Katie Tighe EDU 516 Unit Plan 12.6.

10 Theme American Gothic Literature Unit Overview In this unit students will analyze American Literature through the lens of Gothic literary conventions. They will explore the origins of the genre and the ways in which American authors adapted the conventions to reflect America’s distinct culture. Throughout the unit, students will examine how cultural beliefs and anxieties are encoded in literary texts. They will gain practice close reading texts for literary devices and techniques, genre conventions and historical context. Students will also examine Gothic works through different critical lenses (historical, psychological, feminist). Throughout the unit, students will tweak a working definition of the Gothic, determining the most important features of the genre present in the works read. The unit will culminate in a final paper in which students compare and contrast the use of a Gothic conventions in two different works. Rational The genre of the Gothic will provide a unique and engaging inroad into important aspects of American history and culture (anxieties about religion, morality, community, gender and American history itself). The topic will also connect well with aspects of popular culture (Twilight series, Stephen King novels, horror films, etc.) and thus, should touch on student interests—or at least an aspect of the culture that they are familiar with. Overarching Questions *What American cultural concerns are reflected through Gothic conventions? *Do American Gothic works seem more concerned with thrilling and entertaining readers or critiquing society? *How are Gothic sensibilities still with us today? *How can genre be slippery? Texts/Materials/Resources

Texts *Allan Lloyd Smith American Gothic Fiction: An Introduction *Edgar Allen Poe “The Fall of the House of Usher” “The Tell-Tale Heart” *Nathanial Hawthorne “Young Goodman Brown” “The Minister’s Black Veil” * Charlotte Perkins Gilman “The Yellow Wallpaper” *William Faulkner “A Rose For Emily” *Shirley Jackson “The Lottery” *Flannery O’Connor “A Good Man is Hard to Find” Materials/Resources *Computer and LCD projector *Student Journals or Blog *Internet Access *chart paper *Appendix Materials/Handouts Culminating Project: Comparison/Contrast Essay As a culminating assignment for our unit on Gothic fiction, you will be asked to write a Comparison/Contrast Essay in which you analyze the use of a Gothic convention in two of the works read in class. Looking at your two stories, you will answer the following questions: How is the Gothic convention you have chosen depicted in each work? In what ways do the use of Gothic conventions contribute to the larger themes of each story? Please answer these questions in a well-organized essay featuring: a clear thesis statement, supporting paragraphs with topic sentences that support your overall argument and concrete, well-integrated textual evidence.

Your essay must be 5 pages. Typed, double-spaced in 12 point Times New Roman Font. You must clear your paper topic with me in advance. Grading Rubric CATEGORY Focus 4 The paper has a single, clear topic that is supported by a strong thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. Information is very organized with wellconstructed paragraphs, a clear progression of the main idea, and smooth transitions. 3 The paper has a sufficiently narrow topic that is supported by a thesis statement. 2 1 No single paper topic. No thesis statement.

Organization

The paper topic is either too broad or topic is unclear. Thesis statement needs to be more focused and/or clear. Information is Information is organized with organized, but well-constructed paragraphs are paragraphs, a not wellprogression of constructed. The the main idea sequence of and transitions. paragraphs does not support the logical progression of the main idea. Transitions are few or absent entirely. Content is sufficient and relates to the paper's focus. Points are backed up by evidence. Content is lacking. Content may not relate to the paper's focus. Points are not specific enough and/or not supported with evidence. A few grammatical spelling, or punctuation

The information appears to be disorganized.

Content

Mechanics

Content is substantial and relates directly to the paper's focus. Content features specific insights/points that are wellsupported with appropriate evidence. No grammatical, spelling or punctuation

Content is severely limited. It does not relate to the paper's focus. No evidence provided to back up points. Many grammatical, spelling, or punctuation

Almost no grammatical, spelling or punctuation

errors.

errors

errors.

