Mendelian Genetics In carrying out his breeding studies, Mendel examined characteristics that had which of the following

properties? They were controlled by loci that behaved as if they were on different chromosomes, it was possible to isolate true breeding varieties for each trait, and the traits were each controlled by a single gene, the traits varied in an either-or fashion The F1 generation differed from the F2 in Mendel’s experiments in that (The F1 was produced by crossing true breeding parents whereas the F2 was generated by allowing the F1 plants to selfpollinate) All of the F1 showed the dominant phenotype but only three fourths of the F2 did. All of the F1 were heterozygous and therefore showed the dominant phenotype. In the F2 only half were heterozygous and another quarter were homozygous for the dominant allele If a heterozygous plant is allowed to self pollinate, what portion of the offspring will be heterozygous? (Apply the addition rule) One half. One quarter of the offspring will be homozygous for the dominant allele, one quarter will be homozygous for the recessive allele, and the remaining half will be heterozygous Tall length in a certain species of armadillo falls along a continuum, following a normal distribution. Assuming that environmental factors do not play an important role in determining tail length, this type of variation probably reflects polygenic inheritance. Characteristics that vary along a continuum, following a normal distribution, are often controlled by multiple genes, each contributing to the phenotype in an additive fashion If 2 traits that Mendel looked at in his dihybrid cross of smooth yellow peas with wrinkled green peas had been controlled by genes that were located near each other on the same chromosomes, then the F2 generation would have deviated from the 9:3:3:1 phenotypical ratio that

is predicted by the law of independent assortment. If 2 traits are located on the same chromosome, they will not segregate independently (The law of independent assortment applies only when the loci are present on different chromosomes) Pea plants may be purple (P) or white (p). Pea seeds may be round (R) or wrinkled (r). What proportion of the offspring form the cross between PPRr x PpRr will have white flowers and wrinkled seeds? 1/16 Pp x Pp would produce 3/4 purple and 1/4 white. Rr x Rr would produce 3/4 round and 1/4 wrinkled. 1/4 x 1/4 would result in 1/16 with white flowers and wrinkled seeds In Mendel’s monohybrid cross of purple flowered and white flowered peas, all members of the F1 generation had the purple flowered phenotype because their genotype was purple flowers and heterozygous at the flower color locus Cystic fibrosis, which is usually lethal before the age of reproduction, is a homozygous recessive trait. Why do cases continue to arise, even though people with this disease rarely live to reproduce? Because the harmful allele “hides” within heterozygous individuals, one-fourth of the offspring of 2 heterozygotes would be affected. Affected individuals usually have unaffected parents, both of whom are carriers of the recessive allele If each parents can produce 100 genetically distinct gametes, how many genetically distinct offspring can 2 parents produce? (Consider the rules of probability) Ten thousand. The rule of multiplication applies to these independent events. It is far more common to find human genetic disease caused by recessive alleles rather than by dominant alleles because harmful recessive alleles can survive in the heterozygote without any selection pressure against them. Lethal dominant alleles are much less common than lethal recessive ones because the effects of lethal dominants are not masked in heterozygotes

Human blood groups are governed by three alleles, A, B, and O. A and B are codominant while O is recessive to both. A man who has type B blood and a woman who has type A blood could have children of which of the following phenotypes? A, B, AB, or O. The genotype of the man with blood type B could be either IBIB or IBi so his gametes could be either IB or i. The genotype of the woman with type A blood could be either IAIA or IAi so her games could be either IA or i What is a basic difference between Mendel’s particulate hypothesis and the hypothesis of blending inheritance? The blending inheritance hypothesis, but not the particulate hypothesis, maintained that after mating, the genetic material provided by each of the 2 parents is mixed in the offspring, losing its individual identity Flower color in snapdragons is an example of incomplete dominance. When a red flowered plant is crossed with a white flowered plant, the F1 generation has pink flowers. If a pink flowered plant is crossed with another pink flowered plant, the progeny plants will be 25% red, 50% pink, and 25% white Physically, what are different alleles? (How do alleles relate to chromosomes?) Different alleles are different DNA sequences found at the same locus on homologous chromosomes An individual with the genotype AABbCcDD can make how many different types of gametes? Four. The individual varies only at loci B and C (not at A and D which are homozygous) and there are 2 possible alleles at each loci. (22 = 4) (Examine each locus individually and then calculate the overall number) A man who can roll his tongue and a woman who cannot roll her tongue have a son who can roll his tongue (R = can roll tongue and r = cannot roll tongue) The son is curious about whether his

father is homozygous or heterozygous for the tongue rolling trait. Which of the following facts would allow him to know? If his father’s mother cannot roll her tongue, then his father must be heterozygous for the tongue rolling trait Pea plants are tall if they have the genotype TT or Tt and they are short if they have the genotype tt. A tall plant is mated with a short plant. Which outcome below would indicate that the tall parent plant was heterozygous? If the ratio of tall offspring to short offspring is one to one then half the offspring would be heterozygous and the other half would be homozygous recessive. (This is a testcross) Mendel’s theory of particulate inheritance can explain inheritance pattern for virtually every sexually reproducing organism but does not explain multifactorial characteristics. A red bull is crossed with a white cow and all of the offspring are roan, an intermediate color that is caused by the presence of both red and white hairs. This is an example of genes that are codominant (roan is caused by the presence of both red and white hairs) An AABbccDdEeFF individual is crossed with an individual with the genotype AaBBCCDdEeff. What is the probability that their offspring will have the genotype AaBBCcddEEFf? 1/64 To obtain the overall probability multiply the individual probabilities for each locus (1/2)(1/2)(1)(1/4)(1/4)(1) A = big apples R = red apples a = small apples r = yellow apples. One tree produces big yellow apples and the other tree produces small red apples. When the 2 are crosses, you find that half of the new trees produce big red apples and half produce big yellow apples. What are the genotypes of the parents? AARr and Aarr Trees that produce big yellow apples could be AArr or Aarr. Trees that produce small red apples could be aaRR or aaRr. Since all of the offspring are big, the big parent must be homozygous for A. Since half the apples are red and half

are yellow, the red parent must be heterozygous for red. The conclusion is that the cross must be AArr x aaRr What is indicated when a single character testcross yields offspring that all have the dominant phenotype? The parents with the dominant phenotype was homozygous

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