11/30/2010

Desire (emotion) - Wikipedia, the free …

Desire (emotion)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Desire is a sense of longing for a person or object or hoping for an outcome. Desire is the fire that sets action aflame. The same sense is expressed by emotions such as "craving" or "hankering". When a person desires something or someone, their sense of longing is excited by the enjoyment or the thought of the item or person, and they want to take actions to obtain their goal. The motivational aspect of desire has long been noted by philosophers; Hobbes (1588–1679) asserted that human desire is the fundamental motivation of all human action. In Buddhism, for an individual to effect his or her liberation, the flow of sense-desire must be cut completely; however, while training, he or she must work with motivational processes based on skilfully applied desire.[1] The Buddha stated, according to the early Buddhist scriptures, that monks should "generate desire" for the sake of fostering skillful qualities and abandoning unskillful ones.[2] While desires are often classified as emotions by laypersons, psychologists often describe desires as different from emotions; psychologists tend to argue that desires arise from bodily structures, such as the stomach's need for food, whereas emotions arise from a person's mental state. Marketing and advertising companies have used psychological research on how desire is stimulated to find more effective ways to induce consumers to buy a given product or service. While some advertising attempts to give buyers a sense of lack or wanting, other types of advertising create desire associating the product with desirable attributes, either by showing a celebrity or model with the product. The theme of desire is at the core of the romance novel, which often create drama by showing cases where human desire is impeded by social conventions, class, or cultural barriers. As well, it is used in other literary genres, such as gothic novels such as Dracula by Bram Stoker, in which desire is mingled with fear and dread. Poets ranging from W.B. Yeats to T. S. Eliot have dealt with the themes of desire in their work. Just as desire is central to the written fiction genre of romance, it is the central theme of melodrama films, which use plots that appeal to the heightened emotions of the audience by showing "crises of human emotion, failed romance or friendship", in which desire is thwarted or unrequited.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desire_(emotion) 1/8

meaning by this that it is a command of reason that applies only if one desires the goal in question. In Plato's The Republic. is liberating and enhancing. and art 4. Hobbes (1588–1679) proposed the concept of psychological hedonism. which asserts that the "fundamental motivation of all human action is the desire for pleasure." Because desire can cause humans to become obsessed and embittered.[4]Kant also established a relation between the beautiful and pleasure in Critique of Judgment. and he argued that reasoning is "capable only of devising means to ends set by [bodily] desire". or Nirvana. Desire for wholesome things.[5] Within the teachings of Buddhism.org/wiki/Desire_(emotion) 2/8 . he acknowledges that reasoning also interacts with desire.2 Psychiatry 3 In marketing 4 In fiction.1 Psychology and neurology 2. automatic bodily responses.Wikipedia. In Aristotle's De Anima. in that "he saw natural desires as a form of bondage" that are not chosen by a person of their own free will. craving is thought to be the cause of all suffering that one experiences in human existence.2 Film 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading In philosophy Main article: Desire (philosophy) In philosophy. Hegel claimed that "self-consciousness is desire.[3] Kant (1724–1804) "called any action based on desires a hypothetical imperative. though." Spinoza (1632–1677) had a view which contrasted with Hobbes.wikipedia. he argues that individual desires must be postponed in the name of the higher ideal. it has been called one of the causes of woe for mankind.11/30/2010 Desire (emotion) . he claims that desire is implicated in animal interactions and the propensity of animals to motion. Hume (1711–1776)[1] claimed that desires and passions are noncognitive.1 Fiction 4.[6] While the stream of desire for sense-pleasures must be cut en. at the same time. the free … 1 In philosophy 2 Scientific perspectives 2. desire has been identified as a philosophical problem since Antiquity. film. The eradication of craving leads one to ultimate happiness.

