz rule and thus the same arguments are used. is arbitrary and it can be replaced by any letter.13). D DT d dt f ρdV = sys f ρ dV + c. The above discussion is one of the physical meaning the Leibniz rule.v Sc.

calculate the relationship of the mass transfer across the control volume.6: Experiments have shown that a layer of liquid that attached itself to the surface and it is referred to as boundary layer. The above integrals on the . Solution Assuming the velocity proﬁle is linear thus. No mass can cross the lower surface (solid boundary). and upper. In this case.5. The situation is steady state and thus using equation (5. Example 5. Then assume parabolic velocity proﬁle as Ux (y) = 2 U0 y 1 + δ 2 y δ 2 and calculate the mass transfer across the control volume. Compare the two diﬀerent velocity proﬁles aﬀecting on the mass transfer. The assumption is that ﬂuid attaches itself to surface. the left. The boundary layer is growing with x because the boundary eﬀect is penetrating further into ﬂuid.7.13) results in x direction y direction out in δ δ U0 dy − 0 0 U0 y dy = δ L U xdx 0 It can be noticed that the convention used in this chapter of “in” as negative is not “followed. right. For simplicity assume slowed ﬂuid has a linear velocity proﬁle.7. The slowed liquid is slowing the layer above it. Where δ is the height of the boundary layer at exit point of the ﬂow as shown in Figure 5. -5.” The integral simply multiply by negative one. The control volume has three surfaces that mass can cross. A common boundary layer analysis uses the Reynolds transform theorem.5. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION (1) (2) 143 U0 ge Ed of B n ou yL dr er ay L Fig. (to satisfy the boundary condition) it will be U0 y Ux (y) = δ The chosen control volume is rectangular of L × δ. Boundary Layer control mass.

7 hours.01 m2 500 m/sec End Solution The mass (volume) ﬂow rate is given by direct quantity like x kg/sec. Example 5. Is there a combination of valves that make the tank at steady state? .1 kg/sec = = 1.7: Air ﬂows into a jet engine at 5 kg/sec while fuel ﬂow into the jet is at 0. The tank also has three emptying valves of 5 hours. The tank is 3/4 fulls.1 kg/sec.144 right hand side can be combined as δ CHAPTER 5. the ﬂow out is ( 5 + 0.8: The tank is ﬁlled by two valves which one ﬁlled tank in 3 hours and the second by 6 hours. However sometime.1 ) 5. The next example deal with such reversed mass ﬂow rate. MASS CONSERVATION U0 1 − 0 y δ L dy = 0 U xdx the integration results in U0 δ = 2 or for parabolic proﬁle δ δ L U xdx 0 U0 dy − 0 0 δ U0 y y + δ δ y y − δ δ L 2 L dy = 0 U xdx or 0 U0 1 − the integration results in 2 dy = U0 U0 δ = 2 U xdx 0 End Solution Example 5. calculate the time for tank reach empty or full state when all the valves are open.13) is used. Thus.02kg/m3 AU 0. the mass (or the volume) is given by indirect quantity such as the eﬀect of ﬂow. and 8 hours. What is the density of the gases at the exhaust? Solution The mass conservation equation (5.1 kg/sec The density is ρ= m ˙ 5. The burned gases leaves at the exhaust which has cross area 0.1 m2 with velocity of 500 m/sec.

v boundary velocity + Sc. For example valve of 3 hours can be converted to 1/3 tank per hour.v. Calculate the cylinder boundaries velocity. Assume that the gas mass is supplied in uniformed way of mi [kg/m/sec]. For simplicity. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution 145 Easier measurement of valve ﬂow rate can be expressed as fraction of the tank per hour.9: Inﬂated cylinder is supplied in its center with constant mass ﬂow. ρ= P RT and relationship between the volume and pressure is P = f π Rc 2 . The time to completely ﬁlled the tank is 1 70 4 = hour 159 1 131 − 2 280 The rest is under construction.5. Solution The applicable equation is increase pressure Vc. The gas inside the cylinder obeys the ideal gas law. End Solution Example 5. The pressure inside the cylinder is linearly proportional to the volume. in or out ﬂow rate = Sc. Assume that the cylinder inﬂated uniformly and pressure inside the cylinder is uniform. Thus.v. mass ﬂow rate in is min = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2tank/hour ˙ The mass ﬂow rate out is mout = 1/5 + 1/7 + 1/8 = ˙ 131 280 Thus. if all the valves are open the tank will be ﬁlled. assume that the process is isothermal. dρ dV dt ρ Ub dV ρUrn dA Every term in the above equation is analyzed but ﬁrst the equation of state and volume to pressure relationship have to be provided.5.

mi . A f π 3 Rc 2 RT Ub substituting in the governing equation obtained the form of f π 2 Rc 3 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub + Ub = mi RT 3RT The boundary velocity is then Ub = mi 3 mi R T G= 7 f π 2 Rc 3 7 f π 2 Rc 3 3RT End Solution Example 5. Assume that gas obeys the ideal gas law.146 CHAPTER 5.v 2 f π Rc Ub RT 2 π Rc dRc dV = 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub 3RT The integral can be carried when Ub is independent of the Rc 4 The second term is ρ f π Rc 2 ρ Ub dA = Ub 2 πRc = RT Sc. .v. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries under the assumption of isothermal process. 4 The proof of this idea is based on the chain diﬀerentiation similar to Leibniz rule.10: A balloon is attached to a rigid supply and is supplied by a constant mass rate. Where fv is a coeﬃcient describing the balloon physical characters. It also can be noticed that boundary velocity is related to the radius in the following form Ub = dRc dt The ﬁrst term requires to ﬁnd the derivative of density with respect to time which is Ub dρ d = dt dt Thus the ﬁrst term is dρ dV = dt 2 π Rc f π Rc RT 2 = 2 f π Rc dRc RT dt Vc.v Vc. Assume that balloon volume is a linear function of the pressure inside the balloon such as P = fv V . When the derivative of the second part is dUb /dRc = 0. MASS CONSERVATION Where Rc is the instantaneous cylinder radius. Combining the above two equations results in f π Rc 2 ρ= RT Where f is a coeﬃcient with the right dimension.

5.5. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution The question is more complicated than Example 5.10. The ideal gas law is ρ= P RT

147

The relationship between the pressure and volume is P = fv V = 4 fv π Rb 3 3

The combining of the ideal gas law with the relationship between the pressure and volume results 4 fv π Rb 3 ρ= 3RT The applicable equation is dρ dV + dt ρ (Uc x + Ub r) dA = ˆ ˆ

Sc.v. Sc.v.

ρUrn dA

Vc.v

**The right hand side of the above equation is ρUrn dA = mi
**

Sc.v.

**The density change is
**

Ub

**dρ 12 fv π Rb dRb = dt RT dt The ﬁrst term is
**

=f (r) Rb 0

2

12 fv π Rb 2 16 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub 4 π r2 dr = Ub RT 3RT

dV

**The second term is 8 fv π 2 R b 5 4 fv π R b 3 4 fv π R b 3 Ub dA = Ub 4 π Rb 2 = Ub 3RT 3RT 3RT
**

A

A

Subsisting the two equations of the applicable equation results Ub = 1 mi R T 8 fv π 2 R b 5

Notice that ﬁrst term is used to increase the pressure and second the change of the boundary.

148

**CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION
**

End Solution

Open Question: Answer must be received by April 15, 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U.S. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. Example 5.11: Solve example 5.10 under the assumption that the process is isentropic. Also assume that the relationship between the pressure and the volume is P = fv V 2 . What are the units of the coeﬃcient fv in this problem? What are the units of the coeﬃcient in the previous problem?

**5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship
**

The integral approach is intended to deal with the “big” picture. Indeed the method is used in this part of the book for this A purpose. However, there is very little written about the usability of this approach to provide way to calculate the average quantities in the control system. Sometimes hℓ z y Ae it is desirable to ﬁnd the averaged velocx Ue ity or velocity distribution inside a control volume. There is no general way to provide these quantities. Therefore an example will be provided to demonstrate the use Fig. -5.8. Control volume usage to calculate of this approach. local averaged velocity in three coordinates. Consider a container ﬁlled with liquid on which one exit opened and the liquid ﬂows out as shown in Figure 5.8. The velocity has three components in each of the coordinates under the assumumption that ﬂow is uniform and the surface is straight5 . The integral approached is used to calculate the averaged velocity of each to the components. To relate the velocity in the z direction with the ﬂow rate out or the exit the velocity mass balance is constructed. A similar control volume construction to ﬁnd the velocity of the boundary velocity (height) can be carried out. The control volume is bounded by the container wall including the exit of the ﬂow. The upper boundary is surface parallel to upper surface but at Z distance from the bottom. The mass balance reads dρ dV + dt Ubn ρ dA +

A A

Urn ρ dA = 0

(5.34)

V

5 The liquid surface is not straight for this kind of problem. However, under certain conditions it is reasonable to assume straight surface which have been done for this problem.

5.6. THE DETAILS PICTURE – VELOCITY AREA RELATIONSHIP For constant density (conservation of volume) equation6 and (h > z) reduces to Urn ρ dA = 0

A

149

(5.35)

In the container case for uniform velocity equation 5.35 becomes Uz A = Ue Ae =⇒ Uz = − Ae Ue A (5.36)

It can be noticed that the boundary is not moving and the mass inside does not change this control volume. The velocity Uz is the averaged velocity downward. The x component of velocity is obY control Volume Volume tained by using a diﬀerent control volume. Ax− X controlpage into the page into the The control volume is shown in Figure 5.9. The boundary are the container far from Ay − y the ﬂow exit with blue line projection into x page (area) shown in the Figure 5.9. The mass conservation for constant density of this control volume is −

A

Ue

Ae

Ubn ρ dA +

A

Urn ρ dA = 0 (5.37)

Fig. -5.9. Control volume and system before and after the motion.

Usage of control volume not included in the previous analysis provides the velocity at the upper boundary which is the same as the velocity at y direction. Substituting into (5.37) results in Ae Ue ρ dA + A Ux ρ dA = 0

Ayz

(5.38)

Ax

−

Where Ax − is the area shown the Figure under this label. The area Ayz referred to area into the page in Figure 5.9 under the blow line. Because averaged velocities and constant density are used transformed equation (5.38) into Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A

Ayz

(5.39)

Where Y (x) is the length of the (blue) line of the boundary. It can be notice that the velocity, Ux is generally increasing with x because Ax − increase with x. The calculations for the y directions are similar to the one done for x direction. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has two diﬀerent directions. One zone is right to the exit with ﬂow to the left and one zone to left with averaged velocity to right. If the volumes on the left and the right are symmetrical the averaged velocity will be zero.

6 The

point where (z = h) the boundary term is substituted the ﬂow in term.

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CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION

Example 5.12: Calculate the velocity, Ux for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder). Solution The relationship for this geometry needed to be expressed. The length of the line Y (x) is Y (x) = 2 r 1− 1− x r

2

Ax− Y(x)

(r − x) x α

y

r

(5.XII.a)

Ue

Ae

This relationship also can be expressed in the term of α as Y (x) = 2 r sin α (5.XII.b)

Fig. -5.10. Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux and various cross sections.

Since this expression is simpler it will be adapted. When the relationship between radius angle and x are x = r(1 − sin α) (5.XII.c) The area Ax − is expressed in term of α as Ax − = Thus the velocity, Ux is Ae A α− 1 sin(2α) r2 Ue + Ux 2 r sin α h = 0 2 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue A h sin α 1 S (5.XII.e) (5.XII.f) 1 α − , sin(2α) r2 2 (5.XII.d)

Ux = Averaged velocity is deﬁned as

Ux =

U dS

S

(5.XII.g)

Where here S represent some length. The same way it can be represented for angle calculations. The value dS is r cos α. Integrating the velocity for the entire container and dividing by the angle, α provides the averaged velocity. Ux = which results in Ux = 1 2r

π 0

**Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (π − 1) Ae r Ue 4 A h
**

End Solution

(5.XII.h)

(5.XII.i)

Example 5.13:

5.7. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Calculate the velocity, Uy for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder). What is the averaged velocity if only half section is used. State your assumptions and how it similar to the previous example. Solution

X(y)

x

151

y

r (r − x)

Ay − Ue Ae

Fig. -5.11. y velocity for a circular shape

The ﬂow out in the x direction is zero because symmetrical reasons. That is the ﬂow ﬁeld is a mirror images. Thus, every point has diﬀerent velocity with the same value in the opposite direction. The ﬂow in half of the cylinder either the right or the left has non zero averaged velocity. The calculations are similar to those in the previous to example 5.12. The main concept that must be recognized is the half of the ﬂow must have come from one side and the other come from the other side. Thus, equation (5.39) modiﬁed to be Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A The integral is the same as before but the upper limit is only to π/2 Ux = which results in Ux = (π − 2) Ae r Ue 8 A h

End Solution

Ayz

(5.40)

1 2r

π/2 0

Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α

(5.XIII.a)

(5.XIII.b)

**5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation
**

Typical question about the relative velocity that appeared in many ﬂuid mechanics exams is the following. Example 5.14:

152 CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION A boat travels at speed of 10m/sec upstream in a river that ﬂows at a speed of 5m/s. The inboard engine uses a pump to suck in water at the front Ain = 0.2 m2 and eject it through the back of the boat with exist area of Aout = 0.05 m2 . The water absolute velocity leaving the back is 50m/sec, what Fig. -5.12. Schematic of the are the relative velocities entering and leaving the boat for example 5.14 boat and the pumping rate?

Us = 5[m/sec] Uo = 50[m/sec] Ub = 10[m/sec]

Solution The boat is assumed (implicitly is stated) to be steady state and the density is constant. However, the calculation have to be made in the frame of reference moving with the boat. The relative jet discharge velocity is Urout = 50 − (10 + 5) = 35[m/sec] The volume ﬂow rate is then Qout = Aout Urout = 35 × 0.05 = 1.75m3 /sec The ﬂow rate at entrance is the same as the exit thus, Urin = Aout 0.05 Urout = 35 = 8.75m/sec Ain 0.2

End Solution

**CHAPTER 6 Momentum Conservation for Control Volume
**

6.1 Momentum Governing Equation

6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous

In the previous chapter, the Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) was applied to mass conservation. Mass is a scalar (quantity without magnitude). This chapter deals with momentum conservation which is a vector. The Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) is applicable to any quantity and the discussion here will deal with forces that acting on the control volume. Newton’s second law for single body is as the following F = U d(mU ) dt (6.1)

It can be noticed that bold notation for the velocity is U (and not U ) to represent that the velocity has a direction. For several bodies (n), Newton’s law becomes

n n

Fi =

i=1 i=1

U d(mU )i dt

(6.2)

The ﬂuid can be broken into inﬁnitesimal elements which turn the above equation (6.2) into a continuous form of small bodies which results in

n

Fi =

i=1

D Dt

element mass U ρ dV

sys

(6.3)

153

Thus.2 External Forces First. The Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT) has to be used on the right hand side. one due to viscosity (solid body) and two consequence of the ﬂuid pressure. Sn . The explaination for the direction relative to surface perpendicular and with the surface.1. or the forces. Again. only the pressure component is used which is reasonable for most situations. τ dA (6. is in the surface direction. The surface “force”. and the surface forces as the following F total = F b + F s (6.7) Fig.v. the main body force is the gravity. . The total gravity force is element mass Fb = sys g ρ dV (6.154 CHAPTER 6. Thus. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Note that the notation D/Dt is used and not d/dt to signify that it referred to a derivative of the system.v.4) In this book (at least in this discussion).1.6) The integral yields a force trough the center mass which has to be found separately. and τ are the shear stresses. the surface forces are with the divided into two categories: one perpendisurface n ˆ perpendicular to cular to the surface and one with the surthe surface face direction (in the surface plain see Figure 6. In this chapter.). have to be discussed. g ρ dV = sys cv g ρ dV (6. The forces. The gravity acts on all the system elements. hence. excluding the external forces.8) Where Sν is perpendicular stress due to viscosity. Here for simplicity. 6. it can be written as Fs = c. -6. n is an unit vector outward ˆ of element area and the negative sign is applied so that the resulting force acts on the body. After inﬁnitesimal time the gravity force acting on the system is the same for control volume. Sn dA + c. are the body forces. is made out of two components.5) which acts through the mass center towards the center of earth. Where the surface “force”.1. the terms on the left hand side. ∼0 Pˆ S n = −P n + Sν (6. Sn .

v. ducts. (6.10) ρ U Urn dV ρ U dV + c. etc. With external forces equation (6. c.v.v.v. is measured in the frame of reference and U rn is the liquid relative velocity to boundary of the control volume measured in the same frame of reference.9) The liquid velocity. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 155 6. (6. c. according Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT).v. U . In Cartesian coordinate. c. 6.12) t dt ρ U x dV + c. Equation (6.v.v. Thus.v. where θx is the angle between n and ˆ or (ˆ · ˆ ˆ i n i). for example in the x coordinate. c.v.v.3 Momentum Governing Equation D Dt t dt The right hand side.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System For accelerate system.10) is transformed to Integral Momentum Equation & External Forces F ext + g ρ dV − P · dA + τ · dA = c. c. These external forces are commonly associated with pipe.v. are the forces resulting from support of the control volume by non–ﬂuid elements.v. c. g · ˆ ρ dV i c.11) is a vector equation which can be broken into its three components. Fext . P cos θx dA + c. is ρ U dV = sys ρ U dV + c.v.13) .6.v.v.v. t = dt c. t dt c.v. the right hand side has to include the following acceleration r ˙ a acc = ω × (r × ω) + 2 U × ω + r × ω − a 0 (6.1. the components are Fx + c.11) ρ U dV + c.1. the general form of the momentum equation without the external forces is Integral Momentum Equation g ρ dV − P dA + τ · dA c. ρ U Urn dV The external forces. τ x · dA = ρ U x · U rn dA (6. friction (non-ﬂuid). ρ U U rn dA (6. supporting solid structures.1.

14) Integral of Uniform Pressure on Body In this kind of calculations. This situation is a similar idea that was shown in Section 4. Thus. ﬂow is exposed to the atmosphere and thus (almost) uniform pressure surrounding the control volume.v.16) In situations where the velocity is provided and known (remember that density is constant) the integral can be replaced by F = mU o − mU i ˙U ˙U The average velocity is related to the velocity proﬁle by the following integral U = 2 (6.1. Additionally.3. equation (??) is further reduced to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA (6.1 Momentum for For Constant Pressure and Frictionless Flow Another important sub category of simpliﬁcation deals with ﬂow under approximation of the frictionless ﬂow and uniform pressure. 6. In this case the resulting force due to the pressure is zero to all directions.156 CHAPTER 6.v. This kind of situations arise when friction (forces) is small compared to kinetic momentum change. in these situations. the mass ﬂow rate in and out are equal.v.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow The momentum equation can be simpliﬁed for the steady state condition as it was shown in example 6. it common to obtain a situation where one of the term will be an integral of the pressure over the body surface. a acc ρ dV (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where r is the distance from the center of the frame of reference and the add force is F add = Vc. Integral Steady State Momentum Equation F ext + c. ρ U Urn dA (6. g ρ dV − c.v.6. P dA + c.17) 1 A [U (r)] dA A 2 (6. τ dA = c.18) is applicable to any velocity proﬁle and any geometrical shape.1. In this situation.5.18) Equation (6. The unsteady term (where the time derivative) is zero. .15) 6.v.

Solution The velocity proﬁle is U r R = Umax 1 − r R 2 (6.2.c) y x Uo Ui F Fig a.6.I.2).2.a) into equation (6. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 157 Example 6.a) Substituting equation (6. Uo θ Ui F Fig b.I. Neglect the friction.I. calculate the force and the angle which the support has to apply to keep the system in equilibrium. Example 6.1: Calculate the average velocity for the given parabolic velocity proﬁle for a circular pipe. Schematics of maximum angle for impinged by a jet. What is the angle for which maximum force will be created? .I. Umax U= √ 6 End Solution 2 1 2 π R2 1 0 R 0 [U (r)] 2 π r dr 2 (6. Schematics of area impinged by a jet for example 6.1. Schematics of area impinged by a jet and angle eﬀects. Fig.2: A jet is impinging on a stationary surface by changing only the jet direction (see Figure 6.18) U = results in U = (Umax ) Thus. -6.b) 2 2 1 − r2 ¯ 2 rd¯ = ¯ r 1 2 (Umax ) 6 (6.

a) It can be noticed that even though the velocity change direction.II. Fx occurs when cos θ = π. Hence Fx |max = −2 m Ui ˙ and the force in the y direction is Fy = m Ui sin θ ˙ the combined forces are Ftotal = Which results in Ftotal = m Ui sin (θ/2) ˙ with the force angle of tan φ = π − Fy π θ = − Fx 2 2 Fx 2 + Fy 2 = m Ui ˙ (cos θ − 1) + sin2 θ 2 For angle between 0 < θ < π the maximum occur at θ = π and the minimum at θ ∼ 0.a) can be explicitly written for the two coordinates. because it is a steady state. The equation for the x coordinate is Fx = m (cos θ Uo − Ui ) ˙ or since Ui = Uo Fx = m Ui (cos θ − 1) ˙ It can be observed that the maximum force.II.158 Solution CHAPTER 6. the mass ﬂow rate remains constant.3 with a mass . to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ˙U ˙U ρU (U · n) dA = mUo − mUi (6.3: Liquid ﬂows through a symmetrical nozzle as shown in the Figure 6. For small angle analysis is important in the calculations of ﬂow around thin wings.11) can be reduced. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Equation (6. End Solution Example 6. Equation (6. It can be proven by setting dFx /dθ = 0 which yields θ = 0 a minimum and the previous solution.

τ z dA = c.v.3. The entrance area is 0.12) is applicable but should be transformed into the z direction which is Fz + c.v. The entrance pressure is 3[Bar] and the entrance velocity is 5 [m/sec]. =0 c. Nozzle schematic for the discussion on the forces and for example 6.6. The chosen control volume is shown in Figure 6. =0 liquid surface Fz + c. c.0005 U1 = × 5 = 25[m/sec] A2 0. the exit velocity is U2 = A1 0. This situation is a steady state for constant density.v.v.b) c.III.1. What is the exit velocity? What is the force acting the nozzle? Assume that the density is constant ρ = 1000[kg/m3 ] and the volume in the nozzle is 0.v. Hence.0001[cm2 ].01 [gk/sec]. ˆ g · k ρ dV + P cos θz dA + (6.a) ρ U z · U rn dA ρ U z dV + c.v.III. The control volume does not cross any solid body (or surface) there is no external forces.v.3. Solution U2 =? P2 = 1[Bar] A2 = 10[cm2] 159 z P2 = 3[Bar] A1 = 50[cm2] U1 = 5[m/sec] Fig.0015 [m3 ]. Then A1 U1 = A2 U2 and after rearrangement. ˆ g · k ρ dV + t dt P cos θz dA + c.3.v.0001 Equation (6.v. The exit velocity is uniform but unknown.0005[m2 ] and the exit area is 0. c.v. the velocity has to be found. The exit pressure is 1[Bar]. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION ﬂow rate of 0. τ z dA = (6. -6. forces on the nozzle Fnozzle solid surface P cos θz dA + c. First. ρ U z · U rn dA .

Of course it is only approximation but is provided a crude tool.III. this analysis is used for academic purposes. g · n ρ dV = −g ρVnozzle ˆ Notice that in the results the gravity is not bold since only the magnitude is used. A2 U2 (U2 ) dA − A1 U1 (U1 ) dA which results in ρ U z · U rn dA = ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 c. Or there is a line (or surface) in which the ﬂuid outside changes only the ﬂow direction. Either it is assumed that some of the ﬂuid enters into the container and ﬂuid outside is not aﬀected by the propeller.III. Combining all transform equation (6.2 Momentum Equation Application Momentum Equation Applied to Propellers The propeller is a mechanical devise that is used to increase the ﬂuid momentum. The part of the pressure which act on the nozzle in the z direction is − c.c) is ρ U z · U rn dA = c. The propeller can be stationary like in cooling tours. P cos θz dA = c.v.c) The second term or the body force which acts through the center of the nozzle is Fb = − c. ρ U z · U rn dA (6.v. Here.4. ˆ g · k ρ dV + c. Many times it is used for propulsion purposes of airplanes. . MOMENTUM CONSERVATION All the forces that act on the nozzle are combined as Fnozzle + c.160 CHAPTER 6. ships and other devices (thrust) as shown in Figure 6. fan etc.c) into Fz = −g ρVnozzle + P A|2 − P A|1 + ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 Fz = 9.v. For a steady state the analysis is simpler and used here to provide an example of steady state. In the Figure 6.v.III. Improvements can be made to this analysis.v.8 × 1000× End Solution (6. The other common used of propeller is mostly to move ﬂuids as a pump.v.v.d) 6.4 the ﬂuid ﬂows from the left to the right. This surface is called slip surface. P dA = 1 P dA − 2 P dA = P A|1 − P A|2 The last term in equation (6.III. The propeller analysis of unsteady is complicated due to the diﬃculty in understanding the velocity ﬁeld.

4: A sled toy shown in Figure ?? is pushed by liquid jet.2. The propellers are moved by a mechanical work which is converted to thrust. the thermal energy is converted to thrust. Essentially. Jet Propulsion Jet propulsion is a mechanism in which the air planes and other devices are propelled. Hence. The inlet area and exit area are diﬀerent for most jets and if the mass of the fuel is neglected then F = ρ A2 U2 2 − A1 U1 2 (6. and is. The one dimensional momentum equation is reduced F = ρ U2 2 − U1 2 (6. 3 with (note that there are no external forces) with points 4 and 2 results in ρ U2 2 − U1 2 = P4 − P3 (6.20) This analysis provide way to calculate the work needed to move this propeller. Furthermore. The analysis of such device in complicated and there is a whole class dedicated for such topic in many universities. the pressure around control volume is the same. a very limited discussion related to the steady state is oﬀered. -6. Notice that Example 6.19) 161 1 U1 3 4 2 U2 Liquid Combining the control Fig. pressure drops from the calculation. Here. in many case more eﬃcient. Note that in this analysis it was assumed that the ﬂow is horizontal that z1 = z2 and/or the change is insigniﬁcant. a major obstacle in the past. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION As ﬁrst approximation.4. this direct conversion can be. Thus. as it will be shown in the Chapter on compressible ﬂow it allows to achieve velocity above speed of sound. In Jet propulsion. Calculate the friction force on the . The diﬀerence between the jets propulsion and propellers is based on the energy supplied. Propeller schematic to explain the change of movolume between points 1 and mentum due to velocity.21) An academic example to demonstrate how a steady state calculations are done for a moving control volume. the air is sucked into engine and with addition heating (burning fuel) the velocity is increased.6. Further increase of the exit area with the increased of the burned gases further increase the thrust.

v.5.4.v.IV. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION toy when the toy is at steady state with velocity. 2 1 Solution The chosen control volume is attached to the toy and thus steady state is obtained. The velocity of the jet is uniform. U0 Uj Calculate the absolute velocity of the Ff jet exit. namics friction is µd . -6. Assume that the jet is horizontal and the reﬂecting jet is vertical.162 CHAPTER 6. P dA + c. The same can be said for air friction as τ dA ∼ 0 c.v. The dyjet in a steady state for example 6. The applicable mass conservation equation for steady state is A1 U1 = A2 U2 The momentum equation in the x direction is Ff + c.v. ρ U U rn dV (6. thus g ρ dV ∼ 0 c. Neglect y the friction between the liquid (jet) and control x volume the toy and between the air and toy.a) The relative velocity into the control volume is U 1j = (Uj − U0 ) x ˆ The relative velocity out the control volume is U 2j = (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ The absolute exit velocity is U 2 = U0 x + (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ ˆ For small volume.v. Assume that the friction between the toy and surface (ground) is Fig. The pressure is uniform around the control volume and thus the integral is P dA = 0 c. U 0 .v. U0 . Toy Sled pushed by the liquid relative to the vertical force. τ dA = c.v. g ρ dV − c. The frame of reference is moving with the toy velocity. the gravity can be neglected also because this term is small compared to other terms. .

This method is cumbersome in many cases.b) into equation (6. FR mf mR UR Ug Fig.a) yields Ff = A ρ U1j 2 The friction can be obtained from the momentum equation in the y direction mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = Fearth According to the statement of question the friction force is Ff = µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 The momentum in the x direction becomes µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ (Uj − U0 ) The toy velocity is then U0 = Uj − µd mtoy g A ρ (1 − µd ) 2 (6.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow The main problem in solving the unsteady state situation is that the control volume is accelerating.IV.10). Alternative method of solution is done by attaching the frame of reference to the accelerating body.IV. One such example of such idea is associated with the Rocket Mechanics which is present here. End Solution 6. A possible way to solve the problem is by expressing the terms in an equation (6.IV. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION The control volume was chosen so that the pressure calculation is minimized.b) The substituting (6. 163 (6. .2.IV. A rocket with a moving control volume.6.v.6.2.c) Increase of the friction reduce the velocity. Additionally larger toy mass decrease the velocity. -6. The momentum ﬂux is ρ Ux Ui rn dA = A ρ U1j 2 Sc.

ρUy Urn dA (6. The pressure term vanish because the pressure essentially is the same and the diﬀerence can be neglected.24) Clearly.v. the ﬁrst term FR .2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State Rocket Mechanics A rocket is a devise similar to jet propulsion. it can be neglected.2. The two components are burned and the gases are ejected through a nozzle. P dA − d dt ρ a0 dV = ρUy dV + Vc. The momentum equation is FR 0 τ dA + c. The last term is ρUy Urn dA = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ c.26) . d [(mR + mf ) U ] dt (6. d dt ρUy dV = Vc.23) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is the change of the momentum in the rocket volume.25) Combining all the above term results in −FR − (mR + mf ) g + dU (mR + mf ) = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ dt (6. the derivative with respect to time. However. Yet.164 CHAPTER 6. vanishes. g ρ dV + c. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 6.v. In contrast to other mechanisms such as jet propulsion which obtain the oxygen from the medium which they travel the rockets carry the oxygen with it. dU /dt = 0 is not zero. The gravity term is an instantaneous mass times the gravity times the constant and the same can be said for the acceleration term. the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity and thus ρ a0 dV = dU (mR + mf ) dt (6. c. c. the change of the rocket mass can be considered minimal or even neglected.v. (6. This change is minimal and for this analysis.v. inside the rocket the change in the velocity is due to change in the reduction of the volume of the oxidant and fuel. The resistance of the medium is Denote as FR . This mechanism is useful for speciﬁc locations because it is independent of the medium though which it travels.22) There are no external forces in this control volume thus.v. The velocity of the rocket in the rocket frame of reference U is zero. The rocket is accelerating and thus the frame for reference is moving the with the rocket.v.v. This change is due to the change in the volume of the oxidant and the fuel. The oxidant and fuel ﬂow outside. The diﬀerence is the fact that the oxidant is on board with the fuel. However.

