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**natural circulation mode
**

V.K. Dwivedi

a,

⁎, G.N. Tiwari

b

a

Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, Ghaziabad (U.P), India

b

Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi110016, India

a b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Accepted 28 June 2009

Available online 14 October 2009

Keywords:

Solar distillation

Thermal modeling

Heat and mass transfer

In this paper, thermal modeling of a double slope active solar still has been carried out on the basis of energy

balance of east and west glass covers, water mass and basin liner under natural circulation mode. The

thermal model of distillation system has been validated for hourly data for inner and outer glass cover

temperatures, water temperature and the yield. The hourly thermal and exergy efﬁciency of active solar still

have also been evaluated for 0.03 m water depth. It has been observed that the thermal efﬁciency of double

slope active solar still is lower than the thermal efﬁciency of double slope passive solar still. However, the

exergy efﬁciency of double slope active solar still is higher than the exergy efﬁciency of double slope passive

solar still. All numerical calculations have been performed for a typical day in the month of March 2008 for

the composite climate of Ghaziabad (28°40′N, 77°25′E), U.P, India.

© 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Wilson (1972), a Swedish engineer, was the ﬁrst scientist who

developed a solar still for supplying pure water to a nitrate mining

community in Chile, which was very popular and was in operation for

more than 40 years. Dunkle [1] has derived the relation for convective

and evaporative heat transfer coefﬁcient for an air–water systemwhich

is useful even these days. Cooper [2] discussed about the absorption of

solar energy radiations in solar stills. Reviewof passive solar distillation

systems were done by Malik et al. [3]. Further, Tiwari [4] reviewed the

work done onpassive and active solar stills until 1992. Eduardo Rubio et

al. [5] proposed a newmathematical model to study the performance of

a double slope passive solar still by considering the effect of heat

capacity of condensing covers and bottominsulation. Tiwari and Tiwari

[6] have conductedanexperiment for performance analysis andthermal

modeling of single slope passive solar still for different inclination of

condensing covers. Aybar [7] developed a mathematical model for an

inclined solar water distillation system. Dwivedi and Tiwari [8] have

carried out energy and exergy analyses of single and double slope

passive solar stills on the basis of annual experimental data for water

depthof 0.01, 0.02and0.03 m. Zaki et al. [9] experimentally investigated

an active single slope solar still integrated with a ﬂat plate collector

under thermosyphon mode of operation and found that the maximum

increase in the yield was up to 33%. Tanaka et al. [10] developed a highly

productive basin type-multiple effect coupled solar still generally

known as active solar still. Soliman [11] had studied the performance

of basin type solar still integrated with ﬂat plate collector. Tripathi and

Tiwari [12] conducted outdoor experiments to study the effect of water

depth on internal heat and mass transfer for active solar distillation

systems. Recently, Tiwari et al. [13] have studied the comparative

performance evaluationof anactive solar distillationsystemandtriedto

evaluate theoretical yieldfromthe active solar stills integratedwithFPC,

concentrating collector, evacuated tube collector with and without heat

pipe. Dincer [14] reported the linkages between energy and exergy,

exergy and the environment, energy and sustainable development and

energypolicymakingandexergyindetail. Inthe ﬁeldof solar distillation

many scientists have reported that the passive solar distillation system

is a slowprocess for puriﬁcation of saline/brackish water. Many options

such as use of plastic condensing covers, solar still integrated with

parabolic concentrator, evacuated tube collector (ETC) and ﬂat plate

collectors (FPC) have been tried by various scientists to enhance the

daily yield. Out of these options ﬂat plat collector is popular due to its

low maintenance cost and simple design. When ﬂat plate collector is

integrated with solar still, extra thermal energy is supplied to the basin

water and hence rise in water temperature is more as compared to

passive solar still. Recently, Tiwari and Tiwari [6] have reviewed the

work carriedout by various scientists till 2006 [17]. The objectives of the

present studies are

(a) Thermal modeling of double slope active solar still under

natural circulation mode without considering the heat capacity

of condensing cover and thermal insulation.

(b) To compare the hourly thermal and exergy efﬁciency of double

slope passive and active solar stills (Table 1) and

(c) Experimental validation by considering the inner condensing

cover's temperature.

Desalination 250 (2010) 49–55

⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 9899132284; fax: +91 11 26862037.