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LESSON 1 State Standards: 1.3.11.B: Interpret and analyze works in various genres of literary and/or cultural significance in American and world history: * Reflect a variety of genres in the respective major periods of literature. * Represent important authors in each historical period. * Reveal contrasts in major themes, styles, and trends in the respective historical periods. * Examine the important philosophical, religious, social, political, or ethical ideas of the time. Objectives: Students are introduced to unit on American Gothic fiction. Students will assess what they already know about the term “Gothic” and formulate a working definition of the American Gothic as a literary genre. Students will be able to identify Gothic conventions in Poe’s “The Raven.” Materials/Resources: Student Journals Handouts with definitions (in Appendix) Copies of Poe’s “The Raven” Procedures: 1. Beginning Tell students that we will be starting a unit on American Gothic fiction. Give them five minutes to respond in their journals to the questions: “What does the term “Gothic” mean to you? What images does in conjure? What do you know about Gothic literature, specifically?” Next give students three minutes to share what they wrote with a partner. Now discuss as a group, writing student comments on the board. (Students most likely will be able to reference “Goth” style, Gothic architecture, even if they are unfamiliar with Gothic as a literary term.) Inform students that today we will begin to formulate a working definition of the Gothic. This is something we will continue to add to and tweak as we explore the genre of American Gothic literature.

Tell students that the Gothic is a very broad category comprised of many specific elements or conventions (some of which they most likely will have mentioned in their brainstorming). As they shall see, most of them are familiar with many of these elements from ghost stories, horror films and even novels they read the year before such as To Kill A Mockingbird. 2. Middle Ask if anyone can define what a literary convention is? Genre? Display the definitions of the terms “convention” and “genre” on the overhead. When everyone is finished reading, ask students to sum-up each definition is their own words. Explain to them that the Gothic features many very specific conventions. Sometimes a work may exhibit many Gothic conventions, but is not necessarily categorized as a Gothic work as a whole. Distribute copies of Poe’s “The Raven” to students, as well as display on overhead. Read aloud as a group, encouraging students beforehand to circle or underline any words, phrases or moments that seem Gothic. Have students share with same partner regarding what they made note of in the poem. Prompt discussion by having students share what words or moments they picked out with the whole class. Write this on the board and ask students to compare the gothic elements from “The Raven” with their original brainstorm list. Does “The Raven” brainstorm list contain any of the same concepts/words as the list made at the start of class? 3. Ending Ask students to now re-think their original list of what comprises the Gothic. Can we add new ideas to our working definition of the Gothic? What would students add after reading “The Raven?” Why? 4. Evaluation Exit ticket: What other works do you know that have Gothic elements? Books? Movies? Songs? Poems? 5. Differentiated Activities An audio or video version of the “The Raven” could be played instead of having members of the class read aloud. Students could create their list of Gothic elements, read poem, etc. in pairs or small groups, instead of as a whole class.

More advanced students could be divided into groups, each with a different poem to analyze. LESSON 2 State Standards: 1.6.11.A: Listen critically and respond to others in small and large group situations. • Respond with grade level appropriate questions, ideas, information or opinions. 1.3.11.C: Analyze the relationships, use, and effectiveness of literary elements (characterization, setting, plot, theme, point of view, tone, mood, foreshadowing, irony, and style) used by one or more authors in similar genres. --R11.B.1: Understand components within and between texts. Objectives: Students will be able to distinguish between the terms Gothic Literature, Gothic Novel, and Gothic. Students will be able to recognize connections between historical and literary movements. Materials/Resources: Student Journals Overhead Handouts with definitions (Appendix) Powerpoint Presentation Procedures 1. Beginning Tell students that as American writers started using Gothic conventions in their writing, they were drawing on a rich tradition that had been immensely popular in Europe. Prompt students to write a journal response based on the following question: List any examples of texts that reference, parody or imitate other texts. This does not have to be limited to books but can include songs, televisions shows, movies, etc. Tell students that today we will be looking more closely at the history of the genre of the Gothic. This will aid us as we analyze the ways in which American authors reconfigured certain conventions. 2. Middle

Divide students into groups of 4. Pass out different definitions of Gothic terms. (See Appendix) Give students 10 minutes to read and discuss their definition. Next have each group share with the whole class, summarizing the most important points of their definition. *Next present PPT that catalogues the ways in which American Gothic differs from European Gothic fiction. Give students handout of PPT, with space for taking notes.

