modren essays

1.PAKISTAN AND THE MODERN WORLD
Q1: In the light oI Liaquat Ali Khan`s speech explain the circumstances, which led to
the creation oI Pakistan.
ANS: while introducing Pakistan as a new democracy. In 1950, Liaquat Ali Khan, the
Iirst prime minister oI the Pakistan went to the America. During his visit Liaquat Ali
Khan made many speeches.
In his speech in America, Liaquat Ali Khan threw light on the circumstances, which
led to the creation oI Pakistan. First, Liaquat Ali Khan dispels the wrong nation theory
that the diIIerence between the Hindus and the Muslims are not only religious. But he
tells that, the Hindus and the Muslims are diIIerent in everything. Their religion
economic and culture are diIIerent. Their heroes, histories, literature are also diIIerent.
Hindus believe in caste-system. Whereas Muslims believe in equality oI all the human
beings. Muslims believe private property and encourage oI circulation oI wealth. While
Hindus believe deprive the woman Ior right oI inheritance and encourage oI
concentration. Secondly, Liaquat Ali Khan Iurther explains that there lived one
hundred Million Muslims and three hundred Millions Hindus. During the British rules,
the Muslims Ielt that iI the British rulers leIt India undivided. Then Muslims would
become as a permanent minority. It`s meant only a change oI masters, Irom British to
Hindus. So the Muslims would become distasteIul minority. It`s meant only a change
oI masters, Irom British to Hindus. So the Muslims distasteIul Ior the change oI rules.
Thirdly, Liaquat Ali Khan explains that India was very vast. One Government would
not control it. So the Liaquat Ali Khan Iurther explains that the Muslims Ieared that
under the kind`s rule, their culture would be damaged, since the Muslims are backward
in the Iield oI industry and commerce. So they Ieared that Hindus nomination brought
more misery and backwardness Ior them. So under these circumstances Muslims
demanded a separate homeland. On human and geo-political ground. It was reasonable
demand Ior the millions oI Muslims.
Q2: What were Liaquat Ali Khan`s expectations Irom America and the western world?
ANS: In his speech, Liaquat Ali Khan, explains the importance oI Pakistan in the
modern world. Then he suggests that America and the western world should support
this new democratic country in the Iield oI science, technology, skill and experience.
He says that in Asia, many countries are backward. There are weak democracies.
Among them, Pakistan stands uniIied. The Pakistanis are very brave and hardworking
people. They can do much more Ior the progress oI these countries. They can help
them in their struggle against poverty, disease and ignorance. They should help the
developing countries in solving their social and economic problems. Then Asia Iorms a
maior part oI the world. UnIortunately, this maior part is backward. For the sake oI
world peace, Asia must be made stronger. War and peace, progress and prosperity are
all indivisible today. America and the western countries should share their knowledge
and experience with the backward nations this can be done properly through Pakistan.
Q3: Liaquat Ali Khan was an eloquent orator. Discuss the salient stylistic Qualities oI
his speech. 'Pakistan and the modern world¨.
ANS: Liaquat Ali Khan, the Iirst prime Minister oI Pakistan, was also the right hand
man oI the Quaid-I-Azam. There Iore, he had Iull grasp over the problems being Iaced
by the country at that time. As a Ireedom Iighter, he was Iully aware oI the issues
troubling Pakistan. So he presented them beIore Americans very accurately and aptly.
He made an extensive tour oI America in 1950 and laid down the Iirm Ioundations oI
our Ioreign policy. His eloquent speeches constituted. An admirable exposition oI how
and why Pakistan was created. How its people Iared during the Iirst diIIicult years oI
its independence. What policies Pakistan envisaged achieving a glorious Iuture?
'Pakistan and the modern world¨ is the text oI one oI such speech; he delivered to
acknowledge the conIerment oI an honorary degree upon him by the university oI
Kansas. He compares the Muslim struggle with America`s war oI independence. He
stresses upon the Iact that Pakistan is a new democracy and its people have unIlinching
Iaith in the supremacy oI God and have Iirm belieI in liberty, equality, Iraternity and
peaceIul co-existence oI all the peoples oI the world.

2.THE ECLIPSE
Q1: What is the purpose oI the reIerence to 'Stonehenge¨ in paragraph 3?
Ans: The people, in ancient times, stood at Stonehenge to worship the rising sun. The
writer and all the other people were also standing at north Iell to observe the rising sun,
i.e. the solar eclipse. Virginia reIers 'Stonehenge¨ in the Iollowing lines.
'So the worshippers at Stonehenge must have looked among tussocks oI grass and
boulders oI rock¨
In Iact, she hints at the two similarities oI the occasion with diIIerent obiects. The
obiect oI the people standing at Stonehenge was to worship the rising sun. And the
obiect oI the people standing at north Iell was to observe the eclipse.

Q2: How is the detail oI paragraph 4 organized?
Ans: 'The Eclipse¨ is quite a Iascinating description oI an unusual atmosphere oI
human curiosity about the solar eclipse. It was a source oI extraordinary excitement
and deep anxiety. The sun was rising and its red rays were making things distinct.
Trees looked green and the villages blue-brown. The sky was overcast with clouds.
The sun aIter having struggled with the clouds Ior a moment. Rose Irom the east in Iull
splendor.
Then the eclipse started the eclipse lasted only Ior 24 seconds. The sun was blotted out.
Colors changed Irom blue to purple, white to livid and pink to green soon darkness
prevailed every where all the liIe movement vanished Irom the scene all the obiects
became liIeless as iI they had died. It seemed as iI the Ilesh and blood oI the world was
dead, only the skeleton was leIt.
Virgina makes it clear that the world oI colors had its colors only because oI the light
oI the sun. When the sun lost its colors, the earth we stand on also lost its colors. It
became altogether liIeless and dead.

Q3: What is the signiIicance oI the conclusion that 'the whole Iabric oI civilization
was modeled and molded?
Ans: Virginia says that the solar eclipse lasted only Ior 24 seconds. As the eclipse
ended, the light oI the sun rose again elsewhere. The IiIe less and the colorless world,
once again, became 'Solid¨. It became a place where an inIinite number oI
Iarmhouses, oI villages, oI railway lines have lodgment; until the whole Iabric oI
civilization was modeled and molded.
The sun occupies central position in the phenomenon oI nature. Its radiation iniects liIe
into every obiect oI nature. The entire progress oI the world civilization is based upon
the vitality oI the sun. And the sun, under eclipse. Loses its light, and color also. All
the colors oI the earth turn into darkness liIe lose all its movement and grandeur.
Our earth is a planet and in a big solar system it revolves around the sun. The sun gives
heat, light, movement and color to the world. Hence with the return oI the light in the
sun, the whole civilization seemed to have returned and the liIe was in Iull swing.

3. 'WHISTLING OF BIRD¨
Q1: Discuss some images employed by Lawrence to suggest a contrast between spring
and winter?
Ans: In this essay, Lawrence presents a contrast oI the beauties oI spring with the
destruction oI winter. He shows the disastrous eIIects oI winter through various
images. The images, which are used to show the disastrous eIIects oI winter upon
animals and natural obiects, are vivid and bring a true and clear picture oI death. The
writer says that winter is the season oI death. It is ling and IearIul hard Irost and snow
Ialling continues Ior many days. All colors disappear. Everything changes into
whiteness water in lakes, pools and streams Ireezes plants and trees whither or dies.
The earth is strangled and mortiIied. Thousands oI birds are killed by that Irost and
intense cold. Everywhere 'Bloody cloaks oI birds¨, 'invisible beasts oI prey¨, 'torn
carcasses oI birds¨, 'ragged horror oI birds¨, weary, mutilated, columns oI winter and
many other images are employed to present death and destruction.
'Warm and soothing¨, little gleams oI sunshine, to coo and chirp, yellow gleam sunset,
silvery sounds, threads oI silver, germinating noise, new world transition, silver realm,
new regime and many many others are employed to present creative power and vitality
oI spring liIe.
Lawrence`s description oI various aspects oI nature through images reveals not only
his love but also his appreciation oI and concern about diIIerent creatures.
Q2: Write an essay on 'winter in Pakistan¨.
Ans: The winter in Pakistan is much more diIIerent then that oI European countries. It
is not so cold as to make the liIe oI the people tedious and troublesome. It Ieels very
pleasant aIter a long and unpleasant hot summer. The scorching sunlight turns into a
mild bright sunlight, and the people are Ied up oI glaring sun, being to enioy it, people
dress up and move at their case wherever they like. We the people are living in plains
greet the short winter.
Winter also brings pleasure in our personal as well as social liIe most oI the social
gatherings and marriages are held in this season. A winter marriage is a Iully pleasant,
warm and enioyable event. People preIer to marry in winter season.
The winter in hilly regions oI Pakistan is very server, Irosty and cold. Especially, snow
Ialling in these regions, presents a very charming and Iascinating sconce. The winter in
Pakistan presents quite a diIIerent scene then that oI the winter depicted by D.H
Lawrence in his essay 'Whistling oI Birds¨. We Ieel much relieved at the departure oI
summer and the arrival oI winter in Pakistan.
Q3: 'Whistling oI Birds¨ shows its writer`s love Ior nature. Elaborate?
Ans: This essay shows wide range oI Lawrence`s knowledge oI the birds and the
conditions oI their liIe. He gives a marvelous study and minute details oI the seasons
and their eIIects on the liIe oI the birds. He seems to have immense love and concern
Ior them. He is Iully conscious oI their plight and problems caused by winter.
Lawrence depicts in detail the dead bodies. Carcasses and remain oI the little whistling
birds killed by the cruel and relentless hard winter. He observes the ground was Iull oI
dead bodies oI the birds.
Then winter goes and spring comes. On changing the weather Lawrence expresses his
great ioy and love Ior the poor, creatures that have suIIered a lot during winter.
Lapwings, thrushes, black birds, doves and other small birds one day start chirping,
cooing and whistling, they bring a new charm to the world almost died due to hard
winter. The dim, broken noises and whistling oI the birds are turned into loud chirping
and cooing. Now they have been Iilled again with liIe and sound.
The winter in hilly regions oI Pakistan is very severe. Frostily and cold especially,
snow Ialling in these regions presents a very charming and Iascinating science. The
winter in Pakistan presents quite a diIIerent scene than that oI the winter depicted by
D.H. Lawrence in his essay 'Whistling oI Birds¨. We Ieel much relieved at the
departure oI summer and the arrival oI winter in Pakistan.

