# Compendium/Math/Class XII 1

Dear Student s,
Vidyamandir Classes academic t eam knows that you are rigourously st udying t o cover t he ent ire prescribed
syl labus. As t he Final Exams approach, t his is t he t ime when you need t o revisit t he concept s you have
learned. At t his t ime, you have t o be very focused and direct ed in your approach.
To make your learning process precise, effect ive and enj oyable, we at Vidyamandir Classes concept ualized
t he compendi um series, st rat egi cally desi gned t o help you i n scoring high grades in examinat ion. The
Compendium is primarily intended t o present the concepts of chapter in a concise manner. All key definitions,
diagrams and formulae have been int egrat ed for a quick revision of t he chapt er.
To help you t o easily mast er complicat ed concept s, defi nit i ons, diagrams and f ormul ae, we have added
int eresting tips, mnemonics, maps and mat rices. Let us take a look at the element s of t he Compendium and
how t o use t hem.
Knowi ng t hese f eat ures will make it easier for you t o assimil at e complex informat ion.

I co n D e scr i p t i on H o w i t ca n h e l p yo u

Concept map
To di rect l y recapi t ul at e mai n concept s of t he
chapt er .

D r a wi n g T i p s
Drawi ng Ti ps
To hel p you draw and remember di agrams,
we have t hought f ul l y devel oped some
mnemoni cs t o hel p you t o memor i se
i nf ormat i on

Compare
Cont rast Mat ri x
To hel p you i n compari ng di f f erent concept s

Memory Ti ps
To make your l earni ng process ef f ect i ve, easy
t i ps have been provi ded.

In t his compendium, we have also incorporat ed:
• CBSE Blue Print : Type of quest ions asked and t he weight age of different forms of quest ions.
• Analysis of Previ ous Years CBSE quest ions: The t opic wise analysis of previous years quest ion al ong
wit h t he marks allocat ed.
• We are confi dent t hat t his Compendium wi ll prove very helpf ul in achieving excellent result in your
exams.
All t he very best f or your exams!
Compendium/Math/Class XII 2
About I nverse Tri gonomet ri c Funct i ons
Since t his chapt er was int roduced in class XII
t h
in t he year 2008, we have only last year’ s question
paper as ref erence.

T yp e s o f Qu e st i o n s Ve r y sh o r t a n swe r
( 1 m a r k )
Sh o r t a n sw e r
( 4 m a r k s)
Lo n g a n swe r
(6 m a r k s)
Op t i o n I Number of quest i ons 1 1 -
Op t i o n I I Number of quest i ons - - 1

As you can see, the quest ions asked were mainly concept ual and based on t he properties of
inverse t rigonomet ric funct ions. You need to have a clear idea of principal values of all six inverse
t rigonometric functions. Also, quest ions based on propert ies need to be pract ised rigourously .
CBSE BLUEPRI N T
I n ve r s e Tr i g o n o m e t r i c Fu n c t i o n s
1. Evaluat e :
1
1
sin sin
3 2
π
÷
( ) ( )
· ·
÷ ÷ · ·
· ·
( ) ( )
. 1 mark
2 . Prove t he f ollowing:
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
tan tan tan tan
3 5 7 8 4
π
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ =
4 mark
Compendium/Math/Class XII 3
I N VERSE T RI GO N O M ET RI C FUN CT I O N S
Ke y Fo r m u l a e
Fu n ct i o n
1
cos y x
÷
=
Do m ai n
[ [ 1,1 x ÷ ÷
Ran g e
(p r i n ci p al val u e
b r an ch )
[ [ 0, π

Fu n ct i o n
1
sin y x
÷
=
Do m ai n
[ [ 1,1 x ÷ ÷
Ran g e
(p r i n ci p al val u e
b r an ch )
,
2 2
π π
l
÷
l
l
l

Fu n ct i o n
1
tan y x
÷
=
Do m ai n
( ) , x ÷ ÷ · ·
Ran g e
(p r i n ci p al val ue
b r an ch )
,
2 2
π π ( ) ÷
·
·
·
( )

Fu n c t i o n
1
cot y x
÷
=
Do m ai n
( ) , x ÷ ÷ · ·
Ran g e
(p r i n c i p al v al u e
b r an ch )
( ) 0, π

 Bot h sin
–1
x and cos
–1
x
have t he same domain.
 Graphs of sin
–1
x
and cos
–1
x have a phase
difference of 
 Bot h t an
–1
x and cot
–1
x
have t he same domain.
Compendium/Math/Class XII 4
 Bot h sec
–1
x and
cosec
–1
x have t he
same domain.
 Graphs of sec
–1
x and
cosec
–1
x have a phase
difference of 
 Range of cosec
–1
x i s
t he same as t hat of
sin
–1
x except t he
element 0.
 Range of sec
–1
x is t he
same as t hat of cos
–1
x
except t he el ement
.
Ke y Pr o p e r t i e s
(i)
1
1
sin
x
÷
=
1
cosec , 1 or 1 x x x
÷
_ _÷
(ii)
1
1
cos
x
÷
=
1
sec , 1 or 1 x x x
÷
_ _÷
(iii)
1
1
tan
x
÷
=
1
cot , 0 x x
÷