3. Ending Explain to students that this emphasis of American historical circumstances represents an interpretation of American Gothic literature and that they are encouraged to agree or disagree with this perspective throughout the unit. 4. Evaluation Review student journals. 5. Differentiated Activities Students could be assigned excerpts from Allan Lloyd-Smith’s American Gothic Fiction for homework, Students could begin to make a timeline of American Gothic literature to be added to/tweaked throughout the unit. LESSON 3 [Students will have read Poe’s “The Fall of the House of Usher” and written a 250-word response to the following questions for homework: What are the most prominent features of the setting of “The Fall of the House of Usher”?] State Standards: 1.1.L.D: Demonstrate comprehension before reading, during reading, and after reading on grade level texts to support understanding of a variety of literary works from different cultures and literary movements. --R11.A.1.5: Summarize a fictional text as a whole. --R11.B.1.1: Interpret, compare, describe, analyze, and evaluate components of fiction and literary nonfiction. --R11.B.1.1.1: Setting: Explain, interpret, compare, describe, analyze, and/or evaluate the setting of fiction or literary nonfiction.

Explain, interpret, compare, describe, analyze, and/or evaluate the relationship between setting and other components of the text. Objectives: Students will analyze Poe’s use of specific literary devices in “The Fall of the House of Usher.” They will be able to interpret the larger themes of the story through an analysis of the literary devices of word choice, personification, imagery, foreshadowing and symbolism. Materials/Resources Graphic Organizers 1 &2 (Appendix) Chart paper Markers Procedures: 1. Beginning Ask students to summarize “The Fall of the House of Usher.” Take participants or call on students at random. Next ask students to think about the setting of the story and share what they wrote in their response for homework. Remind students that setting is especially important in Gothic works. In particular, Gothic works often place in an old castle (in the case of European Gothic) or crumbling mansion. Also, Gothic authors usually establish a dark, scary or mysterious mood in their works. Here draw student attention to the working definition of Gothic begun in lesson 1. 2. Middle Break students into groups of four and present half with Graphic Organizer 1 and half with Graphic Organizer 2. 3. Ending After filling out the graphic organizers, have students report their findings on chart paper and present to the group. 4. Evaluation Collect charts. 5. Differentiated Activities

Classes that need more scaffolding could fill out one graphic organizer as a group, before breaking into small groups to fill out second graphic organizer. LESSON 4 [Students have read ““The Tell-Tale Heart” for homework as well as an excerpt from the introduction to The New Gothic.] State Standards: 1.1.L.D: Demonstrate comprehension before reading, during reading, and after reading on grade level texts to support understanding of a variety of literary works from different cultures and literary movements. --R11.B.1.2: Make connections between texts. Objectives: Students will be able to compare and contrast the same story presented trough different media. Students will be able to analyze the effectiveness of Poe’s short story as a dramatic monologue. Materials/Resources: Computer Internet Access Procedures: 1. Beginning

Have students respond to the following questions in their journal: What are the major themes of “The Tell-Tale” Heart. What do you think is Poe’s purpose in writing the story? Have students share their response with the group. Tell students that we will be watching a dramatic performance of “The Tell-Tale Heart” and analyzing the differences between reading and viewing the story. 2. Middle Students watch a dramatic performance of “The Tell-Tale Heart”: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LNjgv5p3Ek&feature=recentfmore http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TM-tAb-bM-s&feature=recentfmore (Video approximately 15 minutes)

Prompt discussion by asking students: Did this work as a dramatic monologue? What feelings does this story create in the reader? Next ask students to sum-up the excerpt read for homework: What do Morrow and McGrath highlight as Poe’s contribution to the American Gothic?

3. Ending Explain that this emphasis on psychological terror/horror is one that we will continue to explore. Poe’s works lend themselves well to performance. Does he have a larger purpose in his work other than to create fear and terror in his reader (i.e. entertain them)? 4. Evaluation EXIT Ticket: Do you see any similarities in the Poe works that we have read and modern horror movies? 5. Differentiated Activities Students could also read “The Black Cat” and only watch the dramatic version of “The Tell-Tale Heart.” LESSON 5 [For homework students will have read “Young Goodman Brown.”] State Standards: 1.3.11.A: Examine the impact of diverse cultures and writers on the development and growth of literature. Describe how an author conveys intent and perspective in contemporary and historical writings. Objectives: Students will identify elements of the Puritan experience in Hawthorne’s “Young Goodman Brown.” Students will compare and contrast Hawthorne’s work with his personal biography. Materials/Resources: Student Journals Computer Internet Access

