Information Technology and National Trade Facilitation: Making the Most of Global Trade No. and Rothberg. 342 Webster and Fidler. 332 Pohl. and Finance: The Transition in Central and Eastern Europe. Boukambou. No. editors. 336 Francis. Estimating Construction Generation Projects in Developing Countries No. and Heidarian. Lambert. and Forno. Sustainable Settlement and Development of the Onchocerciasis Area: Proceedings of a Ministerial Meeting No. African Water Resources: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Development No. 327 Valdes and Schaeffer in collaboration with Martin. The Condition of Young Children in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Convergence of Health. and Bobadilla. editor. 310 Elder and Cooley. The Financing of Pension Systems in Central and Eastern Europe: An Overview of Major Trends and Their Determinants. 330 Echeverria. 335 Kirmani and Le Moigne. with Akinwumi. 325 Bacon. 329 Mohan. 1990-1993 No. Ngwu. Cosgrove-Davies. Grey. 331 Sharma. 326 Colletta. 328 De Geyndt. Services. Trigo. 312 Benoit. Surveillance of Agricultural Handbook for Paraguay No. Okunmadewa. Best Practices for Photovoltaic Household Electrification Programs Costs and Schedules: Experience with Power Price and Trade Policies: A Technical Department. Nutrition. 339 Andrews and Rashid. editors. 323 Pannier. Medicinal Plants: An Expanding Role in Development No. and Liang. Project Finance at the World Bank: An Overview ofPolicies No. and Local Development in Nigeria and Instruments The Emerging Role of the Private Sector implications for Conservation and Development of Non-Timber Forest Resources and Schaeffer. 324 Cabraal. Measuring Economic Benefits for Water lnvestments and Policies No. Preker. World Bank Lending for Small Enterprises 1989-1993 Control Programme No. 317 Schware and Kimberley. and Anderson. Corporate Governance of Public Enterprises in Transitional Economies No. No. Institutional America No. Ayling. Dahniya. 341 Goldstein. Besant-Jones. and Chellaraj. Bibliography of Publications: No. 322 Peters. July 1987 to April 1996 Change and Effective Financing of Agricultural Research in Latin Large Industrial Firms in Central and Eastern Europe: An Empirical of Health interventions: A River Basins: The World Bank at Its Best and Shehu. Pevformance Monitoring indicators Handbook No. Balachander. 333 Jha. and Vietmeyer. Odihi. 311 Webster. Information Technology and National Trade Facilitation: Guide to Best Practice No. Ranson. Adeyi. Ouayogode. Djankov. Changes in the Wage Structure during Economic Transition in Central and Eastern Europe No. 314 Valdes and Schaeffer in collaboration with Ramos. Okaru. Olomajeye. and Byerlee. Strengthening National Agricultural Research Systems in the Humid and Sub-humid Zones of West and Central Africa: A Frameworkfor Action No.RECENT WORLD BANK TECHNICAL PAPERS No. Nkom. 340 Rutkowski. Abdi Noor. Gilgan-Hunt. Airport Infrastructure: No. 320 Srivastava. Volume 1 No. Social Development and Absolute Poverty in Asia and Latin America No. 344 Klugman and Schieber with Heleniak and Hon. Damhaug. Measuring the Burden of Disease and the Cost-Effectiveness Case Study in Guinea No. The Ecology and Management No. A Survey of Health Reform in Central Asia (List continues on the inside back cover) . Africa Region. Community. 321 Srivastava. State. 316 Schware and Kimberley. and Early Education No. Surveillance of Agricultural Handbook for Ecuador Price and Trade Policies: A No. 337 Kerf and Smith. 313 Kapur. 343 Kottelat and Whitten. with Special Reference to Fish No. Le secteur informel et les institutions de microfinancement Promise and Change en Afrique de 1’Ouest No. Smith. Fostering Riparian Cooperation in International in Development Diplomacy No. 338 Young. Restructuring Analysis No. Biodiversity and Agriculture: No. Freshwater Biodiversity in Asia. editor. 334 Mosse and Sontheimer. Trends in Health Status. and Toure. Privatizing AfiicaS Infrastructure: No. 318 Taylor. Riopelle and Chidzero.

