LMDC-TR-83-3

AUGUST 1983

THE IMPACT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF
"' PROFESSIONA

MILITARY EDUCATION

AND FORMAL EDUCATION ON SELECTED SUPERVISORY DIMENSIONS

AIC

MICHAEL MANSFIELD,

USAF

AUGUST

1983

Iz
-.iJ

SEP 2 9 4,983

A
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED,

•,KAiF

HI P AND MANAGEMENT I)EVELOPIMENTr (,,TER -Af 'T'IRAINING (COMMAND •X~Wll Air, Force Base, Alaban, a 36112 8 9.6 ,? 0,

3est Available Copy

Ll'%)C- r R-83-3

Technical Reports prepared by the Leadership and Management Developiwent
Center (LMDC), Maxwell Air Fo, ce Base, Alabama, Technical report a completed r;sear(h

project documented by literature review references,
hypotheses, whether stated or implied.

abstract dnd testn9 ( i
Reports are intende•d pri-

marily for use within the Air Force, but may be distributed to researchers outside the USAF, beth military and civillin. The views and opinions expressed in this document represent the personal views oi the author only, and should not in any way be construed to reflect any endorsement or confirmation by the Department of Defense, the Department of the Air Force, or any other agency of the United States Government. This report has been reviewed and cleared for open publication and/or public release by the appropriate Office of Public Affairs (PA) in accordance with AFR 190-17 and %s releasable to the National Technical Information Center where it will be available to the general public, including foreign nations. This Technical Report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. LAWRENCE 0. SHORT, Major, USAF Chief, Research Operations LLOYD WOODMAN, JR., Lt Col, USAF Director, Research and Analysis

JOHN E. EMMONS Colonel, USAF Commander

eest Available Copy

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RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMOCER

LMDC-TR-83-3
4. TIT.E
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S.bfitfI)

5

TYPE OF REPORT

& PERIOD COVERED

THE IMPACT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF PROFESSIONAL MILITARY EDUCATION AND FORMAL EDUCATION ON

SELECTED SUPERVISORY DIMENSIONS
7 AUTHOR(a)

6
£ 8

PERFORMING O• ,

REPORT

NUMSER

CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(.)

AIC Michael Mansfield
9 PERFORMIPiG ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10 P ROJECT, "I PROGRAM EL.EMENT NUMBERS AREA A WORK UNIT

TýSK

Directorate of Research and Analysis Leadership and Management Development Center(AU) Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama 36112
I1 CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS

,
2 REPORI OITE

Leadership and Management Development Center(AU)
Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama 36112
14
MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESSI, different (roCcl ln Othci ,

Directorate of Research and Analysis

,1
iS

August 1983
NUMBEROF AGES
"of 111

57
SECURITY CLASS this rt.

Unclassified
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35ECL.ASSJI'CATION SCH EC-,J'E

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of fhll

Report)

Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.
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Professional Military Education (Officers) Air Force Institute of Technology Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
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Officers need training and education in order to perform assigned duties. Problem: How much of what type of education and/or training does an Air Force officer need? This paper analyzes how an officer's level of professional military and academic education influence subordinate perceptions of managerial/supervisory issues. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is performed usine a 2x4 factorial design (level of college degree x leve,of PME). The data show that officer professional military and graduate

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20.
meducation positively influe-nce the perceptions of subordinates on key supervisory measures. To determine how the Ai- Force compares to industry, information was collected from four defense related corporations. These industries place as much o'- more emphasis on the professional eduction of employees than the Air Force. In the area of advanced education, what may appear costly io the present should reap enormous benefits in the future.

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Unclassified

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

!NTRODUCTION .................................................. 1 'REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ............ The Need for Professional ....................... ................ .................. ................... ................. 2 2 5 9 .10 11
..................... .. 13

Education ........

Professional Military Education .......... Squadron Officer School ............ Air Command and Staff College ...... Air War College ...........

........................

Graduate Degree Education ...............

AFIT Resident and Non-Resident Courses ................. AFIT Administered Civilian Graduate Education .... Need for Civilian Graduate Education: .........

13 14 17 17 ........... 18 19 .19 .20 20 21 23 24 27 28 30 31 34

Pros and Cons ....... ..............

Other Graduate Degree Opportunities .....

Other Non-AFIT Specialized Education Programs ..... Conlerisor to Industry ......... McDonnell ....................... .................

Douglas Corporation ......

The Communications Satellite Company (COMSAT) ............ The BDM Corporation ............. ...................... ................

The Boeing Aircraft corporation ...... Summary ............... METHOD .................. Subjects .............. K.SULTS ................ .............................. ................................. .............................. ................................. ............................... ............................... ............................... ............................... ............................. ............................. .............................

DISCUSSION ................ CONCLUSIONS .............. RKFERENCES ................ APPENDICES ................ Appendix A............ Appendix B............ Appendix C............

36 38 51

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--

~..,--

,,,---

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!ic

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jj

LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Officer Sample by Category ...... ... 2. 3. ..................... Page .27 28 ..39 40 .41 .42 .43 44

Summary of Significant Main Effects on Level of Professional Military Education ........ ....... ......................... Job Motivation Index ........ ..... ..... ........................ ............................ ..................... ................. ................. ...................

4. Task Autonomy ......... 5. 6. 7.

Management and Supervision ..........

Supervisory Communications Climate ........ Organization Communications Climate ...... Climate ...... .....

8. General Organizational 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

To What Extent Do You Feel Accountable to Your Supervisor In . ... Accomplishing Your 'ob? ....... ... ....................... . My Supervisor Performs Well Under Pressure ...... ............. 46 47 48 .. 49 ... 50

My Supervisor Explains How My Job Contributes To The Overall Mission ....... ............. ............................... When I Need Technical Advice, I Usually Go To My Supervisor .... ......................

Job Related Satisfaction ....... ... Pride ...... ...........

...............................

ii

SI.

. •. ' .

LIST OF FIGURES Figure Job I. Motivation Index ....... ... 2. 3. 4. ;.
6.

Page ......................... 52 52 .53 .53 ..... 54

Task Autonomy .............

............................ ..................... .................

Management and Supervision .......

Superviscry Communications Climate ......

Organizational Communications Climate ...............
General Organizational Climate .........

. . . . . . . . . .54
.

7. 6.

To What Extent Do You Feel Accountable to Your Supervisor In Accomplishing Your Job? ........... ..................... My Supervisor Performs Well Under Pressure .... .............

*55 .55

j. My Supervisor Explains How My Job Contributes To The Overall Mission ............... ............................. iv. When I Need Technical Advice, I Usually Go To My Supervisor .... ......................

..56 56 ..57 57

SI.
12.

Job Related Satisfaction ....... Pride ....... .......

...............................

iii

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~N'--.

INTRODUCTION

It

is

essential education

that officers of the armed services receive in order to carry out their assigned duties security. Due to the ever increasing international becomes political more

advanced In the

professional

interests of national

complexity of this time.

society and a constantly changing need for advanced officer

environment, over

education

important

National

security requirements

have become more comprehensive and national disciplines Since the policy

policy formulation involves greater interaction among several military, -ilitary political, is a key economic and technological element in formulating and (Brodsky, achieving

1970).

national

objectives,

the need for Air Force officers to be able to competently deal in is evident. The problem centers on

dreas outside their military specialty the question:

How much of what type of education and/or training does the This paper will analyze how an officer's and academic education interact level of

Air Force officer need? professional

military education

on his/her A comparison (if

subomainate's perceptions of managerial and supervisory issues.

to industry will be made to determine the similarities and differences they exist) that some major corporations

might have with the Air Force in

megard to the advanced education of their employees. The need perspective
officers.

for advanced a brief

professional look at the

schooling will overall

be

put

in

better on

after

environmental

demands

Specifically,

the seriousness of growing Soviet

influence

around

the world, coupled with the deterioration of the United States' advanced schools technology, and higher will be addressed. in civilian It will be shown are

advantage in that service in

education

institutions

essential

,)reparing Air Force officers to meet these challenges. 1

-

-V-

A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The Need for Professional Education To deal with aspects of national policy other than strictly military in a

issues, today's Air Force officers must be able to function effectively wide variety of academic disciplines. policy formulators, with systems

They must be able to "communicate with with political psychologists, (Brodsky, decision makers, scientists, p. 429). and The field

with economic analysts, with sociologists,

analysts,

engineers," to name a few of the requirements

1970,

importance of highly educated officers in the scientiflc/technological

can never be overemphasized.
hallmark of American society.

