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THE IMPACT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF
AND FORMAL EDUCATION ON SELECTED SUPERVISORY DIMENSIONS
SEP 2 9 4,983
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Technical Reports prepared by the Leadership and Management Developiwent
Center (LMDC), Maxwell Air Fo, ce Base, Alabama, Technical report a completed r;sear(h
project documented by literature review references,
hypotheses, whether stated or implied.
abstract dnd testn9 ( i
Reports are intende•d pri-
marily for use within the Air Force, but may be distributed to researchers outside the USAF, beth military and civillin. The views and opinions expressed in this document represent the personal views oi the author only, and should not in any way be construed to reflect any endorsement or confirmation by the Department of Defense, the Department of the Air Force, or any other agency of the United States Government. This report has been reviewed and cleared for open publication and/or public release by the appropriate Office of Public Affairs (PA) in accordance with AFR 190-17 and %s releasable to the National Technical Information Center where it will be available to the general public, including foreign nations. This Technical Report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. LAWRENCE 0. SHORT, Major, USAF Chief, Research Operations LLOYD WOODMAN, JR., Lt Col, USAF Director, Research and Analysis
JOHN E. EMMONS Colonel, USAF Commander
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REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE
I REPORT NUMBER 1T2 GOVT ACCESSION NO.4 I
BEFORE COMPLUTING FORM
RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMOCER
TYPE OF REPORT
& PERIOD COVERED
THE IMPACT OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF PROFESSIONAL MILITARY EDUCATION AND FORMAL EDUCATION ON
SELECTED SUPERVISORY DIMENSIONS
PERFORMING O• ,
CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(.)
AIC Michael Mansfield
9 PERFORMIPiG ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10 P ROJECT, "I PROGRAM EL.EMENT NUMBERS AREA A WORK UNIT
Directorate of Research and Analysis Leadership and Management Development Center(AU) Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama 36112
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Leadership and Management Development Center(AU)
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17 DISTF'Iq TION STATFVENý
'Oa the ebst.it
Professional Military Education (Officers) Air Force Institute of Technology Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
Ct ASSTRAL. 'Coolnuo o, .. e... .id. It n-c-s$a-y 0-d Ic'd-n/,v b, bln-k
Officers need training and education in order to perform assigned duties. Problem: How much of what type of education and/or training does an Air Force officer need? This paper analyzes how an officer's level of professional military and academic education influence subordinate perceptions of managerial/supervisory issues. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is performed usine a 2x4 factorial design (level of college degree x leve,of PME). The data show that officer professional military and graduate
i f i a-d
THIS PAGE 1"4.rn Dorm En•r.,t
SECURITY CASSIFIChTION O•
SECUPITY CLASSOVICATION Or "NIS PAGE l4.-'F r)Da * -11od)
meducation positively influe-nce the perceptions of subordinates on key supervisory measures. To determine how the Ai- Force compares to industry, information was collected from four defense related corporations. These industries place as much o'- more emphasis on the professional eduction of employees than the Air Force. In the area of advanced education, what may appear costly io the present should reap enormous benefits in the future.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
!NTRODUCTION .................................................. 1 'REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ............ The Need for Professional ....................... ................ .................. ................... ................. 2 2 5 9 .10 11
..................... .. 13
Professional Military Education .......... Squadron Officer School ............ Air Command and Staff College ...... Air War College ...........
Graduate Degree Education ...............
AFIT Resident and Non-Resident Courses ................. AFIT Administered Civilian Graduate Education .... Need for Civilian Graduate Education: .........
13 14 17 17 ........... 18 19 .19 .20 20 21 23 24 27 28 30 31 34
Pros and Cons ....... ..............
Other Graduate Degree Opportunities .....
Other Non-AFIT Specialized Education Programs ..... Conlerisor to Industry ......... McDonnell ....................... .................
Douglas Corporation ......
The Communications Satellite Company (COMSAT) ............ The BDM Corporation ............. ...................... ................
The Boeing Aircraft corporation ...... Summary ............... METHOD .................. Subjects .............. K.SULTS ................ .............................. ................................. .............................. ................................. ............................... ............................... ............................... ............................... ............................. ............................. .............................
DISCUSSION ................ CONCLUSIONS .............. RKFERENCES ................ APPENDICES ................ Appendix A............ Appendix B............ Appendix C............
36 38 51
LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Officer Sample by Category ...... ... 2. 3. ..................... Page .27 28 ..39 40 .41 .42 .43 44
Summary of Significant Main Effects on Level of Professional Military Education ........ ....... ......................... Job Motivation Index ........ ..... ..... ........................ ............................ ..................... ................. ................. ...................