Procedures: 1. Beginning Pass around handouts with an excerpt from J Carol Oates intro to American Gothic Tales. Read aloud as a group and have students respond to in their journals to the following question: What historical factor(s) does J. Carol Oates highlight in relation to American Gothic fiction? After 5 minutes, have students share their responses with the group. Tell students that the Puritan experience did influence American Gothic Fiction, particularly the work of Nathaniel Hawthorne, and that today we will be discussing his work in relation to the Puritan experience. Ask students what they know about the Puritans and the Salem Witch Trials from their history class. Jot student comments down on the board/overhead. 2. Middle Show students 10 minute documentary clip about the Salem Witch Trials (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sEv4FlmHbYY&feature=related). Tell students that Hawthorne was a descendent of one of the judges at the Salem Witch Trials of 1692-93. Prompt a discussion by asking the following questions: Do you think Hawthorne’s family background influenced his writing? What elements of “Young Goodman Brown attest to this influence”? Direct students to the following paragraph from “Young Goodman Brown”: "Well said, Goodman Brown! I have been as well acquainted with your family as with ever a one among the Puritans; and that's no trifle to say. I helped your grandfather, the constable, when he lashed the Quaker woman so smartly through the streets of Salem; and it was I that brought your father a pitch-pine knot, kindled at my own hearth, to set fire to an Indian village, in King Philip's war. They were my good friends, both; and many a pleasant walk have we had along this path, and returned merrily after midnight. I would fain be friends with you for their sake. Have them read this silently and then ask them to summarize the passage. Prompt discussion by asking: What does this passage suggest about the Puritans? What view of American history does this suggest? Break Students into groups of 4. In their groups, have students answer the question: Does Young Goodman Brown really attend a witches’ Sabbath or does

he dream about it? What elements of the supernatural are included in the text? Have students back up their argument with specific examples from the text. 3. Ending Pull up working definition of the gothic and have students add new items. 4. Evaluation Collect student group work. 5. Differentiated Activities More advanced classes could be assigned Jonathan Edwards sermon “Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God.” LESSON 6 [Students will have read “The Ministers Black Veil” for homework. They will have come in to class with three interpretive questions about the text and 5 vocabulary words that they did not understand.] State Standards: 1.1.11.B: Use context clues, knowledge of root words, and word origins as well as reference sources to decode and understand new words. 1.1.11.C: Analyze textual context to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words and to draw conclusions about nuances or connotations of words. --R11.A.1.1.1: Identify and/or apply meaning of multiple-meaning words used in text. --R11.A.1.1.2: Identify and/or apply a synonym or antonym of a word used in text. Objectives: Students will be able to formulate interpretive questions based on reading. Students will be able to define unknown words utilizing reference sources, prior knowledge and context clues. Materials/Resources: Dictionary Student Journals Procedures: 1. Beginning

Collect student questions as they come in the room and quickly pick two or three to prompt a journal reflection. After five minutes, prompt students to share their responses. After this class discussion, ask students to reflect on what new questions were raised by answering the question that they did. Have them generate three new questions and record them in their journal. Tell students that now we are going to switch gears and work with the other questions they had from the reading: vocabulary words. We will work closely with the language Hawthorne uses, determine the meaning of unfamiliar words through several different methods. 2. Middle Each student should have a list of vocabulary words generated for homework. [For students who do not, have them look through the text now and pick five words. Whatever they do not finish in class can be assigned as homework.] Place the following guidelines for defining words up on the overhead: a. Make your own guess, using contextual information, as to the words meaning. b. Write down the dictionary definition that best describes the way the word was used in its original sentence. c. Use your own words to define it, so if I ask you to explain what it means, you can. d. List any variations of the word (e.g., if the word is profane, a variation would be profanity); these variations might include synonyms, antonyms (e.g., swearing, cussing) and antonyms (e.g., revere, respect). Use these guidelines to define one word as a class (use any of the following words: iniquity, pathos, indecorous, remonstrate, visage). Next prompt students to begin defining their five words according to these guidelines. 3. Ending Give students the rest of class time to complete this assignment. Any unfinished work will be assigned as homework. 4. Evaluation Collect student definitions of 5 words.

5.

