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Dear Students,

Vidyamandir Classes academic team knows that you are rigourously studying to cover the entire prescribed

syllabus. As the Final Exams approach, this is the time when you need to revisit the concepts you have

learned. At this time, you have to be very focused and directed in your approach.

To make your learning process precise, effective and enjoyable, we at Vidyamandir Classes conceptualized

the compendium series, strategically designed to help you in scoring high grades in examination. The

Compendium is primarily intended to present the concepts of chapter in a concise manner. All key definitions,

diagrams and formulae have been integrated for a quick revision of the chapter.

To help you to easily master complicated concepts, definitions, diagrams and formulae, we have added

interesting tips, mnemonics, maps and matrices. Let us take a look at the elements of the Compendium and

how to use them.

Knowing these features will make it easier for you to assimilate complex information.

Icon Description How it can help you

**To directly recapitulate main concepts of the
**

Concept map

chapter.

**To help you draw and remember diagrams,
**

we have thoughtfully developed some

Drawing Tips

mnemonics to help you to memorise

Drawing Tips information

Compare

To help you in comparing different concepts

Contrast Matrix

**To make your learning process effective, easy
**

Memory Tips

tips have been provided.

**In this compendium, we have also incorporated:
**

• CBSE Blue Print: Type of questions asked and the weightage of different forms of questions.

• Analysis of Previous Years CBSE questions: The topic wise analysis of previous years question along

with the marks allocated.

• We are confident that this Compendium will prove very helpful in achieving excellent result in your

exams.

**All the very best for your exams!
**

Vidyamandir Classes Academic Team

Compendium/Physics/Class XII 1 © 20 10 Vidyamandir Classes

Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism

About Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism

**The unit Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism is one of the most important units of
**

Physics for Class XII. The weightage of this unit in the board examinations is 8 marks and a

mix of 1, 2, 3 and 5 marks questions can be asked.

**CBSE BLUE PRINT: MAGNETIC EFFECT OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM
**

The numerical problems based on electric potential are relatively easy. Numerical problems

based on capacitors, especially capacitor combinations, need cautious approach. Derivations

are simple and learning the same can help you perform better in the examinations.

Number of Questions

Chapters Very Short Short Long Total

in this unit Options short Answer I Answer II Answer Marks

(1 mark) (2 marks) (3 marks) (5marks)

1. Moving Charges

and Magnetism I 1 1 - 1 8

2. Magnetism and

Matter II - - 1 1 8

**MOVING CHARGES AND MAGNETISM
**

The analysis of questions from this chapter for the last five years shows that derivations

and description of devices are given much importance. The following table shows the

same.

**Derivations/ Understanding of concepts/
**

Years

Devices (Marks) Numericals (Marks)

2004 3 2

2005 3 2

2006 5 -

2007 5 1

2008 4 2

**Compendium/Physics/Class XII 2 © 201 0 Vidyamandir Classes
**

APPROACH TO MOVING CHARGES AND MAGNETISM

The main derivations in this chapter are to arrive at the expressions for magnetic field

created by current carrying conductors. These are based on two laws, viz. Biot-savart’s law

and Ampere’s circuital law. The devices described are cyclotron and moving coil galvanom-

eter. Thorough study of these topics will fetch you a lion’s share of marks alloted to this

chapter.

**Compendium/Physics/Class XII 3 © 20 10 Vidyamandir Classes
**

A. CONCEPTS AND NUMERICALS

(i) Faraday’s laws and Lenz’s law

**Helps you to conclude that:
**

Force acting on a charged particle

moving in a magnetic field: (i) the induced emf is directly proportional to

F= q v×B the rate of change of magnetic flux.

(ii) effect of is to oppose the change in

**Leads you to understand that a circular
**

current loop acts as a magnetic dipole.

Helps you think of the variation of magnetic

moment with

(i) number of turns (ii) area of the loop

**(ii) Magnetic moment of a revolving electron
**

Think of revolving electron as a single turn

he current loop.

(min)

4 m e Get expressions for I and A.

Use the equation: m = n I A.

Include angular momentum term and apply

Bohr’s quantization condition.

B. DERIVATIONS AND DEVICES

**(i ) Biot-Savart’s law
**

Magnetic field strength at a point due to a small current element of length dl carrying

current I,

0 I d sin

dB

4 r2

0 - the absolute permeability of free space

= 4 10 –7 T m A –1

**Compendium/Physics/Class XII 4 © 201 0 Vidyamandir Classes
**

Magnetic field due to a circular current loop

**This diagram is vital to the
**

derivation. So practise it well.