WORLD BANK TECHNICAL PAPER NO. D.C. 376 w Roads and the Environment A Handbook Editedby Koji Tszmokawa ChristopherHoban Tke World Bank Wadington. c .

. avenue d’Iena.S.. 1952. D. Office of the Publisher. Christopher Hoban is a senior highway engineer in the World Bank’s South Asia Infrastructure Sector Unit.W... .222 Rosewood Drive. without asking a fee. Permission to copy portions for classroom use is granted through the Copyright Clearance Center. and other information shown on any map in this volume do not imply on the part of the World Bank Group any judgment on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Washington. The material in this publication is copyrighted.Copyright 0 1997 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/THE WORLD BANK 1818 H Street. U. and the World Bank accepts no responsibility for errors. N. ISBN 0-8213-4031-X 1. Christopher J. Pm cm. The World Bank. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility whatsoever for any consequence of their use. 2.A. The World Bank. 1947. Washington. II. Koji.R63R63 1997 333. The boundaries. The latest edition is available free of charge from the Distribution Unit. and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the author(s) and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank. The typescript of this paper therefore has not been prepared in accordance with the’procedures appropriate to formal printed texts. colors. 1818 H Street.77-DC21 97-28971 CIP . Series. ISSN: 0253-7494 Koji Tsunokawa is senior transport specialist in the Infrastructure Development Group in the World Bank’s Middle East and Nort Africa Regional Office. when the reproduction is for noncommercial purposes. Suite 910. Hoban. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Roads and the environment : a handbook /edited by Christopher Hoban and Koji Tsunokawa. Tsunokawa. All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America First printing November 1997 Technical Papers are published to communicate the results of the Banks work to the development community with the least possible delay. Roads-Environmental aspects.C. Requests for permission to reproduce portions of it should be sent to the Office of the Publisher at the address shown in the copyright notice above. 20433. 376) Includes bibliographical references and index. I. which contains an alphabetical title list with full ordering information. Some sources cited in this paper may be informal documents that are not readily available. France. The findings.W. or to members of its Board of Executive Directors or the countries they represent. 75116 Paris.C. U. denominations.A.A. III.S. Environmental impact analysis. to its affiliated organizations. no. The complete backlist of publications from the World Bank is shown in the annual Index @Publications.S. 20433. interpretations. Inc. TD195. 66.(World Bank technical paper .. Danvers. N.. Massachusetts 01923. The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally give permission promptly and. U. or from Publications. D.

........................................................5........................................................................*................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 2................ .... ................... 1.....................*............................ 6 The environmental assessment (EA) ..............3...........................THE ENVIRONMENTAL Chapter 1 Assessing the environmental impact of road projects The environment and its ecosystems .....4 1..... rural... 2.............14 2............... ......8 References and bibliography ............................. Summary or initial environmental evaluation (SEE/IRE) ..................2.....4 6 EA and road project development.................................... .............3..........9 9 The regional EA (REA) ......................................................................................................2............. Acknowledgements ...........3....................................5 1.................7 EA duration and budget ...........................................................2 X.......................................................................................................................... 10 1........................... .......................................4 ................................... Environmental assessment at the strategic level ...2 assessment management and institutional issues EA and instituttonal development .... 2.......... 3..... Environmental assessment at the project level ................................ ....................... 111 .......xv Executive summary ...................................................*............................ ..5.......................7 8 Types of EA .....................................................................................................3 1.................1 2............5... 22 References and bibliography .................... 5 The “mixed” rural-urban project... ....... existing...............2...............1 1................................ Figures and Tables ......xiv Abstract .............................2 2.............18 2....... ................ and the need for environmental assessment............. XlU Foreword ...1 The sectoral EA (SEA)................................ 25 Description of the proposed project and alternatives .............................................4..................... .................. 11 1.................. ..............................2 1..................8 1............................................2.........6 5 New versus existing project types ... .. ...........19 Establishing the institutional structures....................... 1........................................5.......................... 17 Managing the EA process ................1 3...................5 Chapter 3 PROCESS 1......................................................................................Table of Contents List of Boxes.........................................................4 1..........2. x ...........1 3............ and urban project settings ........................ ... .................1 1...................................................2 Roads.............................................................. the environment................................................................................................ ........................................................................................xv1 PART I ..............4 Developing the policy and legal directives................................................................................................................................. 8 The programmatic or class EA ..2 assessment planning and EA reporting 24 Early planning of EA ..2.. Rural versus urban project typer..................................................4................6........................................................... 14 Functions to be performed and the need for environmental skills......................................a...........................1 1........................................10 1...........................15 16 Implementing the environmental management plan (RMP) ...............................14 Conducting the EA studies ...................................3 Providing the requisite environmental training..........1 1.....1 2.................................. ......................................3 8 The project-specific EA ...............2 25 Description of the need for a project .................................. ............. ...............................................................*.. 12 Environmental 2.......................3 Chapter 2 ASSESSMENT An overview of environmental 3......................................... 24 Screening and scoping .5 4 New........... ..................2 1.........................*..