Differentiated Activities

For students who struggle with this, more words can be defined as a group. Additionally, the assignment could be completed in pairs or small groups instead of as an independent activity. [LESSON NOT INCLUDED: Discussion of “The Minister’s Black Veil” and “Young Goodman Brown” in relation to the themes of guilt, “secret sin” and the hidden.] LESSON 7 State Standards: 1.1.11.B: Use context clues, knowledge of root words, and word origins as well as reference sources to decode and understand new words. --R11.A.1.2: Identify and apply word recognition skills. Objectives: Students will be able to define grotesque, a term central to Gothic literary criticism. They will be able to interpret Gothic works through the lens of the grotesque. Materials/Resources: Computer Internet Access Appendix Materials (Paintings, Chart). 1. Beginning Prompt discussion by asking students: What does the term grotesque mean? Tell students that the concept of the grotesque is central to Gothic criticism. Next display the definition of grotesque from Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms on overhead, as well as the following dictionary definition: adjective 1. odd or unnatural in shape, appearance, or character; fantastically ugly or absurd; bizarre. 2. fantastic in the shaping and combination of forms, as in decorative work combining incongruous human and animal figures with scrolls, foliage, etc. Ask students how these definitions match up with their initial understandings of the word. 2. Middle Show students Francis Bacon painting Study of a Nude with figure in the Mirror. (http://www.artknowledgenews.com/Sothebys.html) and Self Portrait with

Injured Eye (http://www.leninimports.com/francis_bacon_gallery_4.html). (See Appendix) Break students into groups of 4 and have them complete graphic organizer (See Appendix). Prompt discussion based on work in groups. 3. Ending Ask students if we have seen the grotesque in any of the stories read so far? Is madness an example of the grotesque? The minister’s veil? Next show students illustration of the ministers black veil. (Appendix) Prompt discussion by asking: What is grotesque about this image? 4. Evaluation Collect graphic organizer and grade for class participation. 5. Differentiated Activities For further enrichment, students could have an assignment in which they must find an example of the grotesque (either another painting or literary example, song, etc.)

LESSON 8 [Students will have read “The Yellow Wallpaper” for homework and generated three interpretive discussion questions.] State Standards: 1.3.11.D: Analyze the effectiveness, in terms of literary quality, of the author’s use of literary devices, (e.g., personification, simile, alliteration, symbolism, metaphor, hyperbole, imagery, allusion, satire, foreshadowing, flashback, irony) in various genres. --R11.B.2.1.1: Identify, explain, interpret, describe, and/or analyze examples of personification, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, satire, imagery, foreshadowing, flashbacks and irony in text. --R11.B.2.2: Identify, interpret, describe, and analyze the point of view of the narrator in fictional and nonfictional text. Objectives: Students will be able to define the uncanny and assess the difference between the dictionary and literary definition. They will be able to identify the use of the uncanny in Gothic texts.

Materials/Resources: Student Journals Handouts with quotes from “The Yellow Wallpaper” (Appendix) Procedures: 1. Beginning Prompt students to reflect on the following question in their journals: Why does the narrator go mad? Could it have been prevented? Have students share their responses with the group. Tell students that this story uses several literary devices—such as dramatic irony and an unreliable narrator—to create questions in the readers mind as well as a Gothic air of mystery. Ask if anyone can define dramatic irony or unreliable narrator. 2. Middle Explain the two terms— dramatic irony and unreliable narrator—and have students partner up. Provide students with quotes from the text and ask them to evaluate: 1.) Does this quote represents an example of dramatic irony? 2.) Do we trust the information that the narrator is telling us? 3.) If not, what do we believe is really going on? Next ask students if they are familiar with the word “uncanny”? What does it mean? Provide students with the Merriam-Webster definition: a : seeming to have a supernatural character or origin : eerie, mysterious b : being beyond what is normal or expected : suggesting superhuman or supernatural powers <an uncanny sense of direction> Explain to students that the uncanny is an important term in the study of Gothic literature. Critical to the literary definition is Freud’s definition, which catalogues the uncanny (Ger. Das Unheimliche) as: “that class of the frightening which leads back to what is known of old and long familiar […] on the one hand it means what is familiar and agreeable [as “heimlich”, roughly translated, means “homely”] and on the other, what is concealed and kept out of sight. Sum-up Freud’s definition in the following way: an instance where something can be familiar, yet foreign at the same time, resulting in a feeling of it being uncomfortably strange. The concept of déjà vu might give students a comparable term for understanding. 3. Ending