Our superiority in these fields has been a
This traditional superiority is eroding, par-

tially due to inadequate technical education and research. Even as there has been a steady erosion in U.S. activity in the basic sciences, there has been an increase in the level of such If that continues, we are in activity in Western Europe and Japan. danger of losing our position of scientific leadership (Fitch, 1982,

p. 56).
As Walsh & Walsh (1982) note, if the Reagan Administration follows

through with its education schools will be on their own. izations, are signs

policy

on science and technology,

the nation's

Reactions to this policy from education organsupport, are negative. signals Already there

most of which favor federal that industry is

answering faculties.

distress

from engineering acted on

schools and university science this subject.

The military has also

As a result of concern in the arned forces about dimming technological prowess, at least one ambitious program has been launched jointly by the military and industry to work through Reserve Officer Training Corps units in high school and college to promote interest in careers in science and engineering (Walsh A Walsh, 1982, p. 39). Yet, siunism, know-how alone does not ensure success in countering Soviet expana major threat to our national security. The nature and extent of

soviet intentions is stated well in Nixon's book The Real War:

2

I

The Soviets have been waging World War III since the closing days of It has proceeded from the Soviet seizure of Eastern ,:orld War II. Europe through the communist victory in China, the wars in Korea and Indochina, and the establishment of a Soviet outpost in Cuba, to the present intrusions by the Soviets and their allies in Africa, the Islamic crcscent, and Central America...Anguia, Ethiopia, Afghanistan, South Yemen, Mozambique, Laos, Cambodia, South Vietnam [and Nicaragua], all have been brought under communist domination since 1974... The Soviet Union today is the most powerfully armed expansionist nation the world has ever known, and it's arms buildup continues at a pace nearly twice that of the United States. There is no mystery about Soviet intentions. The Kremlin leaders do not want war, but they do want the wnrld. And they are rapidly moving inti position to get what they want (1981, p. 3). The Soviets, therefore, do not appear reluctant to deploy combat forces objectives would be served. The fact force

wherever and whenever

their national

that they seldom receive more than token mlight speak well

criticism when

they do use

of their resolve to maintain

ind use the forces and equipBy contrast, Bletz and

ment necessary to achieve their national Taylor (1974)

objectives.

suggest that after the Vietnam experience, national security interests

except in instances the United

where vital

are directly threatened,

4

states does not

intend to intervene militarily on behalf of another nation. the United States will fullest have to make its miliMilitary anticipate a officers vastly depend

To counter Soviet expansionism, tary assistance as

program work to its and

potential. can

employed

advisors

contingency

planners

expanded role.

The success

of our military assistance

program will

heavily on these officers. cultures,

Familiarity with languages and knowledge of other military expertise they display, will

in addition to the special

impact significantly on the effectiveiiess of the program. also be politically aware.

The military must

3

The political - miltary environment of the 1980s will necessitate a military profession that rejects the limitations of the liberal traditional alliance, [an alliance which believes that the military should concentrate solely on the art of warfare and leave the political dimensions, which it is inextricably involved In, to *he people The profession must engender a true spirit of in Washingtonl. intellectualism conditioned by political and military realities (Sarkesian, 1979, p.52). The struggle being waged in El Salvador between leftist guerillas and

government forces is an immediate example of the importance of the need for a well coordinated, efficient and successful effort between United States

civilian and military personnel involved in that country.

United States mil-

itary planners and advisors involved in El Salvador must be aware of American public and political sentiment towards that country. They should also have religions, hisand

an understanding of the people of that region, tory, etc. This will help insure clear

their customs, accurate

and

comminication

exchange of informatior

and ideas between the United States and El Salvador and government personnel. "Central

and among American military, civilian

America is too close and the strategic stakes are too high for us to ignore the danger of governments seizing power there with idealogical ties close to the Soviet Union" ("A Plan to Win," it 1983). and military Based on the

information researched for this section,

is my opinion that our n;tional

leddership will be demanding more professional military advice and expertl'e on the political, military, sociological, economic, and technical
-

dimen-

sions of the nation's security goals.

4

X

-

Professional

Military Education facing the military, advanced profesedu-

In order to meet these challenges sional education is a must.

The prir.dry function of formal professional in subsequent learning

cition should be "to equip the student to use professional techniques, work an understanding and ways of thought of the of his

and in

fundamental profession

concepts, in order

principles, that he may

juvelop throughout life an analytical
,.

and creative power"

(Pittman,

1980,

14). The unique role and structure of the military necessitate a professional

coiicatlicn •ivilian

program

different (Dorger,

from

those

found Since

in few

civilian civilian teach

industry

and

professions and

1979).

educational courses that

institutions

in-house

industry it

education

programs

relate directly to trie military, Professional Military Education

has been necessary This has been

to establish

in-house

(PME).

made easy by the fact

fL at

the

iliii tdi'y

is

both

a

p-;fession

ann

an

exclusive

bureaucracy

'Plttman). Professional activities Kc)wledge :.regression which required in rank" military provide to meet (used education participating the by a greater 1966 is defined as with "those the educationai service in their by the

students

broad

responsibility study of officer 1980, by

inherent education p. 3). the needs

A.ssistant Secretary of Defense, The uniique society it role It of the

Manpower) military is

(Pittman.

determinec

of

the The of

serves.

doesn't have the luxury of choosing its own role. is not static. It is established in the context

role of the military rapid technological,

social,

and political change.

The professional military Thus PME is used as a pri-

education system is responsive to these changes.
:,1dry

source of providing officers the capability to fill this role (Dorger).

"5

The structure of the Air Force is labor along functional lines.

based on the specialized division of

This serves to diffuse the possibility of the is also necessary due to the sheer size

accumulation of excessive power; it and complexity of the Air Force.

Specialization is necessary in order to deal Also, personnel

with rapid technological change and knowledge obsolescence.

rotations have been reduced considerably in recent years and officers are more likely to find themselves retained in limited functional areas for greater

periods of time due to new functional management techniques such as the Rated Distribution and Training Management System. many useful purposes it Yet while specialization serves

has the potential to adversly impact the professional a

identity of military officers and destroy a sense of military corporateness, characteristic which has always been considered important. trend towards an occupational, Force. rather than professional,

This could cause a outlook on the Air is a lack of

Another possible danger attributed

to specialization

coordination and cohesion of the unit as a whole. social and professional exchanges associated with it, and attitudes necessary to ensure professionil

Only through PME,

and the

can the proper knowledge

identity and teamwork at all

levels, be promioted (Dorger). As is characteristic tured along hierarchical the lowest organizational of most organizations, or vertical levels. At lines. the military is ilso struc-

Specialization

is maximized at "similar

successively

higher levels,

functions are grouped together to facilitate management, tion of effort in subordinate functions, among the various agencies" (Dorger,

prevent the duplica-

and to ensure effective team effort In fact:

1979, p.20).

Managerial responsibility Is inherent within each officer position. Normally, it increases ir proportion to the officer's progression to higher and more responsible positions. In senior field grade positions, managerial responsibilities generally outweigh the requirement for specific technical job knowledge, except in a few of the most highly complex areas (Dorger, 1979, p.20).

6

Ii

ALA

Since the military must skills,

draw upon

its

own

ranks

for for

required

management of

PME must be capable of preparing

officers

these positions

oroader responsibility. On the surface, there appears to be a conflict between the bureaucratic

requirement of top leaders to have a broad knowledge base and the trend of specialization. This problem is placated by the military "through a

distinction between two tracks of officer development, future commander, p.20). Those who perform best in positions of commano, time with line units,

the specialist and the

and through formal education and training" (Pittman) 1980,

spending much of their Alter-

are selected for successively higher commands.

natively officers may concentrate their careers along functional personnel, operations, plans, recruiting, project management.

lines, e.g., Still others research &

become specialists along such lines as automated data processing, development, logistics, or information (Taylor, unddLed). to Pittman (1980), is PME is often thought of aS

According

"training" these

whereas civilian graduate school

"education".

With regard to PME,

terms are often used interchangeably. nixture of "training" and "education",

A closer look reveals

that PME is a

the former structured to predominate The purpose while as

at the lower levels and the latter at the higher levels of PME. of "training" is to teach a trade or skill is

(basic military subjects),

the purpose of "education" knowledge. medicine, It

to develop thinking and reasoning as well

The military profession, like architecture, combines
d

law, engineering, and

variety of skills with an underlying body of knowleoge. itself from most other professions, though however, there is by some

distinguishes

differentiating overlap:

between

"training" and

"education",

7T

At all levels, professional courses are a mixture of training and education, with the former tending to predominate at the Even the higher professional schools devote some lower levels. attention to developing skills and techniques and to imparting doctrine, but the higher up the ladder, the more dominant the

educational content of the courses (Taylor, undated, p.20).
When officers enter the service they are expected to have some knowledge of the military profession (through a precommissioning program) to a field of academi.: study. Once in the service, sharpen in addition various in

they attend

education and training

programs to

their knowledge

and skills

their particular area of expertise. professional cers' cation, is development needs.