4. 'TAKE THE PLUNGE¨
Q1: What is Emerson`s purpose in writing? Does she state her purpose directly, or do
you discover it Irom her approach to the subiect and her Iocus? What were her motives
in making the iump?
Ans: Gloria Emerson, a iournalist, wanted to do something wonderIul. So 'Take the
plunge¨ is an inspiring story with the unusual courage oI a woman who successIully
plunged out oI an airplane with the help oI a parachute. She wished to do something
daring and courageous. She thought oI many things but did not appeal anyone to her.
Her body was in a bad condition. She bad a bad back, and her ankles were uncertain.
Her eyesight was weak. She could not drive properly because oI her bad body
condition; people usually look pity on her. They thought that she was worth-nothing.
She disliked this attitude oI the people. She decided to iump Irom an airplane. Her
motive in making the iump was to impress the people. She wanted to end the
impression that she could not do anything. She was Iully determined to surprise her
own colleagues oI the newspaper oIIice as well as the people at large. At last, she made
up her mind to iump with a parachute. So when she iumped and landed, all were
surprised and then pleased.
Jumping Iorm an airplane promised a great thrill and excitement. It would surely be a
great experience to Iall Irom a plane into the space. She was extremely excited about
the plunge. She became careless about herselI as well as the risks involved in it.
Jacques 1stel, a new parachute designer told her that parachuting was a saIe as
swimming. She was driven to orange, 70 miles west oI Boston. Where she was to
perIorm. It was Jacques 1stel`s training center. She plunged and surprised to all. She
was widely acclaimed and praised by every one.
Gloria Emerson has written this essay to show that determination is the key to success.
We can work miracles iI we have conIidence in ourselves.
Q2: What details does she provide about the operation oI the parachute, the descent,
and the landing? How are these details Iitted to the discussion oI her Ieelings at various
stages in her experience? What are these stages?
Ans: Gloria chose a parachute drop as something daring, courageous, surprising and
adventurous, Jacques; istle provided her the occasion oI taking the plunge. In those
days, he invented a new type oI parachute. This new parachute increased the sideways
speed. Slowed down the speed oI downIall and reduced the rate oI motion. It was well-
designed and perIect parachute.
She boarded Cessna 180. AIter a brieI but intense instruction she was to iump with a
parachute with a 32-Ioot canopy. She was put in the iump suit. She looked clumsy with
all the equipment. The helmet and the boots. Now she was set Ior the plunge, which
was a test oI her courage. She Ielt rather nervous and upset. But she was to prove
herselI. She iumped into the space. The parachute opened with a plop as 1stel had
sworn to her it would be.
The wind knocked the spit Irom her mouth. Her eyes and nose were running. But she
noticed a strange scene. She was now diving in the endless sky and the earth showed in
colors and textures. She Ielt the parachute a loveable and docile toy. Then, the pleasure
oI being in the air, the driIting and the calm gave her Iervor. The scene was so
Iascinating that she wished to stay pinned in the air. But naturally, she could not do
that. She Ielt cross to see the white arrow in the sand pit coming closer. But it was now
the moment oI perIecting her deed Ior which she was going to be acclaimed and
praised.

5. 'NAGASAKI, AUGUST 9,1945¨
Q1: What details suggest the awe some power oI the blast? Which details reveal the
unusual eIIects?
Ans: In this essay, proI, Ichimru presented an eyewitness account oI the destruction
brought by the atom bomb. The details suggest that the bomb was very powerIul.
When the bomb exploded, the air Ilashed a brilliant yellow and there was a huge blast
oI wind. The glasses oI the building were. Shattered, the sky turned Irom blue to dark.
The black rain started Ialling. Tall buildings were reduced to rubble. The air was Iull oI
high radiation. There were Iires everywhere. Numerous people were seriously
wounded. Their clothes were in rags, and shred oI skin hung Irom their bodies. They
looked like ghosts with vacant stares. There were dead bodies everywhere. Foam was
Iazing out oI their mouths. All the leaves oI the trees were lost. The green mountains
changed to bald mountains.
Q2: what details does ichimaru interpret or comment on? Would these details have the
same impact with out this commentary?
Ans: On 9th August 1945, the atom bomb was dropped on Nagasaki it caused much
destruction. The trees and the mountains lost their greenery, the buildings were razed
to the ground; thousands oI people were killed and millions were wounded. At the time
oI bombing, the writer was a medical student in Nagasaki. He saw all this destruction
with his own eyes. So his comments are very apt. He calls this scene an inIerno. He
remembers the crying voices and the stinking dead bodies. He visualizes the grieI oI
the parents, their misery and horror. His advice is that whatever happens, nuclear
weapons should never be used: 'Never again should these unclear weapons be used, no
matter what happens only when mankind renounces the use oI these nuclear weapons,
will the souls oI Iriends rest in peace.¨

. 'WALKING ON THE MOON¨
Q1: To what does Scott implicitly compare the weightlessness experienced on the lunar
surIace? What other such experience does he describe through comparisons?
Ans: Dr. Scott and his companions made a iourney to the moon in the Apollo-is
Mission. They entered the lunar orbit on July 29, 1971. At last, with the help oI their
lunar module. They came down on the surIace oI the moon. Using a ladder they
descended on the surIace oI the moon. They experienced weightlessness. They Ielt
light and a sense oI Ireedom. At one sixth oI earth gravity, they weighed only a sixth
their normal poundage. Their gait quickly evolved into a rhythmic, bounding motion.
They Ielt as iI they were walking on a trampoline like an acrobat. Dr. Scott gives more
comparisons. When he Iell on like a child on earth. The dust on the moon looked like
gunpowder. So we can say, he very successIully conveys his experiences through
comparisons.
Q2: What sights not previously experienced by human beings does he describe, and
how does he?
Ans: Dr. Scott and his companions made a iourney to the moon in the space ship
Apollo-15. When they entered the lunar orbit. They saw a very beautiIul sight never
experienced by any human being beIore. He describes the scene with Iall detail; they
saw our earth shining over the moon. The mountains and the creator rims were clearly
seen in that light. BeIore them and above them, the stars were shining, and below them
lay the moon. Then the moment oI sunrise approached. The sunlight Ilooded into the
space-shop and dazzled their eyes. At last, they came down on the surIace oI the moon
and experienced more sights. Each day on the moon was equal to 355 hours on earth,
the sky looked black. On the moon, there were deep gorges and high mountains. They
were impressed by their maiesty.
Q3: What aspects oI the total experience does he stress the most? What do you think he
does?
Ans: Dr. Scott and his companions made a iourney to the moon in the space ship
Apollo-15. They remained in space Ior ten days. For three days, they stayed on the
surIace oI the moon. This essay gives a vivid account oI Scott`s experiences on the
moon. Through out the essay, he makes many comparisons between the earth and the
moon. On the moon, there is no air, no water, no plants, no colors, no liIe, but on the
earth we have everything, Irom the moon, he looks at the beautiIul, shining earth
suspended in the space, but at the same time, he suggests that iI we are not careIul, our
earth may Iace ecological disturbances, starvation and shortage oI energy.
Q4: Does Scott develop a thesis, or instead describe an experience without drawing
conclusions?
Ans: In the end oI the essay, the writer presents his theses implicitly: 'We Ieel a sense
oI pride in the accomplishment oI our program, yet we can not escape a sense oI deep
concern Ior the Iate oI our planet and our species¨. The suggestion is that experiments
on the moon are good. But we must pay more attention to the problems oI the earth and
the people living there.
Q5: Had he been writing to an audience oI Iuture astronauts, how might the description
and exposition have been diIIerent?
Ans: David R. Scott is one oI the three astronauts. Who landed on the moon? He gives
to an audience an account oI the experiences that he had there. But the total experience
he described the most is liIeless atmosphere oI the moon. There is, no to speak, no
atmosphere at all, Scott Iinds the surIace oI the moon quite devoid oI greenery which is
the most important striking and vital Ieature oI the earth land. There is no liIe giving
and sustaining atmosphere. As a result, there is no wind, rain and liIe.
Scott and his Iellow astronauts were the only souls on that silent sphere. From the lunar
surIace. He sees the earth, glowing in the black heavens, which looked so blue, so
beautiIul and beloved. He then exposes that it only the earth that is the home oI human
beings and all the living creatures as well.
Scott, making a clear comparison oI the two, gives a warning to man. He says, 'and so
bedeviled¨. By ecological balances gone awry, by scattered starvation, by a shortage oI
energy that may motivate us to seek sources beyond our earth.¨ In his opinion, the
scientists must work Ior the ecological, balances on earth the growing ecological
misbalance will surly be disadvantageous to the inhabitants oI the earth.
7. MY GRAND FATHER.