E-mail addresses: vkdwivedi@kiet.edu, vkdwivedi94@gmail.com (V.K. Dwivedi),

gntiwari@ces.iitd.ernet.in (G.N. Tiwari).

0011-9164/$ – see front matter © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.desal.2009.06.060

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Desalination

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ desal

2. Experimental setup and observations

Across sectional viewand photographof a double slope active solar

distillation systemunder natural mode has beenshowninFig. 1a and b

respectively. The areas of double slope solar still and ﬂat plate collector

are 2 m

2

. The ﬂat plate collector is integrated with double slope solar

still in such a way that the hot water from collector plate enters into

the basin under natural circulation. The inlet and outlet connections to

the collector plate are taken from the bottom of the basin as shown in

Fig. 1b. A gate valve has been provided in the inlet pipe to open and

close the circulation of water through the collector panel. If the gate

valve is closed the solar still works under passive mode. The body of

the solar still is of glass reinforcedplastic (GRP). The condensingcovers

are 4 mmthick plane glass, inclined at 15° to the basin of solar still. The

double slope solar still is placed in east–west direction whereas the

Table 1

The hourly thermal and exergy efﬁciencies of passive and active double slope solar stills

for 0.03 m water depth in the month of March 2008.

Time Passive solar still Active solar still

Thermal efﬁciency Exergy Efﬁciency Thermal efﬁciency Exergy efﬁciency

7.0 0 0.000 0.00 0

8.0 4.04 0.061 3.48 0.049

9.0 3.05 0.113 2.66 0.080

10.0 2.65 0.136 4.40 0.200

11.0 6.05 0.346 4.76 0.349

12.0 8.47 0.559 8.74 0.718

13.0 12.77 0.986 13.52 1.278

14.0 15.51 1.386 15.27 1.940

15.0 16.65 1.831 15.27 2.209

16.0 18.43 1.822 17.42 2.245

17.0 23.91 1.958 17.93 2.052

Fig. 1. a: Schematic diagram of a double slope active solar still. b: Photograph of double slope active solar still installed in the campus of Krishna Institute of Engineering and

Technology, Ghaziabad, (U.P) India.

50 V.K. Dwivedi, G.N. Tiwari / Desalination 250 (2010) 49–55

collector plate faces south and is inclined at 30° to receive the

maximum possible solar radiation. The collector plate absorbs solar

energy and transfers that energy to water ﬂowing through tubes. The

bottom surface of the solar still was painted black to have a high

absorptivity of solar radiation. Solar still and ﬂat plate collector are

mounted on iron stand as shown in the Fig. 1b. Outdoor experiments

are conducted in the campus of Krishna Institute of Engineering and

Technology, Ghaziabad (U.P), India starting from January 2008

onwards at the water depth of 0.03 m in the basin of solar still for

both passive and active mode. Experiments started at 7 a.m. in the

morning and hourly ambient air temperature, inner and outer

condensing cover temperature, water temperature, solar intensity on

the glass covers and distillate yield are measured for continuous 24h.

3. Energy balance equations for modeling double slope solar still

The following assumptions were taken into consideration for

writing energy balance equations for different components of a

double slope active solar still

1. Thermal capacity of glass covers and insulating material of wall of

solar still has been neglected.

2. There is no temperature gradient in the water inside the basin.

3. The system is under quasi-steady state condition.

4. The average temperature of water column in the basin is equal to

the average temperature of water in upper and lower header of ﬂat

plate collector.

5. The connecting pipe between the solar still and ﬂat plate collector

are perfectly insulated.

Energy balances on east condensing cover:

The energy balance for inner and outer surfaces of east condensing

cover are as follows

(a) Inner condensing cover

α

′

g

I

E

+ h

tE

ðT

w

À T

ciE

Þ À U

EW

ðT

ciE

À T

ciW

Þ =

K

g

L

g

ðT

ciE

À T

coE

Þ

ð1Þ

and,

(b) Outer condensing cover

K

g

L

g

ðT

ciE

À T

coE

Þ = h

aE

ðT

coE

À T

a

Þ ð2Þ

where,

h

tE

= h

cwE

+ h

ewE

+ h

rwE

:

Energy balances on west condensing cover:

