5

Sharp-crested weirs

Classified under the term ‘sharp-crested’ or ‘thin-plate’ weirs are those overflow structures whose length of crest in the direction of flow is equal to or less than two millimetres. The weir plate should be smooth and plane, especially on the upstream face,
while the crest surface and the sides of the notch should have plane surfaces which
make sharp 90-degree intersections with the upstream weir face. The downstream edge
of the notch should be bevelled if the weir plate is thicker than two millimetres. The
bevelled surfaces should make an angle of not less than 45-degrees with the surface
of a rectangular notch and an angle of not less than 60 degrees if the throat section
is non-rectangular (see Figure 5. I).

FLOW

FLOW

min

rectangular notch, trapezoidal
and circular weirs

V-notch and sutm weirs

Figure 5.1 Flow-wise cross-section over a sharp-crested (thin-plate) weir

In general sharp-crested weirs will be used where highly accurate discharge measurements are required, for example in hydraulic laboratories and industry. To obtain
this high accuracy, provision should be made for ventilating the nappe to ensure that
the pressure on the sides and surfaces of the nappe is atmospheric (see Section 1.14).
The downstream water level should be low enough to ensure that it does not interfere
with the ventilation of the air pocket beneath the nappe. Consequently, the required
loss of head for modular flow will always exceed the upstream head over the weir
crest (h,) by about 0.05 m, which is one of the major disadvantages of a sharp-crested
weir.

5.1

Rectangular sharp-crestedweirs

5.1.1

Description

A rectangular notch, symmetrically located in a vertical thin (metal) plate which is
153

(h.07 m b. If.h./b. asshowninTable5. the fully contracted weir may be used with non-rectangular approach channels. and partially contracted thinplate weirs. a weir which has an approach channel whose bed and walls are sufficiently remote from the weir crest and sides for the channel boundaries to have no significant influence on the contraction of the nappe. it is modified as proposed by Kindsvater and Carter (1957).. = 1.’ (5-1) To apply this equation to fully contracted. i. however.30111 > 0. 0. b.. a weir the contractions of which are not fully developed due to the proximity of the walls and/or the bottom of the approach channel. 5. h. full-width. is defined as a rectangular sharp-crested weir.e. In general. The fully contracted weir may be described by the limitations on BI-b. > 4h. and the weir is fully contracted.) 2 lOb. ‘Fully contracted weirs’./B.2 Evaluation of discharge As mentioned in Section 1. hl‘. < 0.e./p.13. In literature this weir is frequently referred to as a rectangular suppressed weir or Rehbock weir. the approach channel is sufficiently large {B. ‘Full width weirs’.0). c.1.} to render the velocity of approach negligible.2 and 5.1 Limitations of a rectangular sharp-crested fully contracted weir BI-b. + p. ‘Partially contracted weir’.5 < 0. the basic head-discharge equation for a rectangular sharp-crested weir is Q = 2 C C 3 J 2 gb.placed perpendicular to the sides and bottom of a straight channel.3). h. andp.e. i. the shape of the approach channel is unimportant./p. all three types of rectangular weirs should be located in a rectangular approach channel (See Figure 5. The sides of the rectangular channel above the level of the crest of a full-width weir should extend at least 0. p.1.5 < h. b.. I ./b. Consequently. Table 5. 154 .60 m > 0. i.3 shows that the fully contracted weir has limitations that are both more numerous and more stringent than the partially contracted weir and full width weir. h.3 hlmax downstream of the weir crest../b.. h. Rectangular sharp-crested weirs comprise the following three types: a. b.1. a weir which extends across the full width of the rectangular approach channel (B.. h. < 0.30m A comparison of these limitations with those given in Section 5.

Q 2 = Ce3 f i be he'.5 where the effective breadth (be) equals b.2 The rectangular sharp-crested weir (thin-plate weir) 1to2 Figure 5.3 Enlarged view ofcrest and side of rectangular sharp-crested weir 155 . Figure 5. (5-2) + Kb and the effective head (he) equals h.

.