Thus. Integrating equation (6. This author was called for consultation and to solve a related problem. the speed (the Reynolds number).30) The following is an elaborated example which deals with an unsteady two dimensional problem.27) Separating the variables equation (6. it can be noticed that the friction resistance FR .28). As ﬁrst approx˙ imation. for constant fuel consumption (and almost oxidant).5: 1 A variation of this problem has appeared in many books in the literature. This problem was aroused in manufacturing industry. material that surface made and the medium it ﬂow in altitude.28) with limits of U (t = 0) = 0 provides U 0 ˙ dU = −MT Ue 0 t dt − MT t g dt 0 (6. However.26) transformed to −FR − MT g + dU ˙ MT = MT Ue dt (6. in the past it was not noticed that a slight change in conﬁguration leads to a constant x velocity. is a function of the several parameters such the duration.” . This problem demonstrates the used of control volume to ﬁnd method of approximation for not given velocity proﬁles1 Example 6. Thus it is assume that FR = 0.6. gas ﬂow out is constant as well.29) ˙ the results of the integration is (notice M = M0 − t M) U = Ue ln M0 ˙ M0 − t M −gt (6.27) yields dU = ˙ −MT Ue FR − − g dt MT MT (6.2. for constant constant gas consumption equation (6. For which he noticed this “constant velocity.28) Before integrating equation (6. For simplicity here the part close to Earth (to the atmosphere) is assumed to be small compared to the distance in space. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 165 Denoting MT = mR + mf and thus dM/dt = m and Ue = Ug − UR .

c) results in dh B h A0 + =0 dt A (6.V. ρdA = 0 (6. = −ρ U0 A0 = −m0 dt (6.V. The control volume is shown in Figure 6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION UT y x h A tank with wheels is ﬁlled with liquid is depicted in Figure 6. mt .V. The frame of reference is moving with the tank.d) that represent the resistance in the system and substitute the energy equation. Furthermore.7. U0 = B h (6. -6.V.e) . linear function of the height.v. Calculate the tank velocity for two cases.12) for two dimensions is used.166 CHAPTER 6.c) + U0 A0 = 0 dt It can be noticed that the area of the tank is almost constant (A = constant) thus A dh dh U0 A0 + U0 A0 = 0 =⇒ =− dt dt A (6.V.d) Where B is the coeﬃcient that has the right units to mach equation (6.v.b) Where m0 is mass ﬂow rate out. Sc.V.V. This situation is unsteady state thus equation (6.7.v.31) The relationship between the height and the ﬂow now can be used. Equation (6. Substituting equation (6.b) can be further reduced due to constant density to d (A h) (6. the ﬂuid has two velocity components verse one component in the rocket mechanics.d) into equation (6.V.a) can be transferred to dmc. One the wheels have a constant resistance with the ground and two the resistance linear function of the weight. The mass conservation equation is d dt ρ dV + Vc.a) Equation (6. The tank mass with the wheels (the solid parts) is known.V. the source of the propulsion is the potential energy.V.7. Schematic of a tank seating on wheel for unsteady state discussion Assume that the exit velocity is a This problem is similar to the rocket mechanics with a twist. The tank upper part is opened to the atmosphere. At initial time the valve on the tank is opened and the liquid ﬂows out with an uniform velocity proﬁle. Solution Uo FR Fig.

j) It can be noticed that the velocity in the y is a function of time as oppose to the x direction.V.V.11) which is reduced to acceleration F −F R − (mt + mf ) g − a (mt + mf ) = R d [(mt + mf ) U r ] + U0 mo dt (6.g) Where here w is the depth or width of the tank. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 167 Equation (6.8.8.e) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which can be solved with the initial condition h(t = 0) = h0 . The tank depth. . y The boundary of this control volume are x the tank boundary on the left with the U straight surface as depicted in Figure 6. R Ubn dA = Urn dA =⇒ Ubn = Urn . -6.V.i) It can be noticed that Ux is not function of height.V.2. the average velocity in the tank is Ux = 1 L L 0 x A0 B L A0 B = A 2A (6. h. Substituting (6.V. the average velocity in the y direction is Uy = dh h0 A0 B − =− e dt A t A0 B A (6.f) UT To ﬁnd the average velocity in the L x direction a new control volume is used. it can be shown that average velocity is a function of cross section (what direction?). In fact. The solution (see for details in the Appendix A. The mass con.Fig.k) 2 The boundaries are the upper (free surface) and tank side with a y distance from the free surface. it also can be noticed that Ux (x) is a not function of the time. F The last boundary is variable surface in a distance x from the tank left part.V.g) results ¨ t A0¨ B h0 x A0 B − ¨ ¨ A = x A0 B (6.V. A new control volume to ﬁnd the servation for this control volume is velocity in discharge tank for example 6.V. is not relevant.2.V. Perhaps surprising. The applicable momentum equation (in the tank frame of reference) is (6. Using a similar control volume2 .f) into (6. Using this function.6. h x o R w &x dh = −& h Ux w dt (6.1 ) is h(t) = h0 e − t A0 B A (6.5.h) e Ux (x) = ¨ A Ah ¡ The average x component of the velocity is a linear function of x.

v. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where U r is the relative ﬂuid velocity to the tank (if there was no tank movement). This limitation can be partially overcome by assuming some kind of average. The tank movement cause movement of the air which cause momentum change. mf and mt are the mass of the ﬂuid and the mass of tank respectively. and the resistance due to air is negligible. The pressure around the control volume is uniform thus P cos θx dA ∼ 0 Sc.v. Here this eﬀect is neglected.V. The momentum ﬂow rate out of the tank is ρ Ux Urn dA = ρ Uo 2 Ao = mo Uo Sc. hence τ dA ∼ 0 Sc.32) In the x coordinate the momentum equation is −Fx + (mt + mf ) a = d [(mt + mf ) Ux ] + U0 mf ˙ dt (6.V. It .m) There is no mass ﬂow in the y direction and Uy is component of the velocity in the y direction. This eﬀect is known as the add mass/momentum and will be discussed in the Dimensional Analysis and Ideal Flow Chapters. This momentum is function of the tank volume times the air density times tank velocity (h0 × A × ρa × U ). The mass in the control volume include the mass of the liquid with mass of the solid part (including the wheels). a Vc. = mf + mT because the density of the air is very small the change of the air mass is very small as well (ρa << ρ). And the additional force for accelerated system ia i is −ˆ · i a ρdV = mc. The main problem of integral analysis approach is that it does not provide a way to analysis the time derivative since the velocity proﬁle is not given inside the control volume. The acceleration of the tank is a = −ˆ 0 or ˆ · a = −a.v.v. mc. The momentum equation in the y coordinate it is Fy − (mt + mf ) g = d (mt + mf ) Uy dt (6. (6.l) Where Fx is the x component of the reaction which is opposite to the movement direction.v.168 CHAPTER 6.v.

From equation (6. d d Ux Ux + mc. if it is the opposite the toy start to move.n) Noticing that the derivative with time of control volume mass is the ﬂow out in equation (6.V.V.2.V. dt dt dt (6.p) Rearranging and noticing that a = dUT /dt transformed equation (6. Ux Vf Thus. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 169 can be noticed that the velocity in the tank has two components.V.o) Combining all the terms results in −Fx + a (mf + mt ) = −m0 L A0 B − U0 m0 2A (6. However.V.v.p) into a= Fx − m0 mf + mt L A0 B + 2 A U0 (mf + mt ) 2 A (mf + mt ) (6.V. dt dt L A0 B Ux = −m0 2A (6.n) becomes mass rate out ˙ = − m0 d mc.r) .v.v. The average velocity in the tank (because constant density and more about it later section) is Ux = 1 Vt Ux dV Vf Because the integral is replaced by the average it is transferred to ρ Ux dV ∼ mc. if the diﬀerence between the actual and averaged momentum is neglected then ∼0 d dt ρ Ux dV ∼ Vf d mc.d) the mass ﬂow out is U0 h m0 (t) = B h0 e − t A0 B A A0 ρ (6.v.v. d Ux Ux + mc.q) A0 If the Fx ≥ m0 L 2 A B + U0 the toy will not move.V.6.V. Ux = mc. The velocity in the y direction does not contribute to the momentum in the x direction.v. The ﬁrst component is downward (y) direction and the second in the exit direction (x).

34) The actual momentum for control volume is Mc = c.s) into equation (6. Here.q) transforms it to a diﬀerential equation which is integrated if Rx is constant.33) The y component of the average velocity is function of the time. Rearranging the momentum equation in the y direction transformed m f t A0 B − A g + 2 Fy = mt + ρ A h0 e ρ h0 A0 2 B2 A 2 e − t A0 B A (6.V. For example. ρ Ux dV (6.35) .V. The momentum for average velocity is Ma = mc.v U = ρ V c.v U dV (6. the ﬂow proﬁle in example 6.V.t) (mf ) Uy = mf Uy + dt dt dt The reason that mf is used because the solid parts do not have velocity in the y direction. There are situations where actual velocity proﬁle is not known but is function can be approximated.V.V.v. the velocity proﬁle can be estimated using the ideal ﬂuid theory but the actual values are not known. For the second case where Rx is a function of the Ry as Rx = µ Ry (6. For example. Substituting equations (6.1 relationship between momentum of maximum velocity to average velocity was presented.u) The actual results of the integrations are not provided since the main purpose of this exercise to to learn how to use the integral analysis. relationship between momentum for the average velocity to the actual velocity is presented.s) The initial condition is that UT (t = 0) = 0.r) and (6.170 The mass in the control volume is CHAPTER 6.V. For these cases a correction factor can be used. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION V mf = ρ A h0 e − t A0 B A (6. The change in the accumulative momentum is d dmf dUy (6.5 can be estimated even by hand sketching. End Solution Average Velocity Estimates In example 6. This correction factor can be calculated by ﬁnding the relation between the two cases.

6. The force F = D Dt U ρU dV Vsys (6. ditionally increase of velocity occur. The inside particle is obtained larger velocity and due to centrifugal forces is moving to outer radius for which ad.9 commonly used in industry. The pressure on the outer side is uniform thus does not create a moment. applying equation (6.v 171 U dV = c.40) . Sc. The impeller increases the velocity of the ﬂuid by increasing the radius of the particles.37) The angular momentum then will be obtained by calculating the change of every element in the system as M = r ×F = D Dt ρ r × U dV Vsys (6.3. The ﬂow is Um2 Ulr2 U2 Un2 Ut2 (6. C ρV c. CONSERVATION MOMENT OF MOMENTUM These two have to equal thus. -6.36) If the density is constant then the coeﬃcient is one (C ≡ 1). To demonstrate this idea.39) The angular momentum equation. the following discussion is provided. if the density is not constant.v r ρ (r × U ) U rn dA (6. However.38) Now the left hand side has to be transformed into the control volume as M= d dt r ρ (r × U ) dV + Vc.Fig.39) to uniform and steady state ﬂow with neglected pressure gradient is reduced to M = m (r2 × U2 + r2 × U1 ) ˙ Introduction to Turbo Machinery The analysis of many turbomachinary such as centrifugal pump is fundamentally based on the angular momentum.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum The angular momentum can be derived in the same manner as the momentum equation for control volume.v. ρ Ux dV (6. A pump impeller is shown in Figure 6.v.9. The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram at the exit. the coeﬃcient is not equal to one.6.

Here it is assumed that ﬂuid is incompressible (ρ = constant).40[m]. The relative exit velocity is Ulr2 and the velocity of the impeller edge is Um2 . r. Un2 .6: A centrifugal pump is pumping 600 2[m3 /hour]. one the tangential velocity. ˙ W = m Um2 Ut2 ˙ (6.7: A design of a rocket is based on the idea that density increase of the leaving jet increases the acceleration of the rocket see Figure . Example 6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation Example 6. M = m r2 Ut2 ˙ Multiplying equation (6. and h. Notice that tangential liquid velocity. U2 has two components. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION assumed to enter the impeller radially with average velocity U1 .42) (6.43) The diﬀerence between Um2 to Ut2 is related to the eﬃciency of the pump which will be discussed in the chapter on the turbomachinary.41) results in Um2 (6. h is 2[cm] and the exit diameter is 0. Assume that angle velocity is leaving the impeller is 125◦ . The exit liquid velocity. The height of the impeller is h.p. Ut2 and radial component. 6. Estimate what is the minimum energy required by the pump. The thickness of the impeller. The angular velocity is 1200 r.41) M ω = m r2 ω Ut2 ˙ The shaft work is given by the left side and hence.m. Ut2 is not equal to the impeller outer edge velocity Um2 . It is assumed that required torque is function U2 .172 CHAPTER 6.

The gas mass is negligible in comparison to the liquid mass and/or the rocket. forces for example 6. Develop exFig. Additionally. The mixing between the liquid and gas is negligible. No gas leaves the rocket. What is the instantaneous vehℓ locity of the rocket at time zero? Develop Uexit the expression for the pressure (assuming no friction with the walls). Assume that this idea has a good enUrocket gineering logic. Nozzle schematics wapression for rocket velocity. The mass conservation is similar to the rocket hence it is dm = −Ue Ae dt (6. Liquid ﬁlls the lower part of the rocket tank.VII.7 What are the parameters that eﬀect the problem. -6. Several people ask to provide a solution or some hints for the solution. The process is isothermal (can be isentropic process). The upper part of the rocket tank is ﬁlled with compressed gas. The following is not the solution but rather the approach how to treat this problem.10. In this problem the energy source is the pressure of the gas which propels the rocket. the initial take oﬀ is requires a larger pressure.3) without a solution. Once the gas pressure reduced to be equal or below the outside pressure the rocket have no power for propulsion. Assume that ter rocket for the discussion on the the gas is obeying the perfect gas model. hypotherical volume height Solution Under construction for time being only hints3 In the solution of this problem several assumptions must be made so that the integral system can be employed.2. hg Gas Select the control volume in such a way that provides the ability to ﬁnd the rocket Liquid acceleration.10.a) 3 This problem appeared in the previous version (0. The surface remained straight at the times and no liquid residue remains behind. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 173 6.4. No resistance to the rocket (can be added). .6. The gas obeys the ideal gas law. The cross section of the liquid is constant.

h) (6.VII. Furthermore.a) can be written as t mg R T hg0 A mg R T hg A 1 ∆h 1− hg0 (6. The minus sign is to account for change of “direction” of the liquid height. it can be observed that the gas pressure is a direct function of the mass ﬂow out.f) It must be point out that integral is not function of time since the height as function of time is known at this stage.VII.VII. equation (6.VII.j) .g) (6. The total change of the gas volume can be obtained by integration as Vg = A (hg0 − ∆h ) (6.174 CHAPTER 6.VII.VII.d) mg R T V0g (6. The gas pressure at the initial point is P0 = ρ0 R T (6.i) m (t) = m 0 − 0 Ue Ae dt (6. The initial pressure now can be expressed as P0 = The pressure at any time is P = Thus the pressure ratio is P hg0 hg0 = = = hg0 P0 hg hg0 − ∆h Equation (6.b) becomes P0 = The relationship between the gas volume Vg = h g A (6. The change of the gas volume is dVg dhg dh (6.VII. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION The mass conservation on the gas zone is a byproduct of the mass conservation of the liquid. Using the above deﬁnition.VII.VII.e) =A = −A dt dt dt The last identify in the above equation is based on the idea what ever height concede by the liquid is taken by the gas.b) Per the assumption the gas mass remain constant and is denoted as mg .VII.VII.c) The gas geometry is replaced by a virtual constant cross section which cross section of the liquid (probably the same as the base of the gas phase).

Develop an expression for the rocket velocity. 6.VII.10: For each following ﬁgures discuss and state force direction and the momentum that act on the control volume due to . End Solution (6.VII.a) it also can be written that dh Ue Ae = dt ρe A 175 (6.8: A rocket is ﬁlled with only compressed gas. The liquid momentum balance is =0 f (P ) = ζ P (6.VII.6. What are the parameters that eﬀect the rocket velocity. At a speciﬁc moment the valve is opened and the rocket is allowed to ﬂy.11: .k) According to the assumption the ﬂow out is linear function of the pressure inside thus.4.4. What was the assumption that the third velocity component was neglected.1 Qualitative Questions Example 6. Ue = f (P ) + g h rho Where ζ here is a constant which the right units. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION From equation (6.9: In Example 6. Example 6. Example 6.VII. What is the minimum pressure which make the rocket ﬂy.5 it was mentioned that there are only two velocity components.l) d −g (mR + m ) − a (mR + m ) = (mR + m ) U +bc + (UR + U ) m dt Where bc is the change of the liquid mass due the boundary movement.m) Example 6.

What are the direction of the forces that keep the control volume in the same location? Hints.176 Situations CHAPTER 6. The exit is located on the left hand side at the front. consider the unsteady eﬀects.11. Fig. -6. Look at the directions which the unsteady state momentum in the tank change its value.11 is built with a exit located in uneven distance from the the right and the left and is ﬁlled with liquid. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Explanations Uout F U Uin Flow in and out of Angle β θ Flow in and out at angle from a tank A similar tank as shown in Figure 6. Flow out of un symmetrical tank for example 6.11 .

2) is similar to equation (6.2) (7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics This chapter focuses on the energy conservation which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics1 . as all phases and materials. 177 . is included on the right hand side. It was shown in Chapter 2 that the energy rate equation (2. For example. For example. here it will be derived. which were assumed in the previous chapters. the relationship between height and ﬂow rate was assumed previously. the above view is wrong when the heat convection. which is external force. Moreover. during time of the constructing this book only a simple skeleton by Potto standards will be build. Additionally a discussion on various energy approximation is presented.10) for a system is D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt This equation can be rearranged to be D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt EU + m U2 + mgz 2 (7. 1 Thermodynamics is the favorite topic of this author since it was his major in high school.1) Equation (7.CHAPTER 7 Energy Conservation 7. This simplistic representation is correct only under extreme conditions.3) in which the right hand side has to be interpreted and the left hand side interpolated using the Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT)2 . 2 Some view the right hand side as external eﬀects while the left side of the equation represents the internal eﬀects. this law allows to solve problems. The right hand side is very complicated and only some of the eﬀects will be discussed (It is only an introductory material). However. Clearly this topic is very important and will be extensively discussed here. obeys this law which creates strange and wonderful phenomena such as a shock and choked ﬂow. The ﬂuid.

1) is F dF dV S A S dw = −S dA ·d = − (Sn + τ ) · d dA The change of the work for an inﬁnitesimal time (excluding the shaft work) is U (7. the radiation is minimal. The work done by system on the surroundings (see Figure 7. the discussion here will be restricted to convection and conduction. Hence. the surface forces Fig. The main heat transfer mode on the left hand side is conduction. 3 There 4 When (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy transfer is carried (mostly3 ) by heat transfer to the system or the control volume. The total heat transfer to the control volume is ˙ Q= Acv k dT dA dn τ (7. . Conduction for most simple cases is governed by Fourier’s Law which is dq = kT ˙ dT dA dn (7.done by two diﬀerent mechanisms pendicular to the surface and one with the surface direction. The ﬁrst kind work is by the friction or the shear System at t + dt stress and the second by normal force. convection4 and radiation. -7.178 CHAPTER 7. The issues of convection are mostly covered by the terms on the left hand side. actual mass transfer must occur and thus no convection is possible to a system by the deﬁnition of system.v.5) dw d S S = − (Sn + τ ) · dA = − (Sn + τ ) · U dA dt dt The total work for the system including the shaft work is ˙ W =− Ac. Issues related to radiation are very complicated and considered advance material and hence will be left out.7) are other methods such as magnetic ﬁelds (like microwave) which are not part of this book. There are three modes of heat transfer. The heat derivative is normalized into area direction. In most problems. There are two kinds of works that the system does on the surroundings. As in the previous chapter.6) S (Sn + τ ) U dA − Wshaf t (7.1.3) Where dq is heat transfer to an inﬁnitesimal small area per time and kT is the heat ˙ conduction coeﬃcient.4) System at t Sn The work done on the system is dℓ more complicated to express than the heat transfer. conduction. dealing with convection. The work on the control volume is are divided into two categories: one per.

11) can be further manipulated to become work due to the ﬂow work due to boundaries movement P n · U dA = ˆ S S P ρ Urn dA + ρ P Ubn dA S (7.8) Equation (7.9) ρ Vcv Eu + m Eu + m U2 +gz 2 U2 + g z dV 2 ρ Urn dA From now on the notation of the control volume and system will be dropped since all equations which deals with the control volume.9) the velocity appears twice. The system can contain solid parts as well several diﬀerent kinds of ﬂuids.8) for more details).1.11) Equation (7. In the last term in equation (7. As it was discussed in the previous chapter the normal stress component is replaced by the pressure (see equation (6.7. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The energy equation (7.8) does not apply any restrictions on the system.10) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is referred to in the literature as the ﬂow work and is Urn P n · U dA = ˆ S S P (U − Ub ) n dA + ˆ S P Ubn dA (7.8) and thus yields kT Acv dT dA+ dn Energy Equation ˙ S (Sn + τ ) dA + Wshaf t = d dt + Acv Acv (7. The work rate (excluding the shaft work) is ﬂow work ˙ = W ∼ S P n · U dA − ˆ S τ · U n dA ˆ (7.2) for system is kT Asys 179 dT dA+ dn S (Sn + τ ) dV D ˙ +Wshaf t = Dt Asys ρ Vsys EU + m U2 + g z dV 2 (7.12) . Note that U is the velocity in the frame of reference while Urn is the velocity relative to the boundary. Now Reynolds Transport Theorem can be used to transformed the left hand side of equation (7.

15) describes the energy conservation for the control volume in stationary coordinates. small. With these deﬁnitions equation (7. Discharge from a Large Container liquid density. so the velocity can be assumed uniform (not a function of the opening height)5 . a discussion about the height opening eﬀects will be discussed. Flow Out From A Container In the previous chapters of this book.15). and exit area is relatively with a small diameter. 6 This 5 Later .180 CHAPTER 7. The example of ﬂow from a tank or container is presented to demonstrate how to treat some of terms in equation (7. -7. In this analysis several assumptions are made which includes the following: constant density. the gas density is very small compared to Fig. Eu is referred to as the enthalpy. surface tension eﬀects are negligible and the liquid surface is straight6 .2. The ﬂow out is related to the height but in a more complicate function and is the focus of this discussion. h. Also note that the straight surface assumption is not the same surface tension eﬀects zero.13) Substituting all these terms into the governing equation yields d U2 ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 P U Eu + + + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA ρ 2 S S (7. the temperature is assumed to constant.14) The new term P/ρ combined with the internal energy. ENERGY CONSERVATION The second term is referred to as the shear work and is deﬁned as ˙ Wshear = − S τ · U dA (7. assumption is appropriated only under certain conditions which include the geometry of the tank or container and the liquid properties.14) transformed ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + Simpliﬁed Energy Equation d U2 ˙ Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 U + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA h+ 2 S S (7. The enhℓ Ae ergy equation with mass conservation will Ue be utilized for this analysis.15) Equation (7. the ﬂow rate out of a tank or container was assumed to be a linear function of A the height. Additionally. A discussion about this issue will be presented in the Dimensional Chapter and is out of the scope of this chapter. which was discussed on page 44.

. The conservation of the mass is d dt V ρ dV + ¡ dρ dt A ρ Urn dA = 0 ¡ (7. Hence it requires that velocity proﬁle in x y to be parabolic.7. for the energy analysis the averaged velocity cannot be considered zero. The averaged velocity in z direction is same as the boundary velocity Ub = Uz = dh Ae = Ue dt A (7.3. The surface has three velocity components which non have them vanish.16) which also can be written (because = 0) as Urn dA = 0 A Ubn dA + A (7. However.17) Equation (7. Similar estimate that was done for x direction can be done Ue to every side of the opening if they are not symmetrical. 7 For the mass conservation analysis.17) provides the relationship between boundary velocity to the exit velocity as A Ub = Ae Ue (7. Second reason for this exercise the surface velocity has only one component is to avoid dealing with Bar-Meir’s instability. The kinetic energy of the tank or container is based on the half part Uy = 0 as shown in Figure 7. is suﬃcient as (π − 2)r dh Uy ∼ = 8h dt (7. the change of the kinetic Uy 1 Uy 1 energy due to the change in the velocity 2 2 ﬁeld isn’t zero.3. this quantity will be used.20) In this analysis. However.18) Note that the boundary velocity is not the averaged velocity but the actual velocity. The averaged velocity in the y direction is zero because the ﬂow is symmetrical7 . -7. in this discussion it is assumed that surface has only one component in z direction.1.19) The x component of the averaged velocity is a function of the geometry and was calculated in Example 5. How to compensate and estimate the kinetic energy when averaged Velocity is zero.12 to be larger than Ux 2 r Ae 2r 2 r dh Ue =⇒ Ux ∼ Ub = = h A h h dt (7. Since in this case the geometry is assumed to be symmetrical one side Fig. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 181 The control volume is chosen so that all the liquid is included up to exit of the pipe. the velocity is zero for symmetrical geometry and some other geometries.21) Also notice that the surface velocity is not zero. However. for simplicity.

Additionally.25) A It can be noticed that Pa = Pe hence =0 Pa A Ue dA − A Ub dA =0 (7. E.24) are Pe Ue ρdA − ρ Pa Ub dA = Pe A A Ue dA − Pa A Ub dA (7. the following approximation can be written Eu ˙ = hin − hout = 0 Q= dt (7. Pa is the external pressure and Pe is the exit pressure10 . 10 It is assumed that the pressure in exit across section is uniform and equal surroundings pressure.G.15) which is applicable to this case. . In this case. why this approach is correct in most cases is not explained here. The pressure terms in equation (7. this change is a function of Eckert number.26) The governing equation (7.R. Ec number is named after this author’s adviser. the dissipation creates a loss that has temperature component. The temperature is constant8 . Eckert.22) The boundary shear work is zero because the velocity at tank boundary or walls is zero.27) V A 8 This approach is a common approximation. 9 It is only the same assumption discussed earlier.24) is reduced to d dt U2 + g z ρ dV − 2 Ue 2 2 Ue ρ dA = 0 (7.23) Now the energy equation deals with no “external” eﬀects. At the free surface the velocity has only normal component9 and thus shear work vanishes there as well. The dissipation can be neglected for small Ec number. Ec which is very small. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy balance can be expressed by equation (7. the shear stresses at the exit are normal to the ﬂow direction hence the shear work is vanished. A discussion about this eﬀect will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter.24) Where Ub is the upper boundary velocity.182 CHAPTER 7. the internal shear work is assumed negligible. In this light. Clearly. ˙ ˙ Wshear = Wshaf t = 0 (7. Note that the exit velocity on the upper surface is zero Urn = 0. Yet. Furthermore. Combining all these information results in energy ﬂow out internal energy change energy in and out upper surface work d dt V U + g z ρ dV + 2 2 A Pe Ue + ρ 2 2 Ue ρ dA − A Pa Ub dA = 0 (7.

1. The terms under the time derivative can be divided into two terms as d dt d U2 + g z ρdV = 2 dt U2 d dV + 2 dt g z ρ dV V (7. The inside integral can be evaluated as h zdz = 0 h2 2 (7. The averaged velocity is Uave = 1 V U dV V (7.28) is d dt d g z ρ dV = g ρ dt h A 0 dV z dz dA (7.28) V V The second integral (in the r.29) V Where h is the height or the distance from the surface to exit.33) . Even the averaged velocity is zero the kinetic energy is not zero and another method should be used. Similarly to the previous chapter which the integral momentum will be replaced by some kind of average. A comparison between the actual kinetic energy and the kinetic energy due to the “averaged” velocity (to be called the averaged kinetic energy) provides a correction coeﬃcient.31) A The kinetic energy related to the averaged velocity with a correction factor which depends on the geometry and the velocity proﬁle. A discussion on the correction factor is presented to provide a better “averaged” velocity.29) yields d gρ dt V h2 d h dh dA = g ρ hA = g ρAh 2 dt 2 dt (7.h. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 183 The minus sign is because the ﬂow is out of the control volume.7. The ﬁrst integral can be estimated by examining the velocity proﬁle eﬀects.32) The total kinetic energy for the averaged velocity is ρ Uave 2 V = ρ 1 V 2 2 U dV V V =ρ V U dV (7. Furthermore.30) Substituting the results of equation (7.30) into equation (7.s) of equation (7.

184 CHAPTER 7. 11 Laminar ﬂow is not necessarily implies that the ﬂow velocity proﬁle is parabolic.35) results Uave 2 V U 2 dV V V = Uave 2 V 2 Uave 1 − r2 ¯ 2 = dV 3 Uave 2 V = 4 4 Uave 2 π L R2 3 (7. CF is the correction coeﬃcient.34) Here. The diﬀerence between the “averaged momentum” velocity and the “averaged kinetic” velocity is also due to the fact that energy is added for diﬀerent directions while in the momentum case. A large family of velocity proﬁles is laminar or parabolic (for one directional ﬂow)11 .35) V V This integral can be evaluated for any given velocity proﬁle. a good guess number is about 1.37) The correction factor for many other velocity proﬁles and other geometries can be smaller or larger than this value.36) into equation (7. For a pipe geometry. 12 The advantage is described in the Dimensional Analysis Chapter. More about this issue in the Diﬀerential Analysis Chapter. . The relationship between Umax to the averaged velocity.1. Substituting equation (7. it is assumed that the averaged velocity indeed represent the energy in the tank or container. for simplicity reason. For circular shape. In this case. diﬀerent directions cancel each other out. The ﬂow is parabolic only when the ﬂow is driven by pressure or gravity. Uave is obtained by using equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION The general correction factor is the ratio of the above value to the actual kinetic energy as 2 ρ U dV CF = V ρ U 2 dV V ρ (Uave ) V = ¡ ρ U 2 dV ¡ V 2 (7. The correction factor for a constant density ﬂuid is 2 2 ρ U dV CF = V = ρ U 2 dV ρ ¡ ρ ¡ U dV V = U 2 dV Uave 2 V U 2 dV V (7.32) which yields 1/2. Note. the velocity is U r R = U (¯) = Umax 1 − r2 = 2 Uave 1 − r2 r ¯ ¯ (7. Calculations according to this point can improve the accurately based on the above discussion.36) It can be noticed that the velocity is presented as a function of the reduced radius12 . the inequality sign because the density distribution for compressible ﬂuid.

However.43) f (G) dh U∼ = dt (π − 2) r 8h 2 + (π − 1) r 4h 2 + 12 (7. Analytical solution of the governing equation is possible including this eﬀect of the height.39) Therefore. the mathematical complication are enormous14 and this eﬀect is assumed neglected and the function to be constant.41) Combining all the three components of the velocity (Pythagorean Theorem) as 2 2 2 2 U ∼ Ux + Uy + Uz = (7. But in the same vain.7. The reader is encouraged to do it to get acquainted with this concept. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The unsteady state term then obtains the form 2 U2 d U d gh ∼ρ ρ + g y dV = + dt V 2 dt 2 2 185 V hA (7.44) It can be noticed that f (G) is a weak function of the height inverse.38) The relationship between the boundary velocity to the height (by deﬁnition) is Ub = dh dt (7. 14 The solution not the derivation is about one page. . the velocity in the z direction13 is Uz = dh dt (7. However. some other eﬀects have to be taken into account which were neglected in construction of this model such as upper surface shape. It must be remembered that is eﬀect extremely important in the later stages of the emptying of the tank.40) Ue = A dh dh = −Ub Ae dt dt (7.42) 2 U ∼ = (π − 2) r dh 8h dt 2 + (π − 1) r dh 4h dt 2 + dh dt 2 (7.1. 13 A similar point was provided in mass conservation Chapter 5. it easy can be proved by construction the same control volume.

47) Equation (7. Advance material can be skipped Dividing equation (7.40) A Ae A Ue d U gh + dt 2 2 2 hA U gh + + Ue Ae 2 2 2 dh 1 A − dt 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 $ Ue A $$ e = 0 (7.s. results in d U gh + dt 2 2 2 (7.h.49) Further rearranging to eliminate the “ﬂow rate” transforms to 1 U dh 1 A B ¨ gh dU Ub A¨ f (G)2 dt ¨ + f (G) h + ¨ dt ¨Ue Ae 2 e Ae U 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.27) results in V 2 2 2 d U gh 1 dh A ρ + hA − Ue ρ Ae = 0 ¡ dt ¡ 2 2 2 dt Ae taking the derivative of ﬁrst term on l.47) can be rearranged and simpliﬁed and combined with mass conservation 15 .46) by Ue Ae and utilizing equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION A Ue 2 Ue 2 Ue ρ dA = Ue ρ Ae = 2 2 dh A dt Ae 2 Ue ρ Ae (7. .50) f (G)2 h 15 This d2 h g h f (G)2 + + dt2 2 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.51) part can be skipped to end of ”advanced material”.186 The last term is CHAPTER 7.45) Combining all the terms into equation (7.48) Notice that U = Ub f (G) and thus f (G) Ub U dU h A g dh h A U gh 1 + + + − dt Ue Ae 2 dt Ue Ae 2 2 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.46) hA + U gh + 2 2 2 A dh 1 − dt 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 Ue Ae = 0 (7.