Yet this does not entirely fulfill their

Without a program to further develop offiqualities of discipline, dedi-

leadership and management capabilities, motivation, ethics, etc., PME serves

the professional

development of an officer and qualities an under-

not complete.

to provide

these capabilities

(Dorger).

Through PME,

Air Force officers are able to acquire organized and optrates.

standing of how the Air Force is

They are better They are

able to see how their roles fit into the overall able to understand how, when, to things it does.

scheiie of things.

ihom, and why the Air Force does some of the

Thus, Air Force officers are better able to appreciate the (Dent,

complexity of the Air Force and some of the problems encountered in it 1975). PME is a unique system in that it

is phased in time to match the offi1975). It does this by interof practical

cers' potential with years of service (Rogers, spersing periods of formal training/education

between periods If all

experienLe over the course of an officer's career.

this knowledge much Also, of it money

were presented to officers at the beginning of their careers, would be forgotten or would become obsolete once it was used.

would be wasted on the training and education of officers who oon't intend to remain in the service (Dorger). 8

For the military,

professional

schooling officers combat.

is

particularly

significant

because

of the limited opportunities cornmand principal :Pittman). and manage troops in means PME, by which

have to practice Other can than war, develop

their profession--to school is one of the expertise in the

officers serves to

professional

therefore,

improve officers'

capabilities

art of warfare and national security. Also, aerospace doctrine, resigned the interaction of students and faculty serves as a review board of experts and to to evaluate and recommend For who is the a improved most part, aerospace the as PME concepts, system to is a

strategy an

(Rogers). officer

produce This is

"generalist",

opposed

"specialist".
the integration

not to imply that one should be a Rather,

"jack of all

trades

but master of none." of (Bletz & Taylor).

one should be a multi-specialist, specialties in pursuit of a

able to manage objective

multiple

common

Squadron Officer School The first it level of PME for officers is Squadron Officer School (SOS).

is an intensive,

8 1/2 week program whose educational for officers wnose primary

philosophy emphasizes is force

professional .ip loyment. lead and

development The key

responsibility be the
-

attributes

of these

officers should curriculum

ability to officership, support the

the ability to communicate. leadership,

Four

areas

Sorce employment, •OS mission, !evel:

ind communications (AU

ski'Is directly 1982-1983).

objectives

and philosophy

Catalog,

PME at this

Seeks to deepen officers competencies in their p,'imary i.e., to teach them the latest management techniques in maintenance, supply, fire control, etc., and to prepare greater leadership and responsibility involved (Taylor, At SOS, are stressed. basics such as writing, speaking, techniques

specialties, training, them for the undated, p.21). etc.,

of research,

Students also become familiar with doctrine and elementary
• U

tactics (Pittman).

"The emphasis at this level,

again,

is

on imparting techniques and military (Taylor,

doctrine rather than generating independent thinking and analysis" undated, p. 21).

Air Commana and Staff College Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) PME program. is the intermediate level Air Force

It is 40 weeks long and the AU Catalog notes its mission is "to knowledge, skills, and perspectives of mid-career

enhance the professional

officers for increased leadership roles in command and staff positions." Since ACSC is the highest level of PME that most officers will attend, it traditionally focused attention "on bringing all has

of them to a uiiform level

of staff competence and to a common understanding of the principles of military leadership and command of forces in the field" (Taylor, undated, The four curriculum areas of ACSC are Staff Communications National Security p. 23).

and Research, Affairs, and

Command Leadersnip and Resource Management, Warfare Studies.

At this level of PME there is a shift in emphasis away from

"training," towards "education". As the officer progresses from relatively technical jobs to those of broader scope, his basic skills retain their importance, but require refinement. Writing ability is channeled into the distinctive formats and styles of the staff paper, the talking paper, and military correspondence. An understanding of Air Force organizations--their form, purposes, and procedures -- becomes necessary... The specific Study of tactics and doctrine expands and deepens. focus of this type of knowledge will vary depending upon the individual's assignment--whether his duties are on a staff or in operations, in the field or at a headquarters (Pittman, 1980, p.25). National Security Affairs deals with US national security policy and ,

regional studies, i.e., global perspectives. theory and history, and the types

Warfare Studies covers military Additionally, a sizeable profesForces

of warfare.

number of officers are sent each year to attend intermediate level sional military education at other institutions, i.e., the Armed

Staff College,

the Army Command and General

Staff College,

the Naval War Col-

lege (Command and Staff Course), the Royal Air Force Staff College,

the Marine Corps Command and Staff College, the Canadian Forces Staff College, and the

German Armed Forces Staff College (Dorger). Sir War College Senior level PME )s provided by the AMr War College. Air War College where is to they prepare have select officers for for key The mission of the command and staff dnd It is

assignments

responsibility

developing,

managing, Catalog).

employing air power as a component of national assumed at the senior level PME that students

scur-ity (AU

already have acquired the spe-

cific skills of the various professions: Thus, military officers are thought to know tne intricacies of deploying, operating, and maintaining the weapons systems of their various services... Through curricula thought to be professionally unique, the colleges seek to provide them organized bodies of knowledge and enhanced perspectives on national defense in order to prepare them for high positionr of public trust and responsibility (Taylor. undated, p.25).

It

is

at the Air War College

that management

sKills and the ability

to

integrate rultiple specialties to the fullest potential. Again, a numoer

in pursuit of d common objective,

are developed

of officers

attcnd

senior

level

professional

military

education at other institutions. War College, the Industrial

Some of the-,

institutionS dre the National

College of the Armcd Forcs, the Army War College, Warfare Course), College, and the Royal Air Force College of the Canadian Forces National

the Naval War College (Naval Air Warfare, the NA7O

Defense

Defense College

(Dorger).

ii

Ii

-----------'

_

~= -----

Despite abundant praise coming from military and civilian the many elaborate systems used to review, update,

leaders,

and

and modify the programs of

the various PME schools, the services are constantly facing major challenges to their PME systems (from both inside and outside the military). The reason

for this is the cost of providing professional military education in an era of austere defense budgets. In this type of austere environment, it always becomes difficult to maintain programs which invest in long-term growth and development in the face of immediate demands, where the consequences of failing to provide must be managed by the current decision In the case of truly longmakers rather than their successors. term development, such as that represented by education, the difProfessional military education is such a ficulty is increased. The inability to quantify or categorically long-term program. identify the benefits derived from PME makes it particularly hard to convincingly articulate its value, especially in the highly pragmatic atmosphere of the panels and committees of the Air Staff Board Structure as they discharge their responsibility of "balancing" the Air Force budget (Pittman, 1980, p.1). The services can not fund all of their legitimate requirements. result has been a growing emphasis in recent years associated with all officer educational programs, on The

reducing the costs professional though, is

including

military education (Dorger). who believe the serv'ces'

There are some knowledgeable observers, need for professional military

education

growing.

For example,

a former Assistant

Secretary of Defense,

Education,

wrote recently: The challenge... is clear. Manifold factors compound and intensify the problems of continuing the thoughtful and purposeful development Knowledge obsolescence at an of the officer corps of the seryices. increasing rate, rapidly changing social patterns, and an increasingly sophisticated work onvirrunlent demand that even more... attention be devoted to the professional development and e,;ucational preparation of the officer of the future... With the increasing responsibility which all officers must assume in the increasingly ccmplex environment of the future, a telling argument is made for the need to expand the base of attendance at professional military education (Dorger, 1979, p.4).

12

The importance which the Air Force places on PME can be seen by the number of people (Air Force Officers) involved in the program (Appendix A). total of 2,498 officers graduated from residence PME between August June '82. This figure was derived from data of each PME school. An '81 A and

supplied by the Director of 18,828 graduated through

Evaluation

additional

correspondence and seminar courses (FY 82), and 39,882 officers were enrolled in the PME program at the end of FY 82. The correspondence Programs Reports, and seminar

course data were provided by SOS's Plans, ACSC's Records Division, and AWC's Records,

and Research Division, and Analysis Section.

These figures do not include officers from the other branches of the service and civilians who attend Air Force PME.

Graduate Degree Education AFIT Resident and NonResident Courses

In

addition

to the

"generalized"

PME

common

course

content is

offered

selected officers,

more specialized education and training

available to The bulk of of Technology

fulfill the specific educational these programs (AFIT),

requirements of the Air Force. Institute

are administered by the Air Force

a subordinate agency of the Air University. in scientific, areas (AU

AFIT provides education to meet Air Force requirements technological, Catalog). It managerial, and other designated

professional

is through AFIT that officers

receive fully funded graduate

degree educdtion.