Q1- In the selection Irom the autobiography oI William Butler Yeats, the author has
explicitly stated his meaning, or purpose"... I remember little oI childhood but its
pain. I have grown happier with every year oI liIe as thouth gradually conquering
something in myselI, Ior my miseries were not made by others but were apart oI my
own mind". Restate this guiding purpose in your own words.
This essay " My GrandIather" is an extract oI the writer 's autobiography. Here he
recollects his memories oI his maternal grandIather, William PollexIen. The purpose oI
this essay is to show that children have their Iears. For example the Ieared that he was
sinner and god would punish him. With the passage oI time, he conquered this Iear.
Then he says that all childhood memories are not vivid. He reIers to some vogue
memories. He remembers on somebody's knees and looking out oI the window. He
recalls his playing with some boys on a road .He also remembers some boys in uniIorm
oI whom he was aIraid. But his memories oI Saligo( The name oI place) where his
grandIather lived, are very clear.
Obviously, the grandIather was a disciplined man .It was also maintained in the house.
He was never harsh to the child. But they did not like that the rules should be applied
equally to the elders and the younger. The GrandIather must have realized that the
children needed a little Ireedom every now and then .The Iormal dress, the disciplined
breakIast at nine and dinner at Iour caused uneasiness among the children. At the
children took every rule true letter and spirit, they Ielt more miserable the elders.
Thus we come to know the real sense oI Yeat's words. " Indeed I remember little oI
childhood but its pairs". And as he grew up, he would be growing happier with every
year oI liIe as though gradually conquering something in himselI. He realized that his
miseries were not because oI others but a part oI his own mind.

Q.2 JustiIy the Space And Detail Devoted To Yeats Grandparents. Why Does Yeats
Include A Comparison OI His Grandmother With His GrandIather?
Ans-2." My GrandIather" by Yeas is based on his recollection oI his maternal relations.
His grandIather and grandmother stand out oI all these relations. Yeats grandmother
was a sharp contrast to his grandIather. She was a woman oI very gentle polite and
charitable nature. She Ieared his husband temperament. She did very noble deeds at
home. At night she would go round the house iI there were not any thieI. She was true
lover oI Ilowers. She was also a lover oI Chinese paintings. She also could paint
beautiIully on rice paper. Her handwork was wonderIul and delicate. The grand Iather
was also a lover oI Chinese painting. His Iavorite books were "The Bible" and
"Falconer's Shipwreck". He was proud and did not like his neighbor. But grandmother
was very kind and helped the needy. The grandmother was apposed to grandIather in
temperament. He was harsh and strict while she was benevolent. She, however, cared
that grandIather was satisIied about his principle. She was not very strict about looking
aIter the stable as the grandIather demanded. She did only the convenience oI the
stable man. It shows her benign attitude towards the servants. It also indicates that she
was a good house manager and could solve the problems at her discretion.
Grandmother was kind and aIIectionate lady. The writer remembers that she punished
him only once on some childish indecency. He was not allowed to come to the dinning
table and had to take his meal all by himselI.

Q.3 IS THE INCIDENT ABOUT OUTWITTING YEAT'S GRANDFATHER
(PARAGRAPH 4) OUT OF PLACE IN, OR INAPPROPRIATE TO, THE
SELECTION ? WHY OR

Ans. The incident yeats outwitting grandIather seems appropriate to the selection yeats
is all praise and laugh Ior his grandIather. But inspire oI all his love and praise, neither
he nor anyone else thought it wrong to outwit the grandIather.



Yeasts says that he was about seven or eight years old when his uncle asked him to
borrow a railway pass Irom a cousin. The grandIather had one, but he thought it
dishonest to let other use it. Yeats was to write Iive or six miles to get the pass. So he
rode delightedly through the moonlight and brought the pass Ior his uncle. He was
home again by two or three in the morning. His grandIather would not have thought
such an adventure possible. It uses his strict order to lock the stable at night, brought
the key to him.he never knew the Iact that the gate was never locked thought any body
else in the house. He was simple minded .He believed that others were simple- minded.
He could not even thought oI someone deceiving him. But the writer absolutely
outwitted his grandIather.

Q4- WHAT IS THE " Something in MyselI" which Yeats Ielt that he gradually
conquered during his liIe?
Ans.- Yeats says" I remember little oI my childhood but its pains. I have grown happier
with every year oI liIe as though gradually conquering something in myselI.
Obviously, the grandIather was a disciplined man. The disciplined was also maintained
in the house. He was never harsh to the children. But they did not like that the rules
should be applied equally to the elders and younger. The grandIather must have
realized that the children needed Alltel Ireedom every now and then. The Iormal dress,
the disciplined - breakIast at nine, dinner at Iour, caused uneasiness among the
children. As the children took every rule in true letter and spirit, they Ielt more
miserable than the elders.
Thus we come to know the real sense oI Yeats words. " indeed I remember little oI
childhood but its pains."


8.MY TAILOR
By
SREPHEN LEACOCK

Q1- COMPARE WITH CHESTERTON' HUMOUR THE PENCIVE, DELICATE
HUMOUR OF THIS ESSAY WHICH IS BASED ON CHERACTERIZATION
RATHER THAN INCIDENT AS IN CHESTERTON'S ESSAY:
"Irom some policemen and Moral".
Ans: The basic and main diIIerence between the essay" My Tailor" by Stephen Lecock
and "From Some Policemen And Moral" by G.K. Chesterton is that Stephen deals with
characterization whereas Chesterten narrates only essay about a speciIic personality.
But that is not only the diIIerence. " My Tailor" is Iull oI personal Ieelings and a
delicate and vivid picture oI the late tailor oI the writer. Who has been stitching his
suits Ior the last thirty years. And the suit, " From some Policemen and Moral" is Iull
oI irony.
"My Tailor" is an essay in which we can study the character oI a tailor who becomes
physical presenter with all his semi humorous mannerism. There is a very tender touch
oI humour can be seen when we read about the tailor's habit oI receiving some
customer. He never asks the bill orally. He wants to sew up to two suits and writes
saying that he needs the money only, because, heavy consignments Irom Europe are to
be paid.
He knows that all the measurements are the old the ones but he would call his
assistance, Mr. Jennings, and announces here: A little Iuller in the chest... halI an
inch on to the chest, please". It is his own peculiar way oI Ilattery and makes his
customer happy in this way.
The delicate humour is seen throughout this essay, but the humour is also thoughtIul
and pensive as the writer has regarded the tailor as, immortal.
On the other hand, G.K, Chesterton is straightIorward in his irony. On reading his
essay "From some Policemen and Moral ,"we see an accident with our own eyes and
then see that writer is drawing a moral lesson Ior us. He presents a clear and true
picture oI the happenings. The main humour and irony is centralized around the
behaviour oI the policeman beIore and aIter realizing the truth above the important,
Iamous popular Iigure oI the writer. The irony becomes here quite selI- evident. The
earlier and later behavior oI the policemen makes the real basis oI humour, which is
also ironic in itselI.
The humour oI the Iirst essay," My Tailor" is mixed with sympathy where as that oI the
second one is mixed with irony. Moreover in the Chesterton's essay, the writer has
drawn the moral himselI.

Q2- WHY DOES LEACOCK REGARD THE TAILOR AS:" immortal".
Ans2- For the writer, the tailor is only a proIessional Iigure, tailoring or personiIied,
and nothing more. He thinks his tailor as a tailoring or stitching- machine .. nothing
else. So in that character, he is supposed to be "immortal".
In this essay the writer tells us about his tailor which give the hints that why he thought
his tailor as " immortal". The true reason oI Leacock thinking is to separate the
proIession Irom his personal liIe or personality. The writer had always seen him in a
particular pose in his shop, talking his own way. His pose, place and the way oI talking
have not changed slightly during the last thirty years.
Another reason oI his thinking is also that the writer never has any relation even
humanitarian links with his tailor. He never talks to him about his worries, his wiIe, his
religion, his hobby even about his Iamily. For the writer, he is the static Iigure. He
never Iinds him absent due to illness. So he gets the impression that the tailor is
immortal. He shocks to Iind one day that the tailor has died. In other words, he is
shocked to Ieel that his tailor is also an ordinary mortal man.