3 Limits of application a./B.0003 m.2 0. and h.K. The practical lower limit of h.5 Ceas a function of the ratios bJB.1.005 0. in metres 0./B1 Figure 5.0 2. as a function of b. (derived from tests a t the Georgia Institute of Technology by Kindsvater and Carter 1957) value of Ca O 0.2 ratio b. is related to the magnitude of the influence value of K. (after Georgia Institute of Technology) 157 .4 value of hl/pl Figure 5.4 Values of K.8 1.4 0. is expected to be of the order of k 0.8 1 . The method by which these errors are to be combined with other sources of error is shown in Annex 2.2 1.6 2.o 1./p.001 O 0. 5.4 0.003 0.001 -0.6 0.

e. The V-notch sharp-crested weir is one of the most precise discharge measuring devices suitable for a wide range of flow.6m h.05 m < h l PI > 0.2. a weir which has an approach channel whose bed and sides are sufficiently remote from the edges of the V-notch to allow for a sufficiently great approach velocity component parallel to the weir face so that the contraction is fully developed. France) Partially contracted weir Fully contracted weir hi/pi c 1. equals 2. h. b. f 0. It should be noted that in this classification fully contracted flow is a subdivision of partially contracted flow. Further limitations on hl/pl arise from observational difficulties and measurement errors./p. Thus. The line which bisects the angle of the notch should be vertical and at the same distance from both sides of the channel (see Section 5).e. C 0. a weir the contractions of which along the sides of the V-notch are not fully developed due to the proximity of the walls and/or bed of the approach channel./p.90m 158 . hl.4 < 0./p. while p. 15 m. The following flow regimes are encountered with V-notch sharp-crested or thin-plate weirs: a.1 Description A V-shaped notch in a vertical thin plate which is placed perpendicular to the sides and bottom of a straight channel is defined as a V-notch sharp-crested weir./B. 5. can be determined. c.03 m.13.2 h.10 m. Böss (1929) has shown that critical depth will occur in the approach channel upstream from a weir if the ratio h.05 m below crest level.0. ‘Fully contracted weir’. f 0. ‘Partially contracted weir’. pI and BI. for values of h.38 m p1 > 0. greater than 5 the weir is not a control section as specified in Section 1./p.6 and 5. For precise discharge measurements the recommended upper limit for h./B. The breadth (bJ of the weir crest should not be less than O .3 Classification and limits of application of V-notch sharp-crested (thin-plate) weirs (after I S 0 1971.2 V-notch sharp-crested weirs 5. i..1./p.of fluid properties and the accuracy with which h.6m 0../B. i. d.2 0. In international literature. To facilitate aeration of the nappe the tailwater level should remain at least 0.45m BI > 0. should be at least 0. These two types of V-notch sharp-crested weirs may be classified by the following limitations on h. exceeds about 5. The recommended lower limit is 0. b. The weir is shown diagrammatically in Figures 5.05 m < h.4 h. f 0. the V-notch sharp-crested-weir is frequently referred to as the ‘Thomson weir’.1 m BI > 0. Table 5.

6 V-notch sharp-crested weir 159 .I Figure 5.

e. Empirically defined values for Kh as a function of the notch angle (O) are shown in Figure 5. 5°C to 30°C (or 40°F to 85°F) the effective coefficient of discharge (Ce) for a V-notch sharp-crested weir is a function of three variables value of Kh in millimetres value of notch angle 0 in degrees Figure 5. The partially contracted weir should be located in a rectangular approach canal. The fully contracted weir may be placed in a non-rectangular approach channel provided that the cross-sectional area of the selected approach channel is not less than that of the rectangular channel as prescribed in Table 5.2 As shown in Section I .8 Value of Kh as a function of the notch angle 160 .5 (5-4) where 8 equals the angle induced between the sides of the notch and heis the effective head which equals h..From this table it appears that from a hydraulica1 point of view a weir may be fully contracted at low heads while at increasing h. the basic head-discharge equation for a V-notch sharpcrested weir is Q = 8 Ce-& 15 e tanZ h./B.The quantity Kh represents the combined effects of fluid properties.2.3.3. only the 90-degree V-notch should be used as a partially contracted V-notch weir. it is modified to a form proposed by Kindsvater and Carter (1957) Q = 8 Cen& e tan2 heZ. Owing to a lack of experimental data relating to the discharge coefficient over a sufficiently wide range of the ratios hl/pl and p. Evaluation of discharge 5.8.2.5 (5-3) To apply this equation to both fully and partially contracted sharp-crested weirs. it becomes partially contracted. i. + Kh. For water at ordinary temperature. 13.