13

AFIT courses are administered in one of two ways:

resident AFIT programs Stu-

and AFIT administered programs conducted on civilian camlpuses (Dorger). dents are sent to graduate school

on civilian campuses for courses and areas Most of these civil-

of study which the AFIT residence prugrams don't cover.

ian campus programs normally last for one or two (exceptionally three) years at an accredited civilian institution to cumplete a master's degree or a

doctorate. According to AFMPC there were a total of 728 fully-funded, AFIT admin-

istered, officer graduate degree slots awarded in 1982. numbers of students assigned to each area, each area represents of the total, Engineering International Area Technical Management Physical Sciences Social Sciences Communications Mathematics

The areas of study, percentagc

and the corresponding

are as follows: 197 149 146 64 9 8 0 35% 26%7 25%7 11% 2%7 1% 0%

AFIT Administered Civilian Graduate Education Prior to the 60's, civilian graduate education for Air Force officers was primarily in the scientific and engineering areas. cover such areas psychology, as political science, economics, etc., This has been expanded to international (Taylor). relations, According to

sociology,

business administration,

Bletz and Taylor, civilian graduate schooling serves three main purposes. Analytical skills and critical judgement. First, it teaches analytical military practices. and inductive towards the manuals,

skills and critical The military seems methodology, future. The

judgement different from traditional

to lean toward learning through historical and speculation

as opposed to deductive reasoning military is

said to rely on field manuals, etc.
-

technical

current statements of policy,

wisdom based on lessons of the past. 14

t.I-

___

----

~--

----

Civilian graduate schools tend to use not only inductive reasoning, tive reasoning as wel1, the result being a mind tha

but deduc-

is conditioned to recoy-

nize the limitations of conventional from those in which it was developed.

doctrine applied to situations different This brings to mind our experience in threats to national

Vietnam where the military tended to view pessimistically security (the worst case syndrome), rilities to get the job done

to report optimistically an military capado syndrome), and to show progress

(the can

toward achieving objectives by whatever measures their civilian masters established. These problems are a policy result, in part, from a less than adequate and a

understanding of public

or marginal

and multivariate analysis

lack of understanding of the country civilian graduate schools deal Exposure of officers to

(Vietnam)

itself - problems with which

(Bletz & Taylor). civilian attitudes 6nd opinions. Second,

on-campus education also provides one of the few opportunities for Air Forze officers to qet a feeling first-hand for the attitudes and opinions of civilians on issues of common interest. are physically Many military officers and their families Air Force bases

isolated from adjacent ýivilian communities.

are designed to provide every conceivable service to its people. Physical isolation leads to cultural isolation: the horizons for most officers ,y end at the base bounderies ana their interests will tend to become superparochial. For officers commissioned from the service academies the problem will be exacerbated by the lack of the leavening experience of four years of civilian undergraduate education... For an increasing proportion uf ufiicers, the experience of full-time graduate school on a civilian campus will represent the only opportunity for significant exposLre to the pulse of the civilian society they serve - its problems, fears, ideals and aspirations (Bletz & Taylor, 1974, p. 258). The converse is also true; those in academia .;,eet are given a rare opportunity to an experience that

and work with members of the military establishment,

undoubtedly serves a positive cause (Bletz & Taylor).

15

Attraction and retention of better qualified officers. civilian Most schooling serves to attract and retain a vital better

Third, qualified

graduate people. of of We

officers

consider

graduate education is a key factor

and expected

aspect

their career.

Retention

in the cost-benefit

analysis

officers whose graduate education has been provided can assume greater productivity from officers

by the government. graduate p. 256).

with

education

although this is difficult to measure (Bletz & Taylor,

1974,

Interviews with executives of four major corporations in 1973 yielded general agreement concerning the positive correlation between advanced aegree holders and high performance (resulting in increased return to the corporation), with emphasis on the broadening effect of graduate education. There was general agreement, too, that graduate education is associated with lower personnel turnover (Bletz & Taylor, 1974, p. 256). Data correlating fully-funded qraduate civilian schooling and retention was srarce prior to 1973. In 1973, the Department of Defense administered a to 18,000 officers of the four services Officers with lawyers, etc.)

random sample survey Questionnaire

who had obtained at least a master's degree (Bletz & Taylor). "profestional" degrees (i.e., chaplains, dentists, doctors,

were not included.

The sampling plan sought a disproportionately

large num70m

ber of respondents in the lower grades.

The response was approximately

and useable data base consisted of 11,568 officers. was relatively clear. Fifty-three percent

Positive career intent they intend to

responded that

remain in the service as long as possible;

36% intend to stay for a minimal

career and only 11% intend to leave the service before eligible to retire. It appears significant that 93% of the respondents believe their advanced

degrees are useful

in making them more effective officers.

Officers respond-

ing to the OSD survey were motivated positively by graduate civilian schooling. This has important implications for the recruitment and retention of

quality officers in the Volunteer Armed Forces (Bletz & Taylor).

16

_

_-

I•

Need for Civilian Graduate Education:

Pros and Cons

Opinions differ widely as to whether or not officers need the amount of civilian graduate education they currently receive. Civilian critics would Military

ike to see the military isolated from society as much as possible.

critics fear that civilian education for military personnel could have a contaminating effect, causing some to stray from the paths of duty. Cost-

benetit arguments are raised, where costs are easily measured and benefits not so readily definable (Taylor). When one weighs these arguments against the need for graduate for civilian

the unique purposes civilian graduate schooling serves, civilian education is compelling. First, The four

primary reasons school

graduate education are:

civilian graduate

teaches analytical military practices;

skills and critical judgement different from traditional secend, it provides one o- the few opportunities first-hand, for the attitudes

for Air Force officers to on

get a feeling,

and opinions of civilians

issues of common interest,

and vice versa; third, civilian graduate education and fourth, it pro-

serves to attract and retain better qualified officers;

vides specialized education to meet Air Force educational needs not available in PME courses or resident AFIT progrars. This neec for civilian graduate

education is especially true considering the expanded roles and ever increasing responsibilities of today's Air Force officer.

Other Graduate Degree Opportunities In in 1982, an additional areas, i.e., 155 officers legal began pursuing graduate Force degrees Academy etc.

specialized

master's

program,

Air

sponsored degrees,

the Senior Commander's Sponsored Education Programs, etc.).

Also, a total of 131 officers attended education in industry (IBM, Officers may fulfill

graduate degree requirements by enrolling in pro-

grams cosponsored by civilian colleges and universities and some of the professional military educational institutions.
17

In these programs,

students at

-

-

-

"-

the

miliitary

institution

take

courses Also,

and an

meet

requirements number

of

the

cooperating civilian choose to their own

institution.

important

of officers

complete their advanced expense, with some

degrees on their through

off duty time and at military and Veterans

dssistance

Administration sponsorship (Bletz & Taylor). Other Non-AFIT Specialized Education Programs There are numerous other specialized education programs available to the Air Force through non-AFIT sources. Management positions School in which prepares management Examples would be the Defense Systems for future executive

Air Force officers and acquisition, and

systems

several

specialized

courses at the Leadership and Management Development Center (Dorger). Each year there are more advanced specialized education slots than there are intermediate essential and senior level PME slots combined, These programs are knowledge. They

in providing

Air Force officers with needed academic

Continuing education courses are also available through the Air Force.

are used to prevent the knowledge learned in the graduate degree programs and PME from becoming obsolete. AFIT conducts such courses in residency and

through cooperating civilian institutions (Dorger). The Air Force conducts numerous training programs which differ from the edu'Ational programs "primarily in their 1979, scope and emphasis on skills, as

opposed to knowledge" (Pittman,

p. 49).

One can appreciate the size of 5000

the Air Force training effort when one considers the fact that about officer programs, training and an slots are available additional 1500-2000 each year slots in various available basic each

trainirn year in

are

advanced functional training courses. The element of experience in an

officer's

professional

development

process is administered by the Air Force personnel system through the Career Management Program. its purpose is to "provide the Air Force with a suffi-

cient number of qualified officers available to assume positions of responsibility by developing the capabilities of individual officers to handle

increasingly more challenging responsibilities" (Dorger,

1979, p.50).

18

Comparison to Industry In order to get a feel for how the Air Force compares to industry on the subject of the professional education is of its people., here. The information from four that

defense related corporations will
)dtellite

provided Douglas 8DM

four corporations The the

be

discussed Company

are

McDonnell the

Corporawýon, and

Communications Boeing Aircraft in the

'COMSAT),

Corporation foi

Corporation.

These four companies

were chosen

their prominence

,,efense and aircraft industries.

