Experimental validation of thermal model of a double slope active solar still under

natural circulation mode
V.K. Dwivedi
a,
⁎, G.N. Tiwari
b
a
Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, Ghaziabad (U.P), India
b
Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi110016, India
a b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Accepted 28 June 2009
Available online 14 October 2009
Keywords:
Solar distillation
Thermal modeling
Heat and mass transfer
In this paper, thermal modeling of a double slope active solar still has been carried out on the basis of energy
balance of east and west glass covers, water mass and basin liner under natural circulation mode. The
thermal model of distillation system has been validated for hourly data for inner and outer glass cover
temperatures, water temperature and the yield. The hourly thermal and exergy efficiency of active solar still
have also been evaluated for 0.03 m water depth. It has been observed that the thermal efficiency of double
slope active solar still is lower than the thermal efficiency of double slope passive solar still. However, the
exergy efficiency of double slope active solar still is higher than the exergy efficiency of double slope passive
solar still. All numerical calculations have been performed for a typical day in the month of March 2008 for
the composite climate of Ghaziabad (28°40′N, 77°25′E), U.P, India.
© 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Wilson (1972), a Swedish engineer, was the first scientist who
developed a solar still for supplying pure water to a nitrate mining
community in Chile, which was very popular and was in operation for
more than 40 years. Dunkle [1] has derived the relation for convective
and evaporative heat transfer coefficient for an air–water systemwhich
is useful even these days. Cooper [2] discussed about the absorption of
solar energy radiations in solar stills. Reviewof passive solar distillation
systems were done by Malik et al. [3]. Further, Tiwari [4] reviewed the
work done onpassive and active solar stills until 1992. Eduardo Rubio et
al. [5] proposed a newmathematical model to study the performance of
a double slope passive solar still by considering the effect of heat
capacity of condensing covers and bottominsulation. Tiwari and Tiwari
[6] have conductedanexperiment for performance analysis andthermal
modeling of single slope passive solar still for different inclination of
condensing covers. Aybar [7] developed a mathematical model for an
inclined solar water distillation system. Dwivedi and Tiwari [8] have
carried out energy and exergy analyses of single and double slope
passive solar stills on the basis of annual experimental data for water
depthof 0.01, 0.02and0.03 m. Zaki et al. [9] experimentally investigated
an active single slope solar still integrated with a flat plate collector
under thermosyphon mode of operation and found that the maximum
increase in the yield was up to 33%. Tanaka et al. [10] developed a highly
productive basin type-multiple effect coupled solar still generally
known as active solar still. Soliman [11] had studied the performance
of basin type solar still integrated with flat plate collector. Tripathi and
Tiwari [12] conducted outdoor experiments to study the effect of water
depth on internal heat and mass transfer for active solar distillation
systems. Recently, Tiwari et al. [13] have studied the comparative
performance evaluationof anactive solar distillationsystemandtriedto
evaluate theoretical yieldfromthe active solar stills integratedwithFPC,
concentrating collector, evacuated tube collector with and without heat
pipe. Dincer [14] reported the linkages between energy and exergy,
exergy and the environment, energy and sustainable development and
energypolicymakingandexergyindetail. Inthe fieldof solar distillation
many scientists have reported that the passive solar distillation system
is a slowprocess for purification of saline/brackish water. Many options
such as use of plastic condensing covers, solar still integrated with
parabolic concentrator, evacuated tube collector (ETC) and flat plate
collectors (FPC) have been tried by various scientists to enhance the
daily yield. Out of these options flat plat collector is popular due to its
low maintenance cost and simple design. When flat plate collector is
integrated with solar still, extra thermal energy is supplied to the basin
water and hence rise in water temperature is more as compared to
