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ABOUT THE COMPENDIUM

Dear Students,
Vidyamandir Classes academic team knows that you are rigourously studying to cover the entire prescribed
syllabus. As the Final Exams approach, this is the time when you need to revisit the concepts you have
learned. At this time, you have to be very focused and directed in your approach.
To make your learning process precise, effective and enjoyable, we at Vidyamandir Classes conceptualized
the compendium series, strategically designed to help you in scoring high grades in examination. The
Compendium is primarily intended to present the concepts of chapter in a concise manner. All key definitions,
diagrams and formulae have been integrated for a quick revision of the chapter.
To help you to easily master complicated concepts, definitions, diagrams and formulae, we have added
interesting tips, mnemonics, maps and matrices. Let us take a look at the elements of the Compendium and
how to use them.
Knowing these features will make it easier for you to assimilate complex information.

Icon Description How it can help you

To directly recapitulate main concepts of the
Concept map
chapter.

To help you draw and remember diagrams,
we have thoughtfully developed some
Drawing Tips
mnemonics to help you to memorise
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Compare
To help you in comparing different concepts
Contrast Matrix

To make your learning process effective, easy
Memory Tips
tips have been provided.

In this compendium, we have also incorporated:
• CBSE Blue Print: Type of questions asked and the weightage of different forms of questions.
• Analysis of Previous Years CBSE questions: The topic wise analysis of previous years question along
with the marks allocated.
• We are confident that this Compendium will prove very helpful in achieving excellent result in your
exams.

All the very best for your exams!
Vidyamandir Classes Academic Team
Compendium/Physics/Class XII 1 © 20 10 Vidyamandir Classes
Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism
About Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism

The unit Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism is one of the most important units of
Physics for Class XII. The weightage of this unit in the board examinations is 8 marks and a
mix of 1, 2, 3 and 5 marks questions can be asked.

CBSE BLUE PRINT: MAGNETIC EFFECT OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM
The numerical problems based on electric potential are relatively easy. Numerical problems
based on capacitors, especially capacitor combinations, need cautious approach. Derivations
are simple and learning the same can help you perform better in the examinations.

Number of Questions
Chapters Very Short Short Long Total
in this unit Options short Answer I Answer II Answer Marks
(1 mark) (2 marks) (3 marks) (5marks)
1. Moving Charges
and Magnetism I 1 1 - 1 8

2. Magnetism and
Matter II - - 1 1 8

MOVING CHARGES AND MAGNETISM
The analysis of questions from this chapter for the last five years shows that derivations
and description of devices are given much importance. The following table shows the
same.

Derivations/ Understanding of concepts/
Years
Devices (Marks) Numericals (Marks)
2004 3 2
2005 3 2
2006 5 -
2007 5 1
2008 4 2

Compendium/Physics/Class XII 2 © 201 0 Vidyamandir Classes
APPROACH TO MOVING CHARGES AND MAGNETISM
The main derivations in this chapter are to arrive at the expressions for magnetic field
created by current carrying conductors. These are based on two laws, viz. Biot-savart’s law
and Ampere’s circuital law. The devices described are cyclotron and moving coil galvanom-
eter. Thorough study of these topics will fetch you a lion’s share of marks alloted to this
chapter.

Compendium/Physics/Class XII 3 © 20 10 Vidyamandir Classes
A. CONCEPTS AND NUMERICALS

(i) Faraday’s laws and Lenz’s law

Helps you to conclude that:
Force acting on a charged particle
moving in a magnetic field: (i) the induced emf is directly proportional to
 
F= q v×B  the rate of change of magnetic flux.

(ii) effect of  is to oppose the change in 

Leads you to understand that a circular
current loop acts as a magnetic dipole.
Helps you think of the variation of magnetic
moment with
(i) number of turns (ii) area of the loop

(ii) Magnetic moment of a revolving electron
Think of revolving electron as a single turn
he current loop.
 (min) 
4 m e Get expressions for I and A.
Use the equation: m = n I A.
Include angular momentum term and apply
Bohr’s quantization condition.

B. DERIVATIONS AND DEVICES

(i ) Biot-Savart’s law
Magnetic field strength at a point due to a small current element of length dl carrying
current I,
 0 I d sin 
dB 
4 r2
0 - the absolute permeability of free space

= 4  10 –7 T m A –1

Compendium/Physics/Class XII 4 © 201 0 Vidyamandir Classes
Magnetic field due to a circular current loop

This diagram is vital to the
derivation. So practise it well.