..................................2 3................................................................ ................................36 37 Impact types .....3 3.....4.........................5...!...... .................. ........... Including consultation in mitigation planning ................................................... .....1 4............6.................................. ........................................ 38 Avoidance .................................................................................2 3............................... 4................................ 31 Appendices. 4.....1 4.................................................................................... 4......6.................9 3..............5 3............2............35 Assembling information from different sources ....5............................ 40 41 Compensation .......................2............29 The environmental impact statement (EIS)............3...... 4................. .......................................................5 Space..........5...................... 27 Consultation..............................................5.......................................................................3 4........................... 35 The sampling design......31 3............................................................................... ................................. ......................................................................................................................................................................................................11 Chapter 4 Identification of valued ecosystem components (VECs) ....................26 26 Early consultation .......... ....30 Approach and methodology.......5.....3....................................................36 36 Analysis of potential environmental impacts ..............................8 3....................2............. 4............................................ 30 The environmental assessment team......1 4.............................................4.......................2 34 Description of baseline conditions .. ........................2 4.......... 31 3...2 4.................................... Consideration of alternatives ................................. ........................................................3...............2.......................... 38 Planning remedial measures .....................................................................................................................................................6 3................................................................... 38 Mitigation .... 3...............5..............................5 3................................................................................... 25 Evaluation of potential impacts for alternative solutions ........................... 31 The preferred design ......5 4.................... 4.........................................2.....................36 Impact characteristics.............5......................... ............................ iv ..........................2 4........5.............................5............3 3..................1 3........1 42 Dealing with poor availability of maps ............. ...........................................4.. ........................................5.........................................6 Presenting information with maps in the EA report ......................... 30 Introduction and background........................ ........ 31 The environmental management plan.................4 4.....................................35 35 The field investigations.....................................3 3...................... 4.................5.2..7 3........................4 Preparation of the project terms of reference ............4 3....................................................................... Selection of preferred project (solution) and identification of EA type to be applied.....5........ 37 Analysis of alternatives .................26 29 Executive summary..................... ......................................................... . 30 Existing conditions........................3 37 37 Alternative designs ......... 41 Effects monitoring (Evaluation) ...................... ....... 27 Time requirements for the environmental study ................4...... ...3 4....................2.............35 Consultation with local residents and professionals ...1 4............................. ..........5...........9 41 42 Using maps in EA .............................. Tracking project-induced versus natural environment changes ... .......6 3....................4.......... 27 3.3 3.........................................5 Collecting and analyzing existing basic documents............................................................................................................4 3........................................5.. time and consultation.......................2...3........................4 assessment 34 Seven key steps ...........................................................................7 The environmental management plan (EMP) ............................................................ ...........................................................9................................0 Determining significance.............10 3.......1 3................................2 4.......... 4......................................5........................................2 41 41 Compliance monitoring ...... ......................... Monitoring and evaluation........................ ..................... .........................................................8 42 Documentation ....................................... 27 Space............2......... .... ..................................1 4..2.......................................................................................6 4.................. ........... 4.............................................................................................................................. 31 References.........................7 32 References and bibliography ......1 4......................3 4.....4 4.............................30 30 Analysis of alternatives ....................................... Consultation ............................................................................................................................................. Key steps involved in undertaking an environmental 4..................