4. Task Autonomy ......... 5. 6. 7.
Management and Supervision ..........
Supervisory Communications Climate ........ Organization Communications Climate ...... Climate ...... .....
8. General Organizational 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.
To What Extent Do You Feel Accountable to Your Supervisor In . ... Accomplishing Your 'ob? ....... ... ....................... . My Supervisor Performs Well Under Pressure ...... ............. 46 47 48 .. 49 ... 50
My Supervisor Explains How My Job Contributes To The Overall Mission ....... ............. ............................... When I Need Technical Advice, I Usually Go To My Supervisor .... ......................
Job Related Satisfaction ....... ... Pride ...... ...........
. •. ' .
LIST OF FIGURES Figure Job I. Motivation Index ....... ... 2. 3. 4. ;.
Page ......................... 52 52 .53 .53 ..... 54
Task Autonomy .............
............................ ..................... .................
Management and Supervision .......
Superviscry Communications Climate ......
Organizational Communications Climate ...............
General Organizational Climate .........
. . . . . . . . . .54
To What Extent Do You Feel Accountable to Your Supervisor In Accomplishing Your Job? ........... ..................... My Supervisor Performs Well Under Pressure .... .............
j. My Supervisor Explains How My Job Contributes To The Overall Mission ............... ............................. iv. When I Need Technical Advice, I Usually Go To My Supervisor .... ......................
..56 56 ..57 57
Job Related Satisfaction ....... Pride ....... .......
that officers of the armed services receive in order to carry out their assigned duties security. Due to the ever increasing international becomes political more
advanced In the
interests of national
complexity of this time.
society and a constantly changing need for advanced officer
have become more comprehensive and national disciplines Since the policy
policy formulation involves greater interaction among several military, -ilitary political, is a key economic and technological element in formulating and (Brodsky, achieving
the need for Air Force officers to be able to competently deal in is evident. The problem centers on
dreas outside their military specialty the question:
How much of what type of education and/or training does the This paper will analyze how an officer's and academic education interact level of
Air Force officer need? professional
on his/her A comparison (if
subomainate's perceptions of managerial and supervisory issues.
to industry will be made to determine the similarities and differences they exist) that some major corporations
might have with the Air Force in
megard to the advanced education of their employees. The need perspective
for advanced a brief
professional look at the
schooling will overall
the seriousness of growing Soviet
the world, coupled with the deterioration of the United States' advanced schools technology, and higher will be addressed. in civilian It will be shown are
advantage in that service in
,)reparing Air Force officers to meet these challenges. 1
A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The Need for Professional Education To deal with aspects of national policy other than strictly military in a
issues, today's Air Force officers must be able to function effectively wide variety of academic disciplines. policy formulators, with systems
They must be able to "communicate with with political psychologists, (Brodsky, decision makers, scientists, p. 429). and The field
with economic analysts, with sociologists,
engineers," to name a few of the requirements
importance of highly educated officers in the scientiflc/technological
can never be overemphasized.
hallmark of American society.
Our superiority in these fields has been a
This traditional superiority is eroding, par-
tially due to inadequate technical education and research. Even as there has been a steady erosion in U.S. activity in the basic sciences, there has been an increase in the level of such If that continues, we are in activity in Western Europe and Japan. danger of losing our position of scientific leadership (Fitch, 1982,
As Walsh & Walsh (1982) note, if the Reagan Administration follows
through with its education schools will be on their own. izations, are signs
on science and technology,
Reactions to this policy from education organsupport, are negative. signals Already there
most of which favor federal that industry is
from engineering acted on
schools and university science this subject.
The military has also
As a result of concern in the arned forces about dimming technological prowess, at least one ambitious program has been launched jointly by the military and industry to work through Reserve Officer Training Corps units in high school and college to promote interest in careers in science and engineering (Walsh A Walsh, 1982, p. 39). Yet, siunism, know-how alone does not ensure success in countering Soviet expana major threat to our national security. The nature and extent of
soviet intentions is stated well in Nixon's book The Real War:
The Soviets have been waging World War III since the closing days of It has proceeded from the Soviet seizure of Eastern ,:orld War II. Europe through the communist victory in China, the wars in Korea and Indochina, and the establishment of a Soviet outpost in Cuba, to the present intrusions by the Soviets and their allies in Africa, the Islamic crcscent, and Central America...Anguia, Ethiopia, Afghanistan, South Yemen, Mozambique, Laos, Cambodia, South Vietnam [and Nicaragua], all have been brought under communist domination since 1974... The Soviet Union today is the most powerfully armed expansionist nation the world has ever known, and it's arms buildup continues at a pace nearly twice that of the United States. There is no mystery about Soviet intentions. The Kremlin leaders do not want war, but they do want the wnrld. And they are rapidly moving inti position to get what they want (1981, p. 3). The Soviets, therefore, do not appear reluctant to deploy combat forces objectives would be served. The fact force
wherever and whenever
that they seldom receive more than token mlight speak well
they do use
of their resolve to maintain
ind use the forces and equipBy contrast, Bletz and
ment necessary to achieve their national Taylor (1974)
suggest that after the Vietnam experience, national security interests
except in instances the United
are directly threatened,
states does not
intend to intervene militarily on behalf of another nation. the United States will fullest have to make its miliMilitary anticipate a officers vastly depend
To counter Soviet expansionism, tary assistance as
program work to its and
of our military assistance
heavily on these officers. cultures,
Familiarity with languages and knowledge of other military expertise they display, will
in addition to the special
impact significantly on the effectiveiiess of the program. also be politically aware.