Q3- " There is I am certain, a deep moral in this. But I will not try to show to draw it. It
might appear too obvious." WOULD YOU TAKE THE RISK AND DRAW THE
MORAL?
Ans. The essay " My Tailor " presents beIore us the proIessional style, activities and
habits oI the tailor . One Iinds a little bit humour in this essay but shocked to read the
end. The writer artistically creates the mood oI sadness and sympathy among the
readers. Here the writer exposes the rigid, inhuman and mechanical attitude oI the
modern civilization. The writer is not able to about a personal liIe oI the tailor despite
having the contact oI 30 year. He never understands the tailor as a human being. He
considers him machine going on working Ior production .He always observes his
gestures and habits but never tries to seek his inner-selI. The writer misdirects himselI
an inhuman relationship with writer.
The moral Ilaw in the attitude oI the writer is very clear. Any sensible reader can
conceive it in the essay. Man must be honourable Iirst oI all, as a man .One must think
man as a creature oI Ieelings, emotions and passions. Certainly, we have our
proIession.But we cannot be considered machines. Our proIession represents only one
aspect oI our liIe. It dose not assume our whole liIe. We might be teacher, lawyer,
tailor, doctor, engineer,etc. These proIessions cannot show our internal approach about
the very ideas oI liIe. II somebody is going to analyze our character and wants to write,
he must Iirst oI all consider us as human being than as a proIessional.The writer Ieels
sorry not to have personal acquaintane with the tailor who has served him Ior 30 years.
So this essay has a deep moral in it. It shows an attitude in modern civilization, which
is not in accordance with the concepts oI humanity.It shows inhuman attitude modern
individual.It seems that modern is devoid oI Ieelings ,passions and sensitivity Ior
others. SuperIicial atmosphere Ior relationship has been developed in modern
civilization. . Everything is based upon the transaction. The moral is in a nutshell, is:
"We must value a man as a man
and not as something else."


9. 'THE BEAUTY INDUSTRY¨
Q1: Point out examples oI irony and humor in Huxley`s essay 'The beauty industry¨.
Ans: Some examples oI humor in the essay are:
1. The cult oI beauty: -
Basically the cult means extreme devotion to a religious system. But here Huxley has
humorously given beauty the status oI a cult.
2. The crone oI the Iuture will be golden: -
The crone oI the Iuture will be golden, curly and cherry-lipped, neat ankle and slender.
It is humorous to describe that the old women oI the Iuture will be young looking.
Because the gray hair when dyed will be black and curly. Similarly they will be cherry
lipped, neat ankle and slender.
3. White-washed and riddled: -
They seem to be wearing masks. It is humorous to say what whitewashed and riddled
Iaces seem to be wearing masks. It means that the whole exercise oI making Iaces
artiIicially beautiIul is useless.
4. The hardness and deadness are Irom within: -
These are the outward and visible signs oI some emotional or instinctive disharmony.
The description is Iull oI humor. The writer says that the hardness and deadness oI the
Iaces is actually reIlecting the spiritual disharmony. Only the spiritual contentment can
give the Iace the real beauty.
Some examples oI irony are: -
1. Status oI women: -
It is ironical to associate the status oI women with the personal beauty status does not
depend upon physical appearance.
2. Preservation oI the appearance: -
It is ironical to say that appearance can be preserved. Beauty and physical charm are
short-lived. One can`t avoid the old age. Nothing can be perennially preserved.
3. Practical result oI this modern cult: -
It is ironical to expect the disappearance oI old age, improvement in social status and
attainment oI real beauty with the help oI cosmetics.
4. Sullen boredom stamped into the Iresh Iaces: -
Fresh Iaces indicate artiIiciality whereas sullen boredom suggests reality beneath the
beautiIul, spiritual ugliness is obvious. Real beauty cannot be achieved without inner
satisIaction.
Q2: Comment on the use oI cosmetics in Pakistan.
Ans: - Aldous Hulxey, in the essay 'The beauty industry¨ deals with the most
extravagant habit oI Iashionable American women and their counterparts elsewhere in
the world. The writer observes that nothing aIIects American women as-Iar-as personal
appearance business is concerned the only industry that is not aIIected by the
depression oI the trade is the American beauty industry. American women spend about
three million pounds a week on the beautiIication oI their Iaces and bodies. It means
one hundred and IiIty six million pounds a year.
But Pakistani Iigures are much less as compared to the Americans Pakistan is poor, and
a Iace can cost as much in up keep as a costly Rolls- Royse. The maiority oI Pakistani
women can do is iust to wash and hope Ior the best. A simple use oI soap brings them
equal to those women 'who smile rosily and creamily¨.
Now a day this extravagant habit is increasing in Pakistan. The reasons Ior the increase
in expenditure on the beauty industry are several Firstly; there is a general increase in
prosperity. People are richer then they used to be in the past. It is a common Iact that
the rich people always cultivate their personal appearance. This diIIusion oI wealth
allows even the poor to Iollow the rich. Secondly, there has been a change in the status
oI woman. Now they are Iree than in the past. They are Iree to exercise the pleasing,
Ieminine privilege oI being attractive-in the past, women paying more attention to their
decoration, were thought to be wicked and morally corrupt. Thirdly, there is a change
in their attitude. They have now come to admit that body has its rights. Religious ideas
no longer trouble them.

10. ARE DOCTORS MEN OF SCIENCE?
Q1: 'Doctoring is not even the art oI keeping people in health¨. How do you agree
with Shaw?
Ans: - In this essay, Bernard show has ridiculed the Ialse pretensions oI the medical
proIession. He says that a widely spread popular delusion is that every doctor is a man
oI science. Science is, in Iact, something more than rotors spirit lamps, magnets,
microscopes and magical cures. Science is a system and a method oI research. Most oI
the Doctors do not do any research. Doctoring is an art, not a science. Doctors are no
more scientiIic then their tailors. An educated man who continuously reads scientiIic
iournals knows more about science than these doctors. A large maiority oI doctor`s
practice only to earn their bread. Doctoring is not even the art oI keeping people in
health. No doctor ever tells us how to maintain health. Doctoring is the art oI curing
illness. Then, Shaw says, a practicing doctor very rarely makes any contribution to
science. Very oIten. He draws dangerous conclusions Irom his clinical experiences.
Because he has no conception oI scientiIic method.
Q2: Is there no diIIerence between Doctors and Quacks? Give illustrations to prove
your contention.
Ans: - We agree with the views oI Bernard Shaw. According to him, there is not much
diIIerence between doctors and Quacks. Bernard Shaw compares a qualiIied doctor
with a quack doctor. He humorously points out that the distinction between them is that
only the qualiIied one is authorized to sigh death certiIicated. Both are equal in killing
the patients like the qualiIied doctors. The quacks also earn a lot oI money bonesetters
earn more than great surgeons even Irom the educated and wealthy patients. Some oI
the qualiIied doctors use quite strange and untraditional methods to treat the patients.
Their practice on patients makes them qualiIied. In the villages there are witch doctors
that prescribe spells and sell charms. Then there are the herbalists. They wander
through the Iields seeking Ior herbs. With the magic properties oI these herbs, they
claim to cure diseases and prevent childbirth. Each oI them talks oI some great
discovery with a strange plant called Virginia snake Root-on weekdays; the herbalist
keeps a shop and sells packets oI medicines prepared by various plants. On these
packets, there are lists oI diseases they are supposed to cure. Because the people keep
on buying them, it means some oI them are cured. Shaw reaches the conclusion that
there is no distinction between the science oI these herbalists and that oI the daily
registered doctors. The registered doctors, the quacks, the bonesetters and the
herbalists-all are equal. They are not men oI science.
Q3: How does Shaw prove that doctors are not men oI science?
Ans: - In this essay, Bernard Shaw ridicules the Ialse pretensions oI the medical
proIession. He says that a widely spread popular delusion is that doctors are men oI
science. According to Shaw, doctors are not men oI science. He gives three reasons to
illustrate his point oI view. First, doctoring is an art not a science. Doctors are no more
scientiIic than their tailors. An educated man who reads scientiIic iournals knows more
about science. Doctoring is an art oI curing illness; it does not tell us how to maintain
health. Secondly, science is another name oI research. Most oI the doctors do not do
any research. They very rarely make any contribution to Science lastly; the purpose oI
science is to serve humanity. A practicing doctor has no such idea in his mind. He
practices only to earn his bread.

Written by Zaghum Ph # 82223
Email:zozi1(hotmail.com
Bachelor`s Dilemma
By
Herbert Gold

Qno1. What are the real problems Iaced by a bachelor?
Ans.
'Bachelor Dilemma¨ is written in the perspective American society. The writer is oI
the view that a Bachelor in society, is like a battery Irom to charge itselI but it can not
generate Irom itselI. He seams a lucky, healthy youngman who has a lot oI time,
money, at this disposal. He enioys the Ireedom oI choice, association and movement
because he does not shoulder any Iamily responsibilities. But iI we deeply analyze his
liIe, he will be Iound Iacing very serious problems to which he cannot avoid.
A conIirmed Bachelor is a man who is looking in conviction. He is taken as another
reeling acrobate in the disorganized circus oI American Love and marriage. When he
enters alone in a big party including men, woman, girls and bachelors.
He is looked upon by diIIerent angles. The wiIe entertains tender Ieelings Ior him. She
sees him as handsome, perIect cavalier. Some wives take him as bad example Ior their
husband. The husband sees him as lucky man or a poor Iellow or rival. The girl
seeming him hopes to catch him. She tries to ensnare him. Another Bachelor in the
crows looks at him as a comrade or rival.
In Iact, he is bored and tormented by loneliness, he is ever in search oI his ideal girl but
is prepetually deceived and mocked. He is the man whose present is without a Iuture or
a past. He solely lives on drops and pills.
The liIe oI a Bachelor is disorganized one Herbert has dealt with his dilemma his hopes
possibilities and respects. He deIines conIirmed Bachelor as a man who is lacking in
conviction. His views are not taken as stable and serious. He has a house but without a
home. He may have a lot oI wealth at his disposal. He may have a liIe oI luxrious. He
has all that can satisIy his physical needs. But he remains alone on mental level. He
becomes depressed and disorganized Iigure.
One oI his maior problem is sex. In American society, a Bachelor may live a liIe oI
luxury and indulgence. He Iollows the rule oI constant enticement, seduction and
dissatisIaction. In his search oI 'true love¨ he is eternally deceived Iinally, He may
seem like a male model to be held together by his clothes and vanity. II they are taken
away Irom him, He would tinkle to earth in a little heap oI discrete parts.
No one is there to look aIter him when he Ialls ill. No one is there to cook Iood and
wash his clothes. Married Iriends avoid him because they are always busy in their
household lives psychologically, he is taken as patient. He has all that physically needs.
But he remains a lost soul. He may be physically rich but mentally and spiritually he is
poor.