.I 5.... ..............................2 6.....1............................................. ..............................1......................53 53 Interview survey ...... 60 Indirect impacts .................................................................................... 64 Positive and negative impacts ..........................................48 ......................1 5........5...... 62 Ecosystem funcion impacts .........and long-term impacts .......................7 ..........................................................................................................1 Guiding principles.......................................... 48 5...6 Information dissemination............................................................3 5......................................2 5................................................. ................................................................................................... Application... Types of environmental impact 6.......1..................................................................................................................................1 6.................................... .......4 5................................................... .................2 5...... 53 Public meetings ................................................................3 5..9...........................................................1 5...........1 5.................................... 62 Cumulative impacts ........................................ When is public involvement necessary? ...........................2 70 Loss of productive soil ... V ...................2 4................6.1.......10 References and bibliography........5 General maps .......................................9.... ....................................................................................................................................................................1 70 Impacts and setting ......................................43 Thematic maps................4 Chapter 6 46 Written reports............................1 7.................................................. 6......................... ..........................................................................................................5...................... .3 65 References and bibliography .........................57 References and bibliography .................54 54 Rapid social appraisal ...........................................3 5........1......... 57 Audio-visual aids ..............4 6..... PART ii .............................................................. Chapter 5 Public involvement in EA 5............................1...................................................................... 5....................3.....2 5.................................... ..... Public involvement format ..................3 5....................... ....................................................................................................... THEIR MITIGATION AND THEIR ECONOMIC VALUATION Chapter 7 impacts on soils 7.............1..............................44 4......................................50 Government agencies and research institutions .............51 51 Non-government organizations (NGOs) ....1............. ........................................................9..................5 6................ and leaflets..........1 5...............50 Local and community participation ..4 4..ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS................................ ..... 56 Guide to information presentation ..... .......................... 65 Temporary and permanent impacts ..............................44 Synthesis maps...1.......9 60 Direct impacts ..... ....................53 On-site consultation............................................. ..........................5..................... 64 Random and predictable impacts ................ .........48 .................................... newsletters....................1...........................................4 5...............49 5.....................................................3........4........... 6.....7 6...... 6.....6.1............... Individual or group discussions.................... ...... ..... A framework for public involvement... .....................................................................6 5............. 64 Local and widespread impacts ...1.........................................5 5...........8 6.............................................................................................9............1...............................................................5....... ........................................................................................................52 52 The “open house” (Information displays and reports) ...........7 5......................................... ..... 5...................... Information solicitation .6..................................................................... 54 Rapid rural appraisal ................. Consultation............... 70 Erosion ......1 60 Impact types ................48 48 49 Determining who should participate ..................................1..5............................. ... ............2 5...............................3.............................................................................3 /!.... 65 Short....2 65 Impact severity ..................5.......................................................3 4..........5 Enabling the poor to participate........... ........1........ .................4 5.................................2 5........................................6 6..............................................5...............56 56 Graphic material ......................... 44 Presentation maps .........3 6................................................................ .......................3....................... 7.............................................................................................................................................................. ................................