PC PD d r 2 x 2

Get expressions for dB at P due to current elements dl at

0 I d I d C and D.

dB sin 90 0 2

4 d 2

4 r x 2 Resolve both into sine and cos components.

Cos components cancel out and sine components get

0 I sin

B dB sin d added.

4 r 2 x 2 Now integrate dB to get the total field due to the entire

loop

0 Ir 2

B 3 dl over the circumference will always give 2r for a

2 r2 x

2 2

circle.

Substitute for sin and simplify.

0I Apply x = 0 to find the field at the centre

B0

2r

Remember:

Use right hand thumb rule to find the direction of the

field due to a current loop

**Compendium/Physics/Class XII 5 © 20 10 Vidyamandir Classes
**

II . Ampere’s circuital law

The line integral of magnetic field around any closed path (or circuit) in vacuum is equal to

0 (absolute permeability of space) times the total current (I) threading the closed path.

B.d 0 I

**Magnetic field due to an infinitely long straight conductor carrying current
**

Draw a circle of radius R around

the wire.

B.dl Bdl , as B is tangential to

the circle at any point.

By Ampere’s law,

B.dl B dl B dl B 2 R B.d 0 I

B 2 R 0 I

0 I

B

2 R

MAGANETIC FIELD DUE TO A SOLENOID AND TOROID

**(a) For a point well inside the solenoid
**

Take n as the number of turns per unit

length.

Draw the diagram highlighting the

rectangle (MNOP) of length L.

N O P M Solve

B.d over the closed path MNOP.

B.d B.d B.d B.d

B.d

For sides, MP and NO, B.dl 0 as

M N O P

N

B.d B L B dl . For PO, B = 0. Only

B.d

M

B.d 0 total current (in the rectangle MNOP) exists. Here, B.dl Bdl

By Ampere’s law, B.d 0 I

0 n L I

Substitute for I. Equate the RHS of both

B 0 nI the equations.

Compendium/Physics/Class XII 6 © 201 0 Vidyamandir Classes

(b) At any end point of a solenoid,

0n I

B

2

(c) For a toroid

Remember: Toroid is a solenoid in the form of a ring.

Draw the figure.

Find B.d

Apply Ampere’s circuital law by clearly stating the total

current.

** Equate the RHS of both the expressions.
**

B.d B 2a

B.d 0 total current pas sin g through the circle of rad iu s ' a '

= 0 2 a n I

B = 0 nI

Force between two straight, parallel live conductors

Remember:

(i) each conductor is placed in the magnetic field created by the other.

(ii) F BI , force on a current carrying conductor of length perpendicular to a magnetic field of

strength B and carrying a current I.

0 I1

B1

2d

Draw the figure clearly indicating the direction of force on

F2 = B1I2 ×1 = B1I2 each conductor due to the other.

Write the expression for the field (B1)

created by the first conductor on the second.

I I

F2 0 1 2 Find the force exerted per unit length (F2) on the second

2d

conductor by B1 .

0 I1 I 2 Substitute for B1.

F2

2d Also write the force experienced by the first conductor per

unit length. Magnitudes of forces are the same.

This expression helps you define the SI unit of the current

0 I1 I 2

F strength - Ampere.

2d

Compendium/Physics/Class XII 7 © 20 10 Vidyamandir Classes

Torque on a rectangular current loop in a uniform magnetic field

**Draw a neat figure clearly indicating the
**

forces acting on each arm.

Find the expressions for F1, F2, F3 and F4.

F 2 and F 4 are equal and opposite and act

along the same line. They cancel out.

F1 and F 3 are equal and opposite, but they

are acting on two different points, forming

a couple.

Find the moment of the couple.

Substitute for F and put b = A, the area of

F2 F4 I b Bsin the loop.

Generalise for loop of n turns

F1 F2 0

F1 F3 F IB

F b

Fbsin IABsin

For n turns,

nIABsin

III. Cyclotron

Use:

To accelerate positively charged particles like proton,

deuteron, etc. such that they acquire sufficient energy

for nuclear reactions.