The energy balance for inner and outer surfaces of west con-

densing covers is as follows

(c) Inner condensing cover

α

′

g

I

W

+ h

tW

ðT

w

À T

ciW

Þ + U

EW

ðT

ciE

À T

ciW

Þ

=

K

g

L

g

ðT

ciW

À T

coW

Þ

ð3Þ

and,

(d) Outer condensing cover

K

g

L

g

ðT

ciW

À T

coW

Þ = h

aW

ðT

coW

À T

a

Þ ð4Þ

where,

h

tW

= h

cwW

+ h

ewW

+ h

rwW

:

Energy balance for basin liner:

The energy balance for basin liner is

α

′

b

ðI

E

+ I

W

Þ = 2U

bw

ðT

b

À T

w

Þ + 2U

ba

ðT

b

À T

a

Þ: ð5Þ

Energy balance for water mass:

The energy balance for basin water is

ðMC

w

Þ

dT

w

dt

= ðI

E

+ I

W

Þα

′

w

+ 2U

bw

ðT

b

À T

w

Þ

À h

tE

ðT

w

À T

ciE

Þ À h

tW

ðT

w

À T

ciw

Þ + O

•

u

ð6Þ

where, the rate of thermal energy available from ﬂat plate

collector is given by

Q

u

•

= A

C

F

′

½ðατÞI

C

À U

L

ðT

W

À T

a

Þ: ð7Þ

With the help of above equations [1–7], one can get the following

ﬁrst order differential equation as,

dT

w

dt

+ aT

w

= f ðtÞ ð8Þ

where,

a =

1

ðMCÞ

w

2U

bw

U

ba

U

bw

+ U

ba

+

ðp À A

2

Þh

tE

p

+

ðp À B

2

Þh

tW

p

+ A

C

F

′

U

L

¸

and,

f ðtÞ =

1

ðMCÞ

w

α

′

w

+

α

′

b

U

bw

U

bw

+ U

ba

ðI

E

+ I

W

Þ + A

C

F

′

ðατÞI

C

¸

+

h

tE

A

1

+ h

tw

B

1

p

+ A

C

F

′

U

L

T

a

+

2U

bw

U

ba

U

bW

+ U

ba

T

a

:

In order to obtain an approximate solution of Eq. (8) the following

assumptions have been made:

(i) The time interval Δt (0<t<Δt) is small.

(ii) The function f (t) is constant, i.e. f(t)=

―

f ðtÞ for the time

interval Δt, and

(iii) ‘a’ is constant during the time interval Δt.

(iv) The internal convective (h

cw

), evaporative (h

ew

) and radiative

(h

rw

) heat transfer coefﬁcients for east and west condensing

cover have been evaluated at initial (t =0) water (T

w0

) and

inner condensing cover (T

ci0

) temperature and assumed to be

constant over 0-t time interval. Hence, h

tE

and h

tW

have been

considered constant over 0-t time interval.

After making the above assumptions, Eq. (8) becomes ﬁrst order

simple differential equation. The solution of Eq. (8) with initial

condition, T

w

=T

w0

at t =0, becomes

T

w

=

―

f ðtÞ

a

½1 ÀexpðÀaΔtÞ + T

w0

expðÀaΔtÞ: ð9Þ

And inner and outer glass cover temperatures obtained from

Eqs. (1)–(7) are:

T

ciE

=

A

1

+ A

2

T

w

p

ð10aÞ

51 V.K. Dwivedi, G.N. Tiwari / Desalination 250 (2010) 49–55

T

ciW

=

B

1

+ B

2

T

w

p

ð10bÞ

T

coE

=

K

g

L

g

T

ciE

+ h

aE

T

a

K

g

L

g

+ h

aE

ð11aÞ

T

coW

=

K

g

L

g

T

ciW

+ h

aW

T

a

K

g

L

g

+ h

aW

: ð11bÞ

The obtained values of water and inner condensing cover

temperature become initial temperature for next set of calculations.

Similarly this procedure has been adopted for other set of time

interval.

The constants of Eqs. (10a) and (10b) and (11a) and (11b) are

given in the appendix.