Qno Who does Pakistani Bachelor Iace his Dilemma.
Ans.
Herbert Gold has presented beIore us a preIect and true picture oI Bachelor in
American society no doubt, The Problem Iaced by an American Bachelor can be taken
as the problems Iaced by any Bachelor, Irom any part oI the world. Likewise, a
Pakistan bachelor is also not liked by anybody. Even the wives oI his near and dear
ones try to shun his presence. Normally he is taken as somewhat loose chartered and
deranged. He is always a doubtIul and suspicious character in the eyes oI the people.
He Iaces complete loneliness and as result becomes a patient.
II a Pakistani does not own a house, he is real trouble. No body is willing to let a house
to him because he is considered a man oI moral Ilaw. He is dreaded much in our
society. His views and ideas are not taken seriously. He is supposed that he has no
sense oI responsibility. He is a complete Iailure who shrinks the Iamily responsibilities.
Sickness is another dark curse Ior a Pakistani Bachelor. No body is there to look aIter
him. He Iaces great trouble and becomes depressed. He becomes a rolling stone that
gathers no mass.
A body or quantity oI matter oI nonspeciIic shape.



Study Point, 2 Shalimar Road Grahi Shahu, Lahore
Ph. 310301


Written by Zaghum Ph # 82223
Email:zozi1(hotmail.com
Tolerance
By
E.M Forster

Qno1. Critically examine Forster`s views on tolerance?
Ans.
Forster highlights the signiIicance oI tolerance in promoting people co-existence.
Tolerance means ability to endure belieIs or practices diIIerent Irom ours. All the
people talk oI re-building oI civilization but Ior that a particular state oI mind is
required. According to some people the state oI mind is that we need to rebuilt
civilization is ¨love¨. Forster disagrees with this view. He says that love is great Iorce
in private liIe. It is indeed, the greatest oI all things. But in public aIIairs, It does not
work. It has been tried throughout history but it always Iailed. The idea that nations
and diIIerent business concerns diIIerent sects should love one another is absurd,
unreal and dangerous. The Iact is that we can only love when we know personally.
According to Forster, in public aIIairs we need tolerance. It merely means putting up
with people how is diIIerent Irom us. This is the state oI mind which we should look
Ior. This is the only Iorce, which will enable diIIerent races and classes and interests to
settle together to the work oI reconstruction.

Qno2. What is the signiIicance oI 'Tolerance¨ Ior us in Pakistan.
Ans.
Pakistan is an ideological state. It was created in the name oI Islam. But, now-a-days,
the situation has become worse by the Iact that we have Iorgotten the golden principle
oI tolerance. We are much shocked to Iind Ianaticism and lack oI tolerance among our
people.
One social level, we have been divided into many castes and classes. Social iniustice in
Iound every-where in our society. We are so ego-centric that we are not ready to put
with other member oI society. We have Iorgotten the lesson oI tolerance teach our holy
prophet, Hazrat Muhammad(PBUH).
Provincialism is one oI the narrow mindedness with which we are Iace to Iace. There
are many maior issues. We are Iacing on national level and religious level, the nation
stand divided Iirstly between Muslims and non-Muslim. Then the Muslim stand
divided between Sunnis and shias. Even the sunnis stand divided among brelavis,
devbandies, and Al-e-Hadees etc. And their diIIerences oIten and in bloodshed.
We may stick to our belieIs and creeds. But we should try to put up with other people
having other views, belieIs and creeds, we must learn tolerance iI we are to progress
and prosper in the word. Hence tolreance has a great signiIicance Ior us in Pakistan.

Qno3. 'It is to easy to see Ianaticism in other people, but diIIicult to spot it in oneselI.¨
Is it really so?
Ans.
At the end oI the essay. Forster remarks about the concrete and solid Iact oI Ianaticism.
He concludes that Ianaticism is a great hindrance in the reconstruction oI a great
universal civilization. He remarks that it is very easy to see Ianaticism in other people
but it is diIIicult Ior us to spot it in our selves. We can condemn nazis Ior suIIering
Irom racial preiudice. But have we even ever seen how much guiltless. We are as there
no recial preiudice in a British Empire? Does not a white hate a black?
First oI all we will have to leave narrow-mindedness and Ianaticism. Now doubt, the
reIormers have been preaching tolerance to promote peace and prosperity in the world.
But the maiority oI the people ego-centric. They see and note Ianaticism in others but
they are unable to root it out Irom their own personality. Forster stresses, upon the Iact
that tolerance is not a weakness at all. Putting up with people does not mean surrender
beIore them. II we start living with other with tolerance, love may be born later on.
Which we may reconstruct the world speedily and more solidly, but it is not all
possible without tolerance.

Study Point, 2 Shalimar Road Grahi Shahu, Lahore
Ph. 310301

Written by Zaghum Ph # 82223
Email:zozi1(hotmail.com
Bachelor`s Dilemma
By
Herbert Gold

Qno1. What are the real problems Iaced by a bachelor?
Ans.
'Bachelor Dilemma¨ is written in the perspective American society. The writer is oI
the view that a Bachelor in society, is like a battery Irom to charge itselI but it can not
generate Irom itselI. He seams a lucky, healthy youngman who has a lot oI time,
money, at this disposal. He enioys the Ireedom oI choice, association and movement
because he does not shoulder any Iamily responsibilities. But iI we deeply analyze his
liIe, he will be Iound Iacing very serious problems to which he cannot avoid.
A conIirmed Bachelor is a man who is looking in conviction. He is taken as another
reeling acrobate in the disorganized circus oI American Love and marriage. When he
enters alone in a big party including men, woman, girls and bachelors.
He is looked upon by diIIerent angles. The wiIe entertains tender Ieelings Ior him. She
sees him as handsome, perIect cavalier. Some wives take him as bad example Ior their
husband. The husband sees him as lucky man or a poor Iellow or rival. The girl
seeming him hopes to catch him. She tries to ensnare him. Another Bachelor in the
crows looks at him as a comrade or rival.
In Iact, he is bored and tormented by loneliness, he is ever in search oI his ideal girl but
is prepetually deceived and mocked. He is the man whose present is without a Iuture or
a past. He solely lives on drops and pills.
The liIe oI a Bachelor is disorganized one Herbert has dealt with his dilemma his hopes
possibilities and respects. He deIines conIirmed Bachelor as a man who is lacking in
conviction. His views are not taken as stable and serious. He has a house but without a
home. He may have a lot oI wealth at his disposal. He may have a liIe oI luxrious. He
has all that can satisIy his physical needs. But he remains alone on mental level. He
becomes depressed and disorganized Iigure.
One oI his maior problem is sex. In American society, a Bachelor may live a liIe oI
luxury and indulgence. He Iollows the rule oI constant enticement, seduction and
dissatisIaction. In his search oI 'true love¨ he is eternally deceived Iinally, He may
seem like a male model to be held together by his clothes and vanity. II they are taken
away Irom him, He would tinkle to earth in a little heap oI discrete parts.
No one is there to look aIter him when he Ialls ill. No one is there to cook Iood and
wash his clothes. Married Iriends avoid him because they are always busy in their
household lives psychologically, he is taken as patient. He has all that physically needs.
But he remains a lost soul. He may be physically rich but mentally and spiritually he is
poor.

Qno Who does Pakistani Bachelor Iace his Dilemma.
Ans.
Herbert Gold has presented beIore us a preIect and true picture oI Bachelor in
American society no doubt, The Problem Iaced by an American Bachelor can be taken
as the problems Iaced by any Bachelor, Irom any part oI the world. Likewise, a
Pakistan bachelor is also not liked by anybody. Even the wives oI his near and dear
ones try to shun his presence. Normally he is taken as somewhat loose chartered and
deranged. He is always a doubtIul and suspicious character in the eyes oI the people.
He Iaces complete loneliness and as result becomes a patient.
II a Pakistani does not own a house, he is real trouble. No body is willing to let a house
to him because he is considered a man oI moral Ilaw. He is dreaded much in our
society. His views and ideas are not taken seriously. He is supposed that he has no
sense oI responsibility. He is a complete Iailure who shrinks the Iamily responsibilities.
Sickness is another dark curse Ior a Pakistani Bachelor. No body is there to look aIter
him. He Iaces great trouble and becomes depressed. He becomes a rolling stone that
gathers no mass.
A body or quantity oI matter oI nonspeciIic shape.