passive solar still. Recently, Tiwari and Tiwari [6] have reviewed the
work carriedout by various scientists till 2006 [17]. The objectives of the
present studies are
(a) Thermal modeling of double slope active solar still under
natural circulation mode without considering the heat capacity
of condensing cover and thermal insulation.
(b) To compare the hourly thermal and exergy efficiency of double
slope passive and active solar stills (Table 1) and
(c) Experimental validation by considering the inner condensing
cover's temperature.
Desalination 250 (2010) 49–55
⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 9899132284; fax: +91 11 26862037.
E-mail addresses: vkdwivedi@kiet.edu, vkdwivedi94@gmail.com (V.K. Dwivedi),
gntiwari@ces.iitd.ernet.in (G.N. Tiwari).
0011-9164/$ – see front matter © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.desal.2009.06.060
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Desalination
j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ desal
2. Experimental setup and observations
Across sectional viewand photographof a double slope active solar
distillation systemunder natural mode has beenshowninFig. 1a and b
respectively. The areas of double slope solar still and flat plate collector
are 2 m
2
. The flat plate collector is integrated with double slope solar
still in such a way that the hot water from collector plate enters into
the basin under natural circulation. The inlet and outlet connections to
the collector plate are taken from the bottom of the basin as shown in
Fig. 1b. A gate valve has been provided in the inlet pipe to open and
close the circulation of water through the collector panel. If the gate
valve is closed the solar still works under passive mode. The body of
the solar still is of glass reinforcedplastic (GRP). The condensingcovers
are 4 mmthick plane glass, inclined at 15° to the basin of solar still. The
double slope solar still is placed in east–west direction whereas the
Table 1
The hourly thermal and exergy efficiencies of passive and active double slope solar stills
for 0.03 m water depth in the month of March 2008.
Time Passive solar still Active solar still
Thermal efficiency Exergy Efficiency Thermal efficiency Exergy efficiency
7.0 0 0.000 0.00 0
8.0 4.04 0.061 3.48 0.049
9.0 3.05 0.113 2.66 0.080
10.0 2.65 0.136 4.40 0.200
11.0 6.05 0.346 4.76 0.349
12.0 8.47 0.559 8.74 0.718
13.0 12.77 0.986 13.52 1.278
14.0 15.51 1.386 15.27 1.940
15.0 16.65 1.831 15.27 2.209
16.0 18.43 1.822 17.42 2.245
17.0 23.91 1.958 17.93 2.052
Fig. 1. a: Schematic diagram of a double slope active solar still. b: Photograph of double slope active solar still installed in the campus of Krishna Institute of Engineering and
Technology, Ghaziabad, (U.P) India.
50 V.K. Dwivedi, G.N. Tiwari / Desalination 250 (2010) 49–55
collector plate faces south and is inclined at 30° to receive the
maximum possible solar radiation. The collector plate absorbs solar
energy and transfers that energy to water flowing through tubes. The
bottom surface of the solar still was painted black to have a high
absorptivity of solar radiation. Solar still and flat plate collector are
mounted on iron stand as shown in the Fig. 1b. Outdoor experiments
are conducted in the campus of Krishna Institute of Engineering and
Technology, Ghaziabad (U.P), India starting from January 2008
onwards at the water depth of 0.03 m in the basin of solar still for
both passive and active mode. Experiments started at 7 a.m. in the
morning and hourly ambient air temperature, inner and outer
condensing cover temperature, water temperature, solar intensity on
the glass covers and distillate yield are measured for continuous 24h.
3. Energy balance equations for modeling double slope solar still
The following assumptions were taken into consideration for
writing energy balance equations for different components of a
double slope active solar still
1. Thermal capacity of glass covers and insulating material of wall of
solar still has been neglected.
2. There is no temperature gradient in the water inside the basin.
3. The system is under quasi-steady state condition.
4. The average temperature of water column in the basin is equal to
the average temperature of water in upper and lower header of flat
plate collector.
5. The connecting pipe between the solar still and flat plate collector
are perfectly insulated.
Energy balances on east condensing cover:
The energy balance for inner and outer surfaces of east condensing
cover are as follows
(a) Inner condensing cover
α

