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John B. Watson
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John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958) was an Americanpsychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, after doing research on animal behavior. He also conducted the controversial "Little Albert" experiment.
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1 Early life 2 Dissertation on animal behavior 3 Behaviorism 4 "Twelve infants" quotation 5 Views on child-rearing 6 Psychological Care of Infant and Child and Criticism to it 7 "Little Albert" experiment (1920) 8 Affair and marriage with Rosalie Rayner 9 Advertising 10 Later life 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links
called "behaviorism". The combined influence of Dewey. recognizes no dividing line between man and brute. in his efforts to get a unitary scheme of animal response. Angell. who was a major proponent of the view that life and the behavior of living organisms could be explained entirely by chemistry and physics without recourse to a supposed "vital force".Early life
Watson grew up in Travelers Rest. South Carolina and attended Furman University in Greenville. Watson stayed at the University of Chicago for several years doing research on the relationship between sensory input and learning and bird behavior. nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness. Watson published the article "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It" — sometimes called "The Behaviorist Manifesto". The reflex studies of Ivan MikhailovichSechenov (1829–1905) and Vladimir Bekhterev (1857–1927) were particularly influential. The behaviorist. Watson outlined the major features of his new philosophy of psychology. Donaldson and Jacques Loeb led Watson to develop a highly descriptive. South Carolina. and particularly of the views of John Locke.
Dissertation on animal behavior
Watson graduated from the University of Chicago in 1903. Rather. Watson viewed Ivan Pavlov's conditioned reflex as primarily a physiological mechanism controlling glandular secretions. then entered the University of Chicago to study philosophy with John Dewey on the recommendation of Furman professor. It was not until 1916 that Watson would recognize the more general significance of Pavlov's formulation and make it the subject of his presidential address to
. His dissertation "Animal Education: An Experimental Study on the Psychical Development of the White Rat. However. Later. He spent a year as a principal for grade school. Gordon Moore. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. F. objective approach to the analysis of behavior that he would later call "behaviorism. In 1913. Accordingly. Thorndike's "Law of Effect" (a precursor to B. The "manifesto" notably lacks references to specific principles of behavior. Skinner's principle of reinforcement) due to what Watson believed were unnecessary subjective elements. and eventually included a highly simplified version of Pavlov's principles in his popular works. he entered college at the age of 16 (he became a member of the Kappa Alpha Order) and left with a masters degree aged 21. Watson became interested in the work of Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936). Correlated with the Growth of its Nervous System. Loeb taught that all behavior was dictated by instinct and learned responses to stimuli. Watson showed that the degree of myelinization was largely unrelated to learning ability. "Animal Education" described the relationship between brain myelinization and learning ability in rats at different ages. A precocious student.
In 1913. The first paragraph of the article concisely described Watson's behaviorist position: Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science." Watson's behaviorism is typically considered[by whom?] a historical descendent of British empiricism. Watson said nothing substantive about these things. forms only a part of the behaviorist's total scheme of investigation. In this article. He had already rejected Edward L. The behavior of man. his philosophy of science stems from the history of experimental physiology through the influence of Loeb. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods. with all of its refinement and complexity.
The article only became well-known to psychologists generally after it started to be widely cited in introductory psychology textbooks in the 1950s. mental state of those people. has been strongly criticized. saying that "he did not know enough" to do a good job. evolutionary continuism. Rosalie Rayner. particularly sea birds. However. With his "behaviorism".[by whom?] However. Critics then determined that the ideas mainly stemmed from Watson’s beliefs because Rosalie later entitled a self-penned article I am a Mother of Behaviorist Sons. Curtis had attempted to measure movements of the larynx during thinking. The lack of a specific mechanism of behavior caused Watson's colleagues to dismiss "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It" as philosophical speculation without much foundation. with help from his mistress. but with relative emotional detachment. In his opinion. turned wife. In the book. (Watson's borrowing from Sigmund Freud and other early psychoanalysts remains an unexamined aspect of his behaviorism. done extensive ethological studies of the instinctive behavior of animals early in his career. Watson seems to have added the footnote because another article on subvocal speech by Anna Wyczoikowska was to appear in the same issue of the "Psychological Review. It is also associated with psychoanalytic thinkers who worried that too much emotional attachment in childhood would lead to overly dependent adults. the analysis of behaviors and reactions was the only objective method to get insight in the human actions. Watson had. not in the body of the article itself. its addition was more of an afterthought as it appeared in a series of extended footnotes. Watson later regretted having written in the area. rather than the internal. S. Watson put the emphasis on external behavior of people and their reactions on given situations.