Study Point, 2 Shalimar Road Grahi Shahu, Lahore
Ph. 310301


Written by Zaghum Ph # 82223
Email:zozi1(hotmail.com
Tolerance
By
E.M Forster

Qno1. Critically examine Forster`s views on tolerance?
Ans.
Forster highlights the signiIicance oI tolerance in promoting people co-existence.
Tolerance means ability to endure belieIs or practices diIIerent Irom ours. All the
people talk oI re-building oI civilization but Ior that a particular state oI mind is
required. According to some people the state oI mind is that we need to rebuilt
civilization is ¨love¨. Forster disagrees with this view. He says that love is great Iorce
in private liIe. It is indeed, the greatest oI all things. But in public aIIairs, It does not
work. It has been tried throughout history but it always Iailed. The idea that nations
and diIIerent business concerns diIIerent sects should love one another is absurd,
unreal and dangerous. The Iact is that we can only love when we know personally.
According to Forster, in public aIIairs we need tolerance. It merely means putting up
with people how is diIIerent Irom us. This is the state oI mind which we should look
Ior. This is the only Iorce, which will enable diIIerent races and classes and interests to
settle together to the work oI reconstruction.

Qno2. What is the signiIicance oI 'Tolerance¨ Ior us in Pakistan.
Ans.
Pakistan is an ideological state. It was created in the name oI Islam. But, now-a-days,
the situation has become worse by the Iact that we have Iorgotten the golden principle
oI tolerance. We are much shocked to Iind Ianaticism and lack oI tolerance among our
people.
One social level, we have been divided into many castes and classes. Social iniustice in
Iound every-where in our society. We are so ego-centric that we are not ready to put
with other member oI society. We have Iorgotten the lesson oI tolerance teach our holy
prophet, Hazrat Muhammad(PBUH).
Provincialism is one oI the narrow mindedness with which we are Iace to Iace. There
are many maior issues. We are Iacing on national level and religious level, the nation
stand divided Iirstly between Muslims and non-Muslim. Then the Muslim stand
divided between Sunnis and shias. Even the sunnis stand divided among brelavis,
devbandies, and Al-e-Hadees etc. And their diIIerences oIten and in bloodshed.
We may stick to our belieIs and creeds. But we should try to put up with other people
having other views, belieIs and creeds, we must learn tolerance iI we are to progress
and prosper in the word. Hence tolreance has a great signiIicance Ior us in Pakistan.

Qno3. 'It is to easy to see Ianaticism in other people, but diIIicult to spot it in oneselI.¨
Is it really so?
Ans.
At the end oI the essay. Forster remarks about the concrete and solid Iact oI Ianaticism.
He concludes that Ianaticism is a great hindrance in the reconstruction oI a great
universal civilization. He remarks that it is very easy to see Ianaticism in other people
but it is diIIicult Ior us to spot it in our selves. We can condemn nazis Ior suIIering
Irom racial preiudice. But have we even ever seen how much guiltless. We are as there
no recial preiudice in a British Empire? Does not a white hate a black?
First oI all we will have to leave narrow-mindedness and Ianaticism. Now doubt, the
reIormers have been preaching tolerance to promote peace and prosperity in the world.
But the maiority oI the people ego-centric. They see and note Ianaticism in others but
they are unable to root it out Irom their own personality. Forster stresses, upon the Iact
that tolerance is not a weakness at all. Putting up with people does not mean surrender
beIore them. II we start living with other with tolerance, love may be born later on.
Which we may reconstruct the world speedily and more solidly, but it is not all
possible without tolerance.

Study Point, 2 Shalimar Road Grahi Shahu, Lahore
Ph. 310301


Written by Zaghum Ph # 82223
Email:zozi1(hotmail.com


Hosts And Guests
By
Max Beerbohm



Q: No1 How does max beerbohm DiIIerentiate bet been hosts and guests?

In this essay, Max Beerbohm has discussed the two state oI mankind. According to him
the two categories oI men are host and guests. The ancient Romans made no diIIerence
between them. They had only one word Ior these two kind. They believed that a host
and guest must be the same thing but in the English language there are tow diIIerent
words Ior them and so they are diIIerent. The diIIerence is based on circumstances or
temperament. When a man has ask the other to dine with him in a restaurant and the
other agrees. One pays Ior the Iood and the other enioys it. They are hosts or guest
according to the part they play in this transaction. This is circumstantial diIIerence. But
there is a temperamental diIIerence also. In every human being, one or the other oI
these two instincts is predominant. To oIIer hospitality is an active and positive
instinct, to accept it is the negative or passive instinct. Either oI these instincts is so
signiIicant oI character that we can divide mankind into two great classes Host and
Guests.
OtherSide, Max Beerbohm talks oI the various kinds oI Hosts and Guests. He says that
every virtue is a mean between two extremes. We can understand a virtue better iI we
look at the vice on the either side oI it. First, he takes up the virtue oI hospitality. It
stands between churlishness and mere ostentation on the one side oI the good host is
the person. Who does not want to see anything oI any one to other side is the person
who wishes his guests to see all his things. Then Irom history and literature, Beerbohm
gives examples oI good hosts and bad hosts. A good host should have a great heart and
a warm welcome Ior Iriends as-well-as Ior strangers as Ior the good guestship. There
are again two extreme. On the one side is the parasite. Who is always present at the
Ieast though uninvited his gratitude is as great as his oppetite on the other side is the
churb again. He eats bit Iind Iault with the Iood. The good guest is the one who is Iull
oI gratitude and dignity.

Q No 2 What do you thing was Beerbohm`s motive in writing this essay?

Ans.:
The author explores the historical background oI the tradition oI hospitality. Human
beings share almost all their instincts with the animals but the tradition oI hospitality is
an exception to the general rule man does not share this instinct with the rest oI
animals. He has acquired it in the long course oI his selI development. The author
gives examples oI certain animals to don`t oIIer hospitality. The author traces that the
history oI hospitality goes back to the ancient period. In ancient, times, cave men use
hospitality Ior negative ends. They very oIten poisoned their guests. Even the guests
Ieared dauger to their liIe Irom the hosts. Hospitality was considered as the respectable
way oI accepting death.
The rich people usually use hospitality to improve their status, position and to Iurther
their business. It is most likely Ior the rich to extend hospitality and Ior the poor accept
it. However, it is not a strict principle that hosts are always the rich and the guest are
always the needy.
The author, However, believes that the motives behind hospitality are not necessarily
based on selIishness. Most oI the people play hosts in order to IulIil a noble duty and
earn divine pleasure.

Qno 3 'Our deepest instincts, bad or good, are those which we share with the rest oI
animal creation¨. Discuss with reIerence to Max Beerbohm¨ Hosts and Guests¨.

Ans:
According to Beerbohm, being a host or a guest is an instinct in man. But he does not
share this with animals. He says 'our deepest instincts, bad or good are thoes which we
share with the rest oI the animals creations, to oIIer hospitality or to accept it, is but an
instinct which man has acquired long run oI his selI development¨. Beerbohm points
our that man has learnt ot act as host or guest by his personal eIIorts. Man does not
share these instinct with the rest oI the animal creation. Animals donot invite each
other. A deep sense oI personal property is common to all creatures. In the long course
selI development, man has acquired this willingness to share things with his Iriends.
Then he also learnt to accept things. Thus we see that the will to oIIer hospitality is an
earlier growth than the will to accept it. But as man progressed in civilization, and
grow deIinitely gregarious hospitality became more a matter oI course. The writer says
that hospitable instinct is not wholly altruistic. There may be try egoism and revenge
mixed up with it. He proves his points oI view with examples Irom history.

Description Of Eclipse In "the Eclipse" By "virginia Woolf"
Description oI eclipse in "The Eclipse" by "Virginia WoolI"

Virginia WoolI, English novelist, essayist, and critic has beautiIully portrayed the natural
phenomenon oI eclipse. She has also enlightened the importance oI the sun. She has narrated the
essay dramatically and has regarded sun as an actor that was going to come on the stage to
perIorm as iI a drama was going on. The sky served as a stage. She has made the scene vivid and
ravishing by the usage oI colors, images and similes. The way she has described it is so highly
coloured and realistic that the readers visualize the eclipse to be occurring beIore their eyes.
People were anxiously going towards a hilltop Irom where all would view the sun with
reverence. People had gathered on the hilltop and stood in a straight line that it seemed they were
statues standing on the edge oI the world. As the sun rose, clouds glowed up. Light gleamed and
peered over the rim oI the clouds. The sun raced towards the point where eclipse had