The military must
The political - miltary environment of the 1980s will necessitate a military profession that rejects the limitations of the liberal traditional alliance, [an alliance which believes that the military should concentrate solely on the art of warfare and leave the political dimensions, which it is inextricably involved In, to *he people The profession must engender a true spirit of in Washingtonl. intellectualism conditioned by political and military realities (Sarkesian, 1979, p.52). The struggle being waged in El Salvador between leftist guerillas and
government forces is an immediate example of the importance of the need for a well coordinated, efficient and successful effort between United States
civilian and military personnel involved in that country.
United States mil-
itary planners and advisors involved in El Salvador must be aware of American public and political sentiment towards that country. They should also have religions, hisand
an understanding of the people of that region, tory, etc. This will help insure clear
their customs, accurate
exchange of informatior
and ideas between the United States and El Salvador and government personnel. "Central
and among American military, civilian
America is too close and the strategic stakes are too high for us to ignore the danger of governments seizing power there with idealogical ties close to the Soviet Union" ("A Plan to Win," it 1983). and military Based on the
information researched for this section,
is my opinion that our n;tional
leddership will be demanding more professional military advice and expertl'e on the political, military, sociological, economic, and technical
sions of the nation's security goals.
Military Education facing the military, advanced profesedu-
In order to meet these challenges sional education is a must.
The prir.dry function of formal professional in subsequent learning
cition should be "to equip the student to use professional techniques, work an understanding and ways of thought of the of his
concepts, in order
principles, that he may
juvelop throughout life an analytical
and creative power"
14). The unique role and structure of the military necessitate a professional
civilian civilian teach
educational courses that
relate directly to trie military, Professional Military Education
has been necessary This has been
made easy by the fact
'Plttman). Professional activities Kc)wledge :.regression which required in rank" military provide to meet (used education participating the by a greater 1966 is defined as with "those the educationai service in their by the
responsibility study of officer 1980, by
inherent education p. 3). the needs
A.ssistant Secretary of Defense, The uniique society it role It of the
Manpower) military is
the The of
doesn't have the luxury of choosing its own role. is not static. It is established in the context
role of the military rapid technological,
and political change.
The professional military Thus PME is used as a pri-
education system is responsive to these changes.
source of providing officers the capability to fill this role (Dorger).
The structure of the Air Force is labor along functional lines.
based on the specialized division of
This serves to diffuse the possibility of the is also necessary due to the sheer size
accumulation of excessive power; it and complexity of the Air Force.
Specialization is necessary in order to deal Also, personnel
with rapid technological change and knowledge obsolescence.
rotations have been reduced considerably in recent years and officers are more likely to find themselves retained in limited functional areas for greater
periods of time due to new functional management techniques such as the Rated Distribution and Training Management System. many useful purposes it Yet while specialization serves
has the potential to adversly impact the professional a
identity of military officers and destroy a sense of military corporateness, characteristic which has always been considered important. trend towards an occupational, Force. rather than professional,
This could cause a outlook on the Air is a lack of
Another possible danger attributed
coordination and cohesion of the unit as a whole. social and professional exchanges associated with it, and attitudes necessary to ensure professionil
Only through PME,
can the proper knowledge
identity and teamwork at all
levels, be promioted (Dorger). As is characteristic tured along hierarchical the lowest organizational of most organizations, or vertical levels. At lines. the military is ilso struc-
is maximized at "similar
functions are grouped together to facilitate management, tion of effort in subordinate functions, among the various agencies" (Dorger,
prevent the duplica-
and to ensure effective team effort In fact:
Managerial responsibility Is inherent within each officer position. Normally, it increases ir proportion to the officer's progression to higher and more responsible positions. In senior field grade positions, managerial responsibilities generally outweigh the requirement for specific technical job knowledge, except in a few of the most highly complex areas (Dorger, 1979, p.20).