Trigonomet ric Inverse Funct ions of Reciprocals
Funct ion
1
cosec y x
÷
=
Domain
( , 1] [1, ) x ÷ ÷· ÷ ' ·
Range
(principal
value
br anch)
, {0}
2 2
π π
l
÷
l ÷
l
l

Funct ion
1
sec y x
÷
=
Domain
( , 1] [1, ) x ÷ ÷· ÷ ' ·

Range
(principal
value
branch)
[0, π ] – { π /2}

Compendium/Math/Class XII 5

(i)

1 1
sin cos x x
÷ ÷
÷ = , [ 1,1]
2
π
x ÷ ÷

(ii)

1 1
tan cot x x
÷ ÷
÷ = , R
2
π
x ÷

(iii)

1 1
cosec sec x x
÷ ÷
÷ = , 1
2
π
x _

Trigonomet ric Inverse of Negat ive Argument Funct ions
Trigonomet ric Inverse of Trigonomet ric Funct ions and Trigonomet ric Value of Trigonomet ric
Inverse Funct ion
Impor t ant pr oper t i es whi ch ar e used ext ensi vel y i n sol vi ng quest i ons based on i nver se
t rigonomet ric f unct ions.
N o t e t h e Pa t t e r n
In t he f i rst t abl e, we get
the same inverse function
wi t h negat i ve si gn
wher eas i n t he second
t abl e an addi t i onal 
appears wi t h a negat i ve
i nverse f unct i on.
N o t e t h e
Pa t t e r n
In t he first
t able, inverse
of a
trigonometric
funct ion gives
the angle
whereas in the
second table,
trigonometric
funct ion of an
inverse
funct ion gives
t he value of
t he funct ion.
(i)
1
sin ( ) x
÷
÷ =
1
sin , [ 1,1] x x
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
(ii)
1
tan ( ) x
÷
÷ =
1
tan ( ), R x x
÷
÷ ÷
(iii)
1
cosec ( ) x
÷
÷ =
1
cosec , 1 x x
÷
÷ _

( )
–1
sin sinθ θ = , ,
2 2
π π
θ
l
l ÷ ÷
l
l

( )
1
sin sin x
÷
= x , [ [ 1,1 x ÷ ÷
( )
–1
cos cos θ θ = , [ [ 0, θ π ÷
( )
1
cos cos x
÷
= x , [ [ 1,1 x ÷ ÷
( )
–1
tan tan θ θ = , ,
2 2
π π
θ
( ) ÷
·
÷
·
·
( )

( )
1
tan tan x
÷
= x , x R ÷
( )
–1
cosec cosec θ θ = , , ; 0
2 2
π π
θ θ
l
l ÷ ÷ =
l
l

( )
1
cosec cosec x
÷
= x ,
( , 1] [1, ) x ÷ ÷· ÷ ' ·
( )
–1
sec sec θ θ = , [ [ 0, ;
2
π
θ π θ ÷ =
( )
1
sec sec x
÷
= x , ( , 1] [1, ) x ÷ ÷· ÷ ' ·
( )
–1
cot cot θ θ = , ( ) 0, θ π ÷ ( )
1
cot cot x
÷
= x , x R ÷

(i)
1
cos ( ) x
÷
÷ =
1
cos , [ 1,1] π x x
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
(ii)
1
sec ( ) x
÷
÷ =
1
s ( ), 1 π ec x x
÷
÷ _
(iii)
1
cot ( ) x
÷
÷ =
1
cot , R π x x
÷
÷ ÷

Compendium/Math/Class XII 6
(i)
tan
–1
x + tan
–1
y =
1
tan , 1
1
x y
xy
xy
÷
÷
<
÷

(ii)
tan
–1
x – tan
–1
y =
1

tan , 1
1
x y
xy
xy
÷
÷
÷

(iii)
2tan
–1
x =
1
2
2
tan , 1
1
x
x
x
÷
<
÷

(iv)
2tan
–1
x =
1
2
2
sin , 1
1
x
x
x
÷
_
÷

(v)
2tan
–1
x =
2
1
2
1
cos , 0
1
x
x
x
÷
÷
_
÷

(vi)
2tan
–1
x =
1
2
2
tan , 1 1
1
x
x
x
÷
÷ < <
÷

Propert ies of Tangent Inverse Funct ion
These propert ies are used
when t wo t angent inverse
f unct i ons ar e added or
subt ract ed. Al so, t an
–1
x
can be writ t en in t erms of
si n
–1
x or cos
–1
x usi ng
t hese propert ies.