Insufficient experimental data are available to produce Ce-values for non-90-degree partially contracted V-notch weirs. effective discharge coefficient Ce ‘“/PI Ce Figure 5.O% to 2.61 0.57 0. the V-notch weir is fully contracted and Cebecomes a function of only the notch angle 0.0% respectively. The coefficients given in Figures 5.9 and 5.O% and of 1 .9.2. < 0.10 for a 90-degree V-notch only.59 0.1. the effective discharge coefficient (Ce)can be read from Figure 5.10 Ce as a function of hl/pl and pl/B. for 90-degree V-notch sharp-crested weir. provided that the notch is constructed and installed with reasonable care and skill in accordance with the requirements of Sections 5 and 5. (From British Standard 3680: Part 4A and ISO/TC 113/GT 2 (France-IO) 1971) 161 . The tolerance on Kh is expected to be of the order of 0. The method by which these errors are to be combined with other sources of error is shown in Annex 2./B. as illustrated in Figure 5.56 O 20 40 60 1O0 120 value of notch angle 0 in degrees 80 Figure 5.2.60 0.10 for a V-notch sharp-crested weir can be expected to have an accuracy of the order of 1. < 0.4 and h.58 0.value of Ce 0./p. If on the other hand the contraction of the nappe is not fully developed.9 Coefficient ofdischarge Ce as a function of notch angle for fully contracted V-notch weirs (5-5) If the ratios h.0003 m.