McDonnell Douglas Corporation According to Mr. Bill Johnson, (1983) Training Kepresentative, Personnel

Training, McDonnell Douglas will toe cost of college courses.

reimburse any of its employees a portion of and a grade of

The courses must be joo related,

C or better is necessary to receive reimbursement. pursue an undergraouate employee is allowed $20 Uegree,
each

Should a person decide to i, reiiibured 60% and the addi-

tour!e Losl

for books.

Upon completion reimbursed.

of the degree an

tional 15% of the total tuition is wishing to pursue a graduate degree,

The same holds true for anyone

the only differecce being that instead of

receiving an additional 1S% reimbursement of the totc! tuition upon completion of the degree, an emploype is awarded an additional 46%, ,:,ny employee wishing to pursue a doctorate will front. for a total of 1(;0%. up the

receive 100% reimbursement with reimbursement,

For anyone wishing to pursue a college degree

curriculum must first be approved. Engineers who wish to acquire an MBA must have a masters or five years experience as a supervisor (there are in engineering to this

exceptions

pol icy )

19

X .-

Basic adult education is another program in which McDonnell Douglas will help pay for costs (not a college credit program). This program consists of

remedial training, technical training and obtainment of high school diplomas. Under Basic Adult Education, the employee is reimbursed 100% of whatever costs are incurred. In the separate category of Skill Improvement, 60% of costs is reim-

bursed for individual courses which are job related. Between 1 July 1982 and the end of March 1983, obtain a college degree received curriculum approval, 596 persons wishing to and 55 employees had

some sort of curri :ulum approved under Basic Adult Education (Johitson). The Communications Satellite Company (COMSAT) COMSAT also reimburses employees for educational degrees. able to everyone and is important promotion considered a benefit. This is availfor an

An executive marked

is sent out to attend an advanced management programn at MIT, etc. This only averages about one person managers approval, per

"qI

such schools as Harvard, year. Add'tijnally,

with an individual seminar. In 1982,

an employee may of 2,705

attend an external

out of a total

population

people, COMSAT spent $165,000 on education

(an average of $61

per employee). assist-

Ten percent of COMSAT's employees availed themselves of educaticoal ance, 25% of which took two or more courses at one time (Rarnsdale, The BDM Corporation This analyses, company offers professional services In research,

1983).

experiments, energy,

design and tests in such areas as defense, transportation and public policy.

communications,

envircnment,

Major General W.R.

MacDonald,

USAF (Ret.) Corporate Vice President of BDM,

states:

To further enhance our success through the continued technical and management education and training of our professional staff, we have strongly supported the personal growth of our people through a combination of education and training programs. All permanent, full time employees are eligible to receive 100 percent reimbursement for the cost of tuition, books, and related fees associated with attending courses at college and universities. During 1982,
301 BDH personnel attended 525 (_uurses le~dinq to graduate degrees

(1983). 20

--

.4-

Out

of an

estimated

8DM

population in 1982

of 2300

employees,

approximately

1b%

-pursued graduate degrees

(employees who receive fully-funded educa-

tion incur no obligations). In addition to full-time, seminars, fully-funded education, BDM employees may

attend short courses,

and symposia which will enhance their skills

or broaden their knowledge in a particular interest area. Finally, Force PME. BDM has developed a program similar, in some respects, to Air

As General MacDonald explained:

The BDM style of management makes many demands, especially on relaRapid growth, tively new people at the middle management level. plus the dynamics of our unique matrix management organizational structure, have demanded an effective, systematic program to impart To meet this demand, BDM BDM management expertise to newer managers. has developed an in-house, management development system which trains Addiprofessional personnel in various aspects of manigement... tionally, BDM sent seven of its personnel to special management training courses at Harvard University, Psychological Associates, etc, in 1982 (1983). The Boeing Aircraft Corporation
Between July

1, 1981 and August

31,

1982.

Boevng 61 PnDs) Tnis

funded

a

total

Of

2,570 employees pursuing graduate (3,326 masters, degrees (6,932), and individual courses (2,249).

and undergradiate figure represents
(3.8% pur-

.,proximately

14% of a total

Boeing population

of 90,O00 persons

sued graduate degrees). ate degrees (113 masters, total of 206 (Gayton, ,kills that:

During this period, 1 PhD)

114 individuals received grad,|for a

and 92 received underjraduate degrees, many employeet

1983).

Also,

develop their mandyeridl Corporate policy states

in the Boeing Management Development System.

The management development program will emphasize self-development by all managers, on-the-job development of all managers, personal attention of eac" manager to the development of his subordinates, and the integration of these individual actions with organizational management developm2nt under an overall system (iNiven, 1983, p.1).

21

S..

. .

_ •

• _. _

Following are the eight key programs which comprise the overall management development system, Management ('80-1500, and their respective participation levels: Pre-

'81-824),

Basics of Supervision '81-185), Program

('80-1066,

'81-447),

Management for excellence ('80-244, nar (120 participants per year),

Senior Boeing Management SemiManagement ('81-57), Aerospace

Industry Manufacturing Seminar (40 participants per year), ('80-65, (50 '81-13, 5 military participants each year), over the last 20 years). Also,

Executive Program

and Sloan Fellowships Management provide Development for a wide

participants

organizations within the major operating organizations range of management training operations.

These programs fall in the general Functional and Cross-Functional Boeing has the people who have responsibilities

areas of One-hour Management Skill Courses, Programs,

and Outside Short Courses and Seminars. designed to identify, for eventual

Finally,

Expo Program, high potential

early in their careers, level

promotion to executive

(Niven). It appears that these four defense related industries place as if not more, much than

emphasis nn the professional does the Air Force.

education of its employees,

A figure for the total number of Air Force officers purin 1982 was not readily obtainable. With 728 new

suing graduate degrees

graduate degree slots started in FY 82, and graduate degree programs lasting normally two years, not more then 2% of the entire Air Force officer corps

can be involved in pursuing a fully-funded graduate degree at any one time (.72% of the entire Air Force officer corps began pursuing graduate degrees on a full-time, fully-funded basis in FY 82).

A

221

Thus far we have looked at: Force officers; degree programs professional ano the

The need for professional education for Air education; AF;T administered educational programs graduate to

military

various

other

available

officers, It

and a comparison of Air Force professional

educdtion to industry. being spent is also on officer apparent for in

is evident that a considerable amount of money is education While there is there by is the Air Force.

professional industry. programs,

This trend intuitive

considerable

iustification

these

a scarcity of hard evidence to support these expenditures. and Management Development Center there are data which can the interactions and effects qhich PME and graduate

At the Leadership be used

to explore

education might have on officers skill. "I

in the areas of supervisory

and managerment

LI

METHOD In an attempt school analys's has on to determine what influence and management how PME and civilian graduate an

the supervision conducted to

abilities

of officers, their

was on

measure as

subordinates and

view

officer

supervisors

such

matters Job

Management

Supervision, and a host

Supervisory of other

Communications

Climate,

Related

Satisfaction,

factors (Appendix B). (OAP) data base,

The data within the Organizational Assessment Package contains survey information collected

used for this study,

since January Center (LMDC).

1979 by the Air Force Leadership and Management Development The 109 question survey was designed by the Air Force Human (a) provide management (b) to provide

Resources Laboratory to aid LMJC in its mission to: consulting services to Air Force commanders upon

request,

leadership and management training, and (c)

to conduct research on Air Force

systemic issues with information within the accumulated data base (Hendrix & Halverson, 1979). of the survey is the first step in the consultation

Administration process.

The survey is given to a stratified random sample of the organizaThe results of the survey are an iMporThe results are handled After approximately Is then provided to

tion to which LMDC has been invited.

tant feature in the assessment of the organization. in a confidential manner between five to six weeks for analysis,

LMDC and the client. feedback of data

commanders ard supervisors within the organization. When specific problems are revealed, a consultant and the supervisor

develop a management action plan designed to reduce the problem at that level of the organization. Within six months, the consulting team returns to

readminister the survey instrument as a means to help assess the Impact of the consulting process. 24

The data from each consulting base for research purposes. developed for this instrument.
as personnel category, age, sex,

effort are

stored in a cumulating

data

These data are aggregated

by work group codes

The data nay be reca'ied by demographics such
Air Force Specialty level. Code (AFSC), pay grade, the 93 atticontent, job

zime in service and educational tudinal items are combined various

Through factor analysis, measures of which cover job

into 24 types

interferences, dimensions.

and

supervisory

and

organizational

Using the data from the LMDC data base, of PME and formal study is education can be tested. the perceptions

several notions about the impact In general, the purpose of this across key

to analyze

of subordinates the

of officers

supervisory

limensions to determine

impact of various impact, tine in

levels of PME and sevice will be used were tested by

formal education. as a covariate. tnis study: 1. There

To reduce maturational Specifically,

the following null

hypotheses

will

be

no

significant

differences

in

subordinate

mean

responses across the levels of PME. 2. ordinates education There will whose be no significant have a differences bachelors in mean (as responses highest acquired of sublevel either of a

supervisors vs

degree

completed),

those

whose

supervisors

have

masters or docto-ate. 3. of degree. To performed test the null hypotheses, an analysis of covariance effects (ANCOVA) was for There is no significant interaction between level of PME and level

(ANCOVA

tests main effects and interaction (level of college deyree Differences at

controlling (level

a covariate) completed) considered

using a 2

obtained)

X 4

of PME

factorial

design.

between/aionq the various cells are or below the .05 alpha level of

statistically

significant

Z5

OEM---

significance.