vlralnla Woolfţ Lnallsh novellsLţ essavlsLţ and crlLlc has beauLlfullv porLraved Lhe naLural phenomenon of
ecllpseŦ She has also enllahLened Lhe lmporLance of Lhe sunŦ She has narraLed Lhe essav dramaLlcallv and
has reaarded sun as an acLor LhaL was aolna Lo come on Lhe sLaae Lo perform as lf a drama was aolna onŦ
1he skv served as a sLaaeŦ She has made Lhe scene vlvld and ravlshlna bv Lhe usaae of colorsţ lmaaes and
slmllesŦ 1he wav she has descrlbed lL ls so hlahlv coloured and reallsLlc LhaL Lhe readers vlsuallze Lhe
ecllpse Lo be occurrlna before Lhelr evesŦ Þeople were anxlouslv aolna Lowards a hlllLop from where all
would vlew Lhe sun wlLh reverenceŦ Þeople had aaLhered on Lhe hlllLop and sLood ln a sLralahL llne LhaL
lL seemed Lhev were sLaLues sLandlna on Lhe edae of Lhe worldŦ As Lhe sun roseţ clouds alowed upŦ LlahL
aleamed and peered over Lhe rlm of Lhe cloudsŦ 1he sun raced Lowards Lhe polnL where ecllpse had Lo
Lake placeŦ 8uL Lhe clouds were lmpedlna lLŦ 1he sun wlLh a Lremendous speed endeavoured Lo escape
Lhe mlsLŦ AL some polnL lL came forLh Lhen aaaln was shrouded bv Lhe fleecv cloudsŦ 1he sun Lhen
appeared hollow as Lhe moon had come ln fronL of lLŦ A subsLanLlal proporLlon of Lhe Sun was covered
and Lhe loss of davllahL became noLlceableŦ 1he wrlLer has efflcaclouslv descrlbed Lhe sun's efforLs Lo
break free from Lhe cloudv hurdleŦ She has conLlnuouslv personlfled sun as lL was puLLlna lLs besL efforLs
Lo make lLs face appear before Lhe worldŦ 1he clouds were sLlfllna Lhe sun's speedŦ 1he sancLlfled
LwenLvŴfour seconds had beaun buL sLlll Lhe sun was enLrapped and was sLrlvlna Lo dlsencumber lLself
from Lhe clump of cloudsŦ ºCf Lhe LwenLvŴfour seconds onlv flve remalnedţ and sLlll he was obscuredŦ"
1he Llme of Lhe ecllpse was passlna and lL seemed LhaL Lhe sun was loslnaŦ lL was conLlnuouslv
obllLeraLed bv Lhe cloudsŦ 1he colours of Lhe vallevs seemed Lo dlsappearŦ LvervLhlna was fadlna as 'All
Lhe colour beaan Lo ao from Lhe moorŦ' 1he colours were chanalnaţ º1he blue Lurned Lo purpleţ Lhe
whlLe became llvld as aL Lhe approach of a vlolenL buL wlndless sLormŦ Þlnk faces wenL areenţ and lL
became colder Lhan everŦ" 1he llahL and warmLh were vanlshlnaŦ Lhe people felL LhaL someLhlna more
had Lo happenŦ
º1he shadow arowlna darker and darker over Lhe moor was llke Lhe heallna over of a boaLţ whlch
lnsLead of rlahLlna lLself aL Lhe crlLlcal momenL Lurns a llLLle furLher and Lhen a llLLle furLher on lLs sldeť
and suddenlv capslzesŦ" Moonƌs shadow swepL over Lhe face of Lhe LarLhŦ 1he vlslble crescenL of Lhe Sun
decreased ln wldLh unLll Lhe Lwo dlsks reached Lhelr closesL approachŦ 1haL was Lhe momenL of
maxlmum phase and Lhus lL became LoLallv darkŦ
C darkţ darkţ dark amld Lhe blaze of noon
lrrecoverablv darkţ LoLal ecllpseţ
WlLhouL all hope of dav! Ŷ SAMSCn bv !ohn MllLon
º1he flesh and blood of Lhe world was deadŤ onlv Lhe skeleLon was lefLŦ" LarLh had losL all lLs splendourŦ
lL was LoLallv deadŦ 1hen araduallv Lhe aenuflecLlon of llahL Lo Lhe darkness beaan Lo over and
dearadaLlon of Lhe arandeur endedŦ AfLer maxlmum phaseţ Lhe crescenL of Lhe Sun wldened aaaln unLll
Lhe Moon passed ouL of Lhe Sunƌs dlskŦ 1hen slowlv llahL beaan Lo spread evervwhereŦ LvervLhlna was
recuperaLlnaŦ 1he colours were reLurnlnaŦ Larllerţ when Lhe sun had LoLallv dlsappearedţ earLh had losL
all lLs alamourŦ 1he people who were sLandlna on Lhe hlll and lmpaLlenLlv aazlna Lhe skv felL LhaL Lhe
earLh was a hollow frame workţ a fraalle shellŦ lL could even have blusLeredŦ 8uL sLeadllv Lhe fear aoL
mlLlaaLed and Lhe people and Lhelr falLh aoL flrmed as evervLhlna was becomlna brlahLlv palnLedŦ 1hen
Lhe world appeared Lo be full of llfeŦ LvervLhlna could be vlewed clearlvŦ 1he earLh Lhen aave Lhe
lmpresslon of vlvaclLvŦ
1hus Lhe eplsode of ecllpseţ from bealnnlna Lo end has been unfolded ln a sLvle Lo deepen Lhe
lmpresslon whlch exhlblL naLuralness Lhrouah ouL Lhe anecdoLeŦ
uescrlpLlon Cf Lcllpse ln ƍLhe Lcllpseƍ 8v ƍvlralnla Woolfƍ Ŵ 693 words
uescrlpLlon of ecllpse ln ƌ1he Lcllpseƌ bv ƌvlralnla Woolfƌvlralnla Woolfţ Lnallsh novellsLţ essavlsLţ and
crlLlc has beauLlfullv porLraved Lhe naLural phenomenon of ecllpseŦ She has also enllahLened Lhe
lmporLance of Lhe sunŦ She has narraLed Lhe essav dramaLlcallv and has reaarded sun as an acLor LhaL
was aolna Lo come on Lhe sLaae Lo perform as lf a drama was aolna onŦ 1he skv served as a sLaaeŦ She
has made Lhe scene vlvld and ravlshlna bv Lhe usaae of colorsţ lmaaes and slmllesŦ 1he wav she has
descrlbed lL ls so hlahlv coloured and reallsLlc LhaL Lhe readers vlsuallze Lhe ecllpse Lo be occurrlna
before Lhelr evesŦ Þeople were anxlouslv aolna Lowards a hlllLop from where all would vlew ŦŦŦ
3ŴºWhlsLllna of 8lrds" bv uavld PerberL Lawrence ls a deplcLlon of Lhe vlvldness of
hls wrlLlnas and hls own arLlsLlc vlslon and LhouahLŦ ln Lhls essav he has elucldaLed Lhe chanae of
seasonsŴ chanae from wlnLer Lo sprlnaŴ ln an lmpresslve wav bv Lhe use of lmaaesţ slmlles and
meLaphorsŦŦ
WlnLerţ as he narraLesţ brlnas woe and causes wreckŦ 1he lnLense frosL LhaL susLalned for several weeks
caused Lhe deaLh of blrdsŦ 1he remnanLs of Lhe beauLlful bevv of blrds Ŷ lapwlnasţ sLarleLsţ Lhrushesţ lled
scaLLered ln Lhe fleldsŦ 1he ºlnvlslble beasLs of prev" had wolfed Lhe blrdsŦ 1he wlnLer had massacred Lhe
sona blrds and Lhelr bloodŴsoaked sklns were spread all aroundŦ 1he belnas LhaL could noL shleld
Lhemselves aaalnsL lLs rlaours shlvered wlLh cold and were exposed Lo Lhe furv of blLlna cold wlndsŦ
WlnLer Lhus had brouahL a hosL of hardshlps Lo Lhe poor souls who found lL hard Lo face Lhe vaaarles of
Lhe weaLherŦ
Chţ Lhe lona and drearv WlnLer!
Chţ Lhe cold and cruel WlnLer! Ŷ LCnClLLLCWţ PlawaLha
1hen sudden chanae appearedŦ 1he wav wlnd beaan Lo blow deplcLed chanae of weaLherŦ 1he wlnds
were warm and durlna Lhe dav shlmmers sunllahL could be seenŦ 1he blrds beaan Lo chlrp
uncomforLablvţ wlLhouL a pauseŦ 1he doves were uLLerlna sLralned coos as Lhe lnfluence of wlnLer
prevalled on LhemŦ 1helr aLLlLude was queerŦ lL was llke a overlapplna seasonŦ 1he surroundlnas were
sLlll snow carpeLedŦ 1hev kepL on coolna wlLh weaknessŦ 1he breeze was sLlll chlllv enouah Lo hurLŦ 1he
subdueŦŦŦ
"Whistling oI Birds" by David Herbert Lawrence is a depiction oI the vividness oI his writings
and his own artistic vision and thought. In this essay he has elucidated the change oI seasons-
change Irom winter to spring- in an impressive way by the use oI images, similes and metaphors.
Winter, as he narrates, brings woe and causes wreck. The intense Irost that sustained Ior several
weeks caused the death oI birds. The remnants oI the beautiIul bevy oI birds - lapwings, starlets,
thrushes, lied scattered in the Iields.
The "invisible beasts oI prey" had wolIed the birds. The winter had massacred the song birds and
their blood-soaked skins were spread all around. The beings that could not shield themselves
against its rigours shivered with cold and were exposed to the Iury oI biting cold winds. Winter
thus had brought a host oI hardships to the poor souls who Iound it hard to Iace the vagaries oI
the weather. Oh, the long and dreary Winter!Oh, the cold and cruel Winter! - LONGFELLOW,
HiawathaThen sudden change appeared. The way wind began to blow depicted change oI
weather. The winds were warm and during the day shimmers sunlight could be seen
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The birds began to chirp uncomIortably, without a pause. The doves were uttering strained coos
as the inIluence oI winter prevailed on them. Their attitude was queer. It was like a overlapping
season. The surroundings were still snow carpeted. They kept on cooing with weakness. The
breeze was still chilly enough to hurt.
The subdued sunlight provoked the birds to chirrup in Ieeble tones. During the hard Irost, deathly
silence held sway. Then with the slight change oI conditions, the whistling oI birds appeared to
be a peculiar act. It was extremely diIIicult to accept the change. The writer inquires Ior it, as the
earth had been covered with the sheet oI lacerated cadavers.
The scene was quite Irightening and alerting as the birds kept on tweeting and spreading their
"silver" songs all around in the winter-eIIected surroundings. The ioy and deIiance oI the birds
amazes and inspires him; it is the image oI all brave rebirths. The birds were reconciling to the
death oI the other birds. They were Iorgetting the dead world in order to ioin the new bright one.
"II winter comes, can spring be Iar behind." -Shelley, Ode to the West Wind.II there comes a
little thaw,Still the air is chill and raw,Here and there a patch oI snow,Dirtier than the ground
below,Dribbles down a marshy Ilood;Ankle-deep you stick in mudIn the meadow while you