The evaporative heat transfer rate from east and west side of a

double slope solar still is given by

q

ewE

•

= h

ewE

ðT

w

À T

ciE

Þ ð12aÞ

and,

q

ewW

•

= h

ewW

ðT

w

À T

ciW

Þ ð12bÞ

Then, the hourly yield can be found as

m

E

•

=

q

ewE

•

× 3600

L

ð13aÞ

and,

m

W

•

=

q

ewW

•

× 3600

L

ð13bÞ

The total hourly yield of double slope solar still is

m

ew

•

= m

E

•

+ m

W

•

: ð13cÞ

The total daily yield is given as follows

M

ew

= ∑

i =24

i =1

m

ew

•

: ð13dÞ

3.1. Overall thermal efﬁciency of a double slope solar still

(a) The expressions for overall thermal efﬁciency for passive solar

still is given by

η

passive

=

∑m

ew

•

× L

ð∑ðIðtÞÞ

t

× A

S

× 3600Þ

ð14aÞ

(b) The overall thermal efﬁciency of an active solar still is given by

η

active

=

∑m

ew

•

× L

∑ðIðtÞ

s

× A

S

× 3600Þ + ∑ðIÞ

C

× A

C

× 3600

: ð14bÞ

3.2. Exergy efﬁciency of solar still

The exergy efﬁciency of solar still is deﬁned as follows, Hepbalsi

[15]

η

EX

=

Exergy Output of solar still ðE

•

x

evap

Þ

Exergy Input to solar stillðE

•

x

in

Þ

ð15Þ

The exergy input to passive solar still (E

•

x

in

):

The exergy input to passive solar still (E

•

x

in

) is given by Expression

(15a), Petela [19]

E

•

x

in

= E

•

x

sun

= A

s

× IðtÞ × 1 À

4

3

×

T

a

+ 273

T

s

+

1

3

×

T

a

+ 273

T

s

4

¸

:

ð15aÞ

The exergy input to active solar still (E

•

x

in

)

The exergy input to active solar still (E

•

x

in

) is the sum of exergy

input to solar still [19] and exergy input to ﬂat plate collector [13]

and is given by Eq. (15b).

Ex

in

•

= E

•

x

sun

ðsolar stillÞ + Ex

sun

ðFPCÞ ð15bÞ

where,

E

•

x

sun

ðFPCÞ = Q

u

× 1 À

T

a

+ 273

T

w

+ 273

¸

•

ð15cÞ

The exergy output of a solar still can be obtained as follows,

Syahrul et al. [16],

E

•

x

evap

= A

s

× h

ew

ðT

w

À T

cie

Þ × 1 À

T

a

+ 273

T

w

+ 273

¸

ð16Þ

4. Results and discussion

The thermal model of double slope active solar still has been

developed on the basis of energy balance of east and west condensing

covers, water mass and basin liner. The climatic parameters such as

solar intensity and ambient air temperature used in the modeling

have been shown in Fig. 2. The design parameters used in the thermal

modeling are given in Table 2. The expressions for heat transfer

coefﬁcient used in the modeling have been given in appendix. By

using the climatic, design parameters and heat transfer coefﬁcient, the

hourly variation of water, inner and outer condensing cover

temperature and hourly yield have been evaluated. The various data

obtained from thermal model are validated with experimental data.

The closeness between theoretical and experimental data can be

mentioned in terms of coefﬁcient of correlation and root mean square

of percent deviation. The expression for coefﬁcient of correlation and

root mean square percent deviation given by Chapra and Canale [18]

are as follows

r =

N∑X

i

Y

i

À∑ðX

i

Þ∑ðY

i

Þ

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

N∑X

2

i

À

ð

∑X

iÞ

2

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

N∑Y

2

i

À

ð

∑Y

iÞ

2

ð17Þ

and

e =

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

∑ðe

i

Þ

2

N

ð18Þ

52 V.K. Dwivedi, G.N. Tiwari / Desalination 250 (2010) 49–55

where,

e

i

=

X

i

−Y

i

X

i

:

The values of coefﬁcient of correlation and root mean square

percent deviation between theoretical and experimental data for

inner and outer condensing cover temperature have been given in

Table 3.

The predicted values of hourly water temperature as calculated by

Eq. (9) have been compared with experimental data for 0.03 m water

depth for a typical day in the month of March 2008 and are shown in

Fig. 3. The coefﬁcient of correlation and root mean square percent

deviation between theoretical and experimental water temperature

are found 0.9947 and 16.87 respectively. It can be observed that there

is an increase in water temperature in active solar still by 50 °C

(Fig. 3), which is 10 °C higher in comparison with water temperature

of passive solar still. It is due to the fact that an additional thermal

energy is fed into the basin of active solar still fromﬂat plate collector.