. equation (7.55) dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) = t + k2 (7.54) The solution can either of these equations16 dh − = t + k2 (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) or - (7. Dividing equation (7.52) Deﬁning a new tank emptying parameter.53) This parameter represents the characteristics of the tank which controls the emptying process. Thus deﬁne function of the height as dh f (h) = − (7.7.1. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 187 End Advance material Combining the gh terms into one yields f (G)2 h d2 h 1 +gh+ dt2 2 dh dt 2 f (G)2 − A Ae 2 =0 (7.56) The solution with the positive solution has no physical meaning because the height cannot increase with time. Te .52) by f (G)2 and using this parameter.52) after minor rearrangement transformed to h d2 h g Ae 2 + dt2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 [1 − Te ] = 0 (7. as Te = A f (G) Ae 2 (7.57) (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) 16 A discussion about this equation appear in the mathematical appendix.

However. the information about opening of the valve did not reached to the surface. . And taking the “positive” branch √ dh 2gh = (7.54) into h g Ae 2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 (7.63) While equation (7.60) The complication of the above solution suggest a simpliﬁcation in which d2 h g Ae 2 << dt2 Te A2 which reduces equation (7.58) This condition pose a physical limitation17 which will be ignored. This information travel in characteristic sound speed which is over 1000 m/sec. if this phenomenon is ignored this solution is correct.61) (7. The ﬁrst condition yields k2 = −f (h0 ) The second condition provides dh =0= dt (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h0 ) T e + 2 g h0 2 h0 (T e − 2) f (G) (7.188 CHAPTER 7. Thus for a very short time.64) It can be noticed that Te “disappeared” from the equation.59) (7.65) 2 dt A 1 − Ae The nature of ﬁrst order Ordinary Diﬀerential Equation that they allow only one initial condition.62) [1 − Te ] = 0 (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION The initial condition for this case are: one the height initial is h(0) = h0 The initial boundary velocity is dh =0 dt (7. The initial velocity 17 For the initial condition speed of sound has to be taken into account.63) is still non linear equation. This initial condition is the initial height of the liquid. the non linear element can be removed by taking negative branch (height reduction) of the equation as dh dt 2 = 2gh −1 + A Ae 2 (7.

The experimental coeﬃcient can be added to account for the dissipation and other eﬀects such dh ∼ =C dt 2gh (7. It seems that Torricelli was an honest man who gave to others and he died at young age of 39 while in his prime. this analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the integral analysis to provide a reasonable solution. Thus it is assumed that the initial velocity is not relevant at the core of the process at hand.69) Equation (7. LIMITATION OF INTEGRAL APPROACH 189 ﬁeld was eliminated by the approximation (remove the acceleration term). 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician.68) 1− 1− U∼ = 2gh (7. It is correct only for large ratio of h/r and the error became very substantial for small value of h/r. Today the exact reference to his work is lost only “sketches” of his lecture elude work. Yet. In the calculations 18 Evangelista Torricelli (October 15. He derived this equation based on similar principle to Bernoulli equation (which later leads to Bernoulli’s equation). This analysis can be improved by experimental investigating the phenomenon.67) dh A Ue = = dt Ae If the area ratio Ae /A << 1 then 2gh A Ae (7.7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach Some of accuracy issues to enhance the quality and improvements of the integral method were suggested in the analysis of the emptying tank. He was student (not formal) and follower of Galileo Galilei.70) 7.2.66) The initial condition has been inserted into the integral which its solution is 1− A Ae √ 2 h − h0 √ =t 2gh A = 2 Ae √ 2gh Ae 2 A (7.69) is referred in the literature as Torricelli’s equation18 This analysis has several drawbacks which limits the accuracy of the calculations. Equation (7. . 1608 October 25.65) integrated to yield 1− A Ae 2 h h0 dh √ = 2gh t dt 0 (7. The improvements to the integral methods are the corrections to the estimates of the energy or other quantities in the conservation equations. There are problems that the integral methods even with these enhancements simply cannot tackle.

Furthermore. Hence the prediction can skew the actual predictions. In the case of the tank. The integral method does not handle the problems such as the free surface with reasonable accuracy. -7. the integral does not provide a sufH equilibrioum level ﬁcient tool to analyze the issue at hand. The ﬁrst type is the prediction of the velocities proﬁle (or the concentration proﬁle). the averaged velocity in x direction is zero yet the averaged velocity in the two zooms (two halves) is not zero. The following sections provides further explanation. . Flow in an oscillating manometer.190 CHAPTER 7. The second type of corrections is the understanding that averaged of the total ﬁeld is diﬀerent from the averaged of diﬀerent zooms. 7. Hence diﬀerent techniques are required. the integral methods is Fig. the knowledge of whether the ﬂow is laminar or turbulent (later on this issue) has to come from diﬀerent techniques. A liquid in manometer is disturbed from a rest by a distance of H0 . These problem were minor for the emptying the tank but for the oscillating manometer it is the core of the problem. too crude to handle issues of free interface. The accuracy issues that integral methods intrinsically suﬀers from no ability to exact ﬂow ﬁeld and thus lost the accuracy as was discussed in the example. the averaged energy in the x direction contributes or eﬀects the energy equation. It turn out that these simpliﬁcations can provide reasonable results and key understanding of the physical phenomena and yet with less work. In cases that dissipation play major air air role. The description H(t) as a function of time requires exact knowledge of the velocity ﬁeld.3 Approximation of Energy Equation The emptying the tank problem was complicated even with all the simpliﬁcations that were carried. In the analysis of the tank it was assumed that the dissipation can be igD nored. Additionally. the problems can be solved. The discussion on the limitations was not provided to discard usage of this method but rather to provide a guidance of use with caution. two such corrections were presented. H For example. The integral method is a powerful and yet simple method but has has to be used with the limitations of the method in mind. Engineers in order to reduce the work further simplify the energy equation. ENERGY CONSERVATION of the exit velocity of a tank. In fact. the analysis of the oscillating manometer cannot be carried by the intelowest level for the liquid gral methods.4.

APPROXIMATION OF ENERGY EQUATION 191 7. Fix m & uniform ˙ q − wshear − wshaf t = ˙ ˙ ˙ h+ U2 +gz 2 − out h+ U2 +gz 2 (7.72) for non-deformable control volume does not vanished.74) in 7. equation (7.7. For a stationary ﬁx control volume the energy equation.72) U2 + g z Urn ρAin + P Ubn Aout − P Ubn Ain 2 It can be noticed that last term in equation (7.21) which can be written as dqrev = T ds = dEu + P dv (7.71) is reduced to Steady State Equation & uniform ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 (7. Equation (2. This imaginary ﬂuid reduces the amount of work in the calculations and Ideal Flow Chapter is dedicated in this book.3. The reason is that while the velocity is constant. under this simpliﬁcation transformed to ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 U2 + g z Urn ρAin h+ 2 (7.73) Dividing equation the mass ﬂow rate provides Steady State Equation. The acceleration term must be eliminated for the obvious reason.1 Energy Equation in Steady State The steady state situation provides several ways to reduce the complexity. Hence the energy equation is reduced to Steady State Equation ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = S h+ U2 + g z Urn ρ dA + 2 P Ubn dA S (7.3.71) If the ﬂow is uniform or can be estimated as uniform.75) . The time derivative term can be eliminated since the time derivative is zero. the pressure is different. The second low is the core of “no losses” and can be employed when calculations of this sort information is needed.3.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State In cases where the ﬂow can be estimated without friction or where a quick solution is needed the friction and other losses are illuminated from the calculations.

77) P ρ − v dP (7.83) in Subtracting equation (7.76) qrev = Eu + P ρ − dP ρ (7.79) Taking time derivative of the equation (7.75) dqrev = dEu + d (P v) − v dP = dEu + d integrating equation (7.81) As before equation (7.76) yields dqrev = dEu + d P ρ − v dP (7.78) Integration over the entire system results in h Qrev = V Eu + P ρ ρ dV − V dP ρ ρ dV (7.80) Using the Reynolds Transport Theorem to transport equation to control volume results in d ˙ Qrev = dt h ρ dV + V A h Urn ρ dA + D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.74) results in change in pressure energy change in kinetic energy change in potential energy 0 = wshaf t + dP ρ − 2 dP ρ + 1 U2 2 − U1 2 + g (z2 − z1 ) 2 (7.83) from equation (7.84) .82) in (7.80) can be simpliﬁed for uniform ﬂow as ˙ Qrev = m (hout − hin ) − ˙ or qrev = (hout − hin ) − ˙ dP ρ − out dP ρ − out dP ρ dP ρ (7.79) becomes h D ˙ Qrev = Dt Eu + V P ρ ρ dV − D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.192 CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION Using the multiplication rule change equation (7.

is the gravity that was compensated by the gravity potential. the control volume is moving in accelerated coordinates. The gravity potential is then F =− r P Egravity = − ∞ − GM m dr r2 (7. It was pointed earlier in this book that accelerated forces can be translated to potential force.4.86) 7. . However. There is no conceptional diﬀerence between these two accelerations. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM Equation (7.84) for constant density is 0 = wshaf t + P2 − P1 U2 2 − U1 2 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 193 (7. The work this element moving from point 1 to point 2 is 2 g dz dm = g (z2 − z1 ) dm 1 (7.7.E. it was assumed that the control volume is at rest.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate 2 The potential is deﬁned as P.4. The accelerations are referring to two kinds of acceleration. The gravity force for ﬂuid element in small distance then is g dz dm. linear and rotational. In many cases.87) In Chapter 3 a discussion about gravitational energy potential was presented.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System In the discussion so far. In building the gravity potential it was assumed that the gravity is a conservative force. For example.85) reduced to 0= U2 2 − U1 2 P2 − P1 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 (7. r and m are the distance and mass respectively. = − ref F ·d (7. The only acceptation to the above statement. 7.85) For no shaft work equation (7. These accelerations will be translated to potential energy.89) The reference was set to inﬁnity.90) The total work or potential is the integral over the whole mass. General Acceleration can be broken into a linear acceleration and a rotating acceleration. the mathematical treatment is somewhat diﬀerent which is the reason for the separation.88) r2 Where G is the gravity coeﬃcient and M is the mass of the Earth. for the gravity force is GM m (7.

The “potential” of moving the mass in the ﬁeld provides the energy.92) At the origin (of the coordinates) x = 0. There are two kinds of acceleration due this rotation one is the . The same can be done for the other two coordinates. and z = 0.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System The coordinate system rotating around ﬁx axis creates similar conservative potential as the linear system. The Force due to the acceleration of the ﬁeld can be broken into three coordinates.194 CHAPTER 7.91) P Ea = (0) a · d dm = (ax (x1 − x0 ) ay (y1 − y0 ) az (z1 − z0 )) dm (7.94) Equation can be added to the energy equation as D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt Eu + sys U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7. The linear acceleration “creates” a conservative force of constant force and direction. The potential of unit material is P Ea total = (ax x + ay y + az z) ρ dV sys (7.4. the element of the potential is d P Ea = a · d dm The total potential for element material (1) (7.96) h+ U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z Urn ρ dA 2 + cv P Ubn dA 7.4. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7.2 Linear Accelerated System The acceleration can be employed in similar fashion as the gravity force. Thus. y = 0. Using this trick the notion of the ax (x1 − x0 ) can be replaced by ax x.93) The change of the potential with time is D D P Ea total = Dt Dt (ax x + ay y + az z) dm sys (7.95) The Reynolds Transport Theorem is used to transferred the calculations to control volume as Energy Equation in Linear Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv Eu + cv U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7.

100) The ﬁrst term results in ω 2 r2 (see for explanation in the appendix 277 for vector explanation). Hence.4.101) This multiplication does not vanish with the exception of the direction of U . However. this term canceled and does not contribute to the potential.97) (7. the ﬂux of this property is important only in the direction of the velocity.103) P Ubn dA . the most important direction is the direction of the velocity. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM 195 centrifugal and second the Coriolis force. From physical point of view. To understand it better.99) ˆ where r. and k are units vector in the coordinates r. This multiplication creates lines (surfaces ) of constant values.102) Inserting the potential energy due to the centrifugal forces into the energy equation yields Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv U2 ω 2 r2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z − ρ dV 2 2 cv ω2 r2 U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z Urn ρ dA h+ 2 2 Eu + + cv (7. The net change of the potential energy due the centrifugal motion is 2 P Ecentrif ugal = − 1 ω 2 r2 dr dm = ω 2 r1 2 − r2 2 dm 2 (7.7. The forces acting on particles are centrifugal Coriolis F = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω dm ˆ The work or the potential then is P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · d dm ˆ The cylindrical coordinate are ˆ ˆ d = drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k r (7. The second part is (2 U × ω) · d dm (7. θ and z respectively. θ. The ˆ ˆ potential is then ˆ ˆ P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k dm ˆ r (7.98) (7. consider a particle which moves with the our rotating system. The cross product is zero of U ×ω×U =U ×ω×ω = 0 because the ﬁrst multiplication is perpendicular to the last multiplication.

196 CHAPTER 7.103) is to assume uniform ﬂow. .4.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform Flow One of the way to simplify the general equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7.

Part II Diﬀerential Analysis 197 .

.

The equations without the viscosity eﬀects are referred to as the ideal ﬂow equations (Euler Equations) which will be discussed in the next chapter. the solution is not unique. A discussion about the “regular” solution is present and a brief discussion about limitations when the solution is applicable. Like many equations they were independently derived by several people. These equations are named after Claude–Louis Navier–Marie and George Gabriel Stokes. As usual Simon-Denis Poisson independently. derived these equations in 1831 for the same arguments as Navier. 199 . The concepts of Add Mass and 1 Which can be view as complementary analysis to the integral analysis. as he done to many other equations or conditions. First these equations were derived by Claude– Louis–Marie Navier as it is known in 1827. This analysis leads to partial diﬀerential equations which are referred to as the Navier-Stokes equations. In diﬀerential analysis.CHAPTER 8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8. which leads to a diﬀerent approach of differential analysis. with a presentation of the “non–regular” solutions will be presented with the associated issues of stability. Later in the Chapters on Real Fluid and Turbulence.1 Introduction The integral analysis has limited accuracy. One of the approaches is to reduce the equations by eliminating the viscosity eﬀects. Barr´ de e Saint Venant (1843) and George Gabriel Stokes (1845) derived these equation based on the relationship between stress and rate–of–strain (this approach is presented in this book). The diﬀerential analysis allows the investigation of the ﬂow ﬁeld in greater detail. the emphasis is on inﬁnitesimal scale and thus the analysis provides better accuracy1 . Navier-Stokes equations are non–linear and there are more than one possible solution in many cases (if not most cases) e. However even for the “regular” solution the mathematics is very complex. The foundations for their arguments or motivations are based on a molecular view of how stresses are exerted between ﬂuid layers.g.

The choked ﬂow is associated with single phase ﬂow (even the double choked ﬂow) while the Interfacial instability associated with the Multi–Phase ﬂow. This phenomenon is presented in Multi–phase chapter and in this chapter. These issues are discussed in Open Channel Flow and Compressible Flow chapters. the boundary conditions create instability which alters the boundary conditions itself which is known as Interfacial instability. the complexity of the equations. At a speciﬁc time this control volume can be viewed as a system. (8.1.1) x A ρ Ux dy dz ρ+ dρ dz Uz + dUz dz dx dy E F dρ y ρ+ d U dU + dy y y dx dz B ρ+ dρ dx Ux + dUx dx dy dz G dx dz H ρU y C ρ Uz dx dy D However for a control volume using Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT). These equations cannot satisfy the boundary conditions in other cases and in way the ﬂuid pushes the boundary condition(s) further downstream (choked ﬂow). which are easier to discuss when the viscosity is ignored. The connection between these two ideas or ﬁelds was done via introduction of the boundary layer theory by Prandtl which will be discussed in a separate chapter.1. leads to approximations and consequently to ideal ﬂow approximation (equations) and on the other hand experimental solutions of Navier–Stokes equations.2) and hence dρ dt dV dρ dV + dt Urn ρ dA = 0 (8. The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume. Sometimes.3) . -8. the following can be written D Dt ρdV = d dt ρdV + Urn ρ dA = 0 Fig.1. It has to be pointed out that the Add Mass and Add Force appear regardless to the viscosity.2 Mass Conservation Fluid ﬂows into and from a three dimensional inﬁnitesimal control volume depicted in Figure 8. Historically. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Add Force. The mass conservation for this inﬁnitesimal small system is zero thus D Dt ρdV = 0 (8. 8. on one hand. there are cases when the complying with the boundary conditions leads to a discontinuity (shock or choked ﬂow).200 CHAPTER 8. and will be presented in the Ideal Flow chapter. Even for simple situations.2) For a constant control volume the derivative can enter into the integral (see also for the divergence theorem in the appendix A.

the operation. MASS CONSERVATION 201 The ﬁrst term in equation (8.6) The same can be said for the y and z coordinates. The combination can be divided by dx dy dz and simpliﬁed by using the deﬁnition of the partial derivative in the regular process to be Urn ρ dA = − ∂(ρ Ux ) ∂(ρ Uy ) ∂(ρ Uz ) + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (8. in the x coordinate. It also can be noticed that.7) Combining the ﬁrst term with the second term results in the continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates as Continuity in Cartesian Coordinates ∂ρ ∂ρ Ux ∂ρ Uy ∂ρ Uz + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z Cylindrical Coordinates The same equation can be derived in cylindrical coordinates. The net mass change.2.2. neglecting higher order derivatives. as ∼0 dρ dρ dV = dx dy dz + f dt dt dV d ρ dt2 2 + ··· (8. .8.2) is expressed2 as dAyz Urn ρ dA = dy dz (ρ Ux )|x − (ρ Ux )|x+dx + dAxz dAxz (8.5) dx dz (ρ Uy )|y − (ρ Uy )|y+dy + dx dy (ρ Uz )|z − (ρ Uz )|z+dz The diﬀerence between point x and x + dx can be obtained by developing Taylor series as (ρ Ux )|x+dx = (ρ Ux )|x + ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂x dx x (8. in the control volume is ∂ρ dr dz r dθ dm = ˙ ∂t 2 Note (8. produces additional dx thus a inﬁnitesimal volume element dV is obtained for all directions. for example.4) The second term in the LHS of equation (8.3) for the inﬁnitesimal volume is expressed.8) dv (8.9) that some time the notation dAyz also refers to dAx . as depicted in Figure 8.

202 ρ U r z CHAPTER 8. -8. dr r dθ dz results in total net ﬂux =− 1 ∂ (ρ Ur r) ∂ρ Uz r ∂ρ Uθ + + r ∂r ∂z ∂θ (8.11)–(8. the r is “trapped” in the derivative. The net mass ﬂow out or in the r direction has an additional term which is the area change compared to the Cartesian coordinates.10) The net ﬂux in the r direction is then ∂ρ Ur r net ﬂux in the = dθ dz dr ∂r r direction (8. e. In a similar fashion the net ﬂux in the z coordinate be written as net ﬂux in z direction = r dθ dr The net change in the θ direction is then net ﬂux in θ direction = dr dz ∂ρ Uθ dθ ∂θ (8. This change creates a diﬀerent diﬀerential equation with additional complications. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS + ∂ (ρ Ur r) dz dθ dr ∂z ρ U θ ∂ (ρ Uθ ) + dθ dr dz ∂θ dz ρ Uz r) d r r ρU ∂ ( ∂z r+ dθ dz ρU r rd θd z rd z θ dr ρ Uθ dr dθ y θ x ρ Uz r dr dθ Fig.2.11) Note3 that the r is still inside the derivative since it is a function of r. The mass ﬂow at r + dr is ρ Ur r dθ dz|r + d/dr (ρ Ur r dθ dz) dr + · · · . r .14) 3 The mass ﬂow is ρ U r dθ dz at r point.12) Combining equations (8.13) ∂ (ρ Uz ) dz ∂z (8. Hence. The change is ﬂux in r direction = dθ dz r ρ U r − r ρ Ur + ∂ρ Ur r dr ∂r (8. The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates. the change of r with r.13) and dividing by inﬁnitesimal control volume. Expansion to Taylor serious ρ U r dθ dz| r r r+dr is obtained by the regular procedure.g.

1 Mass Conservation Examples Example 8. several examples are constructed here. 8. the continuity equation can be written in a general vector form as Continuity Equation ∂ρ (8.1. the continuity equation becomes Continuity in Spherical Coordinates ∂ρ 1 ∂ r 2 ρ Ur 1 ∂ (ρ Uθ sin θ) 1 ∂ρ Uφ + 2 + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂z (8. There are very few cases where this equation is used on its own merit.16) can be expressed in diﬀerent coordinates. .15) Carrying similar operations for the spherical coordinates. t0 . dr r dθ dz yields Continuity in Cylindrical Coordinates ∂ρ Uz ∂ρ 1 ∂ (r ρ Ur ) 1 ∂ρ Uθ + + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (8.2. For academic purposes. MASS CONSERVATION 203 Combining equation (8. Again remember that the meaning of repeated index is summation.1: A layer of liquid has an initial height of H0 with an uniform temperature of T0 . End Advance material The use of these equations is normally combined with other equations (momentum and or energy equations). the upper surface is exposed to temperature T1 .14) with the change in the control volume (8.2.9) divided by inﬁnitesimal control volume. Hence.8. However. (8. At time. The mass equation (see in the appendix for more information on the index notation) written as ∂ρ ∂ (ρ U )i + =0 ∂t ∂xi (8.17) + · (ρ U ) = 0 ∂t Advance material can be skipped The mass equation can be written in index notation for Cartesian coordinates.8).15) and (8.18) Compare to equation (8.16) The continuity equations (8.2 page 280). The index notation really does not add much to the scientiﬁc understanding. It can be noticed that the second part of these equations is the divergence (see the Appendix A. this writing reduce the amount of writing and potentially can help think about the problem or situation in more conceptional way.8).

I.d) ρ1 − ρ0 H0 Equation (8.I.e) is ﬁrst order ODE with the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 which can be arranged as 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 ∂y = −α β H0 − y H0 e−β t (8. Substituting the density.f) .I. Solution The situation is unsteady state thus the unsteady state and one dimensional continuity equation has to be used which is ∂ρ ∂ (ρUy ) + =0 ∂t ∂y (8.e) =0 e−β t + ∂y Equation (8. H0(t) The density is a function of the temperT0 y ature according to ρ 1 0 T − T0 =α T1 − T0 ρ − ρ0 ρ1 − ρ0 (8. Calculates the velocity of the liquid. Neglect the mutual dependency of the temperature and the height.d) relates the temperature with the time and the location was given in the question (it is not the solution of any model).1 function of the y coordinate. it is treated as a constant.a)) is ρ − ρ0 H0 − y =α 1 − e−β t (8.I.I.I.204 CHAPTER 8.b) with the boundary condition of zero velocity at the lower surface Uy (y = 0) = 0.I. as a function of time into the governing equation (8. -8.c) The exponential decay is 1 − e−β t and thus the combination (with equation (8.3.I.I. Mass ﬂow due to temperature tom. Assume that the velocity at the lower boundary is zero at all times.3.I.b) results in ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ Uy ∂y 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 αβ H0 − y H0 (8. ρ. The expression that connects the temperature with the space for the ﬁnal temperature as T − T0 H0 − y =α T1 − T0 H0 (8. Assume that the velocity is only a diﬀerence for example 8. It can be noticed that the height H0 is a function of time. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Assume that the actual temperature is ρ T1 exponentially approaches to a linear temperature proﬁle as depicted in Figure 8.a) T(t = 0) T(t > 0) T(t = ∞) where ρ1 is the density at the surface and where ρ0 is the density at the botFig. For this question.

Assume that the ﬁlm temFig. MASS CONSERVATION 205 Uy is a function of the time but not y.4.f) as a constant4 . 4 Since (8.2: In many coating processes a thin ﬁlm is created by a continuous process in which liquid injected into a moving belt that carries the material out as exhibited in Figure 8.a) ρ0 − ρ∞ T0 − T∞ State your assumptions.8.2.I. from the extraction point. Equation (8. The relationship between the density and the temperature is linear as T − T∞ ρ − ρ∞ =α (8. it can be treated for the solution of equation (8.4.I.2.20) the time can be treated as constant for y integration. Mass ﬂow in coating process perature is only a function of the distance for example 8. -8.f) holds for any time and thus. asH0 T0 T(x) T∞ sume that no mass transfer occurs or can x be neglected and the main mechanism is x heat transfer. For this example.I.II. .g) Utilizing the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t (y − 1) (8.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation A simpliﬁed equation can be obtained for a steady state in which the transient term is eliminated as · (ρ U ) = 0 (8. Example 8. Hence.19) If the ﬂuid is incompressible then the governing equation is a volume conservation as ·U = 0 Note that this equation appropriate only for a single phase case. the integration with respect to y yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t y + c (8.I. The temperature and mass transfer takT0 ing place which reduces (or increases) the thickness of the ﬁlm. Calculate the ﬁlm velocity ﬁeld if the density is a function of the temperature.2. End Solution 8.h) It can be noticed that indeed the velocity is a function of the time and space y.

II.II.II.d) into the governing equation results in α ∂F (x) ∂Uy ρ = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂y Ux ∂x The density is expressed by equation (8. At any point the governing equation in coordinate system that moving with the belt is ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂ (ρ Uy ) (8.a) and thus Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y + c ρ Ux ∂x (8.I. Hence equation (8.c) Where Ux is the belt velocity. however it can be considered as steady state.II. . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS This problem is somewhat similar to Example 8.b).15 . the discussion about this point is beyond the scope of this section. However. Applying the boundary condition Uy (t = 0) = 0 results in Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y ρ(x) Ux ∂x End Solution (8. He spend the rest of his life to proof it and ending only to suicide.1 for the general function T = F (x).g) 5 The presentation of one dimension time dependent problem to two dimensions problems can be traced to heat and mass transfer problems. ∂ρ α ∂F (x) = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂x Ux ∂x (8. See the resembles to equation (8.II. it can be assumed that the material moves with at the belt in the x direction in the same velocity.II. this author Master thesis is extension Higbie’s equation. On personal note.206 Solution CHAPTER 8.e) Notice that ρ could “come” out of the derivative (why?) and move into the RHS. This assumption is consistent with the ﬁrst solution (no stability issues).f) (8. 6 In reality this assumption is correct only in a certain range.b) can be written as Ux ∂ (ρ Uy ) ∂ρ =− ∂x ∂y (8. Higbie suggested this idea which was rejected by the scientiﬁc establishment.II. One of the early pioneers who suggest this idea is Higbie which Higbie’s equation named after him. The solution is similar to the previous Example 8. If the frame of reference was moving with the belt then there is only velocity component in the y direction6 .b) + =0 ∂x ∂y At ﬁrst.d) Substituting this relationship in equation (8.II.II.

d) The integration constant in this case is not really a constant but rather an arbitrary function of x.III. The homogeneous equation is ∂ Uy + Uy = 0 (8.III.III.III.III. Assume that the density is constant and calculate the vertical velocity (y component) for the following x velocity component. It can be noted that x should be treated as a constant parameter for the y coordinate.g) ∂y a Equation (8. For the second part equation (8.3: The velocity in a two dimensional ﬁeld is assumed to be in a steady state. MASS CONSERVATION 207 Example 8.III. Ux = a x2 + b y 2 Next.III. Ux has also arbitrary function in the y component.a) Equation (8.III.III. Thus.8.c) is an ODE with constant coeﬃcients.III.f) and switching sides to be ∂ Uy b + Uy = −a 2 x + x2 + y 2 (8.III.20) thus 2ax + ∂Uy =0 ∂y (8. Calculate the velocity ﬁeld in this case.h) ∂y . assume the density is also a function of the location as ρ = m ex+y Where m is constant. Solution The ﬂow ﬁeld must comply with the mass conservation (8. Notice the symmetry of the situation. Uy = − 2 a x + f (x) = −2 x y + f (x) (8.b) (8.19) is applicable and used as ∂ a x2 + b y 2 (m ex+y ) ∂ Uy (m ex+y ) + =0 ∂x ∂y (8.2.e) Taking the derivative of the ﬁrst term and second part move the other side results in a 2 x + x2 + b 2 y a ex+y = − ex+y ∂ Uy + Uy ∂y (8. The velocity.c) (8.g) is ﬁrst order ODE that can be solved by combination of the homogeneous solution with the private solution (see for explanation in the Appendix).f) The exponent can be canceled to simplify further the equation (8.

III. the mass conservation is reduced only for one dimensional form as ∂ρ ∂ (Ux ρ) + =0 ∂t ∂x (8. End Solution Example 8. this kind of presentation is possible. However physically there are velocity components in y and z directions. This ﬂow can exist only for a limit time since over time the divergence is unbounded. In this problem these physical .III.j) (8. Thus. The private solution is Uy |private = −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x The total solution is Uy = c e−y + −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x (8. ∂Ux ∂x = t2 z ∂Uy ∂y =t ∂Uz ∂z =t (8.IV.208 CHAPTER 8. The initial density is ρ(t = 0) = ρ0 .4: Can the following velocities co-exist. this ﬂow ﬁeld is not steady state.5: Find the density as a function of the time for a given one dimensional ﬂow of Ux = x e5 α y (cos (α t)).V.IV. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution for (8. Check if the ﬂow is incompressible for this continuity equation should be used for constant density. it can be observed that the velocity contains time component.h) is Uy = c e−y (see for explanation in the appendix). Hence.b) Or the combination of these derivatives is U = t2 z + 2 t (8.i) End Solution Example 8. Solution This problem is one dimensional unsteady state and for a compressible substance. if it exist.c) The divergence isn’t zero thus this ﬂow. Ux = (x t) z 2 Uy = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) Uz = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) (8.a) Is the ﬂow is incompressible? Is the ﬂow in a steady state condition? Solution To check whether the solution is in a steady state.IV.a) Mathematically speaking.III. must be compressible ﬂow.

Equation (8.V. Ux .c) Possible solution is when the left and the right hand sides are equal to a constant.V.V.V.V.e) The same can be done for the right hand side as ρ x e5 α y + (8. The solution of (8.b) Substituting equation (8.f) (8.8.V. c1 vanishes as well and the solution contain only the homogeneous part and the private solution is dropped ρ = c2 e− x2 2 (8.V.b) into equation (8.V.V.V.h) Equation (8. is a function of x results in ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y (cos (α t)) − e (cos (α t)) ∂t ∂x Equation (8. real value.a) is ﬁrst order partial diﬀerential equation which can be converted to ordinary diﬀerential equation when the velocity component.h) is given by impossible solution ρ=e −x 2 2 √ π i c3 erf √ c − 2 ix √ 2 (8.d) (8. In that case the left hand side is 1 ∂ρ = c1 cos (α t) ∂t The solution of equation (8.V. ∂Ux = e5 α y (cos (α t)) ∂x (8.e) is reduced to ODE and its solution is ρ= c1 sin (α t) + c2 α ∂ρ 5 α y e = c1 ∂x (8.V.h) is constant coeﬃcients ﬁrst order ODE which its solution discussed extensively in the appendix. MASS CONSERVATION 209 components are ignored for academic reasons. is substituted.V. and independent of x thus ρx + ∂ρ c1 = 5 α y = c3 ∂x e (8.V.j) .g) The term e5 α y is always positive. c3 .c) can be separated to yield 1 ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y − e cos (α t) ∂t ∂x (8. must be zero and thus the constant.a) and noticing that the density.V.2.i) which indicates that the solution is a complex number thus the constant. Hence. ρ.V.