g
I
E
+ h
tE
ðT
w
À T
ciE
Þ À U
EW
ðT
ciE
À T
ciW
Þ =
K
g
L
g
ðT
ciE
À T
coE
Þ
ð1Þ
and,
(b) Outer condensing cover
K
g
L
g
ðT
ciE
À T
coE
Þ = h
aE
ðT
coE
À T
a
Þ ð2Þ
where,
h
tE
= h
cwE
+ h
ewE
+ h
rwE
:
Energy balances on west condensing cover:
The energy balance for inner and outer surfaces of west con-
densing covers is as follows
(c) Inner condensing cover
α

g
I
W
+ h
tW
ðT
w
À T
ciW
Þ + U
EW
ðT
ciE
À T
ciW
Þ
=
K
g
L
g
ðT
ciW
À T
coW
Þ
ð3Þ
and,
(d) Outer condensing cover
K
g
L
g
ðT
ciW
À T
coW
Þ = h
aW
ðT
coW
À T
a
Þ ð4Þ
where,
h
tW
= h
cwW
+ h
ewW
+ h
rwW
:
Energy balance for basin liner:
The energy balance for basin liner is
α

b
ðI
E
+ I
W
Þ = 2U
bw
ðT
b
À T
w
Þ + 2U
ba
ðT
b
À T
a
Þ: ð5Þ
Energy balance for water mass:
The energy balance for basin water is
ðMC
w
Þ
dT
w
dt
= ðI
E
+ I
W
Þα

w
+ 2U
bw
ðT
b
À T
w
Þ
À h
tE
ðT
w
À T
ciE
Þ À h
tW
ðT
w
À T
ciw
Þ + O

u
ð6Þ
where, the rate of thermal energy available from flat plate
collector is given by
Q
u

= A
C
F

½ðατÞI
C
À U
L
ðT
W
À T
a
ފ: ð7Þ
With the help of above equations [1–7], one can get the following
first order differential equation as,
dT
w
dt
+ aT
w
= f ðtÞ ð8Þ
where,
a =
1
ðMCÞ
w
2U
bw
U
ba
U
bw
+ U
ba
+
ðp À A
2
Þh
tE
p
+
ðp À B
2
Þh
tW
p
+ A
C
F

U
L
¸
and,
f ðtÞ =
1
ðMCÞ
w
α

w
+
α

b
U
bw
U
bw
+ U
ba

ðI
E
+ I
W
Þ + A
C
F

ðατÞI
C
¸
+
h
tE
A
1
+ h
tw
B
1
p
+ A
C
F

U
L
T
a
+
2U
bw
U
ba
U
bW
+ U
ba
T
a

:
In order to obtain an approximate solution of Eq. (8) the following
assumptions have been made:
(i) The time interval Δt (0<t<Δt) is small.
(ii) The function f (t) is constant, i.e. f(t)=

f ðtÞ for the time
interval Δt, and
(iii) ‘a’ is constant during the time interval Δt.
(iv) The internal convective (h
cw
), evaporative (h
ew
) and radiative
(h
rw
) heat transfer coefficients for east and west condensing
cover have been evaluated at initial (t =0) water (T
w0
) and
inner condensing cover (T
ci0
) temperature and assumed to be
constant over 0-t time interval. Hence, h
tE
and h
tW
have been
considered constant over 0-t time interval.
After making the above assumptions, Eq. (8) becomes first order
simple differential equation. The solution of Eq. (8) with initial
condition, T
w
=T
w0
at t =0, becomes
T
w
=

f ðtÞ
a
½1 ÀexpðÀaΔtފ + T
w0
expðÀaΔtÞ: ð9Þ
And inner and outer glass cover temperatures obtained from
Eqs. (1)–(7) are:
T
ciE
=
A
1
+ A
2
T
w
p
ð10aÞ
51 V.K. Dwivedi, G.N. Tiwari / Desalination 250 (2010) 49–55
T
ciW
=
B
1
+ B
2
T
w
p
ð10bÞ
T
coE
=
K
g
L
g
T
ciE
+ h
aE
T
a
K
g
L
g
+ h
aE
ð11aÞ
T
coW
=
K
g
L
g
T
ciW
+ h
aW
T
a
K
g
L
g
+ h
aW
: ð11bÞ
The obtained values of water and inner condensing cover
temperature become initial temperature for next set of calculations.
Similarly this procedure has been adopted for other set of time
interval.
The constants of Eqs. (10a) and (10b) and (11a) and (11b) are
given in the appendix.
The evaporative heat transfer rate from east and west side of a
double slope solar still is given by
q
ewE