Hourly variations of theoretical and experimental inner glass covers

temperature for east and west side of a double slope active solar still

has been shown in Fig. 4. From this ﬁgure, one can observe that the

maxima of the east condensing cover is lagging with the maxima of

west inner condensing cover due to maximum solar intensity at east

and west condensing cover at 1 and 2 pm respectively. The

coefﬁcients of correlation between theoretical and experimental

values for east and west inner condensing covers are 0.9738 and

0.9852 respectively. Similar observation can be made for the outer

glass cover temperature for double slope solar still. Experimental and

theoretical data for outer glass cover have been shown in Fig. 5 with

correlation coefﬁcient for east and west sides of 0.9660 and 0.9753

respectively. From Fig. 6, one can observe that the hourly yield for

west condensing cover is more than east condensing cover early in the

morning. This may be due to cooled west condensing cover in

comparison with east condensing cover. The same is true for the

afternoon case. Hourly variations in theoretical and experimental

yield have been shown in Fig. 6. Least values of coefﬁcient of

correlation (0.9058 for east side and 0.8959 for west side) have been

found for hourly yield and this may be due to large variation in the

wind speed.

The overall results obtained from the present studies are quite

similar to the results obtained by Rubio et al. [5].

Fig. 2. a: Hourly variations of ambient air temperature for the day of experiment in the

month of March 2008 for double slope passive and active solar stills. b: Hourly

variations of solar intensity on the condensing covers and ﬂat plate collector for the day

of experiment in the month of March 2008 for double slope active solar still.

Table 2

Design parameters used in thermal modeling.

Parameters Value

Design parameters for solar still

α

b

0.8

α

g

0.05

α

w

0.6

ε

w

0.95

ε

g

0.95

A

s

2 m

2

L

b

0.005 m

L

g

0.004 m

K

b

0.035 W/m°C

K

g

0.78 0 W/m°C

C

W

4188 J/kg°C

M 20 kg

σ 5.67×10

−8

W/m

2

°C

Design parameters for ﬂat plate collector

A

c

2 m

2

F′ 0.8

U

L

6 W/m

2

°C

(ατ)

c

0.6

Table 3

Value of coefﬁcient of correlation (r) and root mean square percent deviation between

theoretical an experimental values of inner and outer condensing cover temperature,

water temperature and yield.

Parameter r e

T

ciE

0.9975 11.91

T

ciW

0.9832 12.41

T

coE

0.966 11.2

T

coW

0.9753 11.97

T

w

0.9947 16.87

m

ewE

0.9054 0.321

m

ewE

0.8959 0.234

Fig. 3. Hourly variations of theoretical and experimental water temperatures for 0.03 m

water depth of a double slope active solar still for the month of March 2008.

53 V.K. Dwivedi, G.N. Tiwari / Desalination 250 (2010) 49–55

Hourly thermal and exergy efﬁciencies of passive and active

double slope solar stills have been calculated by using the equation

given by Dwivedi and Tiwari [8] and the results are presented in

Table 2. It is observed that exergy efﬁciency is always lower than

thermal efﬁciency. The hourly thermal efﬁciency of passive solar still

varies from 0 to 23.9% and is higher than the thermal efﬁciency of

active solar still that varies from 0 to 17.9%. As against hourly thermal

efﬁciency the hourly exergy efﬁciency for active solar still is higher (0

to 1.958%) as compared to the exergy efﬁciency of passive solar still (0

to 2.245%). The overall average thermal and exergy efﬁciencies of FPC-

integrated active solar still are 10.34 and 1.16%, respectively.

5. Conclusion

The following conclusions have been drawn

1. The double slope active solar still under natural modes gives 51%

higher yield in comparison to the double slope passive solar still.

2. The thermal efﬁciency of double slope active solar still is lower

than the thermal efﬁciency of double slope passive solar still.

However, the exergy efﬁciency of double slope active solar still is

higher than the exergy efﬁciency of double slope passive solar still.

3. The daily yield of a double slope passive solar still for a particular

day in the month of March 2008 was found 1.838kgm

−2

whereas

the daily yield of a double slope active solar still under natural

mode was found 2.791kgm

−2

.