V.V.33)) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv A ρ φ U · dA (8. z.24) into equation (8.23) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv cv · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.g. Suppose that the property φ is under a study which is a function of the time and location as φ(x. are presented. The total amount of quantity that exist in arbitrary system is Φ= sys φ ρ dV (8. 8.3.210 CHAPTER 8.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations In this section a general approach for the derivations for conservation of any quantity e.23) The last term on the RHS can be converted using the divergence theorem (see the appendix7 ) from a surface integral into a volume integral (alternatively.21) Where Φ is the total quantity of the system has a volume V and a surface area of A which are a function of time. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution is the multiplication of equation (8.j) by (8. Basically the divergence theorem relates the ﬂow out (or) in and the sum of the all the changes inside the control volume. c2 is arbitrary function of the y coordinate. y.3 Conservation of General Quantity 8.24) Substituting equation (8. .25) Since the volume of the control volume remains independent.26) 7 These integrals are related to RTT.V. A change with time is DΦ D = Dt Dt φ ρ dV sys (8.22) Using RTT to change the system to control volume (see equation (5.k) Where the constant. vector or tensor. the volume integral can be changed to the surface integral) as ρ φ U · dA = A V · (ρ φ U ) dV (8. the derivative can enter into the integral and thus combining the two integral on the RHS results in D Dt φ ρ dV = sys cv d (φ ρ) + dt · (ρ φ U ) dV (8. t). scalar.f) is ρ = c2 e− x2 2 c1 sin (α t) + c2 α End Solution (8.

27) 8. t) = Ux (x.2. The integral is carried over arbitrary system. The term in the bracket LHS is referred in the literature as substantial derivative.1 Examples of Generalized of Quantities The General Mass Time Derivative For example.21) LHS can be change to simply to derivative of Φ. x.3. For an inﬁnitesimal control volume the change is DΦ ∼ = Dt d (φ ρ) + dt dV · (ρ φ U ) dx dy dz (8. t) k (8. In that case D Φ = D ρ and hence equal to zero as Dt Dt φ d dV 1 ρ φ (8. Acceleration Direct Derivations One of the important points is to ﬁnd the particles acceleration of the ﬂuid.29) can be rearranged as ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ+ρ ·U = 0 (8. CONSERVATION OF GENERAL QUANTITY 211 By the deﬁnition of equation (8.3.2 8.30) can be further rearranged so derivative of the density is equal the divergence of velocity as 1 ρ ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ =− ·U (8. y.31) Equation (8.31) relates the density rate of change or the volumetric change to the velocity divergence of the ﬂow ﬁeld.32) . The substantial derivative represents the change rate of the density at a point which moves with the ﬂuid.29) Equation (8. y.28) dx dy dz = 0 + · ρ 1 U dt - The integral is over arbitrary volume which mean that integrand is zero as ∂ρ + ∂t Equation (8. z. t) i + Uy (x. y. t) j + Uz (x. Therefore.3.8. it can be written that U (x. for the last derivations using φ = 1 which is the same for mass conservation. y. z. z. A ﬂuid particle velocity is a function of the location and time.30) · (ρ U ) = 0 (8.

8.38) It was shown that in static case (or in better words. A ) (8.36) ∂U ∂U dU ∂U ∂U = + U +U +U dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (8.212 The acceleration will be CHAPTER 8.33) ∂ Ux d t ∂ U x d x ∂ U x d y ∂ U x d z d Ux = + + + dt ∂t d t ∂x d t ∂y d t ∂z d t The acceleration in the x can be written as ∂ Ux ∂ Ux d Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux U = + Ux + Uy + Uz = + (U · dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ) Ux (8. The area has a direction or orientation which control the results of this division.37) The time derivative referred in the literature as the local acceleration which disappear when the ﬂow is steady state.35) The same can be developed to the other two coordinates and when combined to be (in a vector form) ∂U dU U = + (U · dt ∂t or in more explicit form as local acceleration convective acceleration )U (8.39) . when the shear stresses are absent) it was written τ = −P n (8. This division creates a tensor which the physical meaning will be explained here (the mathematical explanation can be found in the mathematical appendix of the book).34) (8. So it can be written that F τ = f (F . The stress is relationship between the force and area it is acting on or force divided by the area (division of vector by a vector). The ﬂow in a nozzle is an example to ﬂow at steady state but yet has acceleration which ﬂow with low velocity can achieve a supersonic ﬂow. While the ﬂow is in a steady state there is acceleration of the ﬂow. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS U dU d Ux d Uy d Uz = i+ j+ k dt dt dt dt The velocity components are a function of four variables and hence =1 Ux Uy Uz (8.4 Momentum Conservation The relationship among the shear stress various components have to be established.

Similar “vectors” exist for the y and z coordinates which can be written in matrix forms τxx τxy τxz τ = τyx τyy τyz (8. The transformation is available because the “standard” surface can be transformed using trigonometrical functions. The reason for this omission is that there is no physical meaning for it.40) where τxx is the stress acting on surface x in the x direction. The transformation n·i n·j n·k ·i ·j ·k ℵ·i ℵ·j ℵ·k When the tetrahedron is shrunk to a point relationship of the stress on the two sides can be expended by Taylor series and a diﬀerence is related to the ﬁrst derivative. tetrahedron in the z direction.8.41) τzx τzy τzz Suppose that a straight angle tetrahedron is under stress as shown in Figure 8.44) . MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 213 It also was shown that the pressure has to be continuous.42) T0 Z τnn where δAy is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the y direction. similarly for τxz . The forces balance in the x direction excluding the slanted surface is Fx = −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz (8.4. If Y τn ℵ τnℓ X τ τ xx xy τxz τ yx τy y τyz (8. The opposing forces which acting on the slanted surface in the x are Fx = δAn τnn n · i − τn Where here ℵ. δAx is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the x diFig. The notation τ (xi ) is used to denote the stresses on xi surface. Stress diagram on a tetrahedron rection and δAz is the surface area of the shape.5. However. In Cartesian coordinates on surface in the x direction the stresses are τ (x) = τxx τxy τxz (8. and τxy is the stress acting on surface x in the y direction.43) and n are the local unit coordinates on n surface. It can be noticed that no mathematical symbols are written between the components. matrix is then · i − τzℵℵ · i (8. these stresses that act on every point and have three components on every surface and depend on the surface orientation.5. A common approach is to collect the stress in a “standard” orientation and then if needed the stresses can be reorientated to a new direction. -8.

214 CHAPTER 8. dx For simplicity and generality. Diagram to analysis the shear stress due to the fact that the body force is not tensor. The body force can exert torque is Fig. such yy as the magnetic ﬁelds. Advance material can be skipped 8 See for derivation in Example 3.6 is Mz = Izz dθ dt (8.47) The same can be said for τyx for y τyy direction. The cubical rotation can involve two parts one distortion and one rotation. the rotation of the inﬁnitesimal ﬂuid cube can be viewed as it is done almost as a solid body. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS the ﬁrst derivative is neglected (tetrahedron is without acceleration) the two sides are related as −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz = δAn τnn n · i − τn · i − τzℵℵ · i (8.5 for moment of inertia. However. uniform and hence act not through the mass center. These relationships provide the transformation for the diﬀerent orientations which depends only angles of the orientations. The clarity of this analysis can y τyx be improved if additional terms are taken but the results will be the same. Balance of momentum around the z direction shown in Figure 8. it is assumed x that the external body force exert a torque GT per unit volume at the speciﬁc location. the shear stress at point x + dx is τxy |x+dx = τxy + dτxy dx dx (8.46) Where Mz is the cubic moment around the cubic center and Izz 8 is the moment of inertia around that center. Hence.45) The same can be done for y and z directions. . The Symmetry of the Stress Tensor A small liquid cubical has three possible rotation axes and here only one will be discussed. τyx τ However. The τxy τxx dy τ normal body force (gravity) acts through τxx xy the cubic center of gravity and can be neglected (the changes are insigniﬁcant).6. A ﬁnite angular distortion of inﬁnitesimal cube requires requires an inﬁnite shear. -8. The momentum can be accessed by the shear stresses that act on it. The shear stress at point x is τxy . The areas are related to each other through angles. for cases that body force. can create torque. This matrix is referred to as stress tensor and as it can be observed has nine terms.

49) results y+dy y τxx |y + dτxx dy η y η− dy 2 dη (8. The moment that results from this shear force (clockwise positive) is y+dy τxx (η) y η− dy 2 dη (8. The reason that this term neglected because the other face of the cubic contributes an identical term but in the opposing direction. It can be ignored. For example.54) 9 This point bother this author in the completeness of the proof.4.52) which means since that dx −→ 0 and dy −→ 0 that GT + τxy = τyx (8.53) This analysis can be done on the other two directions and hence the general conclusion is that GT + τij = τji (8. but provided to those who wonder why body forces can contribute to the torque while pressure does not. τxx at x can be expended as a linear function τxx = τxx |y + dτxx dy η y (8.50) The integral of (8. This point is for self convincing since it deals with a “strange” and problematic “animals” of integral of inﬁnitesimal length.48) into (8.50) isn’t zero (non symmetrical function around the center of integration). MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 215 The torque due to the shear stress in the surface direction results in a change due to the shear stress9 .49) Substituting (8.51) 2 2 dθ dt dx dy dz 2 = ρ dx dy dz (dx) + (dy) The actual components that contribute to the moment are =0 (dx)2 + (dy)2 =0 GT + τxy − τxy + ∂ (τyx − τxy ) =ρ ∂y 12 dθ dt (8.8. End Advance material The net torque in the z-direction around the particle’s center would then be (τyx ) dx dy dz − 2 τxy + τyx + ∂τxy ∂x ∂τxy ∂x dx dy dz 2 + (τxy ) dx dy dz − 2 Izz (8. .48) where η is the local coordinate in the y direction stating at y and mostly used between y < η < y + dy.

and internal forces.11) is also applicable for the small inﬁnitesimal cubic. The magnetic body forces on the other hand is signiﬁcant and has to be included in the calculations. gravitation forces. It is believed that this notation should and can be used only after the physical meaning was “digested. Previously it was shown that equation (6. The body force that acting on inﬁnitesimal cubic is i · f B = f B x dx dy dz (8. Equation (6. . z and the j is any of the other x. Later it will be used and generalized.55) 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS where i is one of x.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation τzz + ∂τzz dz ∂z ∂τ y y + ∂ y dy τ yy Z τxz τxx τxy τxx + ∂τxz dx ∂x ∂τxx dx ∂x τxz + τxy + τyy ∂τxy dx ∂x y τzz x Fig.56) 10 The index notation is not the main mode of presentation in this book. y. The gravity is a body force that is considered in many kind of calculations and this force cause a change in symmetry of the stress tensor. All shear stress shown in surface x and x + dx. For surface forces that acting on the cubic are surface forces. The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces. z 10 . for almost all practical purposes. can be neglected11 . this change.11) is equivalent to Newton second law for ﬂuids. y. If the body forces eﬀect is neglected or do not exist in the problem then regardless the coordinate system τij = τji (i = j) (8. since Potto Project books are used extensively and numerous people asked to include this notation it was added.7.216 CHAPTER 8. However. For the case of GT = 0 the stress tensor become symmetrical.” 11 In the Dimensional Analysis a discussion about this eﬀect hopefully will be presented. -8. However. One direction of the vector equation will be derived for x Cartesian coordinate (see Figure ??).

The surface forces in x direction on the x surface on are dAx dAx fxx = τxx |x+dx × dy dz − τxx |x × dy dz The surface forces in x direction on the y surface on are dAy dAy (8. Equation (8. The dot product yields the force in the directing of x. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 217 Where B is in the body force direction and f B is the body force per unit mass.63) Advance material can be skipped Where i is the balance direction and j and k are two other coordinates. y.60) after rearrangement equations such as (8. The shear stresses can be expanded into Taylor series as τix |i+di = τix + ∂ (τix ) di + · · · ∂i i (8.58) becomes internal forces surface forces body forces DUx & & ρ& & = dx dy dz Dt ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z & & & & dx dy dz dx dy dz & & + fG x ρ & & (8. The vector form is ρ U DU = Dt · τ (i) + ρ fG (8.61) for y coordinate is ρ DUy = Dt ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy + + ∂x ∂y ∂z + ρ fG y (8.61) equation (8. the total net force results from the shear stress in the x direction is fx = ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz (8. Hence. or z.63) can be written in a vector form which combined all three components into one equation.8.59) where i in this case is x.58) The same can be written for z direction.5.57) and (8.64) .62) The same can be obtained for the z component and generally it is as ρ DUi = Dt ∂τii ∂τji ∂τki + + ∂i ∂j ∂j + ρ fG i (8. The advantage of the vector from allows the usage of the diﬀerent coordinates.57) fxy = τyx |y+dy × dx dz − τyx |y × dx dz (8.

a linear relationship between the shear stress to the rate of shear strain. The similarity to solids the increase shear stress in ﬂuids yields larger deformations.64) requires that stress tensor be deﬁned. or z. Thus this “solid” model is a tions: = y B + + ∂Uy U + dt y ∂y D @ t + dt Uy dt A A @t Uxdt Uy + ∂Uy dt ∂x C x y’ linear relationship with three main assump- Fig. The relationship between the stress tensor and deformation depends on the classes of materials the stresses acts on. the control volume is at a square shape and location as depicted in Figure 8.65) End Advance material Equations (8.218 where here CHAPTER 8. reduction of the shear stress does not return the material to its original state as in solids. Or in index (Einstein) notation as ρ DUi ∂τji = + ρ fG i Dt ∂xi (8. -8. Furthermore. In solid material the shear stress yields a ﬁx amount of deformation. the deformation can be viewed as a function of the velocity ﬁeld. y. the simplest model is assumed which referred as the solid continuum model. rotates and changes the shape (the blow color in in Figure (8. Additionally. The rotation is the second movement that referred to change in of the relative orientation inside the control x’ 45◦ . The control volume moves to a new location. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS τ (i) = τix i + τiy j + τiz k is part of the shear stress tensor and i can be any of the x.8 (by the blue color). In contrast. a.65) or (8. At time t. and c. when applying the shear stress in ﬂuids.8. There is no preference in the orientation (also call isentropic ﬂuid). The translational movement is referred to a movement of body without change of the body and without rotation.8)). there is no left over stresses (In over words when the “no shear stress” situation exist the rate of deformation or strain is zero). At time t + dt the control volume undergoes three diﬀerent changes. As engineers do in general. b. Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation. the result is a continuous deformation. Notice the three combinations of the deformation shown by purple color relative to blue color. In this model the (shear) stresses and rate of strains are assumed to be linearly related.

The third change is the misconﬁguration or control volume deformation. under isentropic material it is assumed that the contribution of all the shear stresses contribute equally. This assumption is referred as isotropic viscosity. The deformation of the control volume has several components. Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations. It can be noticed at this stage.5.8.69) D y τxx τxy A τx y ’ ’ τx x ’ ’ C τyx τyy x y’ τyz = µ Dγyz =µ Dt dUz dUy + dy dz (8. The angle between x to the new location of the control volume can be approximate for a small angle as dγx = tan dt Uy + dUy dx dx − Uy dx = tan dUy dx ∼ dUy = dx (8. However. ﬁrst assumption is mentioned above. For the assumption of linear ﬂuid12 τxy = µ Dγxy =µ Dt dUy dUx + dx dy B (8. µ is the “normal” or “ordinary” viscosity coeﬃcient which the linear coeﬃcient of proportionality the shear and it is assumed to be a property of the ﬂuid. the symmetry dxy = dUx was not assumed and or required because dy rotation of the control volume. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 219 volume. In general equation (8.68) can be written as τij = µ where i = j and i = x or y or z.70) Note that the viscosity coeﬃcient (the linear coeﬃcient13 ) is assumed to be the same regardless of the direction. -8. The only missing thing. 12 While 13 The Fig.67) In these derivatives.9.68) where. the relationship between the two of stress tensor are found. Dγij =µ Dt dUj dUi + di dj x’ and for the directions of y z as 45◦ (8. In a similar fashion it can be written to other directions for x z as τxz = µ Dγxz =µ Dt dUz dUx + dx dz (8. at this stage.66) The total angle deformation (two sides x and y) is dUy dUx Dγxy = + Dt dx dy dU (8.71) not marked as important equation this equation is is source of the derivation. . is the diagonal component which dealt below. The shear stress is related to the change in angle of the control volume lower left corner.

74) from (8.73) results in 2 τyx = τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ or dividing by 2 equation (8. The relationship can be obtained by changing the coordinates orientation as depicted by Figure 8. the sides AB and AC rotate in unequal amount which make one diagonal line longer and one diagonal line shorter. on the “x” surface (lower surface) and the “y” (left) surface.10(a) depicts the deformations of the triangular particles between time t and t + dt. The rate of strain in the x direction is c (8. The force balance in the x’ is Ax cos θx dy τxx √ 1 1 1 1 √ + dx τyy √ + dx τyx √ + dy τxy √ = dx 2 τx’ x’ 2 2 2 2 Ay cos θy Ay cos θy Ax cos θy Ax’ (8. The forces acting in the direction of x ’ are combination several terms.75) relates the diﬀerence between the normal shear stress and the shear stresses in x’ . The small deformations a .75) (8. τii (where i is either . To ﬁnd the main (on the diagonal) stress the coordinates are rotate by 45◦ . y’ ) frame. y.72) dividing by dx and some rearrangements utilizing the identity τxy = τyx results in τxx + τyy + τyx = τx’ x’ 2 Setting the similar analysis in the y’ results in τxx + τyy − τyx = τy’ y’ 2 Subtracting (8.74) (8. The linear deformations in the x’ and y’ directions which are rotated 45◦ relative to the x and y axes can be expressed in both coordinates system. y’ coordinates) and the angular strain rate in the regular (x.75) becomes τyx = 1 (τx x − τy’ y’ ) 2 ’’ (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Normal Stress The normal stress. Figure 8.220 CHAPTER 8. and d in the Figure are related to the incremental linear strains.9. The normal shear stress relates to the change in the diagonal line length change.77) d x= dx . b. z) appears in shear matrix diagonal.73) Equation (8. √ shear the stresses are acting in this direction. In addition.8) in the control volume move to the new locations.76) (8. The diagonal lines (line BC and line AD in Figure 8. c. The dx is construct so it equals to dy. It can be noticed that “dx’ ” surface is 2 times larger than dx and dy surfaces.x. The angular strain rate in the (x. For example. y) is frame related to the strain rates in the (x’ . y coordinates).

Hence. in both sides (d/dx+b/dy) which in turn is related to combination of the two sides angles. It ◦ can be approximated that the change is about 45 because changes are inﬁnitesimally small. The original length of the √ 2 2 hypotenuse 2dx. d x is the linear strain (increase in length divided by length) of the particle in the x direction.78). and (8.10(b)).10.8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION b 221 b y’ y x’ a 45◦ y a d+a c+b d c 45◦ y’ x’ x (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular. cos 45◦ or sin 45◦ times the change contribute as ﬁrst approximation to change.5. (8. the ratio strain in the x direction is 2 2 d x’ = (c + b) + (a + d) √ 2dx (c + b) (c + b) √ + √ + f (dx’ ) 2 √ 2 2dx ∼0 (8.78) The total change in the deformation angle is related to tan θ.79) Here. The change in the hypotenuse length is (c + b) + (a + d) . The linear angular deformation in xy direction is dγxy = b+d dx (8. and d y is its linear strain in the y-direction.80) can be interpreted as (using equations (8. Thus. -8. Deformation of the diﬀerent triangles for the calculations of the normal stress.79)) d x’ = 1 2 a+b+c+d dx = 1 (d 2 y +d y + dγxy ) (8. The rate of the strain in y direction is d y = a dx (8. x (b) Deformation of the straight angle triangle. The hypotenuse of the triangle is oriented in the x’ direction (again observe Figure 8.77).81) .10(b).80) Equation (8. The linear strain in the x direction can be computed by observing Figure 8. Fig.

87) y’ (8. -8.84) From (8.83) Equation (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS In the same fashion the strain in y’ coordinate can be interpreted to be d y’ = 1 (d 2 y +d y − dγxy ) (8.82) Combining equation (8.11 depicts the approximate linear deformation of the element. (8.222 CHAPTER 8.86) Uy’ + ∂Uy ’ ’ dy dt ∂y ’ Uy’dt The same way it can written for the y’ coordinate.81) with equation (8.85) can be continue and replaced as D x’ D y’ 1 − = (τx x − τy’ y’ ) Dt Dt 2µ ’ ’ Figure 8.83) describing in Lagrangian coordinates a single particle. (8.87) and (8.75) τxy be substituted and equation (8.82) results in d x’ −d y’ = dγxy (8. Dashed squares denotes the movement without the linear change. ∂Uy’ D y’ = Dt ∂y’ (8.83) into D x’ D y’ Dγxy − = Dt Dt Dt D x’ D y’ τxy − = Dt Dt µ (8. For example in y’ –z’ plain one can obtained τx’ x’ − τz’ z’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uz’ − ∂x’ ∂z’ (8.88) changes into τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ − ∂x’ ∂y’ Fig.89) Similar two equations can be obtained in the other two plains. The linear deformation is the diﬀerence between the two sides as D x’ ∂Ux’ = Dt ∂x’ (8. The rate of strain relations can be substituted by the velocity and equations (8. Linear strain of the element purple denotes t and blue is for t + dt.87) can be written in the y’ and is similar by substituting the coordinates.85) From equation (8.90) .68) it can be observed that the right hand side can be replaced by τxy /µ.88) ∂Ux ’ ’ Ux ’ + dx dt ∂x ’ x’ Equation (8. Changing it to the Eulerian coordinates and location diﬀerential transform equation (8.11.

Batchelor. 1967. An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics.96) Advance material can be skipped 14 It 15 G.90) results in 2 4 223 (3 − 1) τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ − τz’ z’ = (6 − 2) µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. Commonality engineers like to combined the two diﬀerence expressions into one as 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8. identical only in the limits not in mechanical measurements.93) must be valid in any coordinate system thus equation (8.92) The further rearranging the results by dividing by 3 so that “mechanical pressure τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ ∂Ux’ 2 +2 µ − µ 3 ∂x’ 3 ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. p. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION Adding equations (8.93) The “mechanical” pressure is the (negative) average value of pressure in directions of x’ –y’ –z’ . .94) Where Pm is the mechanical pressure and is deﬁned as Pm = − τxx + τyy + τzz 3 (8.95) It can be observed that the non main (diagonal) terms of the stress tensor are represented by an equation like (8.89) and (8.71). The mechanical pressure can be deﬁned as averaging of the normal stress acting on a inﬁnitesimal sphere.93) can be written as τxx = −Pm + 2 µ ∂Ux 2 + µ ∂x 3 ·U (8.141. This pressure is a true scalar value of the ﬂow ﬁeld since the propriety is averaged or almost14 invariant to the coordinate transformation. K.5.8.91) rearranging equation (8. It can be shown that this two deﬁnitions are “identical” in the limits15 . In situations where the main diagonal terms of the stress tensor are not the same in all directions (in some viscous ﬂows) this property can be served as a measure of the local normal stress.91) transforms it into 3 τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ + 6 µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ ∂Ux’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. With this deﬁnition and noticing that the coordinate system x’ –y’ has no special signiﬁcance and hence equation (8. Cambridge University Press.

0 several people ask me to summarize conceptually the issues. it does not add any additional information. λ. This coeﬃcient is referred in the literature by several terms such as the “expansion viscosity” “second coeﬃcient of viscosity” and “bulk viscosity.99) can be written in terms of the thermodynamic pressure P . connection between τxy and the deformation was built.3 . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8. This correction results in P = Pm + λ ·U (8. This expression suggests a new deﬁnition of the thermodynamical pressure is 2 P = Pm + µ 3 Summary of The Stress Tensor The above derivations were provided as a long mathematical explanation16 . Using the coordinates transformation. as τij = − P + 2 µ−λ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8. However.2. this association was established. are similar to the viscosity µ.9. Then the association between normal stress and perpendicular stress was constructed. First. The linkage was established between the stress int he rotated coordinates to the deformation.” Here the term bulk viscosity will be adapted. it will be provide before version 0. Second Viscosity Coeﬃcient The coeﬃcient 2/3µ is experimental and relates to viscosity. an additional correction will be needed. To reduced one unknown (the shear stress) equation (8. The thermodynamic pressure always tends to follow the mechanical pressure during a change.100) 16 Since the publishing the version 0.98) The value of λ is obtained experimentally. Equation (8.99) ·U (8. With God help.97) End Advance material where δij is the Kronecker delta what is δij = 1 when i = j and δij = 0 otherwise.224 or index notation 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 CHAPTER 8. The dimension of the bulk viscosity.61) the relationship between the stress tensor and the velocity were to be established. While this expression has the advantage of compact writing. According to second law of thermodynamic derivations (not shown here and are under construction) demonstrate that λ must be positive. if the derivations before were to include additional terms. The expansion rate of change and the ﬂuid molecular structure through λ control the diﬀerence.

Thus. In material such as water. this coeﬃcient or the whole eﬀect is vanished17 . In most cases. can be over 100 times larger than µ. Clearly for incompressible ﬂow. for the τxx it can be written that τxx = −P + 2 and the y coordinate the equation is τyy = −P + 2 however the mix stress. In fact this eﬀect is so insigniﬁcant that there is diﬃculty in to construct experiments so this eﬀect can be measured.61) which results in ρ DUx Dt =− ∂ P+ 2 3µ −λ ∂x ·U +µ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 f +f B x (8.104) ∂Uy ∂y (8. For example.103) ∂Ux ∂x (8.106) Por in index form as ρ D Ui ∂ =− Dt ∂xi P+ 2 µ−λ 3 ·U + ∂ ∂xj µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi + f Bi (8.107) 17 The reason that the eﬀect vanish is because · U = 0. . τxy . it can be written for spesiﬁc coordinates. neglecting this eﬀect results in τij = −P δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.101). λ. The physical meaning of · U represents the relative volume rate of change.105) or in a vector form as ρ U DU =− P + Dt 1 µ+λ 3 ( ·U) + µ 2 U +fB (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 225 The signiﬁcance of the diﬀerence between the thermodynamic pressure and the mechanical pressure associated with ﬂuid dilation which connected by · U . substitute equation (8.5.100) into equation (8. For simple gas (dilute monatomic gases) it can be shown that λ vanishes. λ is large (3 times µ) but the net eﬀect is small because in that cases · U −→ 0. is τxy = τyx = ∂Uy ∂Ux + ∂x ∂y (8. For complex liquids this coeﬃcient.8.102) For the total eﬀect. the total eﬀect of the dilation on the ﬂow is very small.101) To explain equation (8. Only in micro ﬂuids and small and molecular scale such as in shock waves this eﬀect has some signiﬁcance.

108) or in the index notation it is written ρ ∂P ∂ 2U D Ui =− +µ + f Bi Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (8. For this discussion. These conditions can be categorized by the velocity. In y coordinate the momentum equation is ρ ∂Uy + ∂t ∂Uy ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v − +µ + 2 + 2 + ρgy 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z Ux (8.110) + ρgx g Where gx is the the body force in the x direction (i ·g ). pressure (at the interface direction) and shear stress (perpendicular to the area). DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS · U vanishes. A common velocity condition is that the liquid has the same value as the solid interface velocity.226 For incompressible ﬂow the term ρ CHAPTER 8. .6.106) is reduced to 2 U DU =− P + Dt U +fB (8. These conditions described physical situations that are believed or should exist or approximated.111) in z coordinate is ρ ∂Uz + ∂t ∂Uz ∂Uz ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz − +µ + + ∂z ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8. pressure. or in more general terms as the shear stress conditions (mostly at the interface). thus equation (8.112) + ρgz 8. In the literature. the shear tensor will be separated into two categories.109) The momentum equation in Cartesian coordinate can be written explicitly for x coordinate as ρ ∂Ux + ∂t ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 2 ∂P ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ 2 Ux − +µ + + ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces 8. this condition is referred as the “no slip” condition.1 Boundary Conditions Categories The governing equations that were developed earlier requires some boundary conditions and initial conditions. The solid surface is rough thus the liquid participles (or molecules) are slowed to be at the solid surface velocity.

113) is given in a vector form.116) Dt This condition is called the kinematic boundary condition.113) where n is referred to the area direction (perpendicular to the area). The condition (8. The slip condition cannot be ignored in some regions. Another condition which aﬀects whether the slip condition exist is who rapidly of the velocity change. For example.Fig. the “no slip” condition is applicable to the ideal ﬂuid (“inviscid ﬂows”) because this kind of ﬂow normally deals with large scales. t) = 0 (8. a requiret n ment on the acceleration (velocity) is given in unknown posiflow tion.115) As oppose to a given velocity at particular point. While this condition (8. In another view. The ”slip” condition is written in similar fashion to equation (8. the diﬀerence in the velocities vanishes as the scale increases. The slip condition is dealing with a diﬀerence in the velocity between the solid (or other material) and the ﬂuid media. 1–Dimensional free surface describing n and b.8. The condition becomes as 0= ∂f ∂f ∂f + Ux + Uy ∂t ∂x ∂y (8.12. The diﬀerence between the small scale and the large scale is that the slip can be neglected in the large scale while the slip cannot be neglected in the small scale. etc) (8. To make sure that all the x material is accounted for in the control volume (does not cross b the free surface) the relative per.113) as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = f (Q. when the ﬂow is with a strong velocity ﬂuctuations.6.113) can be mathematically represented in direction another way for free surface conditions.117) . The location of the (free) moving boundary can be given as r f (r . -8. it is more common to write this condition as a given velocity at a certain point U( ) = U (8. scale. y). The slip condition (as oppose to “no slip” condition) exist in situations where the scale is very small and the velocity is relatively very small. The perpendicular relative velocity at the surface must be zero and therefore f (x) y Df r = 0 on the surface f (r . x.114) Note. the free surface in the two dimensional case is represented as f (t. Mathematically the “no slip” condition is written as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = 0 (8. t pendicular velocity at the interface must be zero. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 227 This boundary condition was experimentally observed under many conditions yet it is not universal true. t) = 0 as the equation which describes the bounding surface.

121) 18 There is no additional beneﬁt in this writing. One of results of the free surface condition (or in general. This condition is expressed mathematically equating the shear stress diﬀerence to the forces results due the surface tension. The condition with curved surface are out the scope of this book yet mathematically the condition is given as without explanation. n · τ (n) = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 σ (8. In reality the interface between these two ﬂuids is not a sharp transition but only approximation (see for the surface theory). this constant is determined from the volume conservation. this condition will not be discussed (at least not plane to be written). In these cases the assumptions are that transition occurs in a sharp line. In index notation equation (8. Furthermore. In same instances. The jump in shear stress can appear when the density has a jump in density. the transition is idealized an almost jump (a few molecules thickness). the jump in a shear stress (without a jump in density) does break a physical law. The free surface is a special case of moving surfaces where the surface between two distinct ﬂuids. this condition cannot be tolerated since inﬁnite velocity (acceleration) is impossible.228 CHAPTER 8. there situations where the ﬂuid (above one of the sides) should be considered as weightless material. While a jump in density does not break any physical laws (at least those present in the solution). There are situations where the transition should be analyzed as a continuous transition between two phases. The jump in the density (between the two ﬂuids) creates a surface tension which oﬀset the jump in the shear stress. In other cases. the moving surface condition) is that integration constant is unknown).120) t · τ (t) = −t · where n is the unit normal and t is a unit tangent to the surface (notice that direction pointed out of the “center” see Figure 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution of this condition sometime is extremely hard to handle because the location is not given but the derivative on unknown location. .119) is written18 as τij nj + σ ni (1) 1 1 + R1 R2 = τij nj (2) (8.119) (8. Oﬀ course.12) and R1 and R2 are principal radii. A jump in the shear stress creates inﬁnite force on the adjoin thin layer.118) where the index (n) indicate that shear stress are normal (in the surface area). If the surface is straight there is no jump in the shear stress. The shear stress diﬀerence is ∆τ (n) = 0 = ∆τ (n) upper − ∆τ (n) lower surface surface (8. In this book. and the density has a jump while the shear stress are continuous (in some case continuously approach zero value). it just for completeness and can be ignored for most purposes.