Studies showed that a chemical called dopamine is the brain's "pleasure chemical". the mid-cingulate.Wikipedia. and stimulating this cortex is associated with subjective reports of pleasure. a practitioner on the path to liberation is encouraged by the Buddha to "generate desire" for the fostering of skillful qualities and the abandoning of unskillful ones. A 2008 study by the University of Michigan indicated that while humans experience desire and fear as psychological opposites. psychologists often describe desires as different from emotions. He claimed that children pass through several stages. research on the "distant cousins" of pleasure and desire show that reward is a key element in creating both of these states.[7] A 2008 study entitled "The Neural Correlates of Desire" showed that the human brain categorizes any stimulus according to its desirability by activating three different brain areas: the superior orbito-frontal.[2] Within the Christian faith. the free … eventually.wikipedia.[9] Psychiatry Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud (1856–1939). which argues that desire for the mother creates neuroses in their sons.[8] While the "neuroscience of happiness and well-being is still in its infancy". emotions arise from a person's mental state. the blood needs oxygen. rather it is a powerful force within the human that once submitted to the Lordship of Christ can become a wonderful tool for good.org/wiki/Desire_(emotion) 3/8 . For psychologists. For more details on the philosophical treatment of desire. including a stage in which they fixated on the mother as a sexual en. such as the stomach which needs food. desire is seen as something that can either lead a person towards God and destiny or away from Him. and so on. who is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind and the defense mechanism of repression and for creating the clinical practice of psychoanalysis. Scientific perspectives Psychology and neurology While desires are often classified as emotions by laypersons. they share the same brain circuit. and the anterior cingulate cortices. Desire is not considered to be a bad thing in and of itself. see desire (in Philosophy). proposed the notion of the Oedipus Complex. desires arise from bodily structures. Freud used the Greek myth of Oedipus to argue that people desire incest and must repress that desire. on the other hand. Research also shows that the orbitofrontal cortex has connections to both the opioid and dopamine systems. for advancement and for abundant living.11/30/2010 Desire (emotion) .

In some cases. Nike's "Just Do It" ads for sports shoes are appealing to consumers' desires for selfbetterment. Lacan claims that they still feel separated from themselves by language. Most young adults are not thinking about dying. Desire for a product is stimulated by advertising.wikipedia. the potential buyer does not have a desire for the product or service. Marketing theorists call en. the potential buyer already has the desire for the product before they enter the store. by offering samples. for food stores. and so the company has to create the sense of desire. However. An example of this situation is for life insurance. desire is created by giving the potential buyer a sense of lacking ("Are you still driving that old car?") or by associating the product with desirable attributes. For more details on the Lacanian conception of desire. when the baby sees an image of wholeness in a mirror which gives them a desire for that being. such as anti-dandruff shampoo and mouthwash.org/wiki/Desire_(emotion) 4/8 . which is incomplete. desire is the human appetite for a given object of attention.11/30/2010 Desire (emotion) . though. With print. the free … object. after seeing commercials depicting the social undesirability of flakes on the shoulder. or of bad breath. and so a person continually strives to become whole. TV. and radio advertising. so they are not naturally thinking about how they need to have accidental death insurance. Prior to the introduction of commercials advertising anti-dandruff shampoo or mouthwash. In store retailing. or by giving the product a "halo effect" by showing attractive models with the product.Wikipedia. Life insurance companies. have managed to create a desire for life insurance with advertising that shows pictures of children and asks "If anything happens to you. or. who will pay for the children's upkeep?". either by showing a celebrity using or wearing the product. which attempts to give buyers a sense of lack or wanting. He uses the term "jouissance" to refer to the lost object or feeling of absence which a person believes to be unobtainable. As a person matures. it is unlikely that consumers had an intrinsic desire to use these products. see desire (psychoanalysis) In marketing In the field of marketing. they do not have to try and "sell" the general idea of making a purchase. In other cases. it created a desire to resolve these fears. Another example is personal hygiene products. French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist Jacques Lacan (1901–1981) argues that desire first occurs during a "mirror phase" of a baby's development. The role of the salespeople in these cases is simply to guide the customer towards making a choice. merchants attempt to increase the desire of the buyer by showcasing the product attractively. in the case of clothes or jewellery. as in the case of a decorating buff entering their favorite furniture store. because the customer already wants the products.