"Twelve infants" quotation
The quotation often appears with the last sentence omitted. Watson's advice to treat children with respect. This outlook. Watson also introduced his theory of thinking as consisting of "subvocal speech" in the article. and empiricism has contributed to what is now called radical behaviorism. H." The theory of thinking as subvocal speech was not original to Watson.
Views on child-rearing
Although he wrote extensively on child-rearing in many popular magazines and in a book.the American Psychological Association.) Modern critics[who?] do not commonly mention that Watson warned strongly against the use of spanking and other corporal punishment. Watson explained that behaviorists were starting to believe psychological care and analysis was required for infants and children. About 15 years earlier. He deemed his slogan to
Psychological Care of Infant and Child and Criticism to it
Watson wrote the book Psychological Care of Infant and Child in 1928. in fact. which at the time was considered to be much inferior to the established structuralist experimental psychology. Psychological Care of Infant and Child (1928). Watson strongly sided with nurture in the nature versus nurture discussion. making Watson's position appear more radical than it actually was. combined with the complementary ideas of determinism. Nevertheless. this perspective was not unique to Watson. The article is also notable for its strong defense of the objective scientific status of applied psychology.
analyzing his hope for a businesslike and casual relationship between a mother and her child. This movement led Watson to his focus on the study of children. His most famous concept. J. author of Infants and Children: Prenatal Through Middle Childhood. but child-rearing became his most prized interest. Watson said that nothing is instinctual. She mentions in her article that Watson only shifted his focus to child-rearing when he was fired from Johns Hopkins University due to his affair with Rosalie Rayner. Little Albert did not fear the rat and white rabbit until he was conditioned to do so. In his book.000 copies after just a few months of release. Watson researched many topics in his career. Berk. Watson supports his warnings by mentioning invalidism. G. especially during childhood. The 20th century was referred to as The Century of the Child. He was raised on a poor farm in South Carolina and had various family troubles. rather everything is built into a child through the interaction with their environment. including that the child only cry when in physical pain. so parents should not set up these unrealistic expectations. can occupy himself through his problem-solving abilities. including abandonment by his father. but there were psychologists before him that delved into the field as well. he warns against the inevitable dangers of a mother providing too much love and affection. This century marked the formation of qualitative distinctions between children and adults. Watson also warned to avoid letting the infant sit on a parents’ lap. along with everything else as the behaviorist saw the world. Stanley Hall’s beliefs differed from behaviorist Watson. Critics wondered whether limiting kissing to when saying goodnight was really a necessary precaution. Dale Nance (1970) worried that Watson’s personal indiscretions and difficult upbringings could have affected his views in his book. Watson explains that love.be not more babies but better brought up babies.M. G. examined the roots of the beliefs Watson came to honor. Suzanne Houk shared similar concerns. O’Donnell’s discontent stemmed partly from Watsons’ description of a happy child. All of Watson’s exclamations were due to his belief that children should be treated as a young adult. where he deemed Watson’s views as radical calculations. The book sold 100. Other critics were more wary of Watson’s new interest and success in child psychology. and that the child stray from asking questions. Watson concluded that parents can shape a child’s behavior and development simply by a scheming control of all stimulus-response associations. Psychological Care of Infant and Child: A Reflection of its Author and his Times. Berk says that the experiment with Little Albert inspired Watson’s emphasis on environmental factors.
. Parents therefore hold complete responsibility since they choose what environment to allow their child to develop in. Behavior analysis of child development as a field is largely thought to have begun with the writings of Watson. Watson’s emphasis on child development was becoming a new phenomenon and influenced some of his successors. critiques Watson’s views. From this experiment. saying that society does not overly comfort children as they become young adults in the real world. coined by writer Ellen Key. believing that heredity and genetically predetermined factors shaped most of one’s behavior. Watson argued for the nurture side of the nature-nurture debate. R. A 1925 New York Times article even rendered Watson a groundbreaking scientist in his new focus in the field of child psychology. Laura E. His book was extremely popular and many critics were surprised to see his contemporaries come to accept his views. claiming that the world would benefit from extinguishing pregnancies for twenty years while enough data was gathered to ensure an efficient child-rearing process. Writer Suzanne Houk. Stanley Hall became very well known for his 1904 book Adolescence. is conditioned. Further emphasizing nurture. O’Donnell (1985) wrote The Origins of Behaviorism.