068 0.156 1.348 10.133 0.420 2.089 2.642 10.214 0.718 4.362 2.210 17.350 3.208 0.448 0.705 20.884 0.879 7.864 19.982 4.194 162 2.123 0.651 2.836 1.830 5.322 22.568 3.233 0.231 6.904 11.131 0.973 39.164 0.351 5.203 0.759 0.895 1.187 0.867 0.467 90" ~ .082 0.249 38.463 9.237 9.200 0.122 5.001 19.421 0.156 0.119 9.840 2.140 4.803 33.469 18.191 0.997 2.728 8.088 0.176 0.417 1.237 0.078 0.199 21.629 9.304 7.458 6.186 0.157 0.629 8.305 10.513 2.238 0.763 15.195 0.755 6.271 0.164 8.477 16.588 28.202 0.315 17.781 0.322 2.111 5. 103 O.248 2.125 0.155 11.444 10.228 0.918 4.441 8.224 7.561 0.127 21.457 1.551 2.517 13.762 9.911 3.720 2.01 I 9.847 1.345 20.697 2.803 0.209 2.542 6.103 5.974 31.985 5.044 12.504 9.876 2.883 13.100 0.794 3.259 0.694 0.232 0.513 3.514 0.863 6.737 0.815 1.144 0.010 11.192 7.140 0.079 1.607 29.478 18.766 0.190 0.570 16.113 5.653 0.695 17.732 13.134 0.379 6.296 1.071 20.461 9.967 2.042 1.659 15.803 0.162 0.380 39.478 2.951 9.501 23.071 0.237 7.514 0.680 3.782 3.223 0.376 0.406 0.377 0.189 19. I06 0. I04 0.170 0.192 0.240 5.339 1.686 0.481 8.809 4.219 27.594 0.257 1.212 0.053 0.348 0.727 17.245 3.852 3.551 4.077 32.004 14.247 6.605 9.530 1.405 9.096 0.911 1.691 0.313 15.126 0.084 0.208 25.795 1.737 3.256 0.575 0.988 3.239 35.481 0.236 0.624 0.334 6.278 1.197 12.072 0.210 0.261 5.247 0.058 0.085 0.034 22.288 26.420 4.547 0.061 0.046 2.069 1.060 0.529 15.282 14.969 4.934 27.204 16.179 16.272 4.858 10.963 18.033 1.964 17.454 41.604 8.604 0.059 0.613 0.194 0.122 0.406 0.093 11.531 19.453 7.998 1.169 14.706 3.086 0.916 0.602 3.981 3.119 6.220 1.667 3.145 0.676 12.635 5.171 0.297 15.621 20.166 5.048 3.141 1.969 26.670 3.982 0.109 1.473 0.224 0.932 0.402 1.210 0.073 0.217 1.673 7.397 4.296 13.230 0.226 0.149 4.468 2.999 1.203 23.531 7.872 20.750 10.229 31.867 5.899 0.304 13.437 6.309 1.977 0.218 0.499 2.248 6.808 9.151 0.627 7.222 0.340 21.802 24.719 25.582 36.025 1.598 2.137 0.535 8.772 0.168 10.504 8.207 0.051 0.539 0.308 0.459 17.806 0.077 0.306 9.202 40.114 6.532 10.748 22.219 18.166 38.836 0.9O0 metre 90" '/.668 19.089 0.146 0.617 41.321 0.469 0.129 6.054 0.734 3.097 0.462 1.281 7.316 1.116 10.213 0.105 1.926 0.138 15.503 0.155 0.891 1.083 0.536 10.205 0.168 0.060 4.206 0.051 1 .196 7.635 3.899 21.537 2.555 10.334 4.201 0.110 5.539 7.182 0.105 O.111 0.054 5.785 8.284 11.094 0.121 0.220 0.063 19.662 12.874 0.108 0.486 0.079 20.305 2.068 0.117 6.108 1.977 13.999 16.070 0.730 19.971 7.411 11.391 14.652 25.127 0.792 2.453 0.106 1.075 2. I30 6.351 5.640 I .851 0.843 0.601 3.444 5.724 8.325 10.430 10.033 4.337 2.052 0.503 5.636 4.174 0.067 0.21 I 0.648 6.800 20.127 2.384 4.404 3.294 2.391 0.136 3.184 0.166 0.158 0.055 0.153 0.790 40.447 11595 11.897 4.161 1.007 2.263 19.592 0.921 28.637 0.659 2.614 14.915 0.185 0.506 12.503 1.434 0.251 2.344 5.784 13.537 0.091 0.142 0.505 1.312 2.617 6.235 0.116 6.980 9.242 5.653 4.204 0.358 8.032 10.176 2.231 0.778 0.783 '/* 90" 90" ~ 1.458 3.362 0.220 10.537 6.143 0.225 0.973 0.698 6.076 0.751 3.165 0.450 14.722 4.075 0. I02 O.819 12.473 1.4 Discharges for V-notch sharp-crested weirs for heads in metres (adapted from ISO/TC 113/GT 2 (FranceIO) 1971) Head Discharge ]/sec Head Discharge I/sec Head Discharge I/sec Head Discharge I/scc ~ metre 90" '/L900 '/.938 2.827 3.339 25.215 0.179 1.161 0.236 0.715 7.086 4.359 21.906 23.633 0.173 0.192 3.666 18.590 12.992 --.090 0.935 7.101 o.081 3.862 6.651 31.986 5.106 24.093 13.039 35.930 3.029 4.584 10.207 9.099 3.225 0.929 1.249 2.108 0.101 2.417 7.177 0.754 16.953 30.940 17.074 0.803 7.976 1.180 0.264 14.347 8.792 2.107 0.139 8.961 3.90° '/.827 7.9 I O 0.648 1.169 14.093 0.372 7.0.108 9.475 5.819 8.066 0.967 0.181 0.015 1.065 0.850 4.215 0.332 5.620 13.549 L594 1.216 0.079 7.747 0.283 0.132 0.386 1.167 0.298 3.225 3.877 42.566 3.826 0.192 5.987 4.944 7.050 0.465 9.152 0.109 0.964 15.535 33.869 4.013 10.073 8.419 1.115 14.612 22.533 3.717 10.762 7.168 0.139 36.145 0.497 4.950 6.081 0.693 0.160 0.457 13.889 2.177 '1.754 4.367 9.7 I8 0.178 0.744 2.907 34.Table 5.522 7.366 7.105 2.924 29.108 9.634 9.810 9.139 4.380 2.206 0.254 28.064 0.867 4.147 0.630 2.916 21.793 2.246 6.929 6.947 0.717 32.258 5.898 0.620 14.241 5.471 12.029 2.067 15.439 32.489 15.237 3.982 8.315 1.557 0.598 1.057 0.853 1.830 3.163 0.904 3.524 4.197 0.611 0.244 5.986 5.141 0.726 10.673 0.196 0.249 1.234 0.424 2.261 27.539 5.120 0.117 8.641 4.168 33.458 8.274 18.610 26.710 2.136 13.470 0.646 7.087 0.190 1.265 19.034 41.219 1.063 0.922 0.671 11.222 0.530 4.732 5.568 17.437 0.409 1.840 15.222 5.301 30.806 36.136 0.172 0.998 8.069 1.621 8.666 7.880 3.653 0.386 16.588 1.1 18 6.90" metre ~ 0.245 6.193 0.246 1.206 2.242 0.112 5:847 0.397 2.844 16.427 0.221 0.377 1.217 0.243 5.300 11.588 4.369 37.776 0.334 0.209 24.901 1.965 0.038 3.719 0.028 7.264 29.198 0.886 18.095 0.706 9.893 7.079 18.150 0.466 2.893 12.896 10.300 0.784 4.710 1.968 2.559 2.378 8.302 4.663 0.138 0.476 11.297 3.715 0.061 1.709 17.371 1.491 0.175 0.148 0.133 0.255 8.188 0.098 0.140 3.180 21.128 0.183 0.766 38.O78 1.056 0.089 4.521 0.529 3.309 1.289 9.035 2.135 0.115 6.282 34.780 6.227 0.620 0.024 16.421 35.496 20.460 4.092 0.139 8.854 8.302 42.467 4.719 16.970 1.586 0.742 3.159 12.066 12.362 1.080 0.124 0.086 2.149 10.295 0.696 I.336 1.130 0.267 12.743 11.167 10.062 0.949 6.287 20.154 0.