.................................. ... 104 Extent of the project .......................................... 94 .......................................3 9... An action checklist .........................................3 Airmass contaminants .......................................86 86 88 impacts on air quality 9..................................................... Remedial measures........94 Assessment at the project level.................................................................1 9.......................................... Compensation...................2............... 104 Determining the nature and scale of impacts.................................................73 .......................2................................1................................ 8..................................2 8............................... Vi .1...............3..........2 8.......................................1..................2 9................ 9........................................85 86 ............................ 8.................................. ..1.....................................................3............................................1 8.................... Mitigation ... ...7............................... Movement of pollutants ...................2................................... 9........1 10............... Impacts............................................................................ 94 ... 7...... Mitigation ...............................................................1 9............................ Enhancement..........................................3 104 Duration of the construction period .3 Determining the nature and scale of impacts........................................................1.... ............................................1 8.....................................4 Drainage modifications ...........................3..........1............3 8.. Compensation.......3 7...................................................................................................................................4 Prevention ........ Water quality degradation. 102 Ecosystem types and sensitivity ......3......................................................2.....2....................3 Chapter 10 ....... Mitigation .........3 Surface water flow modification ......................1.........................................4 8............2................................................................................................90 91 93 Determining the nature and scale of impacts........................................................................ Groundwater flow modification ... ... ........... Water quality degradation (surface and groundwater) ....................................... ..............104 Evaluation of the affected systems........... 7..................................... 10....................... ....................1............................ Compensation.2 9.......2 7....... 9...................... .............................................................2 10..................1............................................................83 85 85 85 ............................... ............................ Computer modeling of pollutants.............................. 7...........2............82 83 ................. ...3..............4 7.......................................1 8...94 9..4 Minimizing impacts on water resources: 8.....2 100 100 Direct impacts ................................................................................................................................... ..82 82 ....................... Water table modification................................. .......................3.......1 9................................................................... .............................1............................................... Cumulative impacts ....... ......................................................................................... 9..............................2..................76 Reducing impacts on soils: An action checklist............................ ...... 101 Indirect impacts ......82 82 ....... .............................................................72 Prevention ......................................................................3 10........................................82 ........................ .................................................................1 10.................. 90 ........1 7..........3 Remedial measures ..................2 8...................1 Chapter 9 72 72 Remedial measures.......3 8........ ................................5 References and bibliography................... ........2.................................. 10................................... ....................5 References and bibliography ......................................................3................... Determining the nature and scale of impacts..........3........2 8.................................. ...................................................2 9.................94 95 .. Measurement of roadside pollutants ................. 8........ Sensitive habitat intrusion...... ......................................................................2 10.................77 78 Impacts on water resources Impacts and setting.......................................... ..........................................3 8......1 Impacts and setting......................................4 Minimizing impacts on air quality: An action checklist...2...................................95 ...................................94 ... 8... ..................5 References and bibliography ...2 9................................... .........3.......96 96 Impacts on flora and fauna 10................................3............................................73 .....1 Impacts and setting ...............................................................................................................................73 ...............................................................................1........................................................3 Chapter 8 Contamination of soil ..2 7....................... Prevention ..... .