Are there any instances of the uncanny in “The Yellow Wallpaper”? Other works read so far? Exit Ticket: If students struggle with the last discussion question have them answer the following as an exit ticket or homework assignment. Could the ghostly figure behind the wallpaper be an example of the uncanny? Or the man who leads Goodman Brown into the woods? Why? 4. Evaluation Collect exit ticket/homework. 5. Differentiated Activities If students need more structure/scaffolding, the literary terms could be evaluated in group work (through the jigsaw method, with each group getting a different term) and then presented to the whole group. LESSON 9 State Standards: 1.4.11.B: Write complex informational pieces (e.g. research papers, literary analytical essays, evaluations) *Use precise language and specific detail. Objectives: Students will be able to close read texts, evaluating the literary devices, stylistic elements and larger themes of the work through an analysis of a small passage of the text. Students will be able to transfer their close-reading skills to their writing. Materials/Resources: Appendix Materials 1. Beginning Pass out final paper prompt and rubric. Read through and explain assignment, fielding student questions. Tell students that, as they write their papers, they will need to move between making broad assertions about the two texts they are comparing, as well as closely analyzing quotes from the text. 6. Middle Pass out Close Reading Handout. Read together as a group.

Next pass out an example of close-reading from an anonymous student paper. (Appendix) Prompt discussion of techniques that the writer used (picking out nuances of specific words, providing definitions of specific words, relating passage to larger themes, etc.) Next, place passage from “The Fall of the House of Usher” on the overhead (See Appendix). As a group, analyze the passage, using the close-reading handout as a guide. 4. Ending Tell students that for homework, they must pick out a passage (of comparable length to the one just analyzed) from any of the stories read so far and write a 250- word close-reading response. 6. Evaluation Grade close-reading assignment. 7. Differentiated Activities Students can perform close reading of passages in small groups or with a partner. LESSON 10 [Students will have read “A Rose For Emily” for homework.] State Standards: 1.2.11.C: Examine the author’s explicit and implicit bias and assumptions, beliefs about a subject, use of fact and/or opinion, and/or the author’s argument or defense of a claim as related to essential and non-essential information. Objectives: Students will discern Gilman and Faulkner’s purposes in writing the texts read. Students will compare and contrast “A Rose for Emily” and “The Yellow Wallpaper” through the lens of Feminist critique. Materials/Resources: Appendix Resources Procedures: 1. Beginning

Have students respond to the following questions in their journals: Why does Emily kill Homer? What Gothic conventions or themes are at work in this story? Prompt students to share with the group. Tell students that today we will look at “A Rose For Emily” and “The Yellow Wallpaper” as Feminist critiques. 2. Middle Display Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s bio from Encyclopedia of Gothic Literature on the overhead. Ask students: What was Gilman’s purpose in writing “The Yellow Wallpaper.” Explain to students that women were commonly put on the “rest cure” in Gilman’s time. Next display and read Faulkner’s explanation of the “A Rose For Emily.” (See Appendix) Next break students into groups of 4. Have them create a Venn diagram to compare and contrast Emily and the narrator from “The Yellow Wallpaper.” Provide students with a graphic organizer to record their answers to the following questions: What drives these character’s mad? Were they mad from the beginning of each story? What is the author’s purpose in writing each text? (See Appendix) 3. Ending Ask students to reflect on overarching question: Do American Gothic authors use Gothic conventions to thrill and terrify readers or to maker meaningful commentary? 4. Evaluation Collect Graphic Organizers. 5. Differentiated Activities Students can compare and contrast two other stories for homework. [LESSON NOT INCLUDED: Students read and discuss “A Good Man is Hard to Find.”] LESSON 11