416 66.464 15.345 96.420 16.308 0.361 0.287 0.63 102.245 46.895 49.103 89.981 27.146 33.54 111.266 50.250 0.442 24.057 80.735 0.197 15.303 65.222 83.152 25.933 15.471 42.342 94.289 57.52 108.355 0.187 1 1.362 0.840 16.295 0.372 0.990 22.693 25.097 28.52 122.395 21.268 34.231 56.281 16.947 82.559 16.317 0.098 23.378 0.54 105.181 78.08 103.006 16.899 60.477 37.796 24.400 0.283 0.78 110.141 60.458 0.373 0.344 76.344.267 0.978 12.336 0.282 0.775 88.785 46.189 19.845 17.863 84.302 0.427 30.435 18.782 54.343 95.332 I r I/sec 90" 2 1.229 14.936 74.650 19.263 48.275 29.819 58.928 0.886 0.080 0.91 120.863 29.276 0.723 0.255 0.680 12.794 26.845 28.11 119.558 21.241 40.340 0.359 100.856 53.591 32.337 0.638 0.448 91.155 85.910 21.335 0.030 14.702 35.944 61.033 51.560 63.346 29.901 30.527 0.124 17.30 112.71 121.284 0.123 20.116 87.824 42.071 21.717 55.91 101.191 48.425 60.315 0.275 0.512 25.366 0.380 123.150 21.81 104.315 32.177 37.967 54.370 0.982 17.065 15.271 0.810 47.028 44.923 28.539 31.773 45.750 20.699 16.273 0.023 28.459 87.566 78.287 18.596 27.228 23.121 12.363.428 37.324 0.306 28.862 0.607 13.274 0.920 13.323 0.369 107.277 0.873 23.317 52.568 72.357 0.738 76.311 0.06 112.606 0.290 0.28 106.834 24.Head Discharge I/sec Head Discharge I/sec Head Discharge metre 90" '/.466 24.276 54.805 19.O77 11.94 62.465 30.217 22.95 116.704 33.719 22.867 31 .360 0.590 20.340 93.90° 'I490 metre 90" L/2900 'I490" metre 90" 'I290" '/4 0.251 0.542 60.907 45.750 73.318 0.160 43.124 35.297 0.62 114.065 0.355 27.364 0.691 30.747 31.473 55.391 27.106 68.410 17.555 17.375 0.265 49.328 0.477 0.246 69.733 27.700 17.691 28.604 49.306 57.368 0.345 59.487 52.867 30.438 44.438 89.285 0.294 0.092 24.367 0.985 16.121 52.779 38.881 26.869 33.950 59.005 24.143 16.094 0.340 54.264 49.842 48.353 0.330 15.325 0.991 0.330 0.347 27.02 109.585 36.497 47.107 44.443 12.398 70.863 I I .371 0.291 0.096 55.542 48.353 0.139 18.157 14.256 0.606 26.363 0.314 0.312 0.467 22.774 56.341 34.853 59.748 65.885 29.995 36.282 56.268 51.003 57.259 43.057 26.466 44.040 32.980 71.772 55.309 68.598 15.955 61.616 57.551 0.338 0.19 100.780 58.880 17.375 59.585 18.313 0.310 0.794 26.17 115.348 98.321 0.168 0.377 29.135 75.354 0.262 48.544 27.772 21.429 22.293 0.653 13.341 93.335 58.424 26.304 0.553 40.249 49.671 14.058 23.352 0.940 0.272 55.252 0.291 53.721 21.645 64.796 43.796 46.870 0.261 48.316 0.491 43.117 20.323 23.269 51.227 53.299 62.424 33.992 18.498 28.685 81.36 103.384 38.210 12.065 30.267 50.583 83.147 42.264 30.413 14.351 0.769 32.867 41.976 67.13 61.27 109.39 53.910 24.666 30.350 45.098 27.523 I I .974 25.307 0.278 0.503 41.108 45.184 41.596 25.384 22.377 0.258 0.128 91.495 19.351 28.958 23.153 47.314 81.272 0.333 0.209 22.753 0.802 14.280 0.339 86.162 13.959 31.244 0.744 23.432 20.320 0.954 77.397 51. 90 degree v-mtch I TQl-7 # 93 degree Y-mtch a 90 degree V-mtch Note: The number of significant figures given for the discharge does not imply a corresponding accuracy in the knowledge of the value given.642 25.381 123.288 0.560 58.329 80.471 46.171 58.114 28.281 0.253 0.081 38.286 0.84 113.802 53.407 13.101 63.875 26.73 117.758 52.888 23.331 0.627 24.299 11.802 79.699 24.051 22.175 0.358 0.326 12.274 0.451 43.77 50.779 44.279 52.400 23.561 12.150 31.649 22.041 13.045 0.499 31.037 19.303 0.326 0.635 1 1.638 29.903 14.301 0.542 0.858 66. 163 .619 24.322 0.306 0.300 0.168 25.675 69.332 0.687 38.296 0.52 118.778 13.235 24.777 1 I .346 97.593 44.799 12.404 25.551 22.313 50.927 18.119 29.365 0.412 35.609 26.412 29.163 30.446 45.290 36.672 51.284 14.02 106.327 0.195 64.749 1 I .379 115.615 39.487 62.347 98.342 19.257 0.260 47.669 29.240 26.885 19.933 25.806 40.31 119.837 35.734 15.284 0.582 56.304 39.572 0.334 0.772 90.534 75.552 34.350 0.254 0.529 13.95. 26.319 73.508 85.811 92.125 46.32 57.232 21.292 0.305 0.876 0.410 11.376 0.742 60.995 39.298 0.696 47.851 27.960 20.356 0.349 99.821 70.O70 0.374 0.159 72.549 23.270 0.