= h
ewE
ðT
w
À T
ciE
Þ ð12aÞ
and,
q
ewW

= h
ewW
ðT
w
À T
ciW
Þ ð12bÞ
Then, the hourly yield can be found as
m
E

=
q
ewE

× 3600
L
ð13aÞ
and,
m
W

=
q
ewW

× 3600
L
ð13bÞ
The total hourly yield of double slope solar still is
m
ew

= m
E

+ m
W

: ð13cÞ
The total daily yield is given as follows
M
ew
= ∑
i =24
i =1
m
ew

: ð13dÞ
3.1. Overall thermal efficiency of a double slope solar still
(a) The expressions for overall thermal efficiency for passive solar
still is given by
η
passive
=
∑m
ew

× L
ð∑ðIðtÞÞ
t
× A
S
× 3600Þ
ð14aÞ
(b) The overall thermal efficiency of an active solar still is given by
η
active
=
∑m
ew

× L
∑ðIðtÞ
s
× A
S
× 3600Þ + ∑ðIÞ
C
× A
C
× 3600
: ð14bÞ
3.2. Exergy efficiency of solar still
The exergy efficiency of solar still is defined as follows, Hepbalsi
[15]
η
EX
=
Exergy Output of solar still ðE

x
evap
Þ
Exergy Input to solar stillðE

x
in
Þ
ð15Þ
The exergy input to passive solar still (E

x
in
):
The exergy input to passive solar still (E

x
in
) is given by Expression
(15a), Petela [19]
E

x
in
= E

x
sun
= A
s
× IðtÞ × 1 À
4
3
×
T
a
+ 273
T
s

+
1
3
×
T
a
+ 273
T
s

4
¸
:
ð15aÞ
The exergy input to active solar still (E

x
in
)
The exergy input to active solar still (E

x
in
) is the sum of exergy
input to solar still [19] and exergy input to flat plate collector [13]
and is given by Eq. (15b).
Ex
in

= E

x
sun
ðsolar stillÞ + Ex
sun
ðFPCÞ ð15bÞ
where,
E

x
sun
ðFPCÞ = Q
u
× 1 À
T
a
+ 273
T
w
+ 273
¸

ð15cÞ
The exergy output of a solar still can be obtained as follows,
Syahrul et al. [16],
E

x
evap
= A
s
× h
ew
ðT
w
À T
cie
Þ × 1 À
T
a
+ 273
T
w
+ 273
¸
ð16Þ
4. Results and discussion
The thermal model of double slope active solar still has been
developed on the basis of energy balance of east and west condensing
covers, water mass and basin liner. The climatic parameters such as
solar intensity and ambient air temperature used in the modeling
have been shown in Fig. 2. The design parameters used in the thermal
modeling are given in Table 2. The expressions for heat transfer
coefficient used in the modeling have been given in appendix. By
using the climatic, design parameters and heat transfer coefficient, the
hourly variation of water, inner and outer condensing cover
temperature and hourly yield have been evaluated. The various data
obtained from thermal model are validated with experimental data.
The closeness between theoretical and experimental data can be
mentioned in terms of coefficient of correlation and root mean square
of percent deviation. The expression for coefficient of correlation and
root mean square percent deviation given by Chapra and Canale [18]
are as follows
r =
N∑X
i
Y
i
À∑ðX
i
Þ∑ðY
i
Þ
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
N∑X
2
i
À
ð
∑X