PC  PD  d  r 2  x 2
Get expressions for dB at P due to current elements dl at
 0 I d  I d C and D.
dB  sin 90  0 2
4 d 2

4 r  x 2  Resolve both into sine and cos components.
Cos components cancel out and sine components get
 0 I sin 
B   dB sin   d added.

4 r 2  x 2  Now integrate dB to get the total field due to the entire
loop
 0 Ir 2
B 3  dl over the circumference will always give 2r for a

2 r2  x 
2 2
circle.
Substitute for sin  and simplify.
0I Apply x = 0 to find the field at the centre
B0 
2r

Remember:
Use right hand thumb rule to find the direction of the
field due to a current loop

Compendium/Physics/Class XII 5 © 20 10 Vidyamandir Classes
II . Ampere’s circuital law
The line integral of magnetic field around any closed path (or circuit) in vacuum is equal to
0 (absolute permeability of space) times the total current (I) threading the closed path.
 
 B.d    0 I

Magnetic field due to an infinitely long straight conductor carrying current
Draw a circle of radius R around
the wire.

 
B.dl  Bdl , as B is tangential to
the circle at any point.

By Ampere’s law,

   
 B.dl   B dl  B  dl  B 2 R  B.d    0 I

B 2 R  0 I

0 I
 B
2 R

MAGANETIC FIELD DUE TO A SOLENOID AND TOROID

(a) For a point well inside the solenoid
Take n as the number of turns per unit
length.
Draw the diagram highlighting the
rectangle (MNOP) of length L.
 
  N  O  P   M  Solve 
 B.d  over the closed path MNOP.
    B.d    B.d    B.d    B.d 
B.d  
For sides, MP and NO, B.dl  0 as
M N O P
    
 N
  B.d   B L B  dl . For PO, B = 0. Only  
B.d
M
   
 B.d    0  total current (in the rectangle MNOP) exists. Here, B.dl  Bdl
 
By Ampere’s law,  B.d    0 I
 0 n L I
Substitute for I. Equate the RHS of both
B   0 nI the equations.
Compendium/Physics/Class XII 6 © 201 0 Vidyamandir Classes
(b) At any end point of a solenoid,
0n I
B
2
(c) For a toroid
Remember: Toroid is a solenoid in the form of a ring.

Draw the figure.

 
Find  B.d 
Apply Ampere’s circuital law by clearly stating the total
current.

  Equate the RHS of both the expressions.
 B.d   B 2a
 
 B.d    0  total current pas sin g through the circle of rad iu s ' a '

=  0 2 a n I

B = 0 nI
Force between two straight, parallel live conductors
Remember:
(i) each conductor is placed in the magnetic field created by the other.
(ii) F  BI , force on a current carrying conductor of length  perpendicular to a magnetic field of
strength B and carrying a current I.
0 I1
B1 
2d
Draw the figure clearly indicating the direction of force on
F2 = B1I2 ×1 = B1I2 each conductor due to the other.
Write the expression for the field (B1)
created by the first conductor on the second.
 I I
F2  0 1 2 Find the force exerted per unit length (F2) on the second
2d
conductor by B1 .
0 I1 I 2 Substitute for B1.
F2 
2d Also write the force experienced by the first conductor per
unit length. Magnitudes of forces are the same.
This expression helps you define the SI unit of the current
 0 I1 I 2
F strength - Ampere.
2d
Compendium/Physics/Class XII 7 © 20 10 Vidyamandir Classes
Torque on a rectangular current loop in a uniform magnetic field

Draw a neat figure clearly indicating the
forces acting on each arm.
Find the expressions for F1, F2, F3 and F4.
F 2 and F 4 are equal and opposite and act
along the same line. They cancel out.
F1 and F 3 are equal and opposite, but they
are acting on two different points, forming
a couple.
Find the moment of the couple.
Substitute for F and put b  = A, the area of
F2  F4  I b Bsin  the loop.
  Generalise for loop of n turns
F1  F2  0

F1  F3  F  IB
  
  F b
  Fbsin   IABsin 
For n turns,
  nIABsin 

III. Cyclotron

Use:
To accelerate positively charged particles like proton,
deuteron, etc. such that they acquire sufficient energy
for nuclear reactions.