the crest being horizontal and the sides sloping outward with an inclination of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical (Figure 5.3 Cipoletti weir 5.2. would be compensated by the increase of discharge due to the inclination of the sides of the control-section. Cipoletti (1886) assumed that. 5. should be equal to or less than 1. g. b./p. The head over the vertex of the notch h. f. The ratio h.2. Partially contracted weirs have a 90-degree notch only. It should be noted. 5. The height of the vertex of the notch above the bed of the approach channel (p.4 Rating tables Commonly used sizes of V-notches for fully contracted thin-plate weirs are the 90-deg90-degree notches in which the dimensions across the top 90-degree and ree. The tailwater level should remain below the vertex of the notch. This compensation thus allows the head-discharge equation of a full width rectangular weir to be used.60 m.4. max n ---approach channel upstream view Figure S.) should not be less than O.05 m nor more than 0. c. the decrease of discharge over a fully contracted rectangular sharp-crested weir with breadth b. e. however./B. d.4. 2 to 3 h. The width of the rectangular approach channel should exceed 0. are twice. should be equal to or less than 0. The notch angle of a fully contracted weir may range between 25 and 100 degrees. equal to and half the vertical depth respectively. should not be less than 0. The related ratings are given in Table 5. due to the increase of side-contraction with an increasing head.2.5.3. 10 m. The ratio h.60m.1 Description A Cipoletti weir is a modification of a fully contracted rectangular sharp-crested weir and has a trapezoïdal control section.3 Limits of application The limits of application of the Kindsvater and Carter equation for V-notch sharpcrested weirs are: a.1 I Definition sketch of a Cipoletti weir 164 .1 I).