Appendix A

The constants of Eqs. (10a) and (10b) and (11a) and (11b) are as

follows

p = U

1

U

2

À U

2

EW

U

1

= U

aE

+ h

tE

+ U

EW

U

2

= U

aW

+ h

tw

+ U

EW

U

aE

=

K

g

h

aE

K

g

+ h

aE

L

g

U

aW

=

K

g

h

aW

K

g

+ h

aW

L

g

A

1

= R

1

U

2

+ R

2

U

EW

A

2

= h

tE

U

2

+ h

tW

U

EW

B

1

= R

1

U

EW

+ R

2

U

1

B

2

= h

tE

U

EW

+ h

tW

U

1

R

1

= α

′

g

I

E

+ U

aE

T

a

R

2

= α

′

g

I

W

+ U

aW

T

a

Heat transfer relationship used in thermal modeling

External heat transfer coefﬁcient

Heat transfer from glass cover to ambient air takes place by

convection and radiation. The total heat transfer coefﬁcient fromglass

cover to ambient is given by

h

aE

= h

aW

= 5:7 + 3:8V:

The overall heat transfer coefﬁcient from basin to ambient is given

by the equation

U

ba

=

1

L

b

K

b

+

1

h

b

:

Fig. 5. Hourly variations of theoretical and experimental outer glass cover temperatures

for 0.03 m water depth for east and west sides of a double slope active solar still for the

month of March 2008.

Fig. 4. Hourly variations of theoretical and experimental inner glass cover temperatures

for 0.03 m water depth for east and west sides of a double slope active solar still for the

month of March 2008.

Fig. 6. Hourly variations of theoretical and experimental yield for 0.03 mwater depth of

a double slope active solar still for the month of March 2008.

54 V.K. Dwivedi, G.N. Tiwari / Desalination 250 (2010) 49–55

Internal heat transfer coefﬁcient

The convection, evaporation and radiation are the mode of heat

transfer from water mass to inner glass cover. Dunkle's equation for

convective heat transfer coefﬁcient is

h

cw

= 0:884 T

w

À T

ciE

+

ðP

w

À P

ciE

ÞT

w

268:9×10

3

À P

w

¸ 1

3

and, evaporative heat transfer coefﬁcient is given by

h

ew

= 16:276 × 10

−3

h

cwE

P

w

À P

ciE

T

w

À T

ciE

Radiative heat transfer coefﬁcient is calculated by

h

rw

=

σðT

2

w

+ T

2

ciE

ÞðT

w

+ T

ciE

Þ

1

ε

w

+

1

ε

g

À1

Radiative heat transfer between east and west surfaces has also

been considered. The radiative heat transfer coefﬁcient between two

glass surfaces is given by

U

EW

= 0:034σ⌊ðT

ciE

+ 273Þ

2

+ ðT

ciW

+ 273Þ

2

⌋½T

ciE

+ T

ciW

+ 546:

References

[1] R.V. Dunkle, Solar water distillation, the roof type solar still and a multi effect

diffusion still, International developments in heat transfer, A.S.M.E, Proceedings of

International Heat transfer, vol. 5, University of Colorado, 1961, pp. 895–902.

[2] P.I. Cooper, The absorption of solar energy radiation in solar stills, Solar Energy 12

(1969) 333–346.

[3] M.A.S. Malik, G.N. Tiwari, A. Kumar, M.S. Sodha, Solar distillation, 1st edn,

Pregamon Press, UK, 1982.

[4] G.N. Tiwari, Recent advances in solar distillation, Contemporary Physics-Solar

Energy and Energy Conservation, Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi, India, 1992,

(Chapter II).

[5] Rubio Eduardo, L. Jose Fernandez, A. Miguel Porta-Gandara, Modeling thermal

asymmetries in double slope solar stills, Renewable Energy 29 (2004) 895–906.

[6] A.K. Tiwari, G.N. Tiwari, Annual performance analysis and thermal modeling of

passive solar still for different inclination of condensing cover, IJER 31 (14) (2007)

1358–1382.

[7] H.S. Aybar, Mathematical modeling of an inclined solar water distillation system,

Desalination 190 (2006) 63–70.