This establishes a 95% confidence level In error. out. they

that the null hypothe-

sis will not be rejected covariate, and thus

The effect of time in service was made a Medical usually doctors identify were excluded as from the holding a

factored that

study due to the

fact

themselves

doctorate degree during survey administration. The first independent (a) variable, level of college degree obtained, con-

sists of 2 levels: (b)

officer supervisors who hold a bachelors

degree and

officer supervisors who hold a graduate degree. as indicated by overall mean responses,

This study compares the of subordinates of offi-

perceptions,

cers grouped into these two categories. The second independent variable, sists of 4 levels: Service overall School and (a) no PME, (d) (b) level of PME completed by officers con(c) Intermediate of the these

Squadron Officer School, Comparisons

Senior Service School. of subordinates

are made

mean responses

of officers who have completed

various levels of PME. In addition to investigating these main effects by level, this research selected of the

determines any interaction effect on each of the OAP factors two independent variables (level of education and level

of PME)

operating

together,

as distinguished from the main effect of each independent variable. (factors and items) measured by the OAP were selected was based on the dimension's relationship to

Twelve dimensions for the study.

The selection

the purported benefits of the various types of education.

The dimensions are

further defined at Appendix B and depicted graphically at Appendix C.

26

.

*.. .

•,T

-

7'••

Subjects

The selected sample for this study includes all officers with subordinate workgroups within While the the Social the LMDC aata base from 1 Oct 1980 from the through I Jan 1983. for use is

selected statistical Sciences treatments (Nie, for

procedures Jenkins, cases,

Statistical Bent, by

Package 1975) category

Hull, missing

Steinbrenner, the subject pool

differing

:resented in Table 1.

TABLE 1 Officer Sample By Category

PME
Education dacnelors uraduate TOTAL NONE 224 50 274 SOS 2s1 222 473 ACSC 156 449 605 AWC 76 310 386 OTALI 707 1031

f73_

27

'*

'

Results A total of 12 dependent measures were used in the analysis of each nf as

the hypotheses.

These measures were chosen for their representativeness indicators.

supervisory and management Null Hypothesis 1: nate mean responses completed. ables.

There will be no significant differences the levels of PME which their

in subordihave

across

supervisors

Null Hypothesis 1 was rejected

in 10 of the 12 factors

and vari-

A summary of the significant

differences

are provided

in Table 2.

A

detailed statistical presentation is provided in Appendix B, Tables 3 through 12. TABLE 2 Summary of Significant Main Effects On Level of Professional Military Education
________

Factors Job Motivation Task Autonomy Management and Supervision Supervisory Commnnicatlois Climate Organizational Communications Climate Climate

_

General Organizational Items To what extent do you feel your job?

accountable to your supervisor in accomplishing

My supervisor performs well under pressure. My supervisor explains how my Job contributes to the overall mission. When I need technical advice, I usually qo to my supervisor.

28

The two variables that reflect no significant 6ifference are Job Related Satisfaction (Table 13) and Pride (Table 14). It is on apparent that those with supervisory dimensions by

nigher levels of PME are rated more positively "hreir subordinates.

Null responses nighest

Hypothesis of level

2:

There will whose

be no significant have those a

differences

in mean (as have a in

subordinates of

supervisors vs

bachelors wnose

degree,

education

completed)

supervisors

acquired either a masters or doctorate.

The onl,, variable that [F(I, 8) 7 7.85, p.

revealed < .05].

significant main effect was Job Satisfaction this case,

the subordinates of those with graduate degrees shared greater Job (Table 13, Figure 11). However, the 1-10, trend ,2, across all other (not

Satisfaction dependent

variables,

as portrayed

by Figures

shows

a slight

significant) edge to those with graduate degrees. Null Hypothesis 3: PME and level of degree. There is no siynificdnt irttrdctiun between level Of the 12 selected depenc•nt The Item, "When variables, of

only ole Advice, [F(3, 8)

produced a significant interaction. 1 Usually Go To My Supervisor," 2.93,
I

I Need Technical

was found to produce an interaction presented in Table 12 and depicted

p.

< .05].

The data is

in Figure

U.

The

only It

variable is

that

showed

no

significant

main

effects

was

Pride

(Table 14).

noted that the trends once again appear to favor advanced although not significantly the variable effect on "Time the (Figure 12). in Service" was that was used significant in as a all

education and PME, Finally, covariate cases

As suspecteO,

to eliminate its
-

findings,

(Tables 3

14).

29

DISCUSSION

Overall,

the data shows that officer's professional military education has

an extremely positive relationship with the perceptions of their subordinates on many key supervisory measures. 12 measures chosen for this study. Only one measure, has a significantly Job Related Satisfaction, positive effect. indicates that graduate school subordinates whose PME is significantly positive in 10 of thE

Apparently,

sunervisors had obtained either a masters or doctorate degree seemed to have more job sat'sfaction. favor of graduate Additionally, though there is a trend across all the data in significant. This can be seen in

school,

not

Figure; 1-12. Interactions turned out to be, for the most part, as expected. On the

item concernina technical advice,

graduate degrees appear to provide officers questions across the

the knowledge necessary for them to answer technical board. PME does not have much of an effect,

except that having no PME and no

grdduate education leaves the supervisor unable to field technical questions with much oroficiency. parallel advice. No-mally, we would have expected to see relatively This is not the case on technical

lines between the two groups.

30

I ;

CONCLUSIONS From the discussions believes a cas! Force Policy. aimed by exists It to and analyses presented in this study, the author the Air foreign

has been made to support several serve as a one of several

conclusions. of

First, American to

instruments at all and

serves as

deterrent,

hopefully

levels, its

aggression Its very

adversaries

against

the United

States

allies.

existence allows the United States an extra events States in a way favorable to the national and its allies, and, if all

amount of leverage to influence security fails, interests the of the United military to protect

else

American

establishment must have a war-fighting capability, vital national interests.

second to none,

The key to both deterrence and war-fighting capability is unit operational readiness. The military establishment is not just another American institution and its leaders are not simply members of another profession ... military officers carry from the time of commission, extraordinary responsibilhties, endure unusual hardships, receive no additional compensation for longer and harder work, and bear unlimited liability extending to the risk of life itself. Military units train and fight only as well as they are led by their officers (Taylir, undated, p. 44). The volatile and constantly technological changing international scene, and the new

age in which the military must operate,

presupposes

a military As even

tnat is well educated and trained to meet the many challenges the world environment increases in complexity, the 1980's

facing it. will put

greater demands amount "nigher

on officers. of for

Officer effectiveness will and training invested

be dependent in in way these both to

on the

and quality education

educetior the

officers. civilian the

military is

professional the best

institutions intellectual (Sarkesian, Second,

and service sensitivity 1979, p. 45).

schools and

probably

develop will

analytical

insights

he/she

need"

industry,

like

the

Air

Force,

considers

the

development

and

maintaining of a hignly-ecucated and trained staff an essential element for a quality professional related firms. organization, as indicated by a sampling of four defen.,e S96 Mcuonneil

between I july I982 and the end or Marco ii93, 31

Douglas approval,

emplovy-es

wishing

to

obtain

a

college

degree

received

curriculum

and 55 employees In 1982,

had some sort

of curriculum approved under Basic

Adult Education.

out of a total COMSAT population of 2,705 people, (an average of $61 per employee). Ten per25%

$165,000 was spent on education

cent of COMSAT's employees availed themselves of educational of which took two or more courses at one time. tion population of not less than

assistance,

Out of a total approximately

BDM Corpora18% pursued incur

2300 employees,

graJuate degrees in 1982 no obligation).