Watson headed a number of highprofile advertising campaigns. plus bonuses from various successful ad campaigns. Dewsbury reports that Watson received greater criticism from early animal rights groups over some of his experiments with rats. The stories can be directly traced to fanciful. "Kinaesthetic and Organic Sensations: Their Role in the Reactions of the White Rat to the Maze". some of them even due to Watson himself. A large body of rumors circulated about Watson's dismissal from Johns Hopkins University. Watson and Rayner married in 1921 and they remained together until her death in 1935. The controversy about this experiment is actually a modern development. including a stint working as a shoe salesman in an upscale department store. at the time recently discovered. There seemed[original research?] to be little concern about it in Watson's time. and his Worms and Things newsletter. particularly a 1907 study. The goal of the experiment was to show how principles of. Watson's affair had become front-page news during divorce proceedings. He has been widely but erroneously credited[by whom?] with re-introducing the "testimonial" advertisement after the tool had fallen out of favor (due to its association with
Affair and marriage with Rosalie Rayner
In October 1920 Johns Hopkins University asked Watson to leave his faculty position there because of publicity surrounding the affair he was having with his graduate student-assistant Rosalie Rayner and because of his refusal to send her abroad until things had quieted down.S.
Thanks to contacts provided by an academic colleague. No evidence for these rumors has publicly surfaced. His executive's salary. At the time. Watson was married to Mary Ickes (sister of Harold L.Storm and Stress Theory. who would later become Secretary of the Interior to US President Franklin D. resulted in an income many times higher than his academic salary. inaccuracies and inconsistencies have crept in. As the story of Little Albert has made the rounds. particularly that Watson was fired for conducting research on the human sexual response with Rayner. normalized adolescents’ tendency to act out with conflicting mood swings. anachronistic stories about Watson included by the late University of Michigan psychologist James McConnell in several editions of his Understanding Human Behavior textbook. Ickes. Mary had feigned illness during a dinner party involving the Rayner and Ickes families so that she could have unfettered access to Rayner's bedroom. in less than two years Watson had risen to a vice-presidency at Thompson. Walter Thompson. Watson subsequently began working for U. It has become immortalized in introductory psychology textbooks as the Little Albert experiment. classical conditioning could be applied to condition fear of a white rat into "Little Albert". He learned the advertising business' many facets at ground level. and Baltimore newspapers published excerpts from some of Watson's love-letters to Rayner. an 8-month-old boy. advertising agency J.
"Little Albert" experiment (1920)
Main article: Little Albert experiment One might consider the experiment Watson and his assistant Rosalie Rayner carried out to be one of the most controversial in psychology in 1920. Whether Watson’s views were controversially radical or not. they garnered a lot of attention and were accepted as valuable in his time. Despite this modest start. Roosevelt). see Harris for an analysis. particularly for Ponds cold cream and other personal-care products.
about. Infants and Children: Prenatal Through Middle Childhood. Historian John Burnham interviewed Watson late in life. 303-316.edu/~packer/DevPsych/Houk2000. Inc. W. E. An Introduction to the History of Psychology. Watson as child psychologists. Routledge London. B. R. E. Inc. and retired from advertising at about age 65. (1928). However. Stanley Hall and John B.htm 8. Psychological Care of Infant and Child. shortly after receiving a citation from the American Psychological Association for his contributions to psychology. B.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/watson. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. Inc.html 4. the only biography. ^ abcde Watson. Except for a set of reprints of his academic works. Watson was the maternal grandfather of actress Mariette Hartley. the founder of behaviourism. testimonial advertisements had been in use for years before Watson entered advertising. who suffered with psychological issues she attributed to her being raised with her grandfather's theories. ^ Nance. but was just doing what was normal practice in advertising. and portrayed him as a man of (still) strong opinions and some bitterness towards his detractors. J. (2005). New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.duq. Rumored[by whom?] to be a heavy drinker. L.
Cohen David (1979) John B Watson. D. ^ abchttp://www. ^ abHergenhahn. Norton Company. Illinois: Pearson Education. L. 6. Adolescence. ^ Hunt. 6(4). (1970) G. New York: W. Rosalie Rayner died in 1935 at age 36. R. (2008). ^Santrock. J. Watson lived on a farm with a female companion for the last years of his life. He died in 1958 at age 80. ^http://psychology. Watson actually gave up alcohol on the advice of his physician and enjoyed good health well into old age.mathcs.
. thus depriving historians of a valuable resource for understanding the early history of behaviorism and of Watson himself.
Watson stopped writing for popular audiences in 1936. 5. Watson burned his very large collection of letters and personal papers. ^Berk.ineffective and dangerous patent medicines). (2008). New York: Doubleday. • Berk. Morton (1993). Illinois: Pearson Education. Inc. 3. (2008). Infants and Children: Prenatal Through Middle Childhood. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning 2.
1. 7. Watson stated that he was not making original contributions. The Story of Psychology. He is credited with popularizing the "coffee break" during an ad campaign for Maxwell House coffee. W.