13. material. Rational Mech. 3. In ﬂuid (mostly liquid) shear stress pulling side (surface) will have limited eﬀect and but sometime is signiﬁcant and more rarely dominate. Arch. The last condition is similar the pressure condition is of prescribed shear stress or some relationship to it. 1) 1 + (f (x)) (1. Shear Stress and Surface Tension as Driving Force If the ﬂuid was solid material. The gravity can be considered as a constant force in most case (see for dimensional analysis for the reasons). The gravity is a common body force which is considered in many ﬂuid mechanics problems.13. 197–217. For example.6. Gravity as Driving Force The body forces in general and gravity as a particular body force driving the ﬂow beside the velocity. The liquid does not move up due the gravity (actually it is against the gravity) but because the surface tension move the liquid up. The shear stress carry the material as if part of it was a solid Fig. f (x)) 1 + (f (x)) 2 (8. Anal. It can be noticed that the boundary conditions that involve the surface tension are of the kind that where the something is given on boundary but no at speciﬁc location. shear stress (including the surface tension) and the pressure. M. For example in one dimensional19 n= t= (−f (x). Free surface of the steady ﬂow of a Newtonian ﬂuid in a ﬁnite channel. The equation is given by ∂f ∂f + Ux = Uy ∂t ∂x (8. no.55). Kerosene lamp. .8. pulling the side will pull all the material. In this category include the boundary conditions with issue of surface tension which were discussed earlier. The static pressure is measured perpendicular to the ﬂow ﬂow direction.123) The Pressure Condition The second condition that commonality prescribed at the interface is that the static pressure at speciﬁc value. 74 (1980). BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 229 where 1 is the upper surface and 2 is the lower surface. Consider for example the case shown in Figure 8. Jean. in the kerosene lamp the burning occur at the surface of the lamp and the liquid is at the bottom. 19 A one example of a reference not in particularly important or signiﬁcant just a random example.122) 2 the unit vector is given as two vector in x and y and the radius is given by equation (1. -8.

First. The boundary condition at outer surface given by a jump of the shear ∂U ∂σ constant = µ T ∂r ∂h stress. The only (almost) propelling source of the ﬂow is the surface gradient.14. In that case. One radius toward the center of the rode while the other is inﬁnite (approximated). DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS To understand how to apply the surface tension boundary condition. this eﬀect is not discussed. It can be notice that under the assumption here there are two principal radii. Example 8. The static pressure per length is given as ∆P 20 . Even in that case. the contribution due to the curvature is zero in the direction of the ﬂow. 20 The diﬀerence is measured at the bottom point of the plate. . the physical condition in Figure 8. book. The control volume shown in darker colors.15). For further enhance the understanding some of the derivations are repeated.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (Navier-Stokes) Examples of an one-dimensional ﬂow driven by the shear stress and pressure are presented. -8. Uℓ y flow direction dy x z Fig. } } } 8.13 can be used and idealized as a ﬂow around an inner rode. Schematic of kerosene lamp. The distance between the plates is . the surface tension gradient remains. The surface tension is a function of the temperature therefor the gradient in surface tension is results of temperature gradient.230 CHAPTER 8. U which is deﬁned as positive when it move with the ﬂow. However the diameter at the depend on the surface tension.15. The ﬂuid surrounds the rode temperature and ﬂows upwards. In this Fig. Flow between two plates top moving at U to the right (as positive). -8. In the case.6: Incompressible liquid ﬂows between two inﬁnite plates from the left to the right (as shown in Figure 8. somewhere downstream the temperature gradient is insigniﬁcant. example dealing won one phase are present. The velocity at U(ri) = 0 mix zone the outer surface is unknown. However. the velocity at the gradent surface of the inner rode is zero. Later. examples with two phase are presented. The upper surface is moving in Velocity.

the mass conservation yields =0 231 d dt ρdV = − cv cv ρ Urn dA = 0 (8. The momentum conservation is − cv P dA + cv τ xy dA = 0 (8.131) .126) The shear stress on the lower surface based on Newtonian ﬂuid is τ xy = −µ dU dy (8.125) Thus. The only diﬀerence in the pressure is in the x direction and thus P− P+ dP dx dx =− dP dx dx (8. the velocity in and out are the same (constant density). Further because no change of the thus ρ Ux Urn dA = 0 A (8.127) On the upper surface is diﬀerent by Taylor explanation as ∼ =0 dU d2 U d3 U 2 τ xy = µ + dy + dy + · · · dy 2 3 dy dy The net eﬀect of these two will be diﬀerence between them µ dU d2 U dU ∼ d2 U + dy − µ = µ 2 dy dy dy 2 dy dy (8.124) The momentum is not accumulated (steady state and constant density).128) (8.130) The momentum equation in the x direction then results (no gravity eﬀects) in − dP d2 U =µ 2 dx dy (8.129) The assumptions is that there is no pressure diﬀerence in the z direction.8. Furthermore.7. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Solution In this example. the ﬂow in and the ﬂow out are equal.

The boundaries conditions are 1.6 0.0 0.75 Ψ = 2. No assumption was imposed on the pressure distribution.3 0.8 0.75 Ψ = −0. The problem is still one dimensional because the ﬂow velocity is a function 21 A discussion about the boundary will be presented.1 0.134) (8. Equation (8. Newtonian ﬂuid.tween -1.2 0.131) was constructed under Velocity distributions in one dimensional ﬂow several assumptions which include the direction of the ﬂow.6 0.7 0. In that case.131) is a partial diﬀerential equation but can be treated as ordinary diﬀerential equation in the z direction of the pressure diﬀerence is uniform.9 1.133) (8.25 1. -8.2 0.75 Ψ = 0.75 Ψ = 1. the left hand side is equal to constant.5 0. It is common to assume that the between two plates when Ψ change value be“no slip” condition on the boundaries con.232 CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Equation (8.8 Ux Uℓ 0.4 0.0 y ℓ October 4. dition21 .25 Ψ = 2.25 Ψ = 0.0 0. . One dimensional ﬂow with a shear both.4 0.0 0.16. However. The “standard” boundary conditions is non–vanishing pressure gradient (that is the pressure exist) and velocity of the upper or lower surface or Fig. 2010 Ux (y = 0) = 0 Ux (y = ) = U The solution of the “ordinary” diﬀerential equation (8.132) Applying the boundary conditions results in =Ψ Ux (y) = y y y 2 dP 1− + U0 2µ dx For the case where the pressure gradient is zero the velocity is linear as was discussed earlier in Chapter 1.75 Ψ = −1.2 Ψ = −1.25 Ψ = −0. if the plates or the boundary conditions do not move the solution is Ux (y) = dP y 1− U0 2µ dx End Solution 2 + y (8.131) is Ux = − 1 dP 2 y + c2 y + c3 2 dx (8.25 Ψ = 1.135) Cylindrical Coordinates Similarly the problem of one dimensional ﬂow can be constructed for cylindrical coordinates.75 green line to 3 the blue line.

17. Thus. This ﬂow referred as Poiseuille ﬂow after Jean Louis Poiseuille a French Physician who investigated ﬂow of blood in veins.17a is − P dA + τ dA = ρ Uz Urn dA (8. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates.140) . Fig. The full analysis will be presented to review the the previous analysis of building the equation. Poiseuille study ﬂow in a small diameters (he was not familiar with the concept of Reynolds numbers). The shear stress on the circumferential part small dark blue shown in Figure 8.137) Pz + ∂P dz − Pz ∂z π r2 = ∂P dz π r2 ∂z (8. The control volume of liquid element in “short cut” Fig b. of (only) radius.7.136) The shear stress in the front and back surfaces do no act in the z direction. the last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = 0 (8. The analysis can be carried out by two diﬀerent approaches: one is a kind of short cut and one for the full analysis.17a is dUz τ dA = µ 2 π r dz dr The pressure integral is P dA = (Pzd z − Pz ) π r2 = The last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = ρ ρ z+dz 2 2 dA (8.8. Hence. -8.138) Uz Urn dA = − z Uz+dz 2 dA Uz 2 dA =ρ z Uz+dz 2 − Uz 2 dA (8. The momentum equation for the control volume shown in the Figure 8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) 233 r θ dz r θ dz r θ flow Directi o r z n r θ flow Directi o z n dr Fig a. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates.139) The term Uz+dz − Uz is zero because Uz+dz − Uz as can be shown by conservation of the mass for any element.

145) (8. The governing equation can be constructed by this smaller control volume for various boundary condition. in this analysis the control volume that will be used is of Figure 8. The “no slip” condition is assumed Uz (r = R) = 0 (8. However.136) results in µ Which shrinks to 2 µ dUz ∂P =− r dr ∂z (8.141) Equation (8. Integrating equation (8. it has several deﬁciencies which include the ability to incorporate diﬀerent boundary conditions such as pipe within a pipe. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Substituting equation (8.142) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation for which only one boundary condition is needed.148) element or function is −f (x) = f (−x) . The applicable equation is still (8. However.234 CHAPTER 8.137) and (8.138) into equation (8. While the above analysis provides a solution.142) results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 µ ∂z (8. The integration constant obtained via the application of the boundary condition which is c1 = − The solution is Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r R 1− µ ∂z R 2 1 ∂P 2 R µ ∂z (8.17a.147) The shear stress can be expressed in a Taylor series as τ (z + dz) = µ 22 Asymmetrical dU dr + r d2 U dr2 dr + · · · r (8.143) Where R is the outer radius of pipe or cylinder. The shear stress in the z direction can be on the control volume (again the front and the back do not contribute here) is expressed τ dA = µ dU dA dr (8.146) The trick in the construction of control volumes such as the above can shorten the solution of problems.142) dUz ∂P & & 2&¡ & = − π r dz dz π 2 & &r £ dr ∂z (8.136) since the condition did not change.144) It can be noticed that asymmetrical element22 was eliminated due to the smart short cut. this chapter deals with construction of diﬀerential analysis more general analysis is provided.

7.151) Equation (8. The only diﬀerence is the boundary conditions for demonstration of this point see the following example 8.7: .154) can be used to solve problem that are not symmetrical.154) The symmetry requirement (derivative at r = 0 is equal zero force the coeﬃcient c1 to be zero. The boundary conditions “no slip” at the outer radius and symmetry at the center which are Uz (r = 0) = 0 dU dr (r = 0) = 0 (8. the governing equation (8.152) d2 U ∂P 2 π r dz dr = − dz 2 π r dr dr2 dz (8. The double integration results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 r + c2 2 µ dz (8.150) and equation (8. However. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) The net change in the shear stress is d2 U τ dA = µ 2 2 π r dz dr dr The pressure diﬀerence P dA = ∂P dz 2 π r dr dz dA A 235 (8.152) or its solution (8.136) results in µ Or µ d2 U ∂P =− dr2 dz (8.8.7.153) Equation (8.152) can be integrated since the left right side is a function of r and right is a function of x.152) is the governing equation only the z direction. Example 8.148) remembering that velocity is canceled into (8. The same result is obtained.149) (8.150) Substituting equation (8.

VII.VII.VII.18. It can be noticed that it this case the change with time is zero but also the there is no acceleration (convective acceleration) is zero =f (t) =0 ∂U ∂Uz Uφ z ρ + Ur + ∂r r ∂t =0 Uz =f (φ) =0 ∂Uz ∂Uz +Uz =0 ∂φ ∂z ro flow Directi o ut r in z n (8.a) required boundary conditions which are Uz (r = ri ) = Uz (r = ro ) = Integrating equation (8.18. the appropriate version of the Navier–Stokes equation will be used.a) once results in r ∂Uz 1 ∂P 2 = r + c1 ∂r 2 µ ∂z (8. That is. -8. the velocity isn’t a function of the angle. However.b) Dividing equation (8. Flow of liquid between concentric cylinders for example 8.155) The steady state governing equation is ρ ¡ =0=− 0 ∂P +µ ∂z 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂Uz ∂r =0 + ··· ρ gz + $$ (8. It turn out that the “simple” solution is the ﬂow ﬁrst mode that appear in reality.236 A liquid with constant density is ﬂowing between two cylinders as shown in Figure 8.VII. Thus only equation in z coordinate is needed. The situation is best suitable to solved in cylindrical coordinates.7. Solution CHAPTER 8.VII.a) The PDE above (8. Calculate the ﬂow rate for a given pressure gradient.d) .VII. Assume that the velocity at the surface of the cylinders is zero calculate the velocity proﬁle. In this solution will be discussing the ﬂow ﬁrst mode. For this mode the ﬂow is assumed to be one dimensional. Build the velocity proﬁle when the ﬂow is one directional and viscosity is Newtonian.VII.c) and second integration results in ∂Uz 1 ∂P c1 = r+ ∂r 2 µ ∂z r (8. In fact there is no physical reason why the ﬂow should be only one dimensional. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS r θ θ r Fig. or z coordinate. it is possible to satisfy the boundary conditions. After the previous example. One of the solution of this problems is one dimensional.c) 0 0 (8.

VII. 1882 September 1.d) results in Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 ln r + c2 4 µ ∂z 237 (8. This problem study by Nusselt23 which developed the basics equations.VII. 1957 in Munchen 24 Extensive discussion can be found in this author master thesis. .e) Applying the ﬁrst boundary condition results in 0= 1 ∂P 2 ri + c1 ln ri + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.8.i) ro ri ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz ro Uz (r)dA (8.f) with the second boundary condition yields 0= The solution is c1 c2 = 1 ln 4µ 1 ln 4µ ro ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 dz (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Integration of equation (8. Furthermore.VII.VII. Comprehensive discussion about this problem can be found this author Master thesis.g) = The solution is then Uz (r) = 1 ∂P 2 1 r + ln 4 µ ∂z 4µ 1 + ln 4µ The ﬂow rate is then Q= ri End Solution ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 ln r dz (8.VII.VII.7.VII. This problem is related to many industrial process and is fundamental in understanding many industrial processes.h) ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz 1 ∂P 2 ro + c1 ln ro + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.8: In many situations in nature and many industrial processes liquid ﬂows downstream 23 German mechanical engineer.j) The next example deals with the gravity as body force in two dimensional ﬂow. this analysis is a building bloc for heat and mass transfer understanding24 . Ernst Kraft Wilhelm Nusselt born November 25. Example 8.

For this system. assume that the ﬂow is two dimenθ g cos θ g θ sional. the pressure loss in the gas phase (mostly air) is negligible.VIII. the gravity in the x direction is g sin θ while the direction of y the gravity is g cos θ. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS on inclined plate at θ as shown in Figure 8. For simplicg sin θ ity. Assume that the ﬂow obtains a steady state after some length (and the acceleration vanished). The dominate force is the gravity. Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence for example 8. The pressure is almost constant along the x coordinate. Calculate the velocity proﬁle. The ﬁrst term of the convective acceleration is zero under the assumption of this example ﬂow is fully developed and hence not a function of x (nothing to be “improved”). assume that the y gas density is zero (located outside the liqx uid domain). The second and the third terms in the convective acceleration are zero because the velocity at that direction is zero (Uy = Uz = 0). The surface has no curvature and hence the pressure at liquid side similar to the gas phase and the only change in liquid is in the y direction. -8. The governing in the x direction is =f (t) ∂U x ρ + ∂t =0 −0 ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz Ux + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z =0 ∼0 =0 =0 (8.19. The last term of the velocity Laplacian is zero because no velocity in ∂x the z direction. .1 dimensional in the x direction. As it will be shown later. Write the governing equations for this situation. Fully developed ﬂow means that the ﬁrst term of the velocity Laplacian is zero ( ∂Ux ≡ 0). Assume that the ﬂow is one Fig. pump Solution This problem is satiable to Cartesian coordinates in which x coordinate is pointed in the ﬂow direction and y perpendicular to ﬂow direction (depicted in Figure 8.238 CHAPTER 8. Hence the pressure at the gas phase is almost constant hence the pressure at the interface in the liquid is constant.a) − g sin θ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂P ∂ 2 Ux + ρ gx +µ + + ∂x2 ∂x ∂y 2 ∂z 2 The ﬁrst term of the acceleration is zero because the ﬂow is in a steady state.19). For this example.19. Assume that “scale” is large h enough so that the “no slip” condition prevail at the plate (bottom).

b) yields ρ ∂Ux = g sin θ y + c1 (8.VIII. the governing equation can not be suﬃcient from the mathematical point of view.b) With boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom because the large scale and steady state Ux (y = 0) = 0 (8.VIII.8. such a speciﬁc velocity at the surface.j) Where W here is the width into the page of the ﬂow.VIII. Integration of equation (8.VIII.g) The second integration applying the second boundary condition yields c2 = 0 results in τair g sin θ 2 y h − y2 − Ux = (8.VIII.VIII.VIII.d) If there is additional requirement. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Thus.h) ν µ When the shear stress caused by the air is neglected.VIII.VIII.k) .e) ∂y µ The integration constant can be obtain by applying the condition (8. the velocity proﬁle is Ux = The ﬂow rate per unit width is Q = W h g sin θ 2 h y − y2 ν (8. Which results in Q g sin θ 2 h3 τair h = − W ν 3 µ (8.i) Ux dA = A 0 g sin θ τair 2 h y − y2 − ν µ dy (8.VIII.a) is reduced to 0=µ ∂ 2 Ux + ρ g sin θ ∂y 2 239 (8.c) The boundary at the interface is simpliﬁed to be ∂Ux ∂y = τair (∼ 0) y=0 (8. equation (8.VIII.f) τair 1 g sin θ h + µ ν µ ρ (8.VIII.VIII.7.d) as τair Solving for c1 results in c1 = ∂Ux =µ ∂y y = −ρ g sin θ h +c1 µ h (8.

Example 8. The experiments were conducted on a solid concrete laboratory and the ﬂow was in a very stable system. The phenomenon is explained by the fact that there is somewhere instability which is transferred into the ﬂow.VIII. The ﬂow in the kerosene lamp is depends on the surface tension. -8. Calculate the minimum shear stress that required to operate the lump (alternatively. . The vanishing shear stress as tio it ) n y y at the interface was the only requirement x w ate was applied.8 no requirement was made sa as for the velocity at the interface (the upm e air so ve (g lu loc per boundary).1 Interfacial Instability In Example 8. Assume that radios of the liquid and solid core are given and the ﬂow is at steady state. End Solution In the following following example the issue of driving force of the ﬂow through curved interface is examined. This explanation bothered this author.9: A simpliﬁed ﬂow version the kerosene lump is of liquid moving up on a solid core. 8. Two boundary conditions must be satisﬁed at the interface. the boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom surface of liquid must be satisﬁed. The second domain (the gas phase) provides another equation with two constants but again three boundary conditions need to satisﬁed. Flow of liquid in partially ﬁlled duct. No matter how low ﬂow rate was small and big occurred. there is total of three boundary conditions25 to be satisﬁed. For the liquid. Thus.l) Note the shear stress at the interface can be positive or negative and hence can increase or decrease the ﬂow rate and the averaged velocity. thus current explanation was developed to explain the wavy phenomenon occurs. 25 The author was hired to do experiments on thin ﬁlm (gravity ﬂow). The Fig.7.240 The average velocity is then CHAPTER 8.20. The ﬂow surface is curved and thus pressure is not equal on both sides of the interface. However. These experiments were to study the formation of small and big waves at the interface. If the air is considered two r( liq uid governing equations must be solved one ) ah for the air (gas) phase and one for water h (liquid) phase. the maximum height). solution to the diﬀerential governing equations provides only two constants. two of the boundary conditions for these equations are the identical and thus the six boundary conditions are really only 4 boundary conditions. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Q 2 W = g sin θ 2 h − τair Ux = h ν 3 µ (8.

163) µg µ g sin θ h + c1 µg = g sin θ h + c3 µ νg ν Combining boundary conditions equation(8.162) (8.164) (8.b) and subtitling ν = µ/ρ.162) results in g sin θ 2 g sin θ 2 h + c1 h + c2 = h + c3 h 2 νg 2ν 26 This (8. the constants c1 and c2 are dimensional which mean that they have physical units (c1 −→ [1/sec] The governing equation in the liquid phase (0 ≥ y ≥ h) is Ux = g sin θ 2 y + c3 y + c4 2ν (8.159) with (8. the shear stress must be continuous µg ∂Uxg ∂Ux =µ ∂y ∂y (8. .159) (8.161) which leads c4 = 0 Applying equation (8.7.157) The gas velocity at the upper interface is vanished thus Ux g [(1 + a) h] = 0 At the interface the “no slip” condition is regularly applied and thus Ux g (h) = Ux (h) Also at the interface (a straight surface).160) yields ρg ρ (8.160) (8.158) Assuming “no slip” for the liquid at the bottom boundary as Ux (0) = 0 The boundary condition (8.156) Note.161) The same can be said for boundary condition (8.158) results in 0= g sin θ 2 h (1 + a)2 + c1 h (1 + a) + c2 2 νg (8.8.VIII. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) The governing equation solution26 for the gas phase (h ≥ y ≥ a h) is Ux g = g sin θ 2 y + c1 y + c2 2 νg 241 (8.165) equation results from double integrating of equation (8.

(8. Equation (8.162).167) can be written as (1 + a) = C1 + C2 2 (8.242 CHAPTER 8.164) 1 2 2 2 νg c1 2 c2 νg + g h sin θ g h2 sin θ (8.168) 2 νg h c1 ¡ 2 h£ g sin θ + 2 νg c2 νg 2 νg h c3 ¡ = + 2 sin θ h2 g sin θ ν g h£ (8.164) and (8.167) C1 1 µ 2 µg C3 1+ and equation (8.170) This presentation provide similarity and it will be shown in the Dimensional analysis chapter better physical understanding of the situation.166) c1 = − c2 = sin θ g h2 ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) − g h2 ν 2 ρg ν sin θ (g h ρg (2 a ρg ν ρ − 1) − a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) End Advance material c3 = When solving this kinds of mathematical problem the engineers reduce it to minimum amount of parameters to reduce the labor involve.165) 1+ νg c1 ρ µ νg c3 = + g h sin θ ρg µg g h sin θ (8.165) is obtained by computer algebra (see in the code) to be sin θ (g h ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) + a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) (8.169) Or rearranging equation (8.171) .162) transformed by some simple rearrangement to be C1 C2 (1 + a) = And equation (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Advance material can be skipped The solution of equation (8.169) C1 C2 C3 νg 2 νg c1 2 νg c2 2 νg c3 −1= + 2 − ν h g sin θ h g sin θ g h sin θ (8. So equation (8.

8. The requirement of the shear stress in the inﬁnite is zero as well.173) to be µg ρ − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 µ ρg (8. 28 This 27 Later .177) The two diﬀerent ﬂuids28 have ﬂow have a solution as long as the distance is ﬁnite reasonable similar.175) − C2 = µg ρ +a µ ρg 2 (8. ﬂow at inﬁnite is zero.174) The set of equation can be solved for the any ratio of the density and dynamic viscosity. it will be move to the Dimensional Chapter topic will be covered in dimensional analysis in more extensively.176) C3 = − µg ρ + a2 + 2 a + 2 µ ρg (8.173) This process that was shown here is referred as non–dimensionalization27 . mostly the gas. Combining inﬁnite size domain of one ﬂuid with ﬁnite size on the other one side results in unstable interface. There is no way obtain one dimensional solution for such case and there is a component in the y direction. is inﬁnite long. The ratio of the dynamics viscosity can be eliminated from equation (8. The boundary conditions of ﬂow with inﬁnite depth is that ﬂow at the interface is zero.170) νg − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 ν 243 (8. The solution for the constant is C1 = ρg µg µg − 2 + a2 + 2 a +2 ρ µ µ µg µg −2 +3 + a2 µ µ µg µ µg −1 −2 µ (8. The point here the understanding issue related to boundary condition not per se solution of the problem. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Further rearranging equation (8. This is one of the source of the instability at the interface.172) (8.168) ρ C1 µ C3 −1= − ρg 2 µg 2 and equation (8. What happen when the lighter ﬂuid.7.

DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS .244 CHAPTER 8.

Here. The author believes that the trends and eﬀects of multiphase ﬂow could and should be introduced and considered by engineers.there are two possibilities (1) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing in well homogeneous mixed (where the main problem 1 An example. 9. The knowledge in this topic without any doubts. in many books the representations is by writing the whole set governing equations. there was a Ph. This chapter provides information that is more or less in consensus2 .1 Introduction Traditionally. Initially the models were using simple assumptions. Thus. is required for many engineering problems. his analysis is in the twilight zone not in the real world. For simple models.D. Additionally. In the past. It is recognized that multiphase ﬂow is still evolving. only the trends and simple calculations are described. In fact. working for the government who analyzed ﬁling cavity with liquid metal (aluminum).CHAPTER 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9. As result. Calculations of many kinds of ﬂow deals with more than one phase or material ﬂow1 . who did not consider the ﬂow as two–phase ﬂow and ignoring the air. This book attempts to describe these issues as a fundamentals of physical aspects and less as a literature review. books on multiphase ﬂow were written more as a literature review or heavy on the mathematics. 2 Or when the scientiﬁc principles simply dictate.2 History The study of multi–phase ﬂow started for practical purposes after World War II. there is not a consensus to the exact map of many ﬂow regimes. For many engineers. the nature of multiphase ﬂow requires solving many equations. 245 . it is believed that the interactions/calculations requires a full year class and hence. this class will be the only opportunity to be exposed to this topic. the topic of multi–phase ﬂow is ignored in an introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics.

will know and understand the trends. Taitle–Duckler’s map is not applicable for microgravity. ﬂow parameters eﬀects on the ﬂow regimes. For example. Researchers that followed Lockhart and Martinelli looked for a diﬀerent map for diﬀerent combination of phases. and importance to real world. The ﬂow patterns or regimes were not considered. It is an attempt to explain and convince all the readers that the multi–phase ﬂow must be included in introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics3 . However. phase change or transfer processes during ﬂow. this chapter will explain the core concepts of the multiphase ﬂow and their relationship. researchers started to look for diﬀerent ﬂow regimes and provided diﬀerent models. Under this assumption the total is not linear and experimental correlation was made. a description of what to expect in this chapter is provided. If the pressure loss was linear then the total loss will be the summation of the two pressure losses (of the lighter liquid (gas) and the heavy liquid). When it became apparent that speciﬁc models were needed for diﬀerent situations. Taitle and Duckler’s map is not universal and it is only applied to certain liquid–gas conditions. and calculation of pressure drop of simple homogeneous model. This chapter will provide: a category of combination of phases. MULTI–PHASE FLOW to ﬁnd the viscosity). and more importantly. Also the researchers looked at the situation when the diﬀerent regimes are applicable. 9. and actual calculation of pressure of the diﬀerent regimes. partial discussion on speed of sound of diﬀerent regimes. the concept of ﬂow regimes. Hence. This chapter will introduce these concepts so that the engineer not only be able to understand a conversation on multi-phase but also. This was suggested by Lockhart and Martinelli who use a model where the ﬂow of the two ﬂuids are independent of each other.246 CHAPTER 9. Which leads to the concept of ﬂow regime maps. Taitle and Duckler suggested a map based on ﬁve non-dimensional groups which are considered as the most useful today. However. They postulate that there is a relationship between the pressure loss of a single phase and combine phases pressure loss as a function of the pressure loss of the other phase. this chapter will not provide a discussion of transient problems. . double choking phenomenon (hopefully). (2) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing separately where the actual total loss pressure can be correlated based on the separate pressure loss of each of the material. multi–phase ﬂow parameters deﬁnitions. It turned out this idea provides a good crude results in some cases.3 What to Expect From This Chapter As oppose to the tradition of the other chapters in this book and all other Potto project books.

The discussion in the previous chapters is only as approximation when multiphase can be “reduced” into a single phase ﬂow. consider air ﬂow that was discussed and presented earlier as a single phase ﬂow. However. This fact is due to the shear number of the downloaded Potto books. it is assumed that air is made of only gases. In fact. there are situations when air ﬂow has to be considered as multiphase ﬂow and this eﬀect has to be taken into account. The creation 3 This author feels that he is in an unique position to inﬂuence many in the ﬁeld of ﬂuid mechanics. the homogeneous assumption is enough and suitable. It also provides an opportunity to bring the latest advances in the ﬁelds since this author does not need to “sell” the book to a publisher or convince a “committee.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow All the ﬂows are a form of multiphase ﬂow. While the diﬀerence of the concentration between the top to button is insigniﬁcant. Practically for many cases. The results of the calculations of a mixture do not change much if it is assumed that the air ﬂow as stratiﬁed ﬂow 4 of many concentration layers (thus. Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. or a large acceleration. Hence. nonetheless it exists.9. many layers (inﬁnite) of diﬀerent materials).4.000 in about two and half years. Adopting this assumption might lead to a larger error.1. . this assumption will not be appropriate when the air is stratiﬁed because of large body forces. In our calculation. -9.” 4 Diﬀerent concentration of oxygen as a function of the height. The number of the downloads of the book on Fundamental of compressible ﬂow has exceed more than 100. For example. Air is not a pure material but a mixture of many gases. 9. KIND OF MULTI-PHASE FLOW Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid 247 Gas Solid soid Liquid Solid Solid Soid Fig. many proprieties of air are calculated as if the air is made of well mixed gases of Nitrogen and Oxygen.

Since there are three phases. This notion eliminates many other ﬂow categories that can and should be included in multiphase ﬂow. Generally. sand and grain (which are “solids”) ﬂow with rocks and is referred to solid–solid ﬂow. Open Channel ﬂow is. ﬂuidized bed. Liquid–liquid ﬂow is probably the most common ﬂow in the nature. Many natural phenomenon are multiphase ﬂow. The multiphase is an important part of many processes. When the .5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid ﬂow will be discussed as a special case. mud ﬂow etc. the density is a strong function of the temperature and pressure. The same can be said for gas–gas ﬂow. solid propellant rocket. and river ﬂow. Many industrial process also include liquid-liquid such as painting. and industries. is only an extreme case of liquid-gas ﬂow and is a sub category of the multiphase ﬂow. there are situations where cleanness of the air can aﬀect the ﬂow. it is more common to categorize the ﬂow by the distinct phases that ﬂow in the tube. The engineering accuracy is enough to totally ignore it. Many industries are involved with this ﬂow category such as dust collection. rain. the cleanness of the air or the fact that air is a mixture is ignored. Thus. This category should include any distinction of phase/material. March 29. The liquid–solid. The category of liquid–gas should be really viewed as the extreme case of liquid-liquid where the density ratio is extremely large. This ﬂow is used by engineers to reduce the cost of moving crude oil through a long pipes system. 360070 issued to George Westinghouse. they can be solid–liquid. 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW of clean room is a proof that air contains small particles. paint spray.248 CHAPTER 9. 1887). plasma and river ﬂow with live creatures (small organisms to large ﬁsh) ﬂow of ice berg. the breaks would started to work after about 20 seconds in the last wagon. The water ﬂow is the source of the friction. One way to categorize the multiphase is by the materials ﬂows. In a four (4) miles long train. There are many more categories. For example. For the gas. and avalanches. living bodies (bio–ﬂuids). For example. Jr. However. The multiphase can be found in nature. hydraulic with two or more kind of liquids. Gas–solid can be found in sand storms. Flow of air is actually the ﬂow of several light liquids (gases). This ﬂow also appears in any industrial process that are involved in solidiﬁcation (for example die casting) and in moving solid particles. although important. there are two possibilities for two diﬀerent materials to ﬂow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination). In almost all situations. the breaks in long trains were activated by reduction of the compressed line (a patent no. solid–gas.. for an example. liquid–gas and solid–liquid–gas ﬂow. The “average” viscosity is meaningless since in many cases the water follows around the oil. The materials can ﬂow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current ﬂow. the cleanness of air can reduce the speed of sound. spray casting. Yet. the ﬂow of oil and water in one pipe is a multiphase ﬂow. in nature can be blood ﬂow. In the past. The body inhales solid particle with breathing air. a 10% change of the speed of sound due to dust particles in air could reduce the stopping time by 2 seconds (50 meter diﬀerence in stopping) and can cause an accident. for example.