sing,"This is Spring." -C.
P. Cranch, A Spring GrowlWinter had receded. It was the dawn oI a new world, a world that was
entirely diIIerent Irom the previous drab one. The advent oI spring brought Iorward colour and
vivacity. Balmy breeze was a clear sign oI spring. But it was "premature" as the snow had not
melted and the wings were thrown all over the place. Yet the birds were announcing the drastic
change because they had no choice.
The warble oI the birds could be heard Iar and wide. The tiny, beautiIul, vulnerable and brave
birds are a symbol oI everything Lawrence championed: the courage to aIIirm, the reIusal to be
cowed by the winter Irosts oI tragedy and death.For lo! The winter is past, the rain is over and
gone; the Ilowers appear on the earth; the time oI the singing oI the birds is come, and the voice
oI turtle is heard in our land." -Song oI SolomonThe writer is astounded at the sudden change
and renewal oI the surroundings. He wants to know whence the sound is coming. He was
surprised at the restoration oI harmony and the acceptance oI change Irom the birds. The song
emerges Irom deep inside their throats.
The songs arouse like a spring Irom the Iountains in their throats. Nature has endowed them with
the quality to make the best oI everything. They had to comply with the change. LiIe emanated
Irom their souls as songs oI ioy.During the winter, when the snow had obscured the earth, the
birds were muted. They anticipated Ior the Irosty obstruction to peter out and as the impediment
dwindled, the lustrous land became visible and Ilowers blossomed. "Under the surge oI ruin,
unmitigated winter, lies the silver potentiality oI all blossom." Beneath the mantle oI snow
existed the Ilourishing vigour that had been latent and then it apeared with Iull bloom. The
renewal was natural.
Came the spring with all its splendourAll its birds and all its blossoms, All its Ilowers, leaves,
and grasses. - LONGFELLOW, Hiawatha "The order has changed, there is a new regime, sound
oI a new vive! vive"It was vain to gaze at the horrible panorama oI destruction; the dead birds.
The havocs and the indignant Irigidity must be Iorgotten. The harsh winter had abated. The
writer comments that it is not our choice.
We may persist to be under the inIluence oI winter, but not Ior long. Ultimately we will yield and
ioin the Ilow. It is out oI our control. Anyhow we have to let bygones be bygones and sing and
reioice. Even iI we kept on glaring at the devastation and observed the departure oI winter,
nevertheless the dulcet songs oI the doves were audible as they exhilarate.
The new change helped perpetuate their euphoria.In the Spring a livelier iris changes on the
burnish'd dove;In the Spring a young man's Iancy lightly turns to thoughts oI love. -Tennyson,
Locksley HallOne may not accept the transition but one can not cease it either. Nothing happens
according to our will. The landscape altered, the trees Ilourished, Ilowers burgeoned and the state
oI bliss extended."For it is in us, as well as without us." It aIIects us internally and externally.
The surroundings abound with the ioy oI the spring and it also subsists in our souls.
The weather aIIects our moods and styles. It compels us to be iubilant. The outer ioy corresponds
with the inner ioy. The atmosphere imposes its inIluence."The spring is within us, the silver
Iountain begins to bubble under our breast, there is gladness in spite oI ourselves." In the iiIIy,
when we accept the gladness and adhere to it, we experience the change that gradually occurred
in spite oI the utmost wretchedness and oodles oI dead bodies.Winter stayed Ior long and the
snow started to melt iust a day ago. WE have Iorgotten the tough time.
It appears to be iust an illusion. But spring time is reality. We are cognizant oI the past existence
oI winter; "the earth was strangled and mortiIied" and liIe had to suIIer. But this all Ioregone
knowledge is something extraneous to us. Winter was like "a storm, or a mist or a Ialling Irom a
height.
It was entangled with us, like bats in our hair driving us mad." Winter then passed away, and
happiness blossomed. The occurrence oI spring and winter is incongruous. The writer regards
spring as liIe and winter as death. HE has elucidated the diIIerence in the two modes oI liIe.
When death prevails, liIe is absent.
"Whilst there is death, liIe is not to be Iound." The engulIing deluge oI death remains dominant.
Then with a change, liIe showed up. WE can be either with liIe or death and can not be with both
synchronously. "We are Ior liIe, or we are Ior death, one or the other but never in our essence
both at once." In the winter we were encompassed with death. The cold Irost had hurled us in the
mist oI darkness and misery.
In spring we were surrounded by beauties and charms. The singing birds in the bushes could not
be associated with the tattered integuments oI birds. "All is compatible with all." The melodious
songs could not be heard in the realm oI the dead. The silver-toned sounds can only be perceived
in a liIeIul place. An ecstasy exits in the land oI liIe. This iubilance is to be Iound in spring.
There are no signs oI gloom. In the kingdom oI death anguish and aIIliction exist.
"Where one is the other is not." Thus liIe and death, spring and winter, merry and melancholy
can not dwell together. LiIe can not come to a halt. The living ones have to Iorget the non living.
The birds can not reIrain Irom singing. The blackbird sings its tunes although its kin had
perished.
HE is Iortunate not to be in the dead so he can not lament Ior long over the deceased. It is
spiritually dead, but yet has to survive. "The dead must bury the dead." It has to Iorget the dead
ones. IT has to reconcile with the renewal oI the surroundings. It has been hurled into a new and
diIIerent heaven where its voices its songs oI Ielicity.
Te change Irom death to renewal is "death Irom death" i.e. liberation Irom the real death. The
permutation holds one in wonder while he sings Ior the Iresh IeelingAlthough his Iellows are
dead, he endeavoured to live. The dead are buried. He has Iorgotten his sorrow as it is natural Ior
him.
He has overpowered the terrorizing sorrow oI the dead companions. He continues with his
whistling.Whistling aIIirms passionately the irrepressible renewal oI liIe aIter death and
destruction. The essay describes the renewal oI the birds' song aIter the long and dreary winter.
The song is a metaphor Ior liIe that is chosen, willingly and deliberately. Lawrence is not alone
in his determination to choose liIe. Many others have reached the same decision aIter grappling
with the horror oI death in their minds and souls.
In Whistling, Lawrence celebrates the impulse to liIe that cannot be quenched--the hope that
lives in all oI us. He uses the metaphor oI the whistling oI birds Ior his depiction oI this
inextinguishable Ilame oI liIe and hope in humans. Lawrence not only aIIirmed liIe but insisted
on the inevitability oI it:"Who can thwart the impulse that comes upon us?It comes Irom the
unknown upon us,"Faith oI liIe is generated in them; they have escaped Irom the dreadIul
shadows oI death. It becomes essential Ior us to relocate Irom the zone oI death to liIe. Thus the
two seasons, spring and winter, have been clearly portrayed by the writer. The change that
Iascinated him has been explained in a vivid way that it enthralls the readers too.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
q-'Tuke LIe PIunge` Is u IunLusLIc essuv wILI LIe messuge LIuL
'DeLermInuLIon Is LIe kev Lo success`. We cun uIwuvs Lurn ImpossIbIe InLo possIbIe II we
Iuve conIIdence und sLrong wIII power. TIe wrILer, GIorIu Emerson, Ius LoId us ubouL
Ier personuI experIence oI LukIng LIe pIunge Lo prove LIIs messuge.
SIe Ius sucI u poor pIvsIcuI condILIon LIuL evervLIIng LIuL evervbodv used Lo Luke pILv
on Ier und LIougIL Ier worLI noLIIng. So sIe decIded Lo do someLIIng exLru ordInurv Lo
wusI LIe murk oI pILv oII Ier. SIe LIougIL ubouL munv udvenLures buL LIe onIv one
suILed wILI Ier bud buck und uncerLuIn unkIes wus Lo dIve In LIe uIr wILI purucIuLe Irom
ueropIune. SIe joIned u IIvIng cIub Lo Ieurn LIe urL oI dIvIng wILI LIe IeIp oI u purucIuLe.
AILer compIeLIng Ier LruInIng successIuIIv, sIe bourded u Coronu 18o uIong wILI u
compunIon. WIen sIe Look LIe pIunge, sIe IeIL LIe sIup oI wInd und noIse buL uILer
wIen Ier purucIuLe popped open, evervLIIng cume InLo peuce gIvIng Ier pIeusunL Iook
oI coIours oI eurLI und sooLIIng expunse oI spuce. ¡n LIe end, sIe Iunded successIuIIv.
Nobodv couId expecL Irom Ier sucI un ucL buL sIe surprIsed uII Ier IrIends bv doIng LIIs
boId ucL despILe Ier poor pIvsIcuI condILIon. PeopIe uppIuuded Ier uLLempL und Ier
deLermInuLIon

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