New York: New York University Press." In J. 1994. B. J. Guilford Press. Anne. Retrieved November 30. H. (1990). In J. Todd & E. (1985). Symbol. (2008). Todd & E. Modern Perspectives on John B. Number 2. "Early interactions between animal psychologists and animal activists and the founding of the APA committee on precautions in animal experimentation". (1928). Professional Figure.K. 1990. Kerry W. S. Harris.K. Norton Company. American Psychologist45. Adolescence. 1920-1989. Putnam's Sons. J. Kerry W. 1994. Watson: Classical Behaviorism in Psychology Textbooks. Morris. The Origins of Behaviorism. (on-line) Hartley. Hartley claims in her autobiography that Watson's theories on childrearing blighted her childhood.edu/~packer/DevPsych/Houk2000.mathcs. Greenwood Press. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies. Dewsbury. Morris. 399-425. Watson: Interviewee. Deborah J. (1981). "John B. 237-39. Breaking the Silence.• • • •
Hergenhahn. Modern Perspectives on John B. from: http://www. Suzanne Houk. M. Greenwood Press. "Automatic Movements of the Larynx. 1913-1920. "Misbehaviorism: The Case of John B. W. "Whatever Happened to Little Albert?" American Psychologist. 6(4). Modern Perspectives on John B. Mariette &Commire. Inc. "What Psychology Has to Say About John B. Watson and Classical Behaviorism.K. New York: W. New York : G. "Struggle for Scientific Authority: The Reception of Watson's Behaviorism. Watson as child psychologists. James T. 1994. D. Buckley.T.html Watson. Coon. Watson and Classical Behaviorism. 1994.T. Volume 34. "'Not a Creature of Reason': The Alleged Impact of Watsonian Behaviorism on Advertising in the 1920s. February 1979. Inc. Todd & E. Greenwood Press. O'Donnell. (1994). Morris. 315-27. Psychological Care of Infant and Child. Modern Perspectives on John B. (Mariette Hartley is John B. March 15). Wadsworth: Cengage Learning Nance.T. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. 151–160. W. R. (2000. Stanley Hall and John B. Watson and Classical Behaviorism. Watson and Classical Behaviorism. 303-316. Todd. Watson's granddaughter." Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences17. Todd & E. An Introduction to the History of Psychology. 2009.
. F.P. J. Curtis. Watson's Dismissal from Johns Hopkins University". John C." In J. 1989. pp. (1970) G.T. R. (1899/1900). Burnham. B. Ben.K. (2005).
Buckley. ‘Psychological Care of Infant and Child’: A Reflection of its Author and his Times." In J.) Samelson." American Journal of Psychology11. Santrock. Greenwood Press.duq. Donald A. Mechanical Man: John Broadus Watson and the Beginnings of Behaviorism. Morris.
1920). A. "The Early Research of John B. John B.edu/Acads/Psych/rwozniak/watson.duq. Watson: Before the Behavioral Revolution. Edward K. 197-255.. "Theoretical and experimental studies in the mechanism of speech. Behavior: An introduction to comparative psychology. Behaviorism (revised edition)." 20. Watson. Henry Holt. Watson. pp. 448-58. 1994.. Rosalie. 1930.edu/~packer/DevPsych/Houk2000.Furman University Psychology Department It's All in the Upbringing . John B. "Recent experiments with homing birds. "The Behavior of Noddy and Sooty Terns. Conditioned emotional reactions (The Little Albert study. "John Broadus Watson [Autobiography]. 1914 Watson. Todd. Clark University Press. A History of Psychology in Autobiography (Vol. John B. (1908). 1-100. John B." "Psychological Review.• • •
Todd. 3. Edward K. http://www. actress Mariette Hartley. John B. Wyczoikowska. James T. John B. pp.mathcs." "Carnegie Institute Publication. Watson. Journal of Experimental Psychology." Psychological Review Monograph Supplement8(33)." Harper's Magazine131. 3(1). His Life in Words and Pictures .An account of the consequences of John B. Greenwood Press. 158–177. "Kinaesthetic and Organic Sensations: Their Role in the Reactions of the White rat to the Maze. (1986). Watson's child-rearing methods for his own children and his granddaughter. John B. where he worked from 1908 to 1920. Watson." The Behavior Analyst9. (1915). Watson. The Long Dark Night of Behaviorism (biased report) .html [hide]
History ·Portal ·Psychologist
. 1936. Watson. (1913). Watson and Classical Behaviorism. &Rayner. 271–81). Watson. (1907).html http://www.A biographical sketch of Watson's life and work on the website of Johns Hopkins University. John B. 71-88." 103." In C. James T.. Watson. 457-64. Psychological Review. & Morris.). Murchison (Ed.brynmawr. 20. Modern Perspectives on John B.
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Psychology as the behaviorist views it (1913). John B. & Morris. pp. 1–14. University of Chicago Press.
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