Princ iple:

A positively charged particle can acquire sufficiently high

energy with a comparatively small alternating potential

difference by making them cross the same electric field

frequently with the use of a strong magnetic field.

**Compendium/Physics/Class XII 8 © 201 0 Vidyamandir Classes
**

Wo rk in g:

The particle is produced at P.

D 1 and D2 are given +ve and –ve potentials respectively.

Parts:

Particle gets accelerated to D2 and enters a field free re-

D-shaped hollow evacuated

gion.

metal chambers D1 and D2 ,

It moves with a constant speed v and gets deflected along

called dees, placed

a semicircular path of radius r such that

horizontally with a small gap

mv

r between them.

qB

A high frequency oscillator

2r 2m

Period of revolution, T connected to the dees.

v qB

A strong magnet represented

1 qB

Frequency, c (called cyclotron frequency) by pole pieces N and S

T 2m

Polarity of the dees is reversed frequently to repeat the Apply concepts of centripetal

**process. force and Lorent’s force.
**

The particle gets accelerated every time with increasing Mention how the particle is

radius of the path and acquiring more and more energy. accelerated again and again

The accelerated particle is removed with the help of an Write how the particle is

electric field. Kinetic energy of the particle at exit after removed.

taking a path of radius R,

1 q 2 B2 R 2

K mv 2

2 2m

**IV. Moving coil galvanometer.
**

Principle: Torque acts on a rectangular coil placed inside a uniform magnetic field.

Draw a neat and simple diagram.

Parts:

Rectangular coil of N turns and area A.

Phosphor bronze fibre to suspend the coil

Cylindrical core that houses the coil and

cylindrical pole pieces.

Lamp and scale arrangement.

**Compendium/Physics/Class XII 9 © 20 10 Vidyamandir Classes
**

Functions of each part:

Phosphor bronze fibre: Enables the coil to execute torsional oscillations and also acts as

one current lead to the coil.

Cylindrical core and cylindrical pole pieces: To make the field radial so that the plane of the

coil is parallel to the field.

Lamp and scale arrangement: to measure the deflection of the coil.

T h eo ry:

**NIAB Cθ Find the deflecting couple of the coil and
**

C the restoring couple of the suspension

I θ

NAB system.

Apply the equilibrium condition

I k where k C , the galvanometer constant.

NAB

d NAB 1 The deflection per unit current

C u r r e n t s e n s itiv ity : C.S = NAB

d 1

Current sensitivity : C.S I dI

C k

I dI C k

C.S The deflection per unit potential differ-

Voltage

V o lta g e sensitivity

s e n s itiv ity :: V.S

V IR R ence across the coil

Conversion of galvanometer into ammeter and voltmeter:

Nature

Device Modification to galvanometer Required diagram

of device

**A shunt resistance S is connected
**

Low in parallel to the galvanometer

Ammeter Ig G

resistance S

I – I

g

**A high resistance R is connected
**

High in series with the galvanometer

Voltmeter V

resistance R –G

Ig

**G – galvanometer resistance, Ig – current for full deflection of the galvanometer
**

I – maximum value of current to be measured, V – maximum value of voltage to be measured.

**Compendium/Physics/Class XII 10 © 201 0 Vidyamandir Classes
**

ANALYSIS OF CBSE QUESTIONS (2004-2008)

Concepts: Years

**2008 (2 marks), 2007 (2 marks), 2005 (1
**

Lorentz’ force

mark), 2004 (2 mark),

**2008 (5 marks), 2006 (2 marks), 2005 (5
**

Cyclotron

marks), 2004 (3 marks)

**2008 (5 marks), 2007 (5 marks), 2006 (5
**

Biot-Savart’s law and its applications

marks), 2005 (3 marks), 2004 (3 marks)

**Ampere’s circuital law and its 2007 (3 marks), 2006 (3 marks), 2005 (3
**

applications marks), 2004 (2 marks), 2004 (3 marks)

Magnetic moment of a circular loop 2008 (2 marks), 2004 (3 marks)

**2007 (5 marks), 2006 (5 marks), 2005 (3
**

Moving coil galvanometer

marks), 2004 (3 marks)

Note :

The weightage of this chapter is 4 - 6 marks only. If the total marks for questions from this

chapter for a particular year exceeds 6 in the above table, it is because of the fact that

questions from three or more papers have been analysed.

Compendium/Physics/Class XII 11 © 20 10 Vidyamandir Classes

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