2
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
N∑Y
2
i
À
ð
∑Y

2
ð17Þ
and
e =
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
∑ðe
i
Þ
2
N

ð18Þ
52 V.K. Dwivedi, G.N. Tiwari / Desalination 250 (2010) 49–55
where,
e
i
=
X
i
−Y
i
X
i
:
The values of coefficient of correlation and root mean square
percent deviation between theoretical and experimental data for
inner and outer condensing cover temperature have been given in
Table 3.
The predicted values of hourly water temperature as calculated by
Eq. (9) have been compared with experimental data for 0.03 m water
depth for a typical day in the month of March 2008 and are shown in
Fig. 3. The coefficient of correlation and root mean square percent
deviation between theoretical and experimental water temperature
are found 0.9947 and 16.87 respectively. It can be observed that there
is an increase in water temperature in active solar still by 50 °C
(Fig. 3), which is 10 °C higher in comparison with water temperature
of passive solar still. It is due to the fact that an additional thermal
energy is fed into the basin of active solar still fromflat plate collector.
Hourly variations of theoretical and experimental inner glass covers
temperature for east and west side of a double slope active solar still
has been shown in Fig. 4. From this figure, one can observe that the
maxima of the east condensing cover is lagging with the maxima of
west inner condensing cover due to maximum solar intensity at east
and west condensing cover at 1 and 2 pm respectively. The
coefficients of correlation between theoretical and experimental
values for east and west inner condensing covers are 0.9738 and
0.9852 respectively. Similar observation can be made for the outer
glass cover temperature for double slope solar still. Experimental and
theoretical data for outer glass cover have been shown in Fig. 5 with
correlation coefficient for east and west sides of 0.9660 and 0.9753
respectively. From Fig. 6, one can observe that the hourly yield for
west condensing cover is more than east condensing cover early in the
morning. This may be due to cooled west condensing cover in
comparison with east condensing cover. The same is true for the
afternoon case. Hourly variations in theoretical and experimental
yield have been shown in Fig. 6. Least values of coefficient of
correlation (0.9058 for east side and 0.8959 for west side) have been
found for hourly yield and this may be due to large variation in the
wind speed.
The overall results obtained from the present studies are quite
similar to the results obtained by Rubio et al. [5].
Fig. 2. a: Hourly variations of ambient air temperature for the day of experiment in the
month of March 2008 for double slope passive and active solar stills. b: Hourly
variations of solar intensity on the condensing covers and flat plate collector for the day
of experiment in the month of March 2008 for double slope active solar still.
Table 2
Design parameters used in thermal modeling.
Parameters Value
Design parameters for solar still
α
b
0.8
α
g
0.05
α
w
0.6
ε
w
0.95
ε
g
0.95
A
s
2 m
2
L
b
0.005 m
L
g
0.004 m
K
b
0.035 W/m°C
K
g
0.78 0 W/m°C
C
W
4188 J/kg°C
M 20 kg
σ 5.67×10
−8
W/m
2
°C
Design parameters for flat plate collector
A
c
2 m
2
F′ 0.8
U
L
6 W/m
2
°C
(ατ)
c
0.6
Table 3
Value of coefficient of correlation (r) and root mean square percent deviation between
theoretical an experimental values of inner and outer condensing cover temperature,
water temperature and yield.
Parameter r e
T
ciE
0.9975 11.91
T
ciW
0.9832 12.41
T
coE
0.966 11.2
T
coW
0.9753 11.97
T
w
0.9947 16.87
m
ewE
0.9054 0.321
m
ewE
0.8959 0.234
Fig. 3. Hourly variations of theoretical and experimental water temperatures for 0.03 m
water depth of a double slope active solar still for the month of March 2008.
53 V.K. Dwivedi, G.N. Tiwari / Desalination 250 (2010) 49–55
Hourly thermal and exergy efficiencies of passive and active
double slope solar stills have been calculated by using the equation
given by Dwivedi and Tiwari [8] and the results are presented in
Table 2. It is observed that exergy efficiency is always lower than
thermal efficiency. The hourly thermal efficiency of passive solar still
varies from 0 to 23.9% and is higher than the thermal efficiency of
active solar still that varies from 0 to 17.9%. As against hourly thermal
efficiency the hourly exergy efficiency for active solar still is higher (0
to 1.958%) as compared to the exergy efficiency of passive solar still (0
to 2.245%). The overall average thermal and exergy efficiencies of FPC-
integrated active solar still are 10.34 and 1.16%, respectively.
5. Conclusion
The following conclusions have been drawn
1. The double slope active solar still under natural modes gives 51%
higher yield in comparison to the double slope passive solar still.
2. The thermal efficiency of double slope active solar still is lower
than the thermal efficiency of double slope passive solar still.
However, the exergy efficiency of double slope active solar still is
higher than the exergy efficiency of double slope passive solar still.
3. The daily yield of a double slope passive solar still for a particular
day in the month of March 2008 was found 1.838kgm
−2
whereas
the daily yield of a double slope active solar still under natural
mode was found 2.791kgm
−2
.
Appendix A
The constants of Eqs. (10a) and (10b) and (11a) and (11b) are as
follows
p = U
1
U
2
À U
2
EW
U
1
= U
aE
+ h
tE
+ U
EW
U
2
= U
aW
+ h
tw
+ U
EW
U
aE
=
K
g
h
aE
K
g
+ h
aE
L
g
U
aW
=
K
g
h
aW
K
g
+ h
aW
L
g
A
1
= R
1
U
2
+ R
2
U
EW
A
2
= h
tE
U
2
+ h
tW
U
EW
B
1
= R
1
U
EW
+ R
2
U
1
B
2
= h
tE
U
EW
+ h
tW
U
1
R
1
= α