State Standards: 1.1.L.D: Demonstrate comprehension before reading, during reading, and after reading on grade level texts to support understanding of a variety of literary works from different cultures and literary movements. --R11.B.1.2: Make connections between texts. --R11.B.1.2.1: Explain, interpret, compare, describe, analyze, and/or evaluate connections between texts. Objectives: Students will be able to identify common themes in “The Lottery” and Hawthorne’s short stories. They will enlarge their working definition of the American Gothic. Materials/Resources: Student Journals Procedures: 1. Beginning Prompt students to reflect on either/both of the following statements in relation to “The Lottery” in their journals: Society wrongfully designates scapegoats to bear the sins of the community. The wickedness of ordinary people can be just as horrifying as the heinous crime of a serial killer or a sadistic head of state. Have students share their response with the group. Tell students that this theme of scapegoating provides a through-line from Hawthorne to Jackson. 2. Middle Prompt discussion by asking students which is more terrifying: the “secret sin” present in Hawthorne’s stories, or the evil that is accepted as normal in “The Lottery”? Why? Do any other works read so far indict communal values or communal notions of morality? What pressures do established belief/practice, put onto the individual? (If students struggle, point them to specific works (“The Yellow Wallpaper,” “A Rose For Emily,” Gothic elements from To Kill A Mockingbird (i.e. Boo Radley). 3. Ending Have students begin writing a 250-word response for homework, in which they elaborate on the class discussion. Specifically: What pressures do established belief/practice, put onto the individual? Examples from works not read in class? Read but not discussed? 4. Evaluation

Collect 250-word response. 5. Differentiated Activities Have students write on another theme common to several of the works read in class: confining spaces, recluses, controlling fathers/brothers. LESSON 12 State Standards: 1.4.11.B: Write complex informational pieces (e.g. research papers, literary analytical essays, evaluations) *Create an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, and context. * Use precise language and specific detail. * Use relevant graphics (e.g. maps, charts, graphs, table illustrations, photographs)• Include accurate information from primary and secondary sources and exclude extraneous information. Objectives: Students will be able to outline and construct the component parts of a comparison/contrast essay. Materials/Resources: Student Journals Computer Chalkboard/Overhead Procedures: 1. Beginning Have students reflect on the following questions in their journals: How do Poe, Gilman and Faulkner use the Gothic convention of the old ancestral home or mansion? What are some similarities in the way they utilize this convention? Differences? Tell students that in preparation for their final comparison/contrast essay, we will be writing a comparison/contrast essay as a class. 2. Middle

Have students break into groups of 4 and share what they wrote in their journals. Next have them share with the whole class. Create a list on the board of all of the similarities/differences that students generated. Together, create an outline of a paper on this topic, coming up with a Thesis statement, topic sentences, and quotations from the texts that will be used. Once outline is complete, divide students again into their groups of 4 and have each group begin to write a part of the paper (intro, conclusion, individual paragraphs built around topic sentences and quotations picked). 3. Ending Bring all groups back together and begin to assemble the pieces into a single document (using the computer and overhead, if possible). 4. Evaluation Require each student to take notes during group work. Collect at the end of class. 5. Differentiated Activities Groups can be picked by teacher to create a balance of student strengths and abilities. More structure can be provided for group work by assigning students specific roles and responsibilities within group. For classes that struggle with this, the whole activity could be down with the entire group. LESSON 13 State Standard(s): 1.1.11.D: Demonstrate comprehension/understanding of a wide variety of appropriate literary works from different cultures and literary movements, including classic and contemporary literature. --R11.A.1.5.1: Summarize the key details and events of a fictional text as a whole. --R11.A.1.6: Identify, describe, and analyze genre of text. --R11.A.1.6.1: Identify and/or analyze the author’s intended purpose of text. Objectives: Students will work in groups to create a “review” of a Gothic short story. Students will be able to summarize the main points of the story and analyze how the author’s use of Gothic conventions contributes to the overall theme or purpose of the text. Materials/Resources:

Student Journals Paper/Pens Overhead Appendix Materials Procedures: 1. Beginning

Read a review of “The Fall of The House of Usher”—(created by teacher)— that summarizes the story, points out the most prominent Gothic conventions, and explains how these conventions contribute to larger the larger theme of the story. Tell students that they will be creating their own review like the one just listened to. Tell students that they are encouraged to refer to the “Gothic Conventions” handout as they begin their review. 2. Middle

Ask students to analyze the organizational structure of the review: How is the information organized? What information is given first? Last? Place the written text of the review on the overhead, so students can see the information visually. Now have students break into the groups they will be working in to make their review. (Groups organized around stories: “The Tell-Tale Heart,” “The Minister’s Black Veil,” “The Yellow Wallpaper,” “Young Goodman Brown,” “The Lottery,” “A Rose for Emily,” and “A Good Man is Hard to Find.”) Give students a graphic organizer to fill out as they begin to craft their review. (See Appendix) Tell students to begin with the summary and give them most of the rest of class time to work on this. 3. Ending Have student share their summaries. Have the rest of class critique what information is not essential as well as what essential information is not present. 4. Evaluation Students will work on this into the next class period and beyond, and each group will present their review to the class.