2.1.9. 9. horizontal. It is common to diﬀerentiate between the vertical (and near vertical) and horizontal (and near horizontal). 5 With the exception of the extremely smaller diameter where Rayleigh–Taylor instability is an important issue. two liquids can have three main categories: vertical. 5 top as depicted in Figure 9. There is no exact meaning to the word “near vertical” or “near horizontal” and there is no consensus on the limiting angles (not to mention to have limits as a function with any parameter that determine the limiting angle). the ﬂow is referred to as open channel ﬂow. -9. the counter–current ﬂow must have special conﬁgurations of long length of ﬂow. The channel ﬂow will be discussed in a greater detail in Open Channel Flow chapter. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 249 materials ﬂow in the opposite direction. The ﬂow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the ﬂuids. The other characteristic that is diﬀerent between the gas ﬂow and the liquid ﬂow is the variation of the density. up or down. For low velocity (low ﬂow rate) of the two liquids. The main diﬀerence between the liquid–liquid ﬂow to gas-liquid ﬂow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density. the limits between the ﬂow regimes are considerably diﬀerent. the co-current is the more common. Light Liquid and non open channel ﬂow). and annular ﬂow. Open channel ﬂow appears in many nature (river) as well in industrial process such as the die casting process where liquid metal is injected into a cylinder (tube) shape. This deﬁnition (open channel ﬂow) continues for small amount of lighter liquid as long as the heavier ﬂow can be calculated as open channel ﬂow (ignoring the lighter liquid). dispersed Heavy Liquid bubble ﬂow. The vertical conﬁguration has two cases. the ﬂow of gas–liquid can have several ﬂow regimes in one situation while the ﬂow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one ﬂow regime. and what ever between them.5. . The geometries (even the boundaries) of open channel ﬂow are very diverse. When the ﬂow rate of the lighter liquid is almost zero. This issue of incline ﬂow will not be covered in this chapter.1 Horizontal Flow The typical regimes for horizontal ﬂow are stratiﬁed ﬂow (open channel ﬂow. plug ﬂow. it is referred as counter–current. Yet. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as horizontal ﬂow. Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when bottom and lighter liquid ﬂows on the the liquids ﬂow is very slow. the heavy liquid ﬂows on the Fig. a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric ﬂow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. the counter–current ﬂow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical ﬂow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics. The ﬂow in inclined angle (that not covered by the word “near”) exhibits ﬂow regimes not much diﬀerent from the other two.2. 9. In general. water and air ﬂow as oppose to water and oil ﬂow.5. For example.1 Co–Current Flow In Co–Current ﬂow. Generally. For example.5. Additionally. Thus.

3. The slug ﬂow cannot be assumed to be as homogeneous ﬂow nor it can exhibit some average viscosity. If the heavier ﬂow rate is small. As the lighter liquid velocity increases two things can happen (1) wave size increase and (2) the shape of cross section continue to deform. Thus. Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in There are two paths that can occur on the heavier horizontal tubes. Light Liquid Light Liquid Some referred to this regime as wavy stratiﬁed ﬂow Heavy Liquid Heavy Liquid but this deﬁnition is not accepted by all as a category by itself. At this stage. the friction between the phases increase. liquid level is higher. Plug ﬂow is characterized by regions of lighter liquid ﬁlled with drops of the heavier liquid with Plug (or Slug) of the heavier liquid (with bubble of the lighter liquid). In fact. -9. when the lighter liquid ﬂow increases. and other physical properties of the ﬂuids but also on the material of the conduit. Choking occurs in compressible Light Liquid ﬂow when the ﬂow rate is above a certain point. For liquid which the density is a strong and primary function of the pressure. the ﬂow pattern is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow. then the wave cannot reach to the crown and the shape is deformed to the point that all the heavier liquid is around the periphery. liquid ﬂow rate. At some point. MULTI–PHASE FLOW As the lighter liquid (or the gas phase) ﬂow rate increases (superﬁcial velocity). The wave shape is created to keep the gas and the liquid velocity equal and at the same time to have shear stress to be balance by surface tension. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as annular ﬂow. The plugs are ﬂowing in a succession (see Figure 9. . -9. Fig. the heavier liquid wave reaches to the crown of the pipe. The “average” viscosity depends on the ﬂow and thus making it as insigniﬁcant way to do the calculations. Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the closer/sooner. all the two phase ﬂow are categorized by wavy ﬂow which will proven later. thus it is arbitrary deﬁnition. choking occurs relatively Fig. the ﬂow that starts liquids ﬂow is faster. all the ﬂow is wavy. These plugs are separated by large “chunks” that almost ﬁll the entire tube. The pressure drop of this kind of regime is signiﬁcantly larger than the stratiﬁed ﬂow.4. Thus. as a stratiﬁed ﬂow will turned into a slug ﬂow or stratiﬁed wavy7 ﬂow after a certain distance depends on the heavy ﬂow rate (if 6 The 7 Well. If the heavier liquid ﬂow rate is larger6 than the distance. This friction is one of the cause for the instability which manifested itself as waves and changing the surface from straight line to a diﬀerent conﬁguration (see Figure 9.3). The conﬁguration of the cross section not only depend on the surface tension.250 CHAPTER 9. Further increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate move the ﬂow regime into annular ﬂow. The superﬁcial velocity is referred to as the velocity that any phase will have if the other phase was not exist.4). for the wave to reach the conduit crown is smaller. the possibility to go through slug ﬂow regime depends on if there is enough liquid ﬂow rate. All liquids are compressible Heavy Liquid to some degree.

Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. The angle decreases with the length of the pipe. The choking can occur before the annular ﬂow regime is obtained depending on the velocity and compressibility of the lighter liquid. in normal gravitation. the ﬂow become annular or the ﬂow will choke. This phenomenon is refer to as hysteresis. e. liquid–liquid ﬂow has a maximum combined of the ﬂow rate (both phases). There is even a possibility to return on diﬀerent ﬂow regime. there is no consensus how far is the “near” means.2 Vertical Flow The vertical ﬂow has two possibilities. -9. 9. After a certain distance. etc. Besides the length. this map is only characteristics of the “normal” conditions. There is a difference between ﬂowing with the gravity and ﬂowing against the gravity. Qualitatively. For example. In engineering application. weak to strong surface tension eﬀects (air/water in “normal” gravity). as in compressible ﬂow.5. the “near” angle depends on the length of the pipe.5. The reverse way is referred to the process where the starting point is high ﬂow rate and the ﬂow rate is decreasing. other parameters can aﬀect the “near. This maximum is known as double choking phenomenon. The results of the above discussion are depicted in Figure 9. However. the vertical ﬂow against the gravity is more common used. ﬂow that had slug ﬂow in its path can be returned as stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow.9.5. with the gravity or against it. the return path is not move the exact same way. The buoyancy . CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 251 this category is accepted). Flow that is under small angle from the horizontal will be similar to the horizontal ﬂow. As many things in multiphase.5.g. Hence.1. As in many ﬂuid mechanics and magnetic ﬁelds.” Dispersed Bubble Liquid Superficial Velocity Elongated Bubble Slug Flow Annular Flow Stratified Flow Wavy Stratified Open Channel Flow Gas Superficial Velocity Fig.

the ﬂow regime is referred as elongated bubble ﬂow. there are diﬀerent ﬂow regimes for these two situations. all these “elongated slug” unite to become an annular ﬂow. they create a large bubble and the ﬂow is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow (see Figure 9. Thus. the ﬂow cannot start as a stratiﬁed ﬂow. see Figure 9. Again. Any further increase transforms the outer liquid layer into bubbles in the inner liquid. Flow of near vertical against the gravity in two–phase does not deviate from vertical. Further increase of lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the slug size as more bubbles collide to create “super slug”. The main reason that causes the diﬀerence is that the heavier liquid is more dominated by gravity (body forces) while the lighter liquid is dominated by the pressure driving forces. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Bubble Flow Slug or Plug Flow Churn Flow Annular Flow Dispersed Flow Fig. The heavier liquid has to occupy almost the entire cross section before it can ﬂow because of the gravity forces. The opposite is for the ﬂow with gravity.6. When many bubbles collide. Notice. -9. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. the diﬀerent mechanism in creating the plug ﬂow in horizontal ﬂow compared to the vertical ﬂow. the lighter liquid has a buoyancy that acts as an “extra force” to move it faster and this eﬀect is opposite for the heavier liquid.6). For the ﬂow against gravity. . it can be noted the diﬀerence in the mechanism that create annular ﬂow for vertical and horizontal ﬂow. The ﬂow is less stable as more turbulent ﬂow and several “super slug” or churn ﬂow appears in more chaotic way. is acting in two diﬀerent directions for these two ﬂow regimes. Thus. The choking can occur at any point depends on the ﬂuids and temperature and pressure. Flow Against Gravity For vertical ﬂow against gravity. The increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the number of bubbles until some bubbles start to collide. After additional increase of “super slug” .252 CHAPTER 9. the ﬂow starts as a bubble ﬂow.6.

the regime liquid ﬁlls the entire void and the gas is in small bubble and this ﬂow referred to as bubbly ﬂow.1. -9.3 Vertical Flow Under Micro Gravity 253 The above discussion mostly explained the Dispersed Dispersed ﬂow in a vertical conﬁguration when the Bubble Bubble surface tension can be neglected. there is pulse ﬂow in which liquid is moving in frequent pulses. the liquid becomes more turbulent and some parts enter into the gas phase as drops. The ﬂow starts as disTrickling persed bubble (some call it as “gas conFlow Spray or tinuous”) because the gas phase occupies Mist Flow most of column. and Weber numbers. A dimensional vertical ﬂow map considered as the “open channel ﬂow” of under very low gravity against the gravity. both will be united in this discussion.6. all the gas phase change into tiny drops of liquid and this kind of regime referred to as mist ﬂow.7). Here. the initial part has a larger section compared to the ﬂow against the gravity ﬂow. The interaction between the phases is minimal and can be Fig. The liquid–liquid (also . the ﬂow continues in a stratiﬁed conﬁguration. In cases where the surface tension is very important. The ordinate is a combination of ﬂow rate ratio and density ratio. The transitions between the ﬂow regimes is similar to stratiﬁed ﬂow. Figure 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 9. In the medium range of the ﬂow rate of gas and liquid. out in space between gas and liquid (large density diﬀerence) the situaPulsing & Bubbling tion is diﬀerent.9. At a higher rate of liquid ﬂow and a low ﬂow rate of gas. The common map is based on dimensionless parameters.7 presented in dimensionless coordinates.Reynolds. this ﬂow can starts with stratiﬁed ﬂow. it must be possible to construct a model that connects this conﬁguration with the stratiﬁed ﬂow where the transitions will be dependent on the angle of inclinations. While this author is not aware of an actual model. it is presented in a dimension form to explain the trends (see Figure 9. Liquid Flow Rate 9. the points where these transitions occur are diﬀerent from the horizontal ﬂow.7. The initial part for this ﬂow is more signiﬁcant. Pulsing For example. However. Flow With The Gravity As opposed to the ﬂow against gravity. However. The liquid ﬂows through Gas Flow Rage a trickle or channeled ﬂow that only partially wets part of the tube. the vertical conﬁguration. When the ﬂow rate of the gas increases further.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions Since the gas–liquid system is a speciﬁc case of the liquid–liquid system. Since the heavy liquid can be supplied from the “wrong” point/side. As the gas ﬂow increases.5. After the ﬂow has settled. for the convenience of the terms “gas and liquid” will be used to signify the lighter and heavier liquid. respectively. In the literature. The abscissa is a function of combination of Froude . A good example for this ﬂow regime is a water fall.

over its cross section.6. To simplify the descriptions of the problem and yet to retain the important features of the ﬂow.5) For liquid with very high bulk modulus (almost constant density). the only serious missing point in this discussion is the change of the ﬂow along the distance of the tube. MULTI–PHASE FLOW gas–liquid) ﬂow is an extremely complex three–dimensional transient problem since the ﬂow conditions in a pipe may vary along its length.7) .6) GG = UsG ρG (9.1) It is common to deﬁne the mass velocity instead of the regular velocity because the “regular” velocity changes along the length of the pipe.4) mL ˙ A (9. The volumetric ﬂow rate is not constant (since the density is not constant) along the ﬂow rate and it is deﬁned as QG = and for the liquid QL = GL ρL (9. and with time.3) It has to be emphasized that this mass velocity is the actual velocity.254 CHAPTER 9. Perhaps.2) Where A is the entire area of the tube. The liquid mass velocity is GL = The mass ﬂow of the tube is then G= m ˙ A (9. 9. The total volumetric volume vary along the tube length and is Q = QL + QG (9. some variables are deﬁned so that the ﬂow can be described as a one-dimensional ﬂow. The gas mass velocity is GG = mG ˙ A (9.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions The total mass ﬂow rate through the tube is the sum of the mass ﬂow rates of the two phases m = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ˙ (9. This method is the most common and important to analyze two-phase ﬂow pressure drop and other parameters. It has to be noted that this mass velocity does not exist in reality. the volumetric ﬂow rate can be considered as constant.

it can be noted that the slip velocity is not constant along the tube. LH is not constant for the same reasons the void fraction is not constant. The liquid fraction or liquid holdup is LH = 1 − α = AL A (9. The average superﬁcial velocity of the gas and liquid are diﬀerent. The actual velocities depend on the other phase since the actual cross section the phase ﬂows is dependent on the other phase. The ratio of the gas ﬂow cross sectional area to the total cross sectional area is referred as the void fraction and deﬁned as α= AG A (9. The gas superﬁcial velocity is therefore deﬁned as UsG = The liquid superﬁcial velocity is UsL = GL (1 − X) m ˙ = = QL ρL ρL A (9.6. a superﬁcial velocity is commonly deﬁned in which if only one phase is using the entire tube. . Also.8) In a similar fashion.9. It can be noticed that Um is not constant along the tube. Thus. Thus. the value of (1 − X) is referred to as the “wetness fraction.9) This fraction is vary along tube length since the gas density is not constant along the tube length.13) Where Um is the averaged velocity. the ratio of these velocities is referred to as the slip velocity and is deﬁned as the following SLP = UG UL (9.11) Since UsL = QL and similarly for the gas then Um = UsG + UsL (9.14) Slip ratio is usually greater than unity.” The last two factions remain constant along the tube length as long the gas and liquid masses remain constant. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 255 Ratio of the gas ﬂow rate to the total ﬂow rate is called the ’quality’ or the “dryness fraction” and is given by X= GG mG ˙ = m ˙ G (9.12) GG Xm ˙ = = QG ρG ρG A (9.10) It must be noted that Liquid holdup.

thus equation (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW For the same velocity of phases (SLP = 1).17) can be simpliﬁed by canceling the m and noticing the (1−X)+X = 1 ˙ to become + (1−X) ρL The average speciﬁc volume of the ﬂow is then X ρG ρaverage = 1 (9.1) and (9.7) into equation (9.21) .20) becomes X= ρG α ρL (1 − α) + ρG α (9.19) The relationship between X and α is AG X= mG ˙ ρG UG A α ρG UG α = = (9.15) This density represents the density taken at the “frozen” cross section (assume the volume is the cross section times inﬁnitesimal thickness of dx). The density of any material is deﬁned as ρ = m/V and thus.256 CHAPTER 9.16) results in mG ˙ mL ˙ ρaverage = ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ = ˙ X m (1 − X) m ˙ QG + QL + ρG ρL QG QL (9.16) Where Q is the volumetric ﬂow rate.20) mG + mL ˙ ˙ ρL UL A(1 − α) +ρG UG A α ρL UL (1 − α) + ρG UG α AL If the slip is one SLP = 1.18) vaverage = 1 ρaverage = X (1 − X) + = X vG + (1 − X) vL ρG ρL (9.17) Equation (9. The average density of the material ﬂowing in the tube can be evaluated by looking at the deﬁnition of density. the mixture density is deﬁned as ρm = α ρG + (1 − α) ρL (9. for the ﬂowing material it is ρ= m ˙ Q (9. Substituting equations (9.

The single phase was studied earlier in this book and there is a considerable amount of information about it.24) as − dP S m dUm ˙ = − τw − + ρm g sin θ dx A A dx (9. Furthermore. this assumption has to be broken. Now.13)) is Um = QL + QG = UsL + UsG = Um A (9.26) . the simplest is to used it for approximation. Thus. these segments are not deﬁned but results of the conditions imposed on the ﬂow.9.1: Under what conditions equation (9.7. it was assumed that the ﬂow is continuous.23) is correct? Solution Under construction End Solution The governing momentum equation can be approximated as m ˙ dUm dP = −A − S τw − A ρm g sin θ dx dx (9.7 Homogeneous Models Before discussing the homogeneous models. For the construction of ﬂuid basic equations. it was assumed that the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes can be neglected at least for the pressure loss (not correct for the heat transfer). Initially.25) The energy equation can be approximated as dw d dq − =m ˙ dx dx dx hm + Um 2 + g x sin θ 2 (9. In fact. the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes are examples of typical conﬁguration of segments of continuous ﬂow. The average velocity (see also equation (9. and the ﬂow is continuous only in many chunks (small segments). it is worthwhile to appreciate the complexity of the ﬂow. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 257 9.24) or modifying equation (9.22) It can be noted that the continuity equation is satisﬁed as m = ρm Um A ˙ (9.23) Example 9.

For example. and body force(gravitation). For laminar ﬂow C = 16 and n = 1. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 9. For calculating the frictional pressure loss in the pipe is − dP dx = f 4 τw D (9. Yet.30) The friction factor is measured for a single phase ﬂow where the average velocity is directly related to the wall shear stress.27) dx dx f dx a dx g Every part of the total pressure loss will be discussed in the following section.28) Where S is the perimeter of the ﬂuid. since there isn’t anything better. In fact. this friction factor was not measured for the “averaged” viscosity of the two phase ﬂow. For turbulent ﬂow C = 0.079 and n = 0.1. for small distances (dx) and some situations. the pressure loss is aﬀected by friction loss.7. this dependency can be neglected.1 Pressure Loss Components In a tube ﬂowing upward in incline angle θ. the total pressure loss can be written as f riction acceleration gravity dP dP dP dP + + = (9. These losses are non-linear and depend on each other. the experimental data that was developed and measured for single ﬂow is used. The friction factor is obtained by using the correlation f =C ρm Um D µm −n (9.258 CHAPTER 9. . In that case. from equation (9.1 Friction Pressure Loss The frictional pressure loss for a conduit can be calculated as − dP dx = f S τw A (9. 9. acceleration.25). acceleration must occur.29) The wall shear stress can be estimated by τw = f ρm Um 2 2 (9.25.31) Where C and n are constants which depend on the ﬂow regimes (turbulent or laminar ﬂow). There is not available experimental data for the relationship of the averaged velocity of the two (or more) phases and wall shear stress.7. However. the gravitation pressure loss reduce the pressure and thus the density must change and hence.

In second case is where the mass ﬂow rates of gas and liquid is constant in which the derivative of X is zero. For the last point. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 259 There are several suggestions for the average viscosity. The third special case is for constant density of one phase only.32) Duckler linear formula does not provide always good approximation and Cichilli suggest similar to equation (9.1.7. Equation (9.35) can be written as − dP dx =m ˙ a d dx m ˙ A ρm (9. The ﬁrst case where the cross section is constant. dρL / dx = 0.34) The acceleration pressure loss can be estimated by − dP dx =m ˙ a dUm dx (9.35) The acceleration pressure loss (can be positive or negative) results from change of density and the change of cross section. For example.2 Acceleration Pressure Loss (9. 9. the private case is where densities are constant for both phases.7.18) average viscosity as µaverage = 1 X µG (1−X) µL + (9. Duckler suggest the following µm = µG QG µL QL + QG + QL QG + QL (9.36) becomes pressure loss due to pressure loss due to density change area change 2 =m ˙ 1 1 d 1 dA + 2 dx A dx ρm ρm A − dP dx (9. . the friction loss can be estimated.36) Or in an explicit way equation (9. dA/ dx = 0.9.33) Or simply make the average viscosity depends on the mass fraction as µm = X µG + (1 − X) µL Using this formula. dX/ dx = 0.37) a There are several special cases.

private communication with Y.38) The density change during the ﬂow can be represented as a function of density.39) and therefore f riction acceleration gravity ∆Pab = ∆Pab f + ∆Pab a + ∆Pab g (9. Taitle .1.41) SG f TP Where the T P denotes the two phases and SG denotes the pressure loss for the single gas phase. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Gravity was discussed in Chapter 4 and is dP dx = g ρm sin θ g (9. (a and b) can be calculated with integration as b ∆Pab = a dP dx dx (9.40) 9. Lockhart Martinelli parameters are deﬁned as the ratio of the pressure loss of two phases and pressure of a single phase.4 Total Pressure Loss The total pressure between two points.7.7.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model The second method is by assumption that every phase ﬂow separately One such popular model by Lockhart and Martinelli8 .38) is the density without the “movement” (the “static” density).3 Gravity Pressure Loss CHAPTER 9. 8 This method was considered a military secret. Equivalent deﬁnition for the liquid side is φL = dP dx dP dx (9.7.1. there are two parameters as shown below. φG = dP dx dP dx (9. Lockhart and Martinelli built model based on the assumption that the separated pressure loss are independent from each other. 9.42) SL f TP Where the SL denotes the pressure loss for the single liquid phase.. Thus. The density in equation (9.260 9.

in this discussion.45) For the gas phase.” Therefor. the pressure loss is dP dx = G 2 fG UG 2 ρl DG (9. etc). Thus. Diﬀerent combination of solid particle creates diﬀerent “liquid.8. analysis of small coal particles in water is diﬀerent from large coal particles in water. The ﬂow with the gravity and heavier density solid particles. The word “solid” is not really mean solid but a combination of many solid particles.8 Solid–Liquid Flow Solid–liquid system is simpler to analyze than the liquid-liquid system. In solid–liquid. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 261 The ratio of the pressure loss for a single liquid phase and the pressure loss for a single gas phase is Ξ= dP dx dP dx (9.46) Simpliﬁed model is when there is no interaction between the two phases.44) SL The pressure loss for the liquid phase is dP dx = L 2 fL UL 2 ρl DL (9. Consider the case where the solid is heavier than the liquid phase. To insert the Diagram. It is also assumed that the “liquids” density does not change signiﬁcantly and it is far from the choking point.9. it is assumed that the surface tension is insigniﬁcant compared to the gravity forces.43) SG f SL where Ξ is Martinelli parameter. The uniformity is categorizing the particle sizes. 2. cubic. The ﬂow against the gravity and lighter density solid particles. dP dx = SG dP dx (9. 3.there will be a discussion about diﬀerent particle size and diﬀerent geometry (round. 9. The density of the solid can be above or below the liquid. The ﬂow with the gravity and lighter density solid particles. the eﬀect of the surface tension are very minimal and can be ignored. . and geometry. distribution. It is assumed that the pressure loss for both phases are equal. For example. In that case there are four possibilities for vertical ﬂow: 1.

Re. However. CD ∞ . and D is the equivalent radius of the particles.52) . However. 9.50) For larger Reynolds numbers.48) Inserting equating (9.49) Equation (9.47) Where CD ∞ is the drag coeﬃcient and is a function of Reynolds number. The drag coeﬃcient. 1 and 4 and the second set is 2 and 3. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 4. it can be approximated for several regimes. The ﬁrst set is similar because the solid particles are moving faster than the liquid velocity and vice versa for the second set (slower than the liquid).8.44 (9. the liquid cannot carry the solid particles because there is not enough resistance to lift up the solid particles.47) become CD ∞ (UL ) f (Re) UL 2 = 4 D g (ρS − ρL ) 3 ρL (9. The discussion here is about the last case (4) because very little is known about the other cases. the Newton’s Law region. CD ∞ is complicated function of the Reynolds number.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL Solid–liquid ﬂow has several combination ﬂow regimes.262 CHAPTER 9. A particle in a middle of the vertical liquid ﬂow experience several forces.51) 24 Re (9. The ﬁrst regime is for Re < 1 where Stokes’ Law can be approximated as CD ∞ = In transitional region 1 < Re < 1000 CD ∞ = 24 Re 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 (9. is nearly constant as CD ∞ = 0. The Reynolds number deﬁned as Re = UL D ρL µL (9.49) relates the liquid velocity that needed to maintain the particle “ﬂoating” to the liquid and particles properties. The force balance of spherical particle in ﬁeld viscous ﬂuid (creeping ﬂow) is gravity and buoyancy forces π D g (ρS − ρL ) 6 3 drag forces = CD ∞ π D2 ρL UL 2 8 (9. The ﬂow against the gravity and heavier density solid particles. there are two sets of similar characteristics.48) into equation (9. possibility. When the liquid velocity is very small. All these possibilities are diﬀerent.

the case of liquid. the only velocity that can be applied is Trasiton the ﬂuid velocity. For small gas/liquid velocity. partialy Fully the discussion will be focus on the ﬂuid solid fluidized velocity. Additional increase of the ﬂuid velocity will move all the particles and this Fig. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 263 In most cases of solid-liquid system. the Reynolds number is in the second range9 . Further increase of the ﬂuid ﬂow increases the empty spots to the whole ﬂow. When the velocity of liquid is higher than the minimum velocity many particles will be ﬂoating. Increasing the ﬂuid velocity beyond a minimum will move the parti∆Ptube cles and it is referred to as mix ﬂuidized bed. the particle will drift with the liquid. particles flow the particles are what some call ﬁxed ﬂuidized bed. 9 It be wonderful if ﬂow was in the last range? The critical velocity could be found immediately.9. Consequently.8.53) When the subscript α is indicating the void. Additional increase in the ﬂuid velocity causes large turbulence and the ordinary domes are replaced by churn type ﬂow or large bubbles that are almost empty of the solid particles. Thus. In that case. For particles. US|avarge . The terminal velocity that left the solid is referred to as fully ﬂuidized bed. For the ﬁrst region.8. Thus.9). the solid particles Packed can be supplied at diﬀerent rate. In the literature there are many functions for various conditions. -9. It has to remember that not all the particle are uniform in size or shape. In very large range (especially for gas) the choking might be approached. the minimum velocity is a range of velocity rather than a sharp transition point. So far the discussion was about single particle. additional increase create “tunnels” of empty almost from solid particles. the sparse solid particles are dispersed all over. This regimes is referred to as Pneumatic conveying (see Figure 9. For the case of gas. Yet. the particle will sink into the liquid. When the velocity is lower. When there are more than one particle in the cross section. further increase will create a slug ﬂow. Minimum velocity is the velocity when the particle is “ﬂoating”. As the solid particles are not pushed by a pump but moved by the forces the ﬂuid applies to them. in many cases the middle region is applicable. This slug ﬂow is when slug shape (domes) are almost empty of the solid particle. Thus. then the actual velocity that every particle experience depends on the void fraction. If the velocity is larger. The simplest assumption that the change of the cross section of the ﬂuid create a parameter that multiply the single particle as CD ∞ |α = CD ∞ f (α) (9. the function f (α) is not a linear function. the velocity is small to lift the particle unless the density diﬀerence is very small (that very small force can lift the particles).

the speed of sound is reduced dramatically with increase of the solid particles concentration (further reading Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” chapter on Fanno Flow by this author is recommended).2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity This situation is minimal and very few cases exist.8. In the gas phase.264 CHAPTER 9. 9. Furthermore. the ﬂuid density can be higher than the solid (especially with micro gravity). The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow. The ﬂow can have slug ﬂow but more likely will be in fast Fluidization regime. The issue of minimum terminal velocity is not exist and therefor there is no ﬁxed or mixed ﬂuidized bed. Nevertheless. Thus. The buoyancy is accelerating the particle . it must be pointed out that even in solid–gas. However. The forces that act on the spherical particle are the buoyancy force and drag force. The ﬂow is fully ﬂuidized for any liquid ﬂow rate. The speed of sound of the liquid does not change much. Hence. there is very little knowledge about the solid–liquid when the solid density is smaller than the liquid density.9. Hence. several conclusions and/or expectations can be drawn. One of the main diﬀerence between the liquid and gas ﬂow in this category is the speed of sound. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fixed Bed Mixed Bed Slug or Plug Flow Turbulent Regimes Fast Fluidization Pneumatic Conveying Fig. There was very little investigations and known about the solid–liquid ﬂowing down (with the gravity). the length of conduit is very limited. -9. this limitation does not (eﬀectively) exist for most cases of solid–liquid ﬂow. the velocity √ of gas is limited when reaching the Mach somewhere between 1/ k and 1 since the gas will be choked (neglecting the double choking phenomenon). There is no known ﬂow map for this kind of ﬂow that this author is aware of.

However. physical properties) positive while the pressure diﬀerence in the other phase can be negative.54) 6 8 From equation 9. Initially the solid particles will be carried by the liquid to the top. Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. In most cases. When the liquid velocity increase and became turbulent. Annular Extented Flow In that case. UL /US → 0. be ﬁnite. for large velocity of the ﬂuid it can be observed that UL /US → 1.10. The counter-current ﬂow occurs. it can observed that increase of the liquid velocity will increase the solid particle velocity at the same amount. Further increase of the liquid velocity appear as somewhat similar to slug ﬂow. for Pulse Flow Inpossible long tubes. the counter–current ﬂow can have opposite pressure gradient for short conduit. some of the particles enter into the liquid core. the possibility to have counter–current ﬂow is limited to having short length of tubes. This kind of ﬂow is probably the most common to be realized by the masses. Thus. For example. the pressure diﬀerence and Open Channel gravity (body forces) dominates the ﬂow. The solid–liquid horizontal ﬂow has some similarity to horizontal gas–liquid ﬂow. Otherwise.9. Most people know that two holes are needed to empty the can easily and continuously. The pressure diﬀerence in the interface must Fig. this author have not seen any evidence that show the annular ﬂow does not appear in solid–liquid ﬂow. -9. the ﬂow will be in a pulse regime. Flow The inertia components of the ﬂow. for a small ﬂuid velocity the velocity ratio is very large. In only certain conﬁgurations of the inﬁnite long pipes the counter–current ﬂow can exist. But in most cases. Typically if only one hole is opened on the top of the can. the liquid will ﬂow in pulse regime.9. However. Liquid Body Foreces . COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW and drag force are reducing the speed as 2 265 π D3 g(ρS − ρL ) CD ∞ π D2 ρL (US − UL ) = (9. for example. the or Dripping Flow pressure diﬀerence in one phase can be f (D/L. For example.9 Counter–Current Flow This discussion will be only on liquid–liquid systems (which also includes liquid-gas systems). cannot compensate for the Flow pressure gradient. The two phase regimes “occurs” mainly in entrance to the cavity. when cavity is ﬁlled or emptied with a liquid. opening a can of milk or juice. Hence. In short tube. 9.54. The ﬂow regimes will be similar but the transition will be in diﬀerent points. the heavy phase (liquid) is pushed by the gravity and lighter phase (gas) is driven by the pressure diﬀerence. The aﬀective body force “seems” by the particles can be in some cases larger than the gravity.

water solution. This is opposed to counter–current solid–gas ﬂow when almost no pulse was observed. Initially.12).266 CHAPTER 9. There are three ﬂow regimes10 that have been observed. The container is made of two compartments. Then. the pressure in the can increase. The name pulse ﬂow is used to signify that the ﬂow is ﬂowing in pulses that occurs in a certain frequency. There must be other ﬂow regimes that were not observed or deﬁned. in some cases. the liquid will stay in the cavity (neglecting other phenomena such as dripping ﬂow. -9. It also can be noticed that if there is one hole (oriﬁce) and a long and narrow tube. This ﬁeld hasn’t been well explored.11. 10 Caution! this statement should be considered as “so far found”. . liquid ﬂows through one hole and the air through the second hole and the ﬂow will be continuous. In this ﬂow regime.). The upper compartment is ﬁlled with the heavy phase (liquid. Counter–current ﬂow in a can (the left ﬁgure) has only one hole thus pulse ﬂow and a ﬂow with two holes (right picture). The air is “attempting” to enter the cavity to ﬁll the vacuum created thus forcing pulse ﬂow. Fig. the phases ﬂow turns into diﬀerent direction (see Figure 9. Picture of Counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas and solid–gas conﬁgurations.11 depicts emptying of can ﬁlled with liquid. the heavy liquid is leaving the can.12. Figure 9. Even though the solid–gas ratio is smaller. -9. There are more things to be examined and to be studied. it can be noticed that the solid–gas is faster than the liquid–gas ﬂow. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fig. If there are two holes. Then the pressure in the can is reduced compared to the outside and some lighter liquid (gas)entered into the can. The ﬁrst ﬂow pattern is pulse ﬂow regime. or small wood particles) by rotating the container. elongated pulse ﬂow was observed but measured. due to the gravity. For example.