............. 117 The social assessment ......................................... ....................2 12...3.................................................... .................. 12................3 123 125 125 125 Prevention ............... 10.................................................. 110 Chapter 11 Impacts on communities and their economic activity 11 .................................................... ...3 Chapter 12 118 Prevention ......................................2...................... 10..........................1 impacts and setting ..................................................................................................?....................................................... 12..... ............... 107 Mitigation ...............1...2 10.....3 134 134 Identifying the population and the affected area .............................2...................................116 116 dilemma for tourism .....................................................................................................................................1 13..............................................................2 13......1.....3.....................4 Minimizing impacts on' communities and their economic activity: An action checklist ...............................3.....4 Minimizing impacts on flora and fauna: An action checklist ........... 12.............................................................7 The The The The The The The 114 114 split community ........................1......................................4 132 Loss of traditional sense of identity ..................2 Determining the nature and scale of impacts .................................................................................................. 120 11....................... 106 Modeling .2 116 The preliminary assessment.....................1 13.......................................................2 11... .... 120 ......................................................................................................................... Mitigation. 119 Compensation.......... ................... 109 Compensation ...............................................................................................................127 12.................................1...7 105 Use of indicator species or groups ................. 133 Violation of rights to participate in development ........... 116 11....... 133 Health and social problems...................... 134 Consultation and participation .................... 115 115 by-passed community ............................... ......116 “culture shock” effect ....................................2 13...................................................................... ..................2......2................ ..............2..................... 118 Mitigation .................. reduced convenience of traditional modes of transport.........1................4 Minimizing impacts of land acquisition and resettlement: An action checklist...... 109 10..3..................................................................................... 12.................................................................................................................................................... .............................5 10................................3 106 106 Prevention ... Loss of livelihoods and violation of 132 traditionally-exercised land rights ......... loss of roadside community business and social activity .................... 11.............................125 ...............................................................2............................................................6 10....... 106 Useful sources of information ..3 Remedial measures ..................................................2....................................... .....129 Chapter 13 Impacts on indigenous peoples 132 13....... 11................................................................................................................... 126 Compensation....................................2 Determining the nature and scale of impacts ........... 134 The surveys .................................... ...................................1.1......... 11..........3..................................................................2 Determining the nature and scale of impacts ...........................................2..2......1 11.....3..................................3......3................................................................................................................................................ 13............. ......................5 References and bibliography ...... 13........................................................1 Stresses in the “host” community .................................................... 118 11.................... ................................1 10.......................2 11.... .... Impacts arising from land acquisition and resettlement 122 12..... vii ............................................................1 11...............3 13....1 impacts and setting ...........4 11..................2.....................................................................................................................5 11.3 11.........5 References and bibliography.... 12.............................................................1............................1........................ .... 10................... 13..4 10...................................................................................................................... 11.............................. ........6 11...........1............ ... 106 Rapid appraisal ...5 References and bibliography..................1 12...............................1 11.3... 116 gentrification effect ....3 Remedial measures ......................................I impacts and setting ........................................3 Remedial measures .........................................................10.........................1.........................................................

.......................... Road noise impacts...........................................................................3.... .................................................................................................... 16.....3 Sources of road noise ..........................................141 141 ............................ ...........................:.................... .. Compensation........................ Mitigation .............................................................153 153 Impacts on the noise environment 16.................4 Avoiding impacts on the noise environment: 16................................................... Mitigation...................................................2.......... 148 .....1..1 Chapter 15 ...............3 Chapter 17 Preliminary assessment.... 135 135 137 13.............13......... ............................1 Impacts and setting....... Noise level standards ............................. ....................3........... ............................2............................1 13......2 Human health .................. 14.............. Determining the nature and scale of impacts...................l37 Prevention ................1..... .......................................................................................................4 Minimizing impacts on indigenous peoples: An action checklist..................... ..1 15....5 References An action checklist .... ..........2................2............ ......5 References and bibliography ....2 16.............................. .....................1 16...3............3 Prevention ................................................... 13....................141 ..148 148 Determining the nature and scale of impacts...........3.............1 16................................3............................................................. 14..................3.............................. 145 14...................................................... .............................................2 15.. 16.. ........... 17......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3.........160 ...........5 References and bibliography....2 16....... Cultural heritage...........156 156 156 158 159 160 ......... ............. and bibliography ...............4 Minimizing impacts on cultural heritage features: An action checklist..3 140 ...................................... ............ Remedial measures ......................... ..... 16........................................ 135 Prevention ........................................................................................................................... ...........3 Chapter 14 13............................................ 14............................. Determining the nature and scale of impacts................ Mitigation.. ..... .................1 15... 15........ Noise measurement.......................................................1.............................2.................................................................. ................ Mitigation..........1 14........................ ............ Potential negative aesthetic impacts .....................................144 Prevention ........ 145 Impacts on aesthetics and landscape 15............... ........3............................................................................................................................ ... 149 Remedial measures........................ Compensation.................................................................................166 166 168 ............................1 17............. ................... Vlll 166 ....2 15....... .....................................................................2.........2 14.........................................................1.......................................162 163 Impacts on human health and safety 17.....................2 impacts and setting..............................2 13.............. 15.......3 Links between aesthetic values and regional landscape design........ Compensation................................3....... .............................................2 16............................. .. 16.......................................... Compensation.......1 17.1 16..................................................................................... .... Determining the nature and scale of impacts..................................................................................3 Remedial measures.............2..................................... Remedial measures....................... 15.......2 16................................................2 14...............................................1 Impacts and setting ......... Road safety ...................................................3 Assessing noise impacts ......1 14..................... 150 150 150 152 15........................................................... 144 144 145 14........ 156 ...........................................2 15.........................3.......3 Chapter 16 138 Impacts on cultural heritage 14.......................................16 0 160 162 .................................2 Impacts and setting ...................................................................................................4 Minimizing impacts on aesthetics and landscape: An action checklist..................................................................................................................................3................ .........................................................................................................3.........5 References and bibliography.................................