g
I
E
+ U
aE
T
a
R
2
= α

g
I
W
+ U
aW
T
a
Heat transfer relationship used in thermal modeling
External heat transfer coefficient
Heat transfer from glass cover to ambient air takes place by
convection and radiation. The total heat transfer coefficient fromglass
cover to ambient is given by
h
aE
= h
aW
= 5:7 + 3:8V:
The overall heat transfer coefficient from basin to ambient is given
by the equation
U
ba
=
1
L
b
K
b
+
1
h
b
:
Fig. 5. Hourly variations of theoretical and experimental outer glass cover temperatures
for 0.03 m water depth for east and west sides of a double slope active solar still for the
month of March 2008.
Fig. 4. Hourly variations of theoretical and experimental inner glass cover temperatures
for 0.03 m water depth for east and west sides of a double slope active solar still for the
month of March 2008.
Fig. 6. Hourly variations of theoretical and experimental yield for 0.03 mwater depth of
a double slope active solar still for the month of March 2008.
54 V.K. Dwivedi, G.N. Tiwari / Desalination 250 (2010) 49–55
Internal heat transfer coefficient
The convection, evaporation and radiation are the mode of heat
transfer from water mass to inner glass cover. Dunkle's equation for
convective heat transfer coefficient is
h
cw
= 0:884 T
w
À T
ciE
+
ðP
w
À P
ciE
ÞT
w
268:9×10
3
À P
w
¸ 1
3
and, evaporative heat transfer coefficient is given by
h
ew
= 16:276 × 10
−3
h
cwE
P
w
À P
ciE
T
w
À T
ciE
Radiative heat transfer coefficient is calculated by
h
rw
=
σðT
2
w
+ T
2
ciE
ÞðT
w
+ T
ciE
Þ
1
ε
w
+
1
ε
g
À1
Radiative heat transfer between east and west surfaces has also
been considered. The radiative heat transfer coefficient between two
glass surfaces is given by
U
EW
= 0:034σ⌊ðT
ciE
+ 273Þ
2
+ ðT
ciW
+ 273Þ
2
⌋½T
ciE
+ T
ciW
+ 546Š:
References
[1] R.V. Dunkle, Solar water distillation, the roof type solar still and a multi effect
diffusion still, International developments in heat transfer, A.S.M.E, Proceedings of
International Heat transfer, vol. 5, University of Colorado, 1961, pp. 895–902.
[2] P.I. Cooper, The absorption of solar energy radiation in solar stills, Solar Energy 12
(1969) 333–346.
[3] M.A.S. Malik, G.N. Tiwari, A. Kumar, M.S. Sodha, Solar distillation, 1st edn,
Pregamon Press, UK, 1982.
[4] G.N. Tiwari, Recent advances in solar distillation, Contemporary Physics-Solar
Energy and Energy Conservation, Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi, India, 1992,
(Chapter II).
[5] Rubio Eduardo, L. Jose Fernandez, A. Miguel Porta-Gandara, Modeling thermal
asymmetries in double slope solar stills, Renewable Energy 29 (2004) 895–906.
[6] A.K. Tiwari, G.N. Tiwari, Annual performance analysis and thermal modeling of
passive solar still for different inclination of condensing cover, IJER 31 (14) (2007)
1358–1382.
[7] H.S. Aybar, Mathematical modeling of an inclined solar water distillation system,
Desalination 190 (2006) 63–70.
[8] V.K. Dwivedi, G.N. Tiwari, Energy and exergy analysis of single and double slope
passive solar still, Trends in Applied Sciences and Research 3 (3) (2008) 225–241.
[9] G.M. Zaki, A. Al-Turki, M. AI-Fatani, Experimental investigation on concentrator
assisted solar stills, Solar Energy 11 (1992) 193–199.
[10] H. Tanaka, T. Nosoko, T. Nagata, A highly productive basin type multiple effect
coupled solar still, Desalination 130 (2000) 279–293.
[11] H.S. Soliman, Solar still coupled witha solar water heater, vol. 43, Mosul University,
Mosul, Iraq, 1974.
[12] R. Tripathi, G.N. Tiwari, Effect of water depth on internal heat and mass transfer for
active solar distillation, Desalination 173 (2005) 187–200.
[13] G.N. Tiwari, Vimal Dimri, Usha Singh, Arvind Chel, Bikash Sarkar, Comparative
thermal performance evaluation of an active solar distillation system, IJER 31
(2007) 1465–1482.
[14] I. Dincer, The role of exergy in energy policy making, Energy Policy 30 (2002)
137–149.
[15] A. Hepbalsi, A key review on exegetic analysis and assessment of renewable
energy sources for a sustainable future, Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Reviews 12 (3) (2008) 593–661.
[16] S. Syahrul, F. Hamdullahpur, I. Dincer, Exergy analysis of fluidized bed drying of
moist particles, Exergy International Journal 2 (2002) 87–98.
[17] G.N. Tiwari, A.K. Tiwari, Solar Distillation Practice in Water Desalination Systems,
Anamaya Publication Ltd, New Delhi, India, 2007.
[18] S.C. Chapra, R.P. Canale, Numerical Methods for Engineer, McGraw-Hill, NewYork,
1989.
[19] R. Petela, Exergy of undiluted thermal radiation, Solar Energy 74 (6) (2003)
469–488.
Glossary
A
s
: Surface area of condensing cover (m
2
)
A
C
: Surface area of flat plate collector (m
2
)
e: Root mean square of percent deviation
F′: Flat plat collector efficiency factor
h
t
: Total internal heat transfer coefficient (W/m
2
°C)
h
cw
: Internal convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m
2
°C)
h
ew
: Internal evaporative heat transfer coefficient (W/m
2
°C)
h
rw
: Internal radiative heat transfer coefficient (W/m
2
°C)
h
a
: Heat transfer coefficient between outer condensing cover and ambient air (W/m
2
°C)
I: Solar intensity on the condensing cover (W/m
2
)
K
g
: Thermal conductivity of condensing cover (W/m°C)
L
g
: Thickness of condensing cover (m)
L: Latent heat of vaporization (J/kg)
M: Mass of water in the basin of solar still (kg)
m