Love in the Time of Cholera by Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Forster's novels use homoerotic codes to describe same-sex desire and longing. the sensual. Maud Gonne.[13] Poet T. because "customs" and "conventionalities" stand in the way of her romantic desires. yet controversial novel Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov. and art Fiction The theme of desire is at the core of the romance novel.[12] In the gothic-themed Dracula. our thirsting for something other than Reality is what dissatisfies us”.B. Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte. In the poem “No Second Troy. Some poems depict desire as a poison for the soul.[11] E. Yeats depicts the positive and negative aspects of desire in his poems such as “The Rose for the World. Philippe Borgeaud's novels analyse how emotions such as erotic desire and seduction are connected to fear and wrath by examining cases where people are worried about issues of impurity. our craving. sin. film.[14] Other poems on the theme of desire include John Donne's poem "To His Mistress Going to Bed". Yeats worked through his desire for his beloved. she describes her sensations in the graveyard as a mixture of fear and blissful emotion. heterosexual plot of the novels. S.org/wiki/Desire_(emotion) 5/8 .” he admires her beauty.M. Ted Hughes' "Lovesong" about the savage intensity of desire. and shame. Stoker depicts the theme of desire which is coupled with fear. the advertised product is what would quench their desire.” “All Things can Tempt me. which can range from a long aching feeling to an unstoppable torrent. Brontë's characterization of Jane Eyre depicts her as torn by an inner conflict between reason and desire.Wikipedia. which subverts the conventional.” Yeats overflows with anger and bitterness because of their unrequited love. and realized that “Our longing.” “No Second Troy. and Wendy Cope's humorous poem "Song". When the Lucy character is seduced by Dracula. the free … desire the third stage in the hierarchy of effects. prose and drama. en. Novels which are based around the theme of desire. which occurs when the buyer develops a sense that if they felt the need for the type of product in question.[10] In fiction. Carol Ann Duffy's longings in "Warming Her Pearls. include Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert. In “The Rose for the World. Close male friendships with subtle homoerotic undercurrents occur in every novel.11/30/2010 Desire (emotion) . and Dracula by Bram Stoker.wikipedia. but feels pain because he cannot be with her.” and “Meditations in Time of Civil War” . Poet W. Eliot dealt with the themes of desire and homoeroticism in his poetry.” “Adam’s Curse.

org/wiki/Desire_(emotion) 6/8 . illness.wikipedia. with the 'retro-fitted' spectacle of the post-modern city to ogle" and with the use of the "motif of the 'eye'". it is the central theme of melodrama films. which builds to a burning longing that is ultimately his undoing. Selfless Persons: Thought and Imagery in Theravada Buddhism. Scarlett desires love. Rhett Butler desires to be with Scarlett." Film critics sometimes use the term "pejoratively to connote an unrealistic. Rhett". "weepies". and within the text. or emotional and physical hardship. tragedy.11/30/2010 Desire (emotion) . when she finally confesses her secret desire. a melodrama depends mostly on in-depth character development. the free … Film Just as desire is central to the written fiction genre of romance.[16] In Cathy Cupitt's article on "Desire and Vision in Blade Runner". Focusing on the dystopian 1980s science fiction film Blade Runner. both in the 'real world'. and the vision of being a virtuous “true lady”. interaction." Cambridge University Press.Wikipedia. or "chick flicks". "desire is a key motivating influence on the narrative of the film. 1982."[17] See also Desire (in Philosophy) Desire (psychoanalysis) Want References 1. bathos-filled. In the film. and highly emotional themes. as can be seen in well-known films such as Gone With the Wind . campy tale of romance or domestic situations with stereotypical characters (often including a central female character) that would directly appeal to feminine audiences. Like drama. failed romance or friendship. Melodramatic plots often deal with "crises of human emotion. tearjerkers. strained familial situations. she calls the film an "Object of Visual Desire". Rhett is worn out and his longing is spent. because Scarlett keeps refuses his advances. she argues that film. plays with the voyeuristic desires of its audience". in which "desire is the driving force for both Scarlett and the hero. ^ Steven Collins. money. page 251: "In the end. neuroses. in which it plays to an "expectation of an audience's delight in visual texture. Melodramatic films tend to use plots that appeal to the heightened emotions of the audience. the attention of men."[15] Also called "women's movies". the flowing streams of senseen. as a "visual narrative form. “Melodrama…is Hollywood’s fairly consistent way of treating desire and subject identity”. which are a subgenre of the drama film.