Example of such ﬂow in the nature is water falls in which water ﬂows down and air (wind) ﬂows up.13.7). Additional increase of the diameter will change the ﬂow regime into extended open channel ﬂow. ﬂow with gravity or against it. . there are someFlow one who claims that heavy liquid will be inside). -9. the ﬂow regime in the can moves from pulse to annular ﬂow. The ratio of the diameter to the Fig. the pulsing ﬂow will start and larger diameter will increase the ﬂow and turn the ﬂow into annular ﬂow. In horizontal tubes. there is an additional ﬂow regime which is stratiﬁed . As opposed to the co–current ﬂow. When the driving (body) force is very small.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow Up to this point. no counter–current ﬂow is possible. A heavier liquid layer can ﬂow above a lighter liquid. In very small Steam Flow diameters of tubes the counter–current ﬂow is not possible because of the surface tension (see section 4. The heavy liquid will ﬂow with the body forces (gravity). Consider the can in zero gravity ﬁeld. This process continue until almost the liquid is evacuated (some liquid stay due the surface tension). The cycle duration can be replaced by frequency.9. Annular Flow in Counter–current ﬂow The other ﬂow regime is annular ﬂow in which the heavier phase is on the periphery of Water the conduit (In the literature. However.7) page 122) it can be considered stable for small diameters. At this point. The duration the cycle depends on several factors. Further increase of the body force will move the ﬂow to be in the extended “open channel ﬂow. Extended open channel ﬂow retains the characteristic of open channel that the lighter liquid (almost) does not eﬀect the heavier liquid ﬂow. The analysis is provided.9. the discussion was focused on the vertical tubes. no counter–current ﬂow possible. one or more of the assumptions that the analysis based is erroneous). Probably. 9. if the can was on the sun (ignoring the heat transfer issue). the counter–current ﬂow has no possibility for these two cases. This situation is unstable for large diameter but as in static (see section (4. In many situations. length with some combinations of the physical properties (surface tension etc) determines the point where the counter ﬂow can start. Horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent from vertical ﬂow from the stability issues.” In the vertical co–current ﬂow there are two possibilities. The driving force is the second parameter which eﬀects the ﬂow existence. the volume ﬂow rate of the two phase is almost equal. A ﬂow in a very narrow tube with heavy ﬂuid above the lighter ﬂuid should be considered as a separate issue. Thus it should be considered as non existent ﬂow. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 267 and some heavy liquid will starts to ﬂow. Flood in vertical pipe.9. but somehow it contradicts with the experimental evidence. The analysis of the frequency is much more complex issue and will not be dealt here.

13. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Single phase Flow or Dripping Flow When the ﬂow rate of both ﬂuids is very small. the ﬁre can be too large or/and the water supply failed below a critical value the water turn into steam. Thus. etc11 . -9. that is stratiﬁed ﬂow are discussed here. wavy interface. the ﬁre could melt or damage the boiler. this increase terminates the two phase ﬂow possibility. The steam will ﬂow in the opposite direction. A simpliﬁed model for this situation is for a two dimensional conﬁguration where the liquid is D ﬂowing down and the gas is ﬂowing up as shown h in Figure 9. To analyze this situation consider a two dimensional conduit with a liquid inserted in the left side as depicted in Figure 9.Fig. the pressure diﬀerence in the (x direction) is known and equal to zero. Thus. A ﬂow map to explain the cal ﬂow unless the angle of inclination is very small. both conditions cannot ﬂood in a two dimension geometry.9. the ﬂow will be stratiﬁed counter–current ﬂow.268 CHAPTER 9.15. The model can be improved by considering turbulence. The stratiﬁed counter ﬂow has a lower pressure loss (for the liquid side). mass transfer. closing the window of this kind of ﬂow. Additionally. A ﬂow in an angle of inclination is closer to verti. QL . Fig. is unknown. coexist. The change to pulse ﬂow increases the pressure loss dramatically. The ﬂow will change to pulse ﬂow when the heavy liquid ﬂow rate increases. In some situations.15. horizontal counter–current ﬂow. This problem appears in nuclear engineering (or boiler engineering) where there is a need to make sure that liquid (water) inserted into the pipe reaching the heating zone. The ﬂow map of the horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent f (D/L. It is assumed that both ﬂuids are W ξ x y ﬂowing in a laminar regime and steady state. The boundLiquid Gas Flow ary conditions for the liquid is that velocity at the Flow wall is zero and the velocity at the interface is the same for both phases UG = UL or τi |G = τi |L .14.14. physical properties) from the vertical ﬂow and is shown in Figure 9. -9. Further increase of the gas velocity will reduce the average liquid velocity. Further increase of the ﬂow will result in a single phase ﬂow regime. The liquid ﬂow rate. it is assumed that the entrance eﬀects L can be neglected. A diagram to explain the As it will be shown later. When there is no water (in liquid phase).2 Flooding and Reversal Flow The limits of one kind the counter–current ﬂow regimes. Additional increase of the gas velocity will bring it to a point where the liquid will ﬂow in a reverse direction and/or disappear (dried out). 11 The circular conﬁguration is under construction and will be appeared as a separated article momentarily. The liquid velocity at very low gas velocity is constant but not uniform. However. . Liquid Flow Rate Pulse Flow Straitified Flow 9.

τi = ρL g h + C1 The integration constant is then Ci = τi − ρL g h which leads to τxy = ρL g (x − h) + τi Substituting the newtonian ﬂuid relationship into equation (9.60) can be integrate to yield Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + + C2 2 µL (9. Thus. the gravitational force has to be balanced by the shear forces as dτxy = ρL g dx The integration of equation (9.62) Uy = (9. [U (x = 0) = 0].59) (9. Assuming the pressure diﬀerence in the ﬂow direction for the gas is constant and uniform.58) (9. is zero and the integration coeﬃcient can be found to be C2 = 0 The liquid velocity proﬁle is then ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (9.60) dUy = ρL g (x − h) + τi dx (9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 269 This model is presented to exhibits the trends and the special features of counter-current ﬂow.63) .55) results in τxy = ρL g x + C1 (9. can be found from the boundary condition where τxy (x = h) = τi .61) (9. The liquid ﬁlm thickness is unknown and can be expressed as a function of the above boundary conditions.57) The liquid velocity at the wall.58) to obtained µL or in a simpliﬁed form as dUy ρL g (x − h) τi = + dx µL µL Equation (9. On the liquid side.55) The integration constant. the liquid ﬂow rate is a function of the boundary conditions. C1 . The underline rational for this assumption is that gas density does not change signiﬁcantly for short pipes (for more information look for the book “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” in Potto book series in the Fanno ﬂow chapter.9.).56) (9. It is assumed that the last assumption does not contribute or change signiﬁcantly the results.9. Hence.

69).65) The solution for equation (9.15). The ﬁrst two solutions are identical in which the ﬁlm height is h = 0 and the liquid ﬂow rate is zero. The point where the liquid ﬂow rate is zero is important and it is referred to as initial ﬂashing point. But.68) results in Q h2 (3 τi − 2 g h ρL ) = w 6 µL (9. The notation of τi 0 denotes the special value at which a starting shear stress value is obtained to have reversed ﬂow. Q = w h h Uy dx = 0 0 ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + dx 2 µL (9. the ﬂow rate is zero when 3 τi = 2 g h ρL . also.64) The velocity can vanish (zero) inside the ﬁlm in another point which can be obtained from 0= ρL g µL τi x x2 − hx + 2 µL (9. This request is identical to the demand in which 2 g h ρL 3 τi critical = (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW τi h ρL g h2 − µL 2 µL (9. The ﬂow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity across the entire liquid thickness of the ﬁlm.67) If the shear stress is below this critical shear stress τi0 then no part of the liquid will have a reversed velocity. There are three solutions for equation (9. Integration equation (9. The minimum shear stress that start to create reversible velocity is obtained when x = h which is 0= ρL g µL h2 τi h − hh + 2 µL h g ρL → τi0 = 2 (9.69) It is interesting to ﬁnd the point where the liquid mass ﬂow rate is zero.66) The maximum x value is limited by the liquid ﬁlm thickness.69) is equated to zero. This point can be obtained when equation (9.68) Where w is the thickness of the conduit (see Figure 9. h.70) .65) is x|@UL =0 = 2 h − 2 τi µL g ρL (9.270 The velocity at the liquid–gas interface is Uy (x = h) = CHAPTER 9.

the linear equation is used. for a given ﬁlm thickness. Thus.74) The pressure gradient is a function of the gas compressibility. The wall shear stress is τi Ucritical |interf ace = τL |@wall = µL dU dx x=0 ρL g 2 g h ρL 1 B0 = µL 2¨ x µL ¨ − h + 3 µL x=0 (9. This assumption means or implies that the gas is incompressible ﬂow. . the diﬀerential equation is ∆P d2 UG = dx2 µG L 12 Also (9. reduces the ﬂow rate to zero or eﬀectively “drying” the liquid (which is diﬀerent then equation (9.73) Again.9.76) noticing that equation (9. equation (9. If the gas was compressible with an ideal gas equation of state then the pressure gradient is logarithmic. For this shear stress.71) 6 µL The wall shear stress is the last thing that will be done on the liquid side. For simplicity.9. The momentum balance on element in the gas side is dτxy G dP = dx dy (9. for simplicity reasons.74) can be rewritten as dτxy G ∆P ∆P = = dx ∆y L (9. Here.72) Simplifying equation (9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 271 This critical shear stress. The shear stress on gas side is balanced by the pressure gradient in the y direction. the critical upward interface velocity is (2−1) 3 2 1 ρL g h2 (9.70) has to be equal g h ρL to support the weight of the liquid.67)). the gas is assumed to be in a laminar ﬂow as well.72) the direction) 12 becomes (notice the change of the sign accounting for g h ρL 3 τL |@wall = (9. Utilizing the Newtonian relationship. it is assumed that pressure gradient is linear.75) Where ∆y = L is the entire length of the ﬂow and ∆P is the pressure diﬀerence of the entire length. In reality the logarithmic equation should be used ( a discussion can be found in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” a Potto project book).

79)(a). of the equal velocities.81) At the other boundary condition.64) when (x = h).79) (9. The velocity at the interface is the same as the liquid phase velocity or the shear stress are equal.80) (a) (b) or (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Equation (9.84) The velocity in Equation (9.78) Which leads to UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + C1 (x − D) µG L (9.272 CHAPTER 9. in that case. C1 can be evaluated as C1 = ρL g h 2 ∆P (h + D) − 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9.82) With the integration constants evaluated. cause this assumption to be not physical. (9. becomes ρL g h2 ∆P = h2 − D2 + C1 (h − D) 6 µL µG L The last integration constant. . it is easy to show that the gas shear stress is not equal to the liquid shear stress at the interface (when the velocities are assumed to be the equal). Mathematically these boundary conditions are UG (x = D) = 0 and UG (x = h) = UL (x = h) τG (x = h) = τL (x = h) Applying B. the gas velocity proﬁle is UG = ∆P ρL g h2 (x − D) ∆P (h + D) (x − D) x2 − D2 + − µG L 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9.C.78) into equation (9.77) This velocity proﬁle must satisfy zero velocity at the right wall.83) (9. However.76) can be integrated twice to yield UG = ∆P 2 x + C1 x + C2 µG L (9.84) is equal to the velocity equation (9. equation (9.77) results in UG = 0 = ∆P D2 + C1 D + C2 µG L ∆P → C2 = − D 2 + C1 D µG L (9. The diﬀerence in shear stresses at the interface due to this assumption.

87) (9. This condition requires that µG dUG dUL = µL dx dx (9. diﬀerent thing(s) must happen. It was assumed that the interface is straight but is impossible.91) The Required Pressure Diﬀerence . condition (9. The shear stress at the interface must be equal.86) (9.9. The wall shear stress is τG |@wall = µG dUG dx = µG x=D ∆P 2 x + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9. Then if the interface becomes wavy.79)(b). The velocity at interface can have a “slip” in very low density and for short distances. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 273 The second choice is to use the equal shear stresses at the interface.90) x=D or in a simpliﬁed form as τG |@wall = 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 (9.9.88) The gas velocity at the interface is then UG |@x=h = ∆P h2 − D 2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (h − D) (9. the integration constant is C1 = The gas velocity proﬁle is then UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (x − D) 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9.85) The expressions for the derivatives are gas side liquid side 2 h ∆P 2 g h ρL + µG C1 = L 3 As result.89) This gas interface velocity is diﬀerent than the velocity of the liquid side. if no special eﬀects occurs. the two conditions can co–exist. Since there no possibility to have both the shear stress and velocity on both sides of the interface.

93) result in ρgLh + L 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 D ∆P (9. The gravity force on the gas can be neglected in most cases. General forces diagram to calculated the in a The actual pressure diﬀerence can two dimension geometry. The estimation of the pressure diﬀerence under the assumption of equal shear stress can be applied.93) =L g h ρL + D ∆P 3 (9. -9. The control volume include the gas and liquid volumes. as ρgLh L ﬁrst estimate the waviness of the Lτw |L Lτw |G surface can be neglected. Figure 9.16 describes the general forces that acts on the control volume. In D ∆P the same fashion the pressure difference under the assumption the equal velocity can be calculated. However. the total balance is needed. The gravity force on the liquid is the liquid volume times the liquid volume as V olme/w FgL = ρ g hL (9. To calculate the required pressure that cause the liquid to dry.274 CHAPTER 9. be between these two assumptions but not must be between them.94) Simplifying equation (9.92) The total momentum balance is (see Figure 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW The pressure diﬀerence to D create the ﬂooding (drying) has to take into account the fact that h W x y the surface is wavy. This model and its assumptions are too simplistic and the actual pressure diﬀerence is larger.16. Fig.94) results in 4ρgLh = (2 h − D) ∆P 3 or ∆P = 4ρgLh 3 (2 h − D) (9. this explanation is to show magnitudes and trends and hence it provided here. There are two forces that act against the gravity and two forces with the gravity.16) A/w G A/w L f orce due to pressure FgL + L τw = L τw + Substituting the diﬀerent terms into (9. However.96) (9.95) .

the appropriate model for the ﬂow regime should be employed. There are many ﬂow regimes in multi–phase ﬂow that “regular” ﬂuid cannot be used to solve it such as ﬂooding. Unless the derivations or assumptions are wrong. the assumption of straight line is not appropriate when two liquid with diﬀerent viscosity are ﬂowing. The homogeneous models or combined models like Lockhart–Martinelli can be employed in some cases. In other case where more accurate measurement are needed a speciﬁc model is required. Perhaps as a side conclusion but important.96) indicates that when D > 2 h is a special case (extend open channel ﬂow). 9.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion For the ﬁrst time multi–phase is included in a standard introductory textbook on ﬂuid mechanics. In that case. this analysis equation (9. There are several points that should be noticed in this chapter.9.10. . MULTI–PHASE CONCLUSION 275 This analysis shows far more reaching conclusion that initial anticipation expected. The interface between the two liquid ﬂowing together is wavy.

276 CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW .

The length of the vector in Cartesian coordinates (the coordinates system is relevant) is U = Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 (A. -A.). nates depicted in Figure A. Uy is the vector component in the y direction.dinates system. There is very minimal original material which appears without proofs.APPENDIX A The Mathematics Backgrounds for Fluid Mechanics In this appendix a review of selected topics in mathematics related to ﬂuid mechanics is presented. some of the material appears in specialty books such as third order diﬀerential equations (and thus it is expected that the student is not familiar with this material. the 277 Fig. Furthermore. A.1) z U Ux Uy y Uz x Vector can be normalized and in Cartesian coordi. and Uz is the vector component in the z direction.1 Vectors Vector is a quantity with direction as oppose to scalar. These topics are present so that one with some minimal background could deal with the mathematics that encompass within basic ﬂuid mechanics.1. This appendix condenses material that spread in many various textbooks some of which are advance. Hence without additional reading. Thus.1 where Ux is the vector component in the x direction. Vector in Cartesian coor- . this book on ﬂuid mechanics issues could be read by most readers. The material is not presented in “educational” order but in importance order.

h2 . a (U + V ) = a U + a V 6. regular scalar multiplication angle between vectors W V U Fig. and h3 ) as angle U V U U × V = |U | · |V | sin (∠(U . There are two kinds of multiplications for vectors.2) and general orthogonal coordinates U = U U1 U2 U3 = h1 + h2 + h3 U U U U (A. The right hand rule. and W and for in this discussion a and b are scalars. A. -A. V )) (A.1 Vector Algebra Vectors obey several standard mathematical operations which are applicable to scalars. Then the following can be said U U V 1. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS U Ux ˆ Uy ˆ Uz ˆ = i+ j+ k U U U U U = (A.1. U + V = V + U 3. a (b U ) = a b U The multiplications and the divisions have somewhat diﬀerent meaning in a scalar operations.5) . multiplication of U × V results in W .2. Additive inverse U − U = 0 U 5. The results of this multiplication is scalar but has no negative value as in regular scalar multiplication. V )) n (A. The ﬁrst multiplication is the “dot” product which is deﬁned by equation (A. The “cross” product is deﬁned in an orthogonal coordinate (h1 .3) Vectors have some what similar rules to scalars which will be discussed in the next section.4) The second multiplication is the “cross” product which in vector as opposed to a scalar as in the “dot” product. Zero vector is such that U + 0 = U 4.4). (U + V ) + W = (U + V + W ) = U + (V + W ) 2. U . V .278 unit vector is APPENDIX A. U ·V = U V U |U | · |V | cos (∠(U . The following are vectors.

and n is a unit vector perpendicular to both U and V which obeys the right hand rule. The number of the possible combinations of the division is very large. these above four combinations are not the only possibilities (not including the left hand system).8) The most complex of all these algebraic operations is the division. The multiplication in vector world have two deﬁnition one which results in a scalar and one which results in a vector. The previous experience is that help to deﬁne multiplication help to deﬁnition the division. One of the consequence of this deﬁnitions in Cartesian coordinates is i =j =k =0 In general for orthogonal coordinates this condition is written as h1 × h1 = h1 = h2 = h3 = 0 where hi is the unit vector in the orthogonal system. etc.7) (A. . For example. is that these combinations have physical meaning. Additionally note that order of multiplication is signiﬁcant. This multiplication has a negative value which means that it is a change of the direction. VECTORS 279 where θ is the angle between U and V . Additional possibility is that every combination of one vector element 1 This author did ﬁnd any physical meaning these combinations but there could be and those the word “little” is used. The right hand rule is referred to the direction of resulting vector.A.6) (A.9) h2 × h1 = −h3 h3 × h2 = −h1 h1 × h3 = −h2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (A.10) (A. Note that U and V are not necessarily orthogonal. that is scalar associated with cos θ vectors is associated with sin θ.9) in matrix form as h1 U × V = U2 V2 h2 U2 V2 h3 U3 V3 (A. However. or vector with the angle. It turn out that these combinations have very little1 physical meaning.1. the result of the division can be a scalar combined or associated with the angle (with cos or sin). In right hand orthogonal coordinate system h1 × h2 = h3 h2 × h3 = h1 h3 × h1 = h2 The “cross” product can be written as U × V = (U2 V3 − U3 V2 ) h1 + (U3 V1 − U1 V3 ) h2 + (U1 V2 − U2 V1 ) h3 Equation (A. The reason that these current combinations. Multiplication combinations shows that there are at least four possibilities of combining the angle with scalar and vector.

1.” Also note the multiplying matrices and inverse matrix are also available operation to these tensors.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors Diﬀerential operations can act on scalar functions as well on vector and vector functions.z). A scalar function is a function that provide a valued based on the coordinates (in Cartesian coordinates x. and the Laplacian are based or could be constructed from this single operator. This tenser or the matrix can undergo regular linear algebra operations such as ﬁnding the eigenvalue values and the eigen “vectors. For example.13) . =ˆ i ∂T ˆ ∂T ˆ ∂T +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A.11) V2 V V2 V2 U2 U3 U1 V3 V3 V3 One such example of this division is the pressure which the explanation is commonality avoided or eliminated from the ﬂuid mechanics books including the direct approach in this book. Gradient This operation acts on a scalar function and results in a vector whose components are derivatives in the principle directions of a coordinate system. In multivariate calculus. the gradient. One of these operations is nabla operator sometimes also called the “del operator.” This operator is a diﬀerential vector. Since every vector element has three possible elements the total combination is 9 = 3 × 3. Many of the operations of vector world.y. More diﬀerential operations can on scalar function can results in vector or vector function. i. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is divided by the other vector element. the temperature of the domain might be expressed as a scalar ﬁeld. The three vectors have a need for additional notation such of vector of vector which is referred to as a tensor. the curl. For example.280 APPENDIX A. j. and z directions. The following combination is commonly suggested U2 U3 U1 V V1 V1 1 U U1 U2 U3 = (A. divergence. derivatives of diﬀerent directions can represented as a vector or vector function.12) ˆ Where ˆ ˆ and k are denoting unit vectors in the x. It turned out that combination of three vectors has a physical meaning. A compact presentation is a common way to handle the mathematics which simplify the calculations and explanations. y. There at least are two possibilities how to treat these elements. respectively. in Cartesian coordinates the operation is =ˆ i ∂ ∂ ˆ ∂ +ˆ j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. such as. A.

A vector domain (function) assigns a vector to each point such as velocity for example. z) = Nx (x. y.16) Note that the result is a vector. z)ˆ + Ny (x. VECTORS 281 Divergence The same idea that was discussed in vector section there are two kinds of multiplication in the vector world and two will be for the diﬀerential operators. y. Curl Similar to the “cross product” a similar operation can be deﬁned for the nabla (note the “right hand rule” notation) for Cartesian coordinate as curl N = ×N = ∂Nz ∂Ny − ∂y ∂z ∂Nx ∂Nz − ∂z ∂x ˆ i+ ˆ+ j ∂Ny ∂Nx − ∂x ∂y ˆ k (A. d‘Alembertian As a super–set for four coordinates (very minimal used in ﬂuid mechanics) and it reﬀed to as d’Alembertian or the wave operator. Laplacian The new operation can be constructed from “dot” multiplication of the nabla.17) This combination is commonality denoted as 2 . for Cartesian coordinates is ˆ N (x. This combined operations is known as the “div grad” which is given in Cartesian coordinates by · = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. y. This operator also referred as the Laplacian operator. in honor of Pierre-Simon Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827). and it deﬁned as 2 = 2 − 1 ∂2 c2 ∂ 2 t (A. N .18) . z)ˆ + Nz (x. A gradient acting on a scalar ﬁeld creates a vector ﬁeld. in Cartesian coordinate is results in div N = ·N= ∂Nx ∂Ny ∂Nz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (A.A. Applying a divergence on the result creates a scalar ﬁeld again.1.14) The divergence results in a scalar function which similar to the concept of the vectors multiplication of the vectors magnitude by the cosine of the angle between the vectors. y. The divergence is the similar to “dot” product which results in scalar. z)k i j The dot product of these two vectors.15) (A.

x3 . · · · )e3 + · · · (A. Thus. to a balance of the ﬂuxes through the surface. x2 . or called it Gauss’ Theorem (Carl Friedrich Gauss 30 April 1777 23 February 1855).21) Since the deﬁnition of Φ = N .edu/mathews/c2003/HarmonicFunctionMod. A.html . MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Divergence Theorem Mathematicians call to or refer to a subset of The Reynolds Transport Theorem as the Divergence Theorem. 1801 – January 1.19) In Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem (Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky (September 24.fullerton. This theorem is applicable for a ﬁx control volume and the derivative can enters into the integral. The basic of these relationships is explored.21) for harmonic function (solutions Laplace equation see2 Harminic functions) then the left side vanishes which is useful identity for ideal ﬂow analysis. Special case of equation (A. A vector is made of the several scalar functions such as R = f1 (x1 .22) where e i is the unit vector in the i direction. · · · )e2 + f3 (x1 . · · · )e1 + f2 (x1 . the harmonic functions can be added or subtracted because inside the volume these functions contributions is eliminated throughout the volume.20) V Note the strange notation of “Σ” which refers to the area.1. x3 . The cross and dot products when the come under diﬀerentiation can be look as scalar. x2 . If N is a gradient of a scalar ﬁeld Π(x. x2 . normally for steady state.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations The vector operation sometime fell under (time or other) derivative. Many engineering class present this theorem as a theorem on its merit without realizing that it is a subset of Reynolds Transport Theorem. This subset can further produces several interesting identities. the dot product of operation 2 for more information http://math. For example. In Gauss notation it is written as ( V · N ) dV = A N · n dA (A. The notation is a bit diﬀerent from Gauss and it is written in Ostrogradsky notation as ∂Q ∂R ∂P + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz = Σ (P p + Qq + Rr) dΣ (A. x3 .282 APPENDIX A. 1862). y. This results reduces equation. z) then it can insert into identity to produce ( V · ( Φ)) dV = V 2 Φ dV = A Φ · n dA (A.

Elliptic . Spherical coordinates. the chain role is applicable. Oblate spheroidal coordinates.1 Orthogonal Coordinates These vectors operations can appear in diﬀerent orthogonal coordinates system. Ellipsoidal coordinates.3.1.A. There are several orthogonal coordinates which appears in ﬂuid mechanics operation which include this list: Cartesian coordinates.23) The ﬁrst part is zero because the cross product with itself is zero. The second part is zero because Newton law (acceleration is along the path of R).24) (A. As in operation on scalar time derivative of dot or cross of constant velocity is zero. and acceleration. velocity. VECTORS R · S = (xˆ + y 2 ˆ · (sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ can be written as i j) i j) R d (R · S ) d = dt dt It can be noticed that d x sin x + y 2 exp(y) R d (R · S ) = = dt dt dx d sin x d y 2 d y2 sin x + + exp(y) + exp(y) dt dt dt dt xˆ + y 2 ˆ · sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ i j i j 283 It can be noticed that the manipulation of the simple above example obeys the regular chain role. The results of operations of two vectors is similar to regular multiplication since the vectors operation obey “regular” addition and multiplication roles. Yet. A. it can done for the cross product. the most interesting is U d dU R (R × U ) = U × U + R × dt dt (A. Similarly.25) (A. Cylindrical coordinates. Hence the chain role apply for dot operation. Parabolic cylindrical coordinates Paraboloidal coordinates. R S d dR dS R (R · S ) = ·S + ·R dt dt dt And the the chain role for the cross operation is R S d dR dS R (R × S ) = ×S + ×R dt dt dt It follows that derivative (notice the similarity to scalar operations) of d dR R (R · R ) = 2 R dt at There are several identities that related to location.1. Prolate spheroidal coordinates. Parabolic coordinates.

.uk/Extras/Coolidge Polars. The meaning of − r and r are diﬀerent.html. and z. θ.27) The line element and volume element are ds = dr2 + (r dθ) + dz 2 2 dr r dθ dz (A.3. The second coordinate θ has unite coordinate θ.st-and.mcs.29) 3 Coolidge. Cylindrical Coordinate System. The coordinate θ is angle. Flat-disk cyclide coordinates. Bi-cyclide coordinates and Cap-cyclide coordinates. Note the advantage of cylindrical (polar) coordinates in description of geometry or location relative to a center point. Julian (1952). Conversation of the angel to units of length is done by length factor which is. These three diﬀerent rs are some what similar to any of the Cartesian coordinate. The conversion between the Cartesian coordinate and the Cylindrical is r= x2 + y 2 θ = arctan y x y z=z (A. The new concept here is the length factor. Bipolar cylindrical coordinates Conical coordinates. Because there are so many coordinates system is reasonable to develop these operations for any for any coordinates system. in most cases. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS cylindrical coordinates.284 APPENDIX A. the ﬁgure shows that the coordinates are r. Cylindrical Coordinates The cylindrical coordinates are commonz ality used in situations where there is line of e1 symmetry or kind of symmetry. Historically. These coordinates rer θ r duced the work. American Mathematical Monthly 59: 7885.26) The reverse transformation is x = r cos θ y = r sin θ z=z (A.28) The gradient in cylindrical coordinates is given by =r ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ +θ +z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (A. → and z. because probθ x lem is reduced a two dimensions. x these coordinate were introduced for geometrical problems about 2000 years ago3 . Note that unite coordinates are denoted as r. The cylindrical coordinates are shown in Figure A. This kind sity uations occur in pipe ﬂow even if the pipe is not exactly symmetrical. Bispherical coordinates. The ﬁrst one represents the vector that is the direction of r while the second is the unit vector in the direction of the coordinate r. θ.ac. Flat-ring cyclide coordinates. In this book the dimensional chapter shows that in physics that derivatives have to have same units in order to compare them or use them. Toroidal coordinates. -A. in this case. In Fig. r. ”The Origin of Polar Coordinates”. http://www-history.3. Three common systems typical to ﬂuid mechanics will be presented and followed by a table and methods to present all the above equations.

The second angle is between the positive y–axis and the vector as shown in Figure ?? The conversion between Cartesian coordinates to Spherical coordinates x = r sin φ cos θ The reversed transformation is r= x2 + y 2 + z 2 φ = arccos z r (A. -A. sound wave propagax tion etc.A. The radius is the distance between the origin and the location. Spherical system used for z y x θ cases where spherical symmetry exist.33) Line element and element volume are ds = dr2 + (r cos θ dθ) + (r sin θ dφ) 2 2 dV = r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ (A. Note that the ﬁrst angle (azimuth or longitude) θ range is between Fig.37) .35) The gradient is =r ∂ ∂ ˆ1 ∂ + φ 1 +θ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. Spherical Coordinate System.1.4. VECTORS The curl is written ×N = 1 ∂Nz ∂Nθ − r ∂θ ∂z 1 r The Laplacian is deﬁned by · = 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂ ∂r + 1 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 2 ∂θ 2 r ∂z r+ ∂Nr ∂Nz − ∂z ∂r ∂ (r Nθ ) ∂Nθ − ∂r ∂θ θ+ z 285 (A. boom explosion.31) (A.36) The divergence in spherical coordinate is ·N = 1 ∂ r2 Nr 1 ∂ (Nθ sin θ) 1 ∂Nφ + + r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. 0 < θ < 2 π while the second angle (colatitude) is only 0 < φ < π. In ﬂuid y mechanics such situations exist in bubble dynamics. The ﬁrst angle between projection on x − y plane and the positive x–axis.32) Spherical Coordinates z The spherical coordinates system is a φ r three-dimensional coordinates which is imθ provement or further modiﬁcations of the cylinφ r drical coordinates. A location is represented by a radius and two angles.30) (A.34) y = r sin φ sin θ z = r cos φ (A.