: Hourly distillate yield (kg/m
2
)
P: Partial saturated vapor pressure (N/m
2
)
Q

U
: Useful thermal energy gain from the collector (W/m
2
)
qew

: Evaporative heat transfer rate (W/m
2
)
T: Temperature (°C)
U
L
: Overall heat transfer coefficient for flat plate collector (W/m
2
°C)
U
EW
: Internal radiative heat transfer coefficient between east and west condensing
cover (W/m
2
°C)
U
bw
: Heat transfer coefficient between basin liner and water (W/m
2
°C)
U
ba
: Heat transfer coefficient between basin liner and ambient air (W/m
2
°C)
U
a
: Overall heat transfer coefficient between outer condensing cover and ambient air
(W/m
2
°C)
V: Air velocity (m/s)
Xi: Theoretical or predicted value
Yi: Experimental value
Subscripts
E: East side
W: West side
C: Collector plate
w: Water
ci: Inner condensing cover
co: Outer condensing cover
a: Ambient
b: Basin liner
Greek Letters
α
g
′ : Fraction of solar energy absorbed by glass cover
α
b
′ : Fraction of solar energy absorbed by basin water
ε
g
: Emissivity of glass cover
ε
w
: Emissivity of water
(ατ): Effective absorptance– transmittance product
55 V.K. Dwivedi, G.N. Tiwari / Desalination 250 (2010) 49–55

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