Princ iple:
A positively charged particle can acquire sufficiently high
energy with a comparatively small alternating potential
difference by making them cross the same electric field
frequently with the use of a strong magnetic field.

Compendium/Physics/Class XII 8 © 201 0 Vidyamandir Classes
Wo rk in g:
 The particle is produced at P.
 D 1 and D2 are given +ve and –ve potentials respectively.
Parts:
Particle gets accelerated to D2 and enters a field free re-
D-shaped hollow evacuated
gion.
metal chambers D1 and D2 ,
 It moves with a constant speed v and gets deflected along
called dees, placed
a semicircular path of radius r such that
horizontally with a small gap
mv
r between them.
qB
A high frequency oscillator
2r 2m
 Period of revolution, T   connected to the dees.
v qB
A strong magnet represented
1 qB
 Frequency,  c   (called cyclotron frequency) by pole pieces N and S
T 2m
 Polarity of the dees is reversed frequently to repeat the Apply concepts of centripetal

process. force and Lorent’s force.
 The particle gets accelerated every time with increasing Mention how the particle is
radius of the path and acquiring more and more energy. accelerated again and again
 The accelerated particle is removed with the help of an Write how the particle is
electric field. Kinetic energy of the particle at exit after removed.
taking a path of radius R,

1 q 2 B2 R 2
K mv 2 
2 2m

IV. Moving coil galvanometer.
Principle: Torque acts on a rectangular coil placed inside a uniform magnetic field.

Draw a neat and simple diagram.

Parts:
Rectangular coil of N turns and area A.
Phosphor bronze fibre to suspend the coil
Cylindrical core that houses the coil and
cylindrical pole pieces.
Lamp and scale arrangement.

Compendium/Physics/Class XII 9 © 20 10 Vidyamandir Classes
Functions of each part:
Phosphor bronze fibre: Enables the coil to execute torsional oscillations and also acts as
one current lead to the coil.
Cylindrical core and cylindrical pole pieces: To make the field radial so that the plane of the
coil is parallel to the field.
Lamp and scale arrangement: to measure the deflection of the coil.

T h eo ry:

NIAB  Cθ Find the deflecting couple of the coil and
C the restoring couple of the suspension
I θ
NAB system.
Apply the equilibrium condition
I  k where k  C , the galvanometer constant.
NAB
 d NAB 1 The deflection per unit current
C u r r e n t s e n s itiv ity : C.S =  NAB
d  1
Current sensitivity : C.S  I dI
 C k
I dI C k
  C.S The deflection per unit potential differ-
Voltage
V o lta g e sensitivity
s e n s itiv ity :: V.S   
V IR R ence across the coil

Conversion of galvanometer into ammeter and voltmeter:

Nature
Device Modification to galvanometer Required diagram
of device

A shunt resistance S is connected
Low in parallel to the galvanometer
Ammeter Ig G
resistance S
I – I 
g

A high resistance R is connected
High in series with the galvanometer
Voltmeter V
resistance R –G
Ig

G – galvanometer resistance, Ig – current for full deflection of the galvanometer
I – maximum value of current to be measured, V – maximum value of voltage to be measured.

Compendium/Physics/Class XII 10 © 201 0 Vidyamandir Classes
ANALYSIS OF CBSE QUESTIONS (2004-2008)

Concepts: Years

2008 (2 marks), 2007 (2 marks), 2005 (1
Lorentz’ force
mark), 2004 (2 mark),

2008 (5 marks), 2006 (2 marks), 2005 (5
Cyclotron
marks), 2004 (3 marks)

2008 (5 marks), 2007 (5 marks), 2006 (5
Biot-Savart’s law and its applications
marks), 2005 (3 marks), 2004 (3 marks)

Ampere’s circuital law and its 2007 (3 marks), 2006 (3 marks), 2005 (3
applications marks), 2004 (2 marks), 2004 (3 marks)

Magnetic moment of a circular loop 2008 (2 marks), 2004 (3 marks)

2007 (5 marks), 2006 (5 marks), 2005 (3
Moving coil galvanometer
marks), 2004 (3 marks)

Note :
The weightage of this chapter is 4 - 6 marks only. If the total marks for questions from this
chapter for a particular year exceeds 6 in the above table, it is because of the fact that
questions from three or more papers have been analysed.

Compendium/Physics/Class XII 11 © 20 10 Vidyamandir Classes