FOOD SANITATION, PREPERATION, STORAGE, AND PRESERVATION OF FOOD Food Sanitation Environmental sanitation, as applied to food supply, involves

the same general public health principles of disease prevention that are found in other phases of sanitation. The primary emphasis is on the protection of the consumer from illness caused by food. In the application of the principle, food sanitation deals largely with health hazards and the sanitary features of food handling. However, it must also contain itself with quality and protection of food values, and with technological and even economic aspects of the food handling processes to fully accomplish its aim of disease prevention. Definition of Terms

1. Food is a combination of nutrients essential for the accomplishments of any of the two of
the following functions: a. To supply heat and energy to the body b. To build up new tissues, maintain and repair old ones c. To accelerate or modify physical, chemical or physiological processes in the body Food control is an old term which involves essentially the protection of the consumer against misrepresentation and adulteration of foods Food management is an exclusive term more used in nutrition than in food sanitation. It refers to governmental nutrition policies and involves ascertaining the amounts of nutrients needed by the population to be fed, formulation and promotion of food production goals, increasing the efficiency of marketing foods, education in nutrition and food values, improvement of social distribution of food, improvement and conservation of nutritive values of foods and protection of the consumer against adulteration, deterioration, or misrepresentation of foods Food technology refers to the economic application of laws and processes of biology, physics, chemistry and engineering in the preparation and preservation of food products Food handlers are people who handle food. They are not only those who cook and serve in public eating and drinking establishments but include also individuals in far-off places such as the milker on the farm and the packer in processing establishments

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Public Health Significance Regarding Food Sanitation Some foods are fertile media for the growth of harmful microorganisms. When such foods become contaminated with certain types of organisms during production, processing, storage and display, transportation or service, they become potential causes on vehicles for the spread of disease. Foods may become contaminated with poisonous or toxic substances if carelessly handled during preparation, storage, display and service. Such contaminated foods often cause consumers to become ill. Food Storage and Refrigeration

Food must be stored properly to avoid contamination, to prevent waste (excess food must be kept in some ways to prevent deterioration or spoilage) and to facilitate easy distribution. A golden rule to keep in mind during storage of food is ³Keep it clean, keep it cold or hot and keep it covered.´ Three enemies of successful food storage are: 1) high temperature; 2) high humidity; and 3) contamination by strong odors. Therefore, a cool dry atmosphere should be the aim of ventilation. To insure this condition in ordinary non-refrigerated storage, close the means of ventilation on warm, damp days and keep it open in the evening during hot summer days. Successful storage depends on the knowledge of conditions under which bacteria grows best and the foodstuff may contaminate more frequently. It is known that bacteria will thrive best where there is available food, where there is adequate moisture and where the temperature is favorable for their multiplication. Of these three factors, the control of temperature is more commonly applied to control bacteria during the storage of food. The proper use of a refrigerator is essential to the maintenance of the proper temperature for the storage of food and food products. The proper use of a refrigerator is essential to the maintenance of the proper temperature for the storage of food and food products. Places to Consider n the Sanitary Control of Food In the study and control of the sanitary and hygienic quality of food, the health department invariably needs to look into the following places: 1. Places of production and processing or source of supply a. Milk and shellfish are two foods frequently looked into with regard to their place of production to insure wholesome supply of these food materials. Shellfish growing areas are specially classified on the basis of sanitary survey and bacteriological examinations into: a. 1. Approved areas a. 2. Restricted (moderately polluted) a. 3. Closed (grossly polluted) b. Vegetables and fruits are investigated at their place of production to check whether sewage or night soil are used as fertilizers. Sewage and night soil may be used for plants the edible portions of which do not come in gross contact with the sewage or night soil and are not eaten raw. Extra precautions should be exercised in the handling of sewage and night soil when used as fertilizers so as not to lose health hazards to the individual of the community. c. The control of food products at the food manufacturing or processing establishment involves specialized techniques and equipment. 2. Transportation and/or storage a. milk (not canned) requires specific temperatures during transportation and storage to prevent the growth and multiplication of pathogenic bacteria as well as other microorganisms responsible for spoilage. b. Perishable foods likewise require special attention during storage and/or transportation to prevent spoilage and contamination with harmful organisms c. Vigilance should be exercised during the transportation of meat from the slaughterhouses (abattoir) to the market or distribution points to prevent the illicit

inclusion of ³hot´ meat (meat that has not passed inspection and examination by a health representative or by a veterinarian) during transition 3. Retail or distribution points a. Physical inspection of food even by a layman can reveal apparent deterioration or unsuitability of certain food for human consumption, a. 1. Foul odor of spoiled meat a. 2. Appearance and odor of spoiled fish a. 3. Appearance of spoiled fruits a. 4. Rancid taste of spoiled butter a. 5. Abnormal or artificial coloring of meats

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