the stream is not to be 'cut' immediately.stm+emo ^ http://www. ^ Changing stress levels can make brain flip from ‘desire’ to ‘dread’ Mar. 8.umich. Joel. 2005.ns. See specifically this section (http://www..accesstoinsight.Wikipedia. and Damien Keown. 1997.edu/htdocs/releases/story. a monk must perforce work with motivational and perceptual processes as they ordinarily are. The Ways of Desire: New Essays in Philosophical Psychology on the en. 14. 1. Thus. New York: Broadway Books.html+desire+theme+novel&hl=en&ct=cln Further reading Marks. Prebish. 16.the EBook.org. Steve.htm ^ Gender. 2008 http://www.205.14. The disturbance of the flow of a mountain stream by irrigation channels cut into its sides it used to illustrate the weakening of insight by the five 'hindrances'. Edited by Cassandra Laity. ^ Charles S. 4.accesstoinsight. desire must be 'cut' or 'crossed' completely. http://72.104/search?q=cache:R7BEZt6Ei0J:www. PLoS ONE 3(8): e3027.colostate. Eliot. 11.html#part2-c) . for the duration of the Path.filmsite.geocities. New Jersey. University of Southern Maine (ISBN 978-0-521-80688-6 | ISBN 0-521-80688-7) ^ Melodrama Films (http://www.com/extras/Supplemental%20materials/Gone%20with%20the%20Wind%20a ^ Cathy Cupitt. 3. page 83.and out-breaths (in the mindfulness of breathing) is compared to the steadying of a boat in 'a fierce current' by its rudder.britannica.14.M. Buddhism Plain and Simple.bbc. doi:10.com/EBchecked/topic/159208/desire#tab=active~checked%2Citems~checked -%20Britannica%20Online%20Encyclopedia ^ Hagen. 1996) ^ Distant Desire: Homoerotic Codes and the Subversion of the English Novel in E. "The Wings to Awakening. Desire. By Martha C.html) . during mental training.uk/1/hi/programmes/happiness_formula/4880272.0. 15. 13. Gish. Journal of Buddhist Ethics Online Books. the free … 2. ^ Ethics Chapter. Forster's Fiction (Sexuality and Literature) by Parminder Kaur Bakshi ^ writing.edu/gallery/phantasmagoria/sepulveda. 10. 9.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/wings/index.11/30/2010 Desire (emotion) . Eyeballing the Simulacra Desire and Vision in Blade Runner.com/area51/hollow/2405/blade.html) ^ http://www.wikipedia. 19. Nancy K. Drew University.pone. Buddhism . Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy CD-ROM. and Sexuality in T. Zeki S (2008) The Neural Correlates of Desire.co. 5.. 6.vivandlarry.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/wings/part2. 7. 17.org/melodramafilms.205.au/default.0003027 ^ http://72. The meditative steadying of the mind by counting in. like water along viaducts.1371/journal. London: Routledge Edward Craig (ed).marketing. S. nevertheless. but guided. Nussbaum ^ http://www." ^ a b Thanissaro Bhikkhu. V. "Morality and emotions". Class Position.aspx?i=o7/3rRJaaY0=&t=jZS6ngCVPug= ^ Desire.php?id=6419 ^ Kawabata H. based on desire .104/search? q=cache:xUmr_4lrgdcJ:news. that is to say. 12. and Gender in Jane Eyre and Pickwick Papers Benjamin Graves '97 (English 73 Brown University.org/wiki/Desire_(emotion) 7/8 ." [1] (http://www.

en. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.Wikipedia. the free … Concept of Wanting. See Terms of Use for details.11/30/2010 Desire (emotion) .org/wiki/Desire_(emotion) 8/8 .wikipedia..wikipedia.org/wiki/Desire_(emotion)" Categories: Emotions | Philosophy of love | Personal life | Philosophy of sexuality | Marketing This page was last modified on 27 November 2010 at 15:00. 1986 Retrieved from "http://en. additional terms may apply. a non-profit organization. Transaction Publishers. Inc.

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