.......................1 19.5 References and bibliography.................................1 19....................................1 18..........................4........ ...................................................1................178 Maintenance 18..................... 19..........................................................2...........1 Economic valuation of environmental impacts (EVEI)..............................4.........................1 18............ .....................................3.............................................................................................. sound construction and facility management practices New construction 18................176 Settings and Impacts .......2 .................... References and bibliography ..2 19......2 19...................................................4 Common valuation techniques ....................................................................................................................... 17........................................................................................... 182 182 182 184 186 Economic valuation of the impacts of road projects on the environment 19............. .......................... of environmental requirements ... ...........................................2 18......................... ...........4 Environmental 18....1 18.......3.......6 191 191 A valuation typology ....................................................................................2 17................................................................................... risk ............................................. 195 19.................8 References and bibliography ...................................188 The fundamental problem ....2...............................1 Cost effective analysis approach ........................lSO 180 Defining maintenance and rehabilitation..172 17.......3 19......5 (M 81 R) projects....1.............................1 18..........................................3 19........4 19.........4........3 Chapter 18 168 .....................4... ............. 188 ........................................................................2 Chapter 19 Prevention ...................................1 17............................. 198 Appendices Example of environmental Appendix 2 Impact of road maintenance Appendix 3 Guide to defining natural and social indicators in environmental management plan ....................... .................... 182 Mitigation....................... 213 215 Other sources of information ............................ Mitigation....190 19................................................................................................................... ........... 19............ Mitigative measures .. ............................................................3 190 Procedural considerations .......................................................................2.... The cost-benefit evaluation formats...........1........................ ..................... ........ 191 Direct valuation approaches ............................................192 Surrogate market approaches....... ...............1...........................................................2 EVEI in the context of public involvement..........................................................207 assessment ............188 ..................................................................................... 18................................................................................................... 193 Preventive expenditures approach .................................................................................................................................... ................................................5 19.............. Remedial measures ........4..... 221 Index ............172 Environmentally 18...................... 217 Glossary .......................3.....3 and rehabilitation The implementation 18.3 18......................................................................17l ..................... ............................................4..........168 ............. 190 19........................3...........5............................... 181 Setting and Impacts .............. Compensation.....2 Choosing a valuation technique and scheduling the procedure.........................17.........................................................................2 projects ........................................176 ............................................ ..................................................... .....................4 Avoiding impacts on human health and safety: An action checklist.............. Appendix 1 tasks on the environment 201 in the Sahel.........188 19.3............................. ix ...............................................1 Some prerequisites ...................... .172 17...5 195 Alternative economic format ....1........................................................................4....................3 Remedial measures.......................... ......... ................................. ...................................................4........................................................................................... .. The failure of mitigative measures............................................ 19............................... 189 19........................................... Alternative institutional approaches ............................ ........... 19..................... 194 Contingent valuation approach.................................................... ............................................ 193 Replacement cost approaches ................

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