In addition to having students share their summary with the group, I will collect each student’s graphic organizer and award points for class participation based on how much is completed. 5. Differentiated Activities The group work will allow for students to work at different paces. Students who write their summaries quickly can move on to filling out the other sections of the graphic organizer. Students who work more slowly do not have to have the summary completed, but can share the first few sentences with the group. Additionally, students can tweak the format of assignment (i.e. present it dramatically as if they are a character or the author of the story). Groups will be assigned by teacher to assure an appropriate mix of ability levels and personality types. That way, student strengths and weaknesses will be balanced. Students can also be assigned roles within their groups (i.e. one person writes the script, one performs, etc.) LESSON 14 State Standards: 1.1.L.D: Demonstrate comprehension before reading, during reading, and after reading on grade level texts to support understanding of a variety of literary works from different cultures and literary movements. --R11.B.1.1: Interpret, compare, describe, analyze, and evaluate components of fiction and literary nonfiction. Objectives: Students will be able to distinguish and interpret important elements of American Gothic texts by creating a visual interpretation of an image or moment from one of the texts we have read. Materials/Resources: Paper Markers 1. Beginning Remind students that the Gothic is a highly imaginative genre that works in very vivid images. Often these images emerge as an important symbol or metaphor for a larger theme of the story. Sometimes they seem intended to produce an

emotional effect in the reader (shock, fear, disgust). Prompt students to reflect in their journals: What is the most vivid image or moment from each of the Gothic stories that we have read? 2. Middle Next pass out paper and prompt students to fold it into four squares. Prompt students through the next four activities, giving them 3-4 minutes to complete each one. 1. In the top left corner, draw a picture of your image/moment. This is not about artistic ability, just try to convey the most important features of your image. Stick figure are o.k.! 2. In the second box, put the picture into words. Describe what is happening. 3. In the third box, explain the significance of the image or moment. 4. In the fourth box, respond to the significance of the image/moment by creating a word collage or poem, or in any way responding to the image you have drawn. 3. Ending Have students share their significant images with the group. 5. Evaluation Collect student work and grade for class participation. 6. Differentiated Activities Students who excel at this can expand it into a larger project for extra credit. Students could use this activity as a springboard for developing their final essay around visual images. LESSON 15 State Standards: 1.1.11.A: Apply appropriate strategies to analyze, interpret, and evaluate author’s use of techniques and elements of fiction and non-fiction for rhetorical and aesthetic purposes. --R11.A.1.6: Identify, describe, and analyze genre of text. Objectives: Students will formulate their final, personal definition of American Gothic. They will apply their understanding of the genre to reflect on the overarching question relating to the modern Gothic. Materials/Resources:

Student Journals Computer Internet Access Rationale: 1. Beginning Bring up working definition of Gothic on the overhead. Ask students to make final tweaks to the list of adjectives. Now asks students answer the following in their journals: Come up with your own definition of American Gothic literature. Include in your definition the most prominent conventions of the genre and authors’ purposes in using them. 2. Middle Show students the following clips. Thriller http (://www.youtube.com/watch?v=un3-Hb9wF9s) Psycho Trailer (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NG3-GlvKPcg) ScoobyDoo Opening (http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0_C2HJvtRDY&feature=recentfmore) Prompt discussion by asking class: “Are these Gothic?” Why? Why not? Do they use Gothic conventions? Next ask students to pair up with a partner to brainstorm lists of modern works that could be categorized as Gothic. After 5-10 minutes, have each pair present to the group. 3. Ending Explain to students that any genre category is subject to interpretation. In creating our own definition of American Gothic and classifying modern works as Gothic (or having Gothic elements), they are interpreting the specific literature we have read, the historical context, author’s purpose and many literary concepts central to the genre (the grotesque, the uncanny, etc.). 4. Evaluation Collect Journals and review student definitions. 5. Differentiated Activities

Partner work could be expanded into a longer reflective essay to sum-up the unit.

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