39) General Orthogonal Coordinates There are several orthogonal system and general form is needed.41) Gradient The gradient in general coordinate for a scalar function T is the nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates as T = T T T e1 ∂T e2 ∂T e3 ∂T + + h1 ∂q 1 h2 ∂q 2 h3 ∂q 3 (A. The general Orthogonal is r. As in almost all cases. The length of d d 2 = i=1 hk dq k 2 (A. For example in cylindrical coordinates.40) The nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates is = e1 ∂ e2 ∂ e3 ∂ + + 1 2 h1 ∂q h2 ∂q h3 ∂q 3 (A. The derivative quantity will be denoted by q superscript.42) .5.3. In mathematics it is denoted as q while in engineering is denotes h. -A. there is dispute what with unit vectors. Also note that the derivative of the coordinate in the case of cylindrical coordinate is ∂θ and unit ˆ vector is θ. and z .2. θ is lengthens unit vector and the coordinate distance coeﬃcient in this case Fig. The notation for the presentation is required general notation of the units vectors is ei and coordinates distance coeﬃcient is hi where 1 e1 q i is 1. While the θ is the same the meaning is diﬀerent and diﬀerent notations need. Since it is engineering book the h is adapted. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The curl in spherical coordinates is ×N = 1 r sin θ 1 r 1 ∂ r2 ∂r ∂ (Nφ sin θ) ∂Nθ − ∂θ ∂φ 1 ∂Nr ∂ (rNφ ) − sin θ ∂φ ∂r ∂ ∂r 1 ∂ 2 sin θ ∂θ r r+ ˆ 1 ˆ θ + r ∂ ∂θ ∂ (rNθ ) ∂Nr − ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂2 r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2 (A. the unit vectors are: r. θ. The units r and z are units ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ with length. the proper notation for these coeﬃcients. However.286 APPENDIX A.38) ˆ φ The Laplacian in spherical coordinates is 2 = r2 + sin θ + (A. The coordinates distance coeﬃcient is in ase cre in e2 the change the diﬀerential to the actual distance.

1 h1 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂q 287 (A.A. 2 φ= + + Fig. -A. .6.43) For general orthogonal coordinate system the curl is ∂ e1 ∂ (h3 N3 ) − 3 (h2 N2 ) + 2 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂ ∂ e3 ∂ ∂ (h1 N1 ) − 1 (h3 N3 ) + (h2 N2 ) − 2 (h1 N1 ) 3 1 ∂q ∂q h1 h2 ∂q ∂q ×N = e2 h3 h1 (A. Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender.45) The following table showing the diﬀerent values for selected orthogonal system.44) The Laplacian of a scalar equals 1 ∂ h1 h2 h3 ∂q 1 h2 h3 ∂φ h1 ∂q 1 ∂ ∂q 2 h3 h1 ∂φ h2 ∂q 2 ∂ ∂q 3 h1 h2 ∂φ h3 ∂q 3 (A.1. VECTORS The divergence of a vector equals ·N = 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ (N1 h2 h3 ) + 2 (N2 h3 h1 ) + 3 (N3 h1 h2 ) .

. The ﬁrst order equations have several forms and there is no one solution ﬁt all but families of solutions. Note that the derivatives are integers e. It is not intent to be a replacement to a standard textbook but as a quick reference. A. The most general form is f u. the ﬁrst ODEs are easier to solve and they are the base for equations of higher order equation.2. Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) Orthogonal coordinates systems name Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical Paraboloidal Ellipsoidal Remarks 1 standard common common ? ? √ 1 1 1 u2 + v 2 √ h 2 1 r r u2 + v 2 3 1 1 r cos θ uv 1 x r r u λ q 2 y θ θ v µ 3 z z ϕ θ ν A.47) 4 Note that mathematically. ﬁrst derivative.288 APPENDIX A.t dt =0 (A. Or this dt dy2 operation on y2 is dt + y2 and the summation of operation the sum operation of +y L(y1 + y2 ) = y1dt 2 + y1 + y2 . ODE are categorized into linear and non-linear equations.1. However. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Table -A. second derivative etc4 . It is suggested that the reader interested in depth information should read “Diﬀerential Equations and Boundary Value Problems” by Boyce de–Prima or any other book in this area. If the highest derivative is ﬁrst order the equation is referred as ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation etc.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) In this section a brief summary of ODE is presented. it is possible to deﬁne fraction of derivative. Ordinary diﬀerential equations are deﬁned by the order of the highest derivative.g.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations As expect. The meaning of linear equation is that the operation is such that a L (u1 ) + b L (u2 ) = L (a u1 + b u2 ) (A. there is no physical meaning to such a product according to this author believe.46) d An example of such linear operation L = dt + 1 acting on y is dy1 + y1 . du .

I.c) Equation (1.2 Variables Separation or Segregation In some cases equation (A. (1.1: Solve the following equation du = ut dt with the initial condition u(t = 0) = u0 .I.b) (1. u) = X(t) U (u).I.I.I.2.d) (1.49) Equation can be integrated either analytically or numerically and the solution is du = U (u) X(t)dt (A.48) A.47) can be simpliﬁed to the ﬁrst form as du = F (t. The initial condition is the value the function has at some points.A. The separation yields du = t dt u The integration of equation (1.48) can be written as F (t.I. u) dt 289 (A.b) becomes du = u t dt =⇒ ln (u) + ln (c) = t2 2 (1. In that case it is said that F is spreadable and then equation (A.2. Example A.a) Solution The solution can be obtained by the variable separation method.50) The limits of the integral is (are) the initial condition(s).e) . The name initial condition is used because the values are given commonly at initial time.48) can be written as du = X(t)dt U (u) (A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Sometimes equation (A.c) can be transferred to u = c et For the initial condition of u(0) = u0 then u = u0 et End Solution 2 2 (1.I.

1 APPENDIX A.59) N (x) A special case of g(t) = constant is shown next.54) is integrated to be ln (N (x)) = g(x)dx =⇒ N (x) = e g(x)dx (A.2.53).55) (A.51) What is needed from N (x) is to provide a full diﬀerential such as N (x) dy d [N (x) g(x) y] + N (x) g(x) y = dx dx (A. .53) This condition (note that the previous methods is employed here) requires that d N (x) d N (x) = N (x) g(x) =⇒ = g(x) dx dx N (x) Equation (A.54) Using the diﬀerentiation chain rule provides dv du du dx d N (x) =e dx g(x)dx g(x) (A. This family is part of a linear equations.290 A.56) which indeed satisfy equation (A.57) by dx and integrating results in N (x) g(x) y = The solution is then N (x) m(x) dx y= g(x) N (x) m(x) dx (A.2. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The Integral Factor Equations Another method is referred to as integration factor which deals with a limited but very important class of equations.57) e R g(x)dx (A.51) by unknown function N (x) transformed it to N (x) dy + N (x) g(x) y = N (x)m(x) dx (A.52) (A. Thus equation (A. The general form of the equation is dy + g(x) y = m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.52) becomes d [N (x) g(x) y] = N (x) m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.58) (A.

60) into a linear equation which is dv + (1 − p) m(t) v = (1 − p) n(t) dt (A. .2: Find the solution for a typical problem in ﬂuid mechanics (the problem of Stoke ﬂow or the parachute problem) of dy +y =1 dx Solution Substituting m(x) = 1 and g(x) = 1 into equation (A.59) provides y = e−x (ex + c) = 1 + c e−x End Solution A.A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 291 Example A. Many non linear equations can be transformed into linear equations and then solved with the linear equation techniques. The actual solution is obtained by reversed equation which transferred solution to u = v (p−1) (A.61) The linearized equation can be solved using the linear methods.III.60) The transformation v = u1−p turns equation (A.2.2. One such equation family is referred in the literature as the Bernoulli Equations5 . This equation is non–linear part du + m(t)u = n(t) dt up (A.3: Solve the following Bernoulli equation du + t2 u = sin(t) u3 dt 5 Not (1.a) to be confused with the Bernoulli equation without the s that referred to the energy equation.62) Example A.3 Non–Linear Equations Non-Linear equations are equations that the power of the function or the function derivative is not equal to one or their combination.

III.a) becomes dv −2 t2 v = −2 sin(t) dt The homogeneous solution of equation (1. v) − v (A.III.III.d) (1.III. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS v = u2 (1. The solution is then ln |t| = dv +c f (1.3.292 Solution The transformation is APPENDIX A.4: Solve the equation du u = sin + dt t u4 − t4 t4 (1.2.e) private solution u= e e t3 3 sin (t) dt +c End Solution A.63) into t dv + v = f (1. a t) dt (A.1 Homogeneous Equations Homogeneous function is given as du = f (u. t) = f (a u.b) Using the deﬁnition (1.c) (1.65) Example A.c) is u(t) = ce And the general solution is t3 − 3 −t3 3 1−p 1−p (1. Example of such case u = u3 − t3 /t3 becomes u = v 3 + 1 .a) . the transformation of u = v t transforms equation (A.IV. For this case.III.63) for any real positive a. v) dt (A.b) equation (1.III.III.64) In another words if the substitution u = v t is inserted the function f become a function of only v it is homogeneous function.

A. this kind of class of equations appears all over this book.67) g(u) Example A.e) A. For this sort equations. The solution of this kind of equation is du = f (t) dt (A. In fact.IV.c) can be solved by variable separation as t dv = t dt sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v Integrating equation (1.b) (1.IV. End Solution 293 (1.d) (1.2.IV.66) The main point is that f (t) and be segregated from g(u).IV. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Solution Substituting u = v T yields du = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 dt or dv dv + v = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 =⇒ t = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v dt dt Now equation (1.2.d) results in dv t2 = +c sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v 2 The initial condition can be inserted via the boundary of the integral.5: Solve the following ODE du = −u2 t2 dt (1.2 Variables Separable Equations In ﬂuid mechanics and many other ﬁelds there are diﬀerential equations that referred to variables separable equations.3.IV.V.a) Solution Segregating the variables to be du = u2 t2 dt (1.V.b) .c) (1.IV. it can be written that du = f (t)g(u) dt (A.

Many of these methods will be eventually covered by this appendix. variable substitutions.d) End Solution A. and perturbation methods.V.c) becomes u= t3 −3 +c (1. the second order ODE is transferred to ﬁrst order by substituting the one linear operator to two ﬁrst linear operators.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations The general idea of solving second order ODE is by converting them into ﬁrst order ODE.69) If b2 > 4 a c then there are two unique solutions for the quadratic equation and the general solution form is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t For the case of b2 = 4 a c the general solution is u = c1 es1 t + c2 t es1 t (A. One such case is the second order ODE with constant coeﬃcients.294 APPENDIX A. The simplest equations are with constant coeﬃcients such as a d2 u du +b + cu = 0 dt2 dt (A.72) .71) (A.V.70) In the case of b2 > 4 a c. There are additional methods such numerical analysis. A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Integrating equation (1.c) Rearranging equation (1.V. Practically.b) transformed into − 1 t3 = + c1 u 3 (1. the solution of the quadratic equation is a complex number which means that the solution has exponential and trigonometric functions as u = c1 eα t cos(βt) + c2 eα t sin(βt) (A.2.3 Other Equations There are equations or methods that were not covered by the above methods.V. transformation (like Laplace transform).2. it is done by substituting est where s is characteristic constant and results in the quadratic equation a s2 + b s + s = 0 (A.68) In a way.3.

ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Where the real part is α= and the imaginary number is β= √ −b 2a 295 (A.6: Solve the following ODE d2 u du +7 + 10 u = 0 dt2 dt (1.2.2.77) The linearity of the operation creates the possibility of adding the solutions.b) (1. where L is Linear operator. Thus. and −5.VI.74) Example A.b) are −2.4.a) Solution The characteristic equation is s2 + 7 s + 10 = 0 The solution of equation (1.1 Non–Homogeneous Second ODE Homogeneous equation are equations that equal to zero.A.VI. The additional solution of L(up ) is the total solution as a =0 L (utotal ) = L (uh ) +L (up ) =⇒ utotal = uh + up (A. . If the function on the right hand side is polynomial than the solution is will n utotal = uh + i=1 up i (A. the solution is u = k1 e−2 t + k2 e−5 t End Solution (1.75) +b + c u = l(x) dt2 dt The solution of the homogeneous equation is zero that is the operation L(uh ) = 0. Equations that not equal to zero in this form d2 u du (A.VI. This fact can be used to solve non-homogeneous equation.VI.c) A.76) Where the solution uh is the solution of the homogeneous solution and up is the solution of the particular function l(x).73) 4 a c − b2 2a (A.

A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Example A.2.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations Some of the techniques that were discussed in the previous section (ﬁrst order ODE) can be used for the second order ODE such as the variable separation.7: Solve the non-homogeneous equation d2 u du −5 + 6 u = t + t2 dt2 dt Solution The homogeneous solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t the particular solution for t is u(t) = and the particular solution of the t2 is u(t) = The total solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t + End Solution (1.c) (1.VII.VII.79) .78) is referred to as a separable equation (some called it segregated equations).d) A. u. ˙ ˙ ¨ equation (A.VII.b) 6t + 5 36 18 t2 + 30 t + 19 108 9 t2 + 24 t + 17 54 (1. Hence.296 APPENDIX A. u) = 0 ˙ ¨ can be written or presented in the form f1 (u)u = f2 (u) u ˙ ˙ ¨ (A.1 Segregation of Derivatives If the second order equation f (u.78) can be integrated u u ˙ v f1 (u)u = ˙ u0 u0 ˙ f2 (u) u = ˙ ¨ v0 f2 (u) v ˙ (A. The derivative of u can be treated as a new function v and v = u.5.78) then the equation (A.2.VII.a) (1.

d) Equation (1. ﬁrst with initial integration and second with the second integration.VIII. Note that the derivative initial condition is used once.c) becomes 3 3 2 u 2 − u0 2 3 = cos (v0 ) − cos (v) = cos du0 dt − cos du dt (1.VIII.VIII.VIII.b) After the integration equation (1. The physical reason is that the equation represents a strong eﬀect of the function at a certain point such surface tension problems.81) author worked (better word toyed) in (with) this area during his master but to his shame he did not produce any papers on this issue.VIII. This equation family is not well discussed in mathematical textbooks6 .2.8: Solve the equation √ du u − sin dt With the initial condition of u(0) = 0 and “dt”? Solution Rearranging the ODE to be √ du u = sin dt & √ and transformation to v is √ u du = sin (v) dv (1. It can be noticed that the function initial condition is used twice.80) Using the ﬁrst order separation method yields dt = 0 u0 du 2 3 3 arcsin u0 2 −u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 =0 =1 (A.VIII. The papers are still his drawer and waiting to a spare time. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 297 The integration results in a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which should be dealt with the previous methods.a) becomes u du = sin d (1.c) du dt d dt & du dt du dt du dt (1.d) can be rearranged as du = arcsin dt t u 3 3 2 u0 2 − u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 (A.a) du dt du dt d2 u =0 dt2 (t = 0) = 0 What happen to the extra Thus the extra dt is disappeared and equation (1.A. Example A. 6 This .VIII.

86) A.85) + c2 (A.82) where a is constant.88) .298 APPENDIX A.87) It can be noticed that that c2 is actually two diﬀerent constants because the plus minus signs.2 Full Derivative Case Equations Another example of special case or families of second order diﬀerential equations which is results of the energy integral equation derivations as u − au du dt d2u d t2 =0 (A.84) which can be solved with the previous methods. Bifurcation to two solutions leads t 1 du + c = v 2 =⇒ =± a 2 dt which can be integrated as u= ± a 2t + c1 dt = ± a 3 2t + c1 a 3 2 2t + c1 a (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The solution (A.83) results in 1 dv dt =v =⇒ = v dv a dt a (A.5.2. u d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 =0 (A. One solution is u = k1 and the second solution is obtained by solving 1 = a The transform of v = du dt du dt d2u d t2 (A.5. d dt u du dt =0 (A.81) shows that initial condition of the function is used twice while the initial of the derivative is used only once.2.3 Energy Equation ODE It is non–linear because the second derivative is square and the function multiply the second derivative. End Solution A.

the linear third-order diﬀerential equation” Springer Berlin Heidelberg. the general solution is depend on the solution of third order polonium. Thus.9: Show that the solution of u is − √ 3 d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 (A.c) A.IX. Solving Third Order Linear Diﬀerential Equations in Terms of Second Order Equations Mark van Hoeij 8 “On 7 The . Example A.b) (1.A.a) √ 3 u √ du 3 k1 − u3 √ = t + k2 2 u √ du 3 k − u3 √1 = t + k2 2 (1. The general form for constant coeﬃcient is d3 u d2 u du +a 2 +b + cu = 0 3 dt dt dt (A. 1999. This kind of diﬀerential equation has been studied in the last 30 years to some degree.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation There are situations where ﬂuid mechanics7 leads to third order diﬀerential equation.90) +u=0 (1.89) Further rearrangement and integration leads to the solution which is u2 = t + k2 2 k1 For non–homogeneous equation they can be integrated as well.2.2. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) after integration u du = k1 dt 299 (A. Solution to more complicate linear equations with non constant coeﬃcient (function of t) can be solved sometimes by Laplace transform or reduction of the equation to second order Olivier Vallee8 . The solution to constant coeﬃcients is relatively simple and will be presented here.91) The solution is assumed to be of the form of est which general third order polonium.IX. Third unsteady energy equation in accelerated coordinate leads to a third order diﬀerential equation.IX.

101) .97) D = Q3 + R 2 and where the deﬁnitions of Q and R are Q= and R= 9a1 a2 − 27a3 − 2a1 3 54 3a2 − a1 2 9 (A.95) R+ √ D.99) (A.98) (A. (A. When the characteristic equation solution has three diﬀerent real roots the solution of the diﬀerential equation is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + c3 es3 t (A. In the last case where D < 0. From a mathematical point of view. Thus. For the case D = 0. if D > 0. all the roots are real and unequal.94) (A.96) T = and where the D is deﬁned as 3 R− √ D (A.93) (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS order polonium has always one real solution. all the roots are real and at least two are identical. θ. one root is real and two roots are complex. derivation of the leading equation (results of the ode) is reduced into quadratic equation and thus the same situation exist.92) (A.100) Only three roots can exist for the Mach angle.300 APPENDIX A. s3 + a1 s2 + a2 s + a3 = 0 The solution is 1 s1 = − a1 + (S + T ) 3 1 1 1 √ s2 = − a1 − (S + T ) + i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 and 1 1 √ 1 s3 = − a1 − (S + T ) − i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 Where S= 3 (A.

105). Generally. Thus the solution of d2 +1 u=0 dt2 with the solution of d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) In the case the solution to the characteristic has two identical real roots u = (c1 + c2 t) es1 t + c3 es2 t 301 (A.2. A.105) d4 −1 u=0 dt4 (A.107) (A.A. the equation d4 u − u = 0 =⇒ dt4 can be written as combination of d2 −1 dt2 d2 +1 u=0 dt2 or d2 +1 dt2 d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A.108) .107) was discussed earlier.106) are the solutions of (A.102) Similarly derivations for the case of three identical real roots.2.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE The ODE and partial diﬀerential equations (PDE) can be of any integer order. The general procedure is based on the above concept but is some what simpler. Inserting es t into the ODE an u(n) + an−1 u(n−1) + an−2 u(n−2) + · · · + a1 u + a0 u = 0 yields characteristic equation an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + · · · + a1 s + a0 = 0 (A. For the case of only one real root.106) and equation (A. The solution of equation (A. For example.104). the solution is u = (c1 sin b1 + c2 cos b1 ) ea1 t + c3 es3 t (A. Sometimes the ODE is fourth order or higher the general solution is based in idea that equation is reduced into a lower order. for constant coeﬃcients ODE can be transformed into multiplication of smaller order linear operations.104) The order of operation is irrelevant as shown in equation (A.103) Where a1 is the real part of the complex root and b1 imaginary part of the root.109) (A.

are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi and some real and diﬀerent e.b) (these roots can be found using numerical methods or Descartes’ Rule) are s1. s1 = s2 = s3 = s4 · · · = sn all roots are real but some are identical e.d) .c) The roots are two pairs of complex numbers and one real number. roots are similar and some real and diﬀerent e. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi .X.X.2 s3.b) With the roots of the equation (1.4 s5 = = = 3 ± 3i 2±i 1 (1.X.g.10: Solve the ﬁfth order ODE d5 u d4 u d3 u d2 u du − 11 4 + 57 3 − 149 2 + 192 − 90 u = 0 5 dt dt dt dt dt Solution The characteristic equation is s5 − 11 s4 + 57 s3 − 149 s2 + 192 s − 90 = 0 (1.X.a) (1. s1 = s2 = · · · = sk and some diﬀerent e.g. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots. Thus the solution is u = c1 et + e2 t (c2 sin (t) + c3 cos (t)) + e3 t (c4 sin (3 t) + c5 cos (3 t)) End Solution (1. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS If The Solution of Characteristic Equation all roots are real and diﬀerent e.g. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots.g. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn The Solution of Diﬀerential Equation Is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = c1 + c2 t + · · · + ck tk−1 es1 t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 + ck+2 t + · · · + ck+ t −1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + ck+3 esk+3 t + · · · + cn esn t Example A.X.g.302 APPENDIX A.

For example. Equation (A. As one might expect PDE are harder to solve.112) is similar to the equations for a conic geometry: axx x2 + axy x y + ayy y 2 + · · · = 0 (A. ayy might depend upon ”x” and ”y”. However.112) The coeﬃcients axx .110) To be continue A. . Generally.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations Partial Diﬀerential Equations (PDE) are diﬀerential equations which include function includes the partial derivatives of two or more variables. The hyperbolic equations are associated with method of characteristics because physical situations depends only on the initial conditions.) = 0 (A. When the discriminant . the PDE solution is done by transforming the PDE to one or more ODE. One example of such equation is heat equation. . PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 303 A. The physical meaning of the these deﬁnition is that these equations have diﬀerent characterizations.A. The meaning for initial conditions is that of solution depends on some early points of the ﬂow (the solution). Normally. this characterization is done for for second order. The general second-order PDE in two independent variables has the form axx uxx + 2axy uxy + ayy uyy + · · · = 0 (A. Many situations in ﬂuid mechanics can be described by PDE equations. when the discriminant is zero the equation are called parabolic. The nature of the solution is based whether the equation is elliptic parabolic and hyperbolic.113) In the same manner that conic geometry equations are classiﬁed are based on the discriminant a2 − 4 axx ayy . . the same can be done for a second-order PDE. Example of such equation is F (ut . Note that ∂x partial derivative also include mix of derivatives such as ux y.2.3. The disxy criminant can be function of the x and y and thus can change sign and thus the characteristic of the equation.111) Where subscripts refers to derivative based on it. sometimes similar deﬁnition can be applied for other order. The solution of elliptic equations depends on the boundary conditions The solution of parabolic equations depends on the boundary conditions but as well on the initial conditions. ux = ∂u . axy . Generally.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation dn u dn−1 u du + k1 tn−1 n−1 + · · · + kn−1 t + kn u = a x dtn dt dt The homogeneous equation can be generalized to k0 tn (A. ux . Partial diﬀerential equations are categorized by the order of highest derivative.

the constant is denoted as λ and with this deﬁnition the PDE is reduced into two ODE. In ﬂuid mechanics this kind equation appear in supersonic ﬂow or in supper critical ﬂow in open channel ﬂow.304 APPENDIX A.118) are ODE that can be solved with the methods described before for certain boundary condition. the physics dictates this character and will be used in the book.116) yields 1 ∂X(x) 1 ∂Y (y) + =0 X(x) ∂x Y (y) ∂y (A. A.119) and (A.115) results in Y (y) ∂X(x) ∂Y (y) + X(x) =0 ∂x ∂y (A.117) A possible way the equation (A. An example of ﬁrst order equation is ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y (A. ∂x ∂x (A.. The ﬁrst equation is X function 1 ∂X(x) =λ X(x) ∂x The second ODE is for Y 1 ∂Y (y) = −λ Y (y) ∂y (A.1 First-order equations First order equation can be written as u = ax ∂u ∂u + ay + . Hence.115) The solution is assume to be u = Y (y) X(x) and substitute into the (A.117) can exist is that these two term equal to a constant.. If it turned that assumption is wrong the ratio is not constant.114) The interpretation the equation characteristic is complicated. The equations that not mentioned above are elliptic which appear in ideal ﬂow and subsonic ﬂow and sub critical open channel ﬂow. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is larger then zero the equation is referred as hyperbolic equations.119) (A. Is it possible that these terms not equal to a constant? The answer is no if the assumption of the solution is correct.116) Rearranging equation (A. However.3.118) Equations (A. .

Area of triangle = 1 a b sin γ 2 6. and c. The tringle angles sides. a+b+c (Heron’s Formula) where s = 2 β a c γ b α Fig. sin2 α = 4. and opposite angles α. sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α 2.by ﬁnding the quadrant 2 2 α that lies in) 2 α 1 + cos α =± (same as above) 2 2 α 1 − cos α sin α 6. consider the triangle with sides of length a. b. cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β 4.4. sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − sin β cos α 3. Area of triangle = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c). sin α 1 − cos α =± (determine whether it is + or . tan(α + β) = 6. sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α 2. tan(α − β) = tan α + tan β 1 − tan α tan β tan α − tan β 1 + tan α tan β 1. tan = = 2 sin α 1 + cos α for formulas 3-6.4 Trigonometry These trigonometrical identities were set up by Keone Hon with slight modiﬁcation 1.7. cos(α − β) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β 5. respectively 5. β. cos2 α = 2 sin α sin β sin γ 3.A. and γ. cos 2α = cos2 x − sin2 x = 2 cos2 x − 1 = 1 − 2 sin2 x 2 tan α 3. . TRIGONOMETRY 305 A. tan 2α = 1 − tan2 α 4. = = (Law of Sines) a b c 1. -A. cos 1 − 2 cos(2α) 2 1 + 2 cos(2α) 2. c2 = a2 + b2 − 2 a b cos γ (Law of Cosines) 5.

MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS .306 APPENDIX A.

193 Rotating Coordinate System. 267 Extended Open channel ﬂow. 183 Cut–out shapes. 80 Fully ﬂuidized bed. 178 Conservative force. 11. 24 Bulk modulus of mixtures. 68 Average Momentum. 191 Steady State. 263 Flow ﬁrst mode. 98 Cylindrical Coordinates. 168. 112 C Co–current ﬂow. 78. 143 bulk modulus. 246 Flow regimes in one pipe. 177 Fixed ﬂuidized bed. 249 Compressibility factor. 267 F First Law of Thermodynamics. 78. 212 Correction factor. 78. 178 Convective acceleration. 170 Averaged kinetic energy. 168. 282 Gravity varying Ideal gas. 3 d‘Alembertian Operator. 200 Add mass. 249. 177 Energy Equation Accelerated System. 80 eﬀective. 27 buoyancy. 201 D D’Alembert paradox. 183 Counter–current Pulse ﬂow. 68. 66. 168 Arc shape. 104. 183 Averaged momentum energy. 282 Double choking phenomenon. 73. 265 Annular ﬂow. 157 Average Velocity Integral Analysis. 67 Boundary Layer. 191 Euler equations. 31 Conduction. 251 E Energy conservation. 180 Flow regime map. 12 Accelerated system. 130 Density ratio. 85 Add Force. 65. 248 Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem. 11 Body force. 23. 3 Atmospheric pressure. 266 Counter–current ﬂow. 199 dilettante. 8. 250 Forces Curved surfaces. 3. 77 Correction factor for averaged velocity. 7.SUBJECTS INDEX 307 Subjects Index A absolute viscosity. 96 Free expansion. angular. 193 Linear accelerate System. 83 Acceleration. 281 Deformable control volume. 79. 99 Archimedes. 82 Concentrating surfaces raise. 154 B Bingham’s model. 263 G Gas–gas ﬂow. 200 Add momentum. 194 Energy equation Frictionless Flow. 193 Convection. 81 . 11 Divergence Theorem. 105 buoyant force. 199 External forces. 114 Diﬀerential analysis. 236 Flow out tank.

140 Divergence Theorem. 267 Horizontal ﬂow. 112 Neutral stable. 26 Interfacial instability. 236 Polynomial function. 249 Orthogonal Coordinates. 249 Hydrostatic pressure. 263 Poiseuille ﬂow. 82 APPENDIX A. 226 Non–deformable control volume. 260 P Pendulum action. 233 Concentric cylinders. 220 K Kinematic boundary condition. 83 Linear operations. 248 Local acceleration. 93 pseudoplastic. 212 Momentum equation R Radiation. 262 Mixed ﬂuidized bed. 254 Metacentric point. 123 Newtonian ﬂuids. 122. 228 Moving surface. 219 N Navier-Stokes equations. 189 Linear acceleration. 225 Minimum velocity solid–liquid ﬂow. 227 Moving surface Free surface. 288 Liquid phase. 72 Isotropic viscosity. 153 Momentum conservation. 190 L Lapse rate. 252 H Harmonic function. 200 Inverted manometer. 212 Lockhart martinelli model. 122. 72 Mass velocity. 11 M “Magniﬁcation factor”. 73 Return path for ﬂow regimes. 282 horizontal counter–current ﬂow. 251 Reynolds Transport Theorem. 113 Micro ﬂuids. 100 I Ideal gas. 289 Integral analysis big picture. 155 index notation. 217 Moving boundary. 65. 228 Multi–phase ﬂow. 249 Real gas.308 Real gas. 75 Liquid–Liquid Regimes. 266 purely viscous ﬂuids. 112. 1. 8 No–slip condition. 199 Neutral moment Zero moment. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Accelerated system. constant of integration. 130 Non–Linear Equations. 245 Multiphase ﬂow against the gravity. 72 Initial condition. 148 Integral equation. 101 Pressure center. 80 Leibniz integral rule. 80. 120 Piezometric pressure. 11 O Open channel ﬂow. 227 kinematic viscosity. 282 . 291 Normal stress. 140 Limitation of the integral approach. 148 small picture. 283 Oscillating manometer. 68 Pneumatic conveying. 73 Inclined manometer. 11 Pulse ﬂow. 263 Momentum Conservation. 178 Rayleigh–Taylor instability.

255 Quality of dryness. 277 Vectors Algebra. 250 Sutherland’s equation. 80. 216 transformation. 104 cubic. 171 Two–Phase Gas superﬁcial velocity. 119 stratiﬁed ﬂow. 296 shear stress. 255 Reversal ﬂow. 78 Unsteady State Momentum. 68 Variables Separation 1st equation. 255 Wetness fraction. 268 .SUBJECTS INDEX Rocket mechanics. 293 Vectors. 112 Stability in counter–current ﬂow. 164 Slip velocity. 255 Liquid holdup. 266 Vertical ﬂow. 281 Westinghouse patent. 255 Void Fraction. 249 Stress tensor. 213 substantial derivative. 88 Transition to continuous. 19 Wave Operator. 153 Triangle shape. 267 Stable condition. 99. 224 thixotropic. 189 Total moment. 214. 264 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow. 261 Solid–solid ﬂow. 261 Solid–liquid ﬂow. 96 Second Law of Thermodynamics. 66. 11 Torricelli’s equation. 227 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow Gas dynamics aspects. 107 Turbomachinary. 224 Thermodynamical pressure. 78. 213 symmetry. 248 T Tank emptying parameters. 191 Second viscosity coeﬃcient. 214 Cartesian coordinates. 6 Slip condition range. 262 Thermal pressure. 248 Spherical coordinates. 79 stability analysis. 278 Vertical counter–current ﬂow. 163 V Vapor pressure. 249 W Watson’s method. 211 Superﬁcial velocity. 82 Stability analysis. 12 U Unstable condition. 224 Segregated equations. 255 309 S Scalar function. 187 Terminal velocity. 78.

246 Meye. Barr´. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Authors Index B Bhuckingham. Carl Friedrich. 4 Nusselt. 4 Blasiu. Hermann von. G. Osborne. 140 Rose. 140 Lockhart. 299 C Cichilli. 237 O Olivier Vallee. 4. 282 N Navier. 4 E Evangelista Torricelli. 189 F Fanning.310 APPENDIX A. 4 Blasius. 122 H Helmholtz. 199 e Duckler. 246 Taylor. 259 R Rayleigh. 4 Gauss. 259 P Pierre-Simon Laplace. Claude–Louis. 4 Martinelli. 246. George Gabriel. 4 K Kutta-Joukowski. 4 Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky. 122 Reynolds. 4 . 4 W Weisbach. 282 T Taitle. 4 Stokes. 199 Prandtl. 4 Froude. 248 L Leibniz. Jean Louis. 4 V von Karman. 246 M Manning. 282 Poiseuille. Ernst Kraft Wilhelm. 4 de Saint Venant. 199 Nikuradse. 4 D Darcy. 4 Westinghouse. 233 Poisson. 199 G Ganguillet. 4 S Stanton.I.. Simon-Denis.