[8] V.K. Dwivedi, G.N. Tiwari, Energy and exergy analysis of single and double slope

passive solar still, Trends in Applied Sciences and Research 3 (3) (2008) 225–241.

[9] G.M. Zaki, A. Al-Turki, M. AI-Fatani, Experimental investigation on concentrator

assisted solar stills, Solar Energy 11 (1992) 193–199.

[10] H. Tanaka, T. Nosoko, T. Nagata, A highly productive basin type multiple effect

coupled solar still, Desalination 130 (2000) 279–293.

[11] H.S. Soliman, Solar still coupled witha solar water heater, vol. 43, Mosul University,

Mosul, Iraq, 1974.

[12] R. Tripathi, G.N. Tiwari, Effect of water depth on internal heat and mass transfer for

active solar distillation, Desalination 173 (2005) 187–200.

[13] G.N. Tiwari, Vimal Dimri, Usha Singh, Arvind Chel, Bikash Sarkar, Comparative

thermal performance evaluation of an active solar distillation system, IJER 31

(2007) 1465–1482.

[14] I. Dincer, The role of exergy in energy policy making, Energy Policy 30 (2002)

137–149.

[15] A. Hepbalsi, A key review on exegetic analysis and assessment of renewable

energy sources for a sustainable future, Renewable and Sustainable Energy

Reviews 12 (3) (2008) 593–661.

[16] S. Syahrul, F. Hamdullahpur, I. Dincer, Exergy analysis of ﬂuidized bed drying of

moist particles, Exergy International Journal 2 (2002) 87–98.

[17] G.N. Tiwari, A.K. Tiwari, Solar Distillation Practice in Water Desalination Systems,

Anamaya Publication Ltd, New Delhi, India, 2007.

[18] S.C. Chapra, R.P. Canale, Numerical Methods for Engineer, McGraw-Hill, NewYork,

1989.

[19] R. Petela, Exergy of undiluted thermal radiation, Solar Energy 74 (6) (2003)

469–488.

Glossary

A

s

: Surface area of condensing cover (m

2

)

A

C

: Surface area of ﬂat plate collector (m

2

)

e: Root mean square of percent deviation

F′: Flat plat collector efﬁciency factor

h

t

: Total internal heat transfer coefﬁcient (W/m

2

°C)

h

cw

: Internal convective heat transfer coefﬁcient (W/m

2

°C)

h

ew

: Internal evaporative heat transfer coefﬁcient (W/m

2

°C)

h

rw

: Internal radiative heat transfer coefﬁcient (W/m

2

°C)

h

a

: Heat transfer coefﬁcient between outer condensing cover and ambient air (W/m

2

°C)

I: Solar intensity on the condensing cover (W/m

2

)

K

g

: Thermal conductivity of condensing cover (W/m°C)

L

g

: Thickness of condensing cover (m)

L: Latent heat of vaporization (J/kg)

M: Mass of water in the basin of solar still (kg)

m

•

: Hourly distillate yield (kg/m

2

)

P: Partial saturated vapor pressure (N/m

2

)

Q

•

U

: Useful thermal energy gain from the collector (W/m

2

)

qew

•

: Evaporative heat transfer rate (W/m

2

)

T: Temperature (°C)

U

L

: Overall heat transfer coefﬁcient for ﬂat plate collector (W/m

2

°C)

U

EW

: Internal radiative heat transfer coefﬁcient between east and west condensing

cover (W/m

2

°C)

U

bw

: Heat transfer coefﬁcient between basin liner and water (W/m

2

°C)

U

ba

: Heat transfer coefﬁcient between basin liner and ambient air (W/m

2

°C)

U

a

: Overall heat transfer coefﬁcient between outer condensing cover and ambient air

(W/m

2

°C)

V: Air velocity (m/s)

Xi: Theoretical or predicted value

Yi: Experimental value

Subscripts

E: East side

W: West side

C: Collector plate

w: Water

ci: Inner condensing cover

co: Outer condensing cover

a: Ambient

b: Basin liner

Greek Letters

α

g

′ : Fraction of solar energy absorbed by glass cover

α

b

′ : Fraction of solar energy absorbed by basin water

ε

g

: Emissivity of glass cover

ε

w

: Emissivity of water

(ατ): Effective absorptance– transmittance product

55 V.K. Dwivedi, G.N. Tiwari / Desalination 250 (2010) 49–55

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