(employees who receive fully-funded education 1, 1981 and August 31, 1982,

Between July

14% of a total

Boeing Aircraft Corporation population of 90,000 employees pursued some sort of .cademic degree. Witi 728 new 3.8% of the Corporation was pursuing a graduate degree. slots started in FY 82, and graduate degree

graduate degree

programs lasting normally two years, officer

approximately 2% of the entire Air Force graduate degrees at any one time degrees

corps can be involved in pursuing

(.72% of the entire Air Force officer on i full-time basis in FY 82). if not higher, responses indicate

corps began

pursuing graduate

These figures

indicate that industry places education than the Air Force.

higq,

emphasis on professional to LMDC's AP survey,

Third, co-variance,

as determined

by an analysis

of

that service

schools and graduate education

may help Ten of the

preý)are Air Force officers to be better managers and supervisors. twelve factors positive managerial Masters-Ph.D. Overall, the chosen showed PME on the vs. no PME as and One had a having had a of

significantly on the

effect and

perceptions issues. having

attitudes of the

subordinates showed

supervisory as

factors

combination responses

significantly support

positive PME as

effect. being a

to the OAP

survey strongly

positive and worthwhile influence on Air Force officers.

32

Kinally,

the importance of professional

education for Air Force officers has

neen

shown.

The

Air

Force

places

heavy

emphasis

on

training

and

scholarship.

This is seen by the number of officers actively involved 'n PME PME is the most widEly used tool for officer levels indicate. international Rapid advances political shall arena not

and other educational programs. professional in technology that development,

as participation changes and in

and constant the need

the

dissure

for PME

other

educational

programs

diminish. graduate

If anything, education. indicate and

the need will Information their

increase, supplied of

oarticularly by four

in the area of defense-related abreast of thie

corporations current

understanding

the need this into

to keep

knowledge

information.

Takinq

consideration, (2%) to

current level of Air Force emihasis on graduate edjuation .2,thouqh

may be lo•. increasinq

cost and manpower requirements may seem prohibitive

qradLjate education expenditures, desire for a well costs now, trained

the Air Force emph.sis on PME reveals tie What apoear to be mostly

and educated officer.

in the area o* eaucation,

could very well reap enormous benefits

in the future.

33

4•

.• , '- =

I

References Air University Catalog. Air University: Maxwell AFB, AL, 1982-1983.

Bletz, D. F., & Taylor, W. J., Jr. A case for officer graduate education. Journal of Political and hM-itary Sociology, 1974, 2, 251-267. Bricker, 8-9. Brodsky, 1967, R., Professional military education. Air Reservists, 1982, 34,

N. The professional education of officers. 48, 429-432.

Phi Delta Kappan,

Dent, D. R. Roles of PME in officer development. 1975, 26, 92-99.

Air University Review,

Dorger, J. M. USAF Officer PME in the 1980s: A look at the Air Force need for professional military education in the coming decade (Report Number 0600-79). Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, AL: 1979. We are in danger of losing our scientific leadership. Fitch, V.L. U.S. News & World Report, June 21, 1982, 56. Gayton, Carber. Personal communication, 6 May, 1983. survey assessment package Brooks AFB TX: Air Force 1983 1983.

Hendrix, W. H., & Halverson, V. B. Organizational for Air Force organizations (AFHRL-TR-78-93). Human Resources Laboratory, 1979. Johnson, Bill. Personal communication, Personal communication, 18 April,

MacDonald, W. R.,

24 February,

Niven, J., From a corporate policy letter by T. A. Wilson, dated June 27, 1977, number 8D10, in the Boeing Management Development System Manual, dated April 1983. Niven, J., Personal communication, R M., The Real War, N.Y.: 18 April, 1983. Inc., 1981.

SNixon,

Warner Books,

Pittman, W. C., Jr. Why PME? The purpose of professional military education. Student Research Report. 79-80, Air War College, Air Unive:sity, Anril 1980. A )lan to win in El Salvador.
;i

Newsweek,

March 21,

1983,

18-20.

Rafnsdale,

J.

Personal communication,

13 April,

1983. Air University Review,

fkogers, F. M., Why professional military education? 1975, 26, 2-9. 34

Sarkesian, S. C., Changing dimensions of military professionalism: Military Review, 1979, 59, 44-57. and enlightened advocacy.

education

Taylor, W. J. Jr., Professional enculturation of the U.S. officer corps. Washington, D.C. T-eorgetown University Center for Strategic and International Studies, undated. Aalsh, E., & Walsh, Digest, November, T. The status of science education. 1982, 48, 36-39. The Education

I%

APPENDIX A Air Force Officer PME Participation Levels

____

36

RESIDENCE PME SOS Total graduated (August '81 Mav '82) AC SC Total graduated (August '81l- June '82) AWC Total graduated (August '81
-

i900o

434

May '82)

164 2498 FISCAL YEAR 1982
SOS

Total residence PME graduated NON-RESIUENCE PME

CorresponJer.ce Total graduated Total enrolled at end of FY '82 ACSC Correspondence Total yraduated Total enrolled at end of FY '82 Semi na r
Total graduated 6022

2,479 24,824

9242 9377

lctal enrolled at end of FY '62 A14C Correspondence Total graduated
Total enrolled at end of FY '82

738

336
1927

Semi nar Total graduated Total enrolled at end of FY '82
Total non-residence PME graduates

749 301)
18823

Total nrn-residence PME enrolled at end of FY '82 37

3982

APPENDIX B OAP Factors and Variables

38

_

-

-

_-

---

I

• "•II'

S•

~~~~~~~.. . ........... ...... ..... .

...

..

.

.....

...

.

...

.

.

..

..

..

.

Tdble 3 Z807 Jub Motivation Index Andlysis of Means

Mean (Count)

NONE

SOS

ACSC

AWC

Bachelors

111.01

118.35

121.93

127.73

(231)

(252)

(159)

(75)

Graduite

119.94
(54)

119.70
(228)

121.97
(456)

136.77
(313)

Analysis of Variance Sum of Squares 41417.450 1428.598 37866.540 Mean Square 10354.363 1428.598 12622.180 Significaice of F 0.001 0.434 0.001

Source of Variation MAIN EFFLCTS Degree PME Z-WAY 1NIL;ýACTIONS Degree PME Covariate Time in Service

DF 4 1 3

F 4.434 0.612 5.405

5327.863

3

177/.954

0.761

0.516

97245.067

1

97245.067

41.643

0.000

II

39

39

+.

-- +.--..-

...-.

.

Table 4 Z813 Task Autonomy Analysis of Means

Mean (Count) Bachelors

NONE 4.19 (238)

SOS 4.28 (257)

ACSC 4.45 (160)

AWC 4.70 (76)

Graduate

4.40 (55)

4.37 (22q)

4.52 (45P)

4.89 (313)

I!
Analysis of Variance
Sum

Source of Variation MAIN EFFECTS Degree PME 2-WAY INTERACTIONS Degree PME Covariate

of Squares 50.665 3.199 40.851 1.053

DF 4 1 3 3

Mean Square 12.666 3.199 13.617 0.351

F 12.143 3.067 13.054 0.337

Significance of F 0. 0.080 0.000 0.799

Time in Service

45.413

1

45.413

43.537

0.000

4U

i

Tatie 5

Z618 Management and Supervison
Analysis of Means

Mean (Count) Bachelors

NONE 4.70 (237)

SOS 5.18 (248)

ACSC 5.21 (158)

AWC 5.37 (76)

Graduate

4.87 (51)

5.14 (226)

5.30 (456)

5.42 (311)

I
I

Analysis of Variance Source of Variation MAIN EFFICTS Degree PME 2-WAY INTERA(lIUNS Degree PME Covari ate Time in Service Sum of Squares 29.440 0.383 24.943 1.428 62.791 DF 4 1 3 3 1 Mean Square 7.36U 0.383 8.314 0.476 62.791 F 6.470 0.337 7.309 0.419 55.199 Significdnce of F 0.000 0.562 0.000 0.740 0.00U

41

Table 6 Z819 Supervisory Communications Climate Analysis of Means

Mjan

jqount) Bachelors

NONE 4.37 (237)

SOS 4.74 (248)

ACSC 4.80 (158)

AWC 4.88 (76)

Graduate

4.61 (51)

4.78 (226)

4.90 (456)

4.98 (311)

Analysis of Variance
Sum of

Source of Variation NAIN EFFECTS Degree PME a-WAY INTERACTIONS Degree PME Covariate Time In Service

Squares 19.603 2.329 12.516 0.838 44.967

DF 4 1 3 3 1

Mean Square 4.901 2.329 4.172 0.279 44.967

F 4.118 1.957 3.506 0.235 37.785

Significance of F 0.003 0.162 0.015 0.872 0.000

42

-

- - ------.--

~.--~-

Table 7 Z820 Organizational Cornmunications Climate Analysis of Means

Medn (Count) bachelors

NONE 4.48 (224)

SOS 4.73 (251)

ACSC 4.78 (156)

AWC 4.87 (76)

(Graduate

qi
Source of Variation MAIN EFFECTS Degree PME 2-WAY INTFRACTIONS Degree PME Covariate Time In Service

4.59 (5U)

4.83 (222)

4.80 (449)

4.93 (310)

Analysis of Variance Sum of Squares 11.227 1.104 8.260 0.511 23.404 DF 4 1 3 3 1 Mean Square 2.807 1.104 2.753 0.170 23.404 F 2.968 1.167 2.911 0.18U 24.744 Significance of F 0.019 0.280 0.033 0.910 O.OUO

43

Table 8 Z824 General Organizational Analysis of Means Climate

Mean (Count) Bachelors

NONE 4.67
(224)

SOS 4.94 (251)

ACSC 5.08 (156)

AWC 5.16 (7b)

Graduate

4.92 (50)

5.02 (222)

5.13 (449)

5.23 (310)

Analysis of Variance Source of Variation lAIN EFFECTS Degree PME 2-WAY INTERACTIONS Degree PME Covariate Time In Service Sum of Squares 15.264 1.895 9.417 0.844 39.706 DF 4 1 3 3 1 Mean Square 3.816 1.895 3.139 0.281 39.706 F 4.058 2.015 3.338 0.299 42.225 Significance of F 0.003 U.156 0.019 0.826 0.000

44

-

-

I

-

Table 9 Z216 To What Extent Do You Feel Accountable To Your Supervisor In Accomplishing Your Job? Analysis of Means

Mean (Count)

NONE

SOS

ACSC

AWC

Bachelors

4.94 (242)

5.16 (256)

5.33 (161)

5.66 (76)

Graduate

5.23 (54\

5.1 (231)

5.34 (40)

5.63 (316)

Analysis of Variance Sum of Squares 44.885 0.463 39.352 Mean Square 11.221 0.463 13.117 Significance of F 0.000 0.525 0.000

Source of Varlatlon MAIN EFFECTS Degree PME 2-WAY INTERACTIONS Degree PME Covarlate Time in Service

DF 4 1 3

F 9.779 0.4U4 11.432

2.737

3

0.912

0.795

0.497

37.794

1

37.794

32.937

O.OOU

[

45

L~~---------------------A

Table 10 Z416 My Supervisor Performs Well Under Pressure Analysis of Means

Mean (Count) Bachelors

NONE 4.72 (231)

SOS 5.31 (252)

ACSC 5.30 (159)

AWC 5.57 (75)

Graduate

5.06 (54)

5.28 (228)

5.54 (456)

5.67 (314)

I

Analysis of Variance Source of Variation MAIN EFFECTS Uegree PME A-WAY INTERACTIONS Uegree PME Covariate Time In Service Sum of Squares 37.363 3.8U5 25.153 4.821 132.012 DF 4 1 3 3 1 Mean Square 9.341 3.805 8.384 1.607 132.012 F 5.609 2.285 5.035 0.965 79.275 Significance of F 0.000 0.131 0.002 0.408 0.000

46

I

. . .

..

,-.

Table 11 Z428 My Supervisor Explains How My Job Contributes to the Overall Mission Analysis of Means

Mean
(Count)

NONE 4.38 (237)

SUS 4.78 (248)

ACSC 4.97 (158)

AWC 4.84 (76)

Bachelors

Graduate

4.55 (51)

4.83 (226)

5.00 (456)

5.03 (311)

Analysis of Varlance Source of Variation MAIN EFFECTS Deyree PME 2-WAY INTERACTIUNS Degree PME Covariate Time in Service Skim of Squares 22.436 1.492 16.152 1.4b9 66,926 OF 4 1 3 3 1 Mean Square 5.609 1.492 5.384 0.486 66.926 F 3.695 0.983 3.547 0.320 44.085 Significance of F O.U05 0.322 0.014 0.811 0.00O

47

Table 12 Z439 When I Need Technical Advice, I Usually Go To ?*Y Supervisor

Analysis of Means

Mean (Count) Bachelors

NONE 3.77 (237)

SOS 4.30 (248)

ACSC 4.13 (158)

AWC 4.41 (76)

Graduate

4.32 (51)

4.20 '226)

4.24 (456)

4.14 (311)

qT

Analysis of Variance

Source of Variation MAIN EFFECTS Degree PME 2-WAY INTERACTIONS Degree PME Covariate Time in Service

Sum of Squares 18.652 0.108 17.772 19.275 12.521

DF 4 1 3 3 1

Mean Square 4.663 J.108 5.924 3.425 12.521

F 2.128 0.049 2.703 2.932 5.714

Significance of F 0.075 0.825 0.044 0.032 0.017

48

-...-

__

.

..

.

, •

,*' .

Table 13 Z822 Job Related Satisfaction Analysis of Means

Mean (Count) Bachelors

NONE 4.92 (224)

SOS 5.08 (251)

ACSC 5.28 (156)

AWC 5.17 (76)

Ii
Ii
Graduate 5.13

(50)

5.24

(222)

5.33

(449)

5.43

(310)

Analysis of Variance Sum of Squares 10.207 5.572 1.892 2.239 51.862 Mean Square 2.552 5.572 0.631 0.746 51.862 Significdnce of F 0.000 0.005 0.447 0.369 0.000

Source of Variation MAIN EFFECTS Degree PME 2-WAY INTERACTIONS Degree FPE Covariate Time In Service

DF 4 1 3 3 1

F 3.593 7.846 0.888 1.051 73.026

49

i

'

'I

I

Table 14 Z811 Pride Analysis of Means

Mean (Count) Bachelors

NONE 5.08 (238)

SOS 5.21 (257)

ACSC 5.42 (160)

AWC 5.19 (76)

Graduate

5.05 (55)

5.17 (229)

5.35 (458)

5.41 (313)

Analysis of Variance Sum of Squares 4.632 0.152 4.597 4.524 32.056 Mean Square 1.158 0.152 1.532 1.508 32.056 Significance of F 0.340 0.700 0.214 0.220 0.000

3ource of Variation hAIN EFFECTS Degree PME '-WAY INTERACTIONS Degree PME Covariate Time In Service

UF 4 1 3 3 1

F 1.131 0.149 1.497 1.473 31.317

50

APPEND:X C

51I

BACHELDRS
MFAN NEMPONSC

CRADL$.1E

130

125 120 116

LvELOF PME Lc

k
fieso

Joh- Motivation.

Fioje 1.Comiparison 04 the perceot ons of subordinates o

4.6

4,4
4.2
-

LENEL OF FWE Fiqu-e 2. Co,!pijrison of the perceptions of subordinates of officers on iask Autonomy.

52

BAO4HEUA
5.8 RSPONSE

~OPAOE

5.4

5. 4.8 .
4.6

14

LEML OF PME
-igure 3. Comparison of the perceptions of subordinates of officers on 73nagenment and Supervision.

840*1..O

GRkDUATE

5.2 5

4,B 6

441

i -- ',re

-

.. ;•ý.:;arison

i.icervi sor,

,)f the ierceptions oi, 'unica tLOrs C iu, te.

of subordinatum

of officers on

53

- --

----------.-

MMRESPONtSE &.4 5.2 5

4.4

NL~ Or PME

Friou -e 5. Comparison of the p-rceptioris of subordinateS of officers on Oroanizationa1 Commnunications Climate.

B4CHEfLOS

"fDLbkTE

MEAN REPONSE

.5.4

4.8S
4

thr.
.!

6. reIpa ri ý.on of thE, purceptions of subordinates of officers on 1Orq;inj 7at erm 1 l i::ýte. c

54

5.4

54

4.4

LEM! OF PME
Fi

cure 7. Comparison of the Derceptiors of subordinates of officýers on

Aý,ccountability To Supervisor.

Ba4tHLO.RS
MiEAN R!3PONSE

ORADLATE

5.A

4A

1 ue . uCoopari son of tile 1r-rceit ions of suhiordi nates of officers on -,,jrervi sor Pr-rforrc; ýqe! I inder Pressure.

55

bh4,Df
brmRES~PONSE

OPALM•JE

5.4

5

4.8

-

4.6
4.4 4%

-

LEVEL OF PME
Fioure 9. Comparison of the perceptions of subordinates of officers on MyvSwervisor Explains How Mv Job Contributes to the Overall Mission.

4.11

W54

RESPONSE

4.4

4.2
4L

3../
3.6L

Ltvm or rut

Iic

10. Colý)arison of *he perceptions of subordinates of officers on , ',"ed Technical Advice, I '.sually Go To My Supervisor.

56

4
-

1

-

.

.

.

-?

8k*4aboM

OMiDUMiE

3.5.

&4

4.8
4 K

f qure 11. Comparison of the perceptions of subordinates of officers on ;ob Related Satisfaction.

I

rJ

5.4

.4.

5.2-

F- -,tre

12.

Comparison of the i)erceptions

of SLIDordi,.Ate,

of officers on

57

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