Since the military must skills,
PME must be capable of preparing
oroader responsibility. On the surface, there appears to be a conflict between the bureaucratic
requirement of top leaders to have a broad knowledge base and the trend of specialization. This problem is placated by the military "through a
distinction between two tracks of officer development, future commander, p.20). Those who perform best in positions of commano, time with line units,
the specialist and the
and through formal education and training" (Pittman) 1980,
spending much of their Alter-
are selected for successively higher commands.
natively officers may concentrate their careers along functional personnel, operations, plans, recruiting, project management.
lines, e.g., Still others research &
become specialists along such lines as automated data processing, development, logistics, or information (Taylor, unddLed). to Pittman (1980), is PME is often thought of aS
whereas civilian graduate school
With regard to PME,
terms are often used interchangeably. nixture of "training" and "education",
A closer look reveals
that PME is a
the former structured to predominate The purpose while as
at the lower levels and the latter at the higher levels of PME. of "training" is to teach a trade or skill is
(basic military subjects),
the purpose of "education" knowledge. medicine, It
to develop thinking and reasoning as well
The military profession, like architecture, combines
law, engineering, and
variety of skills with an underlying body of knowleoge. itself from most other professions, though however, there is by some
At all levels, professional courses are a mixture of training and education, with the former tending to predominate at the Even the higher professional schools devote some lower levels. attention to developing skills and techniques and to imparting doctrine, but the higher up the ladder, the more dominant the
educational content of the courses (Taylor, undated, p.20).
When officers enter the service they are expected to have some knowledge of the military profession (through a precommissioning program) to a field of academi.: study. Once in the service, sharpen in addition various in
education and training
their particular area of expertise. professional cers' cation, is development needs.
Yet this does not entirely fulfill their
Without a program to further develop offiqualities of discipline, dedi-
leadership and management capabilities, motivation, ethics, etc., PME serves
development of an officer and qualities an under-
Air Force officers are able to acquire organized and optrates.
standing of how the Air Force is
They are better They are
able to see how their roles fit into the overall able to understand how, when, to things it does.
scheiie of things.
ihom, and why the Air Force does some of the
Thus, Air Force officers are better able to appreciate the (Dent,
complexity of the Air Force and some of the problems encountered in it 1975). PME is a unique system in that it
is phased in time to match the offi1975). It does this by interof practical
cers' potential with years of service (Rogers, spersing periods of formal training/education
between periods If all
experienLe over the course of an officer's career.
this knowledge much Also, of it money
were presented to officers at the beginning of their careers, would be forgotten or would become obsolete once it was used.
would be wasted on the training and education of officers who oon't intend to remain in the service (Dorger). 8
For the military,
schooling officers combat.
of the limited opportunities cornmand principal :Pittman). and manage troops in means PME, by which
have to practice Other can than war, develop
their profession--to school is one of the expertise in the
officers serves to
art of warfare and national security. Also, aerospace doctrine, resigned the interaction of students and faculty serves as a review board of experts and to to evaluate and recommend For who is the a improved most part, aerospace the as PME concepts, system to is a
produce This is
not to imply that one should be a Rather,
"jack of all
but master of none." of (Bletz & Taylor).
one should be a multi-specialist, specialties in pursuit of a
able to manage objective
Squadron Officer School The first it level of PME for officers is Squadron Officer School (SOS).
is an intensive,
8 1/2 week program whose educational for officers wnose primary
philosophy emphasizes is force
professional .ip loyment. lead and
development The key
responsibility be the
officers should curriculum
ability to officership, support the
the ability to communicate. leadership,
Sorce employment, •OS mission, !evel:
ind communications (AU
ski'Is directly 1982-1983).
PME at this
Seeks to deepen officers competencies in their p,'imary i.e., to teach them the latest management techniques in maintenance, supply, fire control, etc., and to prepare greater leadership and responsibility involved (Taylor, At SOS, are stressed. basics such as writing, speaking, techniques
specialties, training, them for the undated, p.21). etc.,
Students also become familiar with doctrine and elementary
"The emphasis at this level,
on imparting techniques and military (Taylor,
doctrine rather than generating independent thinking and analysis" undated, p. 21).
Air Commana and Staff College Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) PME program. is the intermediate level Air Force
It is 40 weeks long and the AU Catalog notes its mission is "to knowledge, skills, and perspectives of mid-career
enhance the professional
officers for increased leadership roles in command and staff positions." Since ACSC is the highest level of PME that most officers will attend, it traditionally focused attention "on bringing all has
of them to a uiiform level
of staff competence and to a common understanding of the principles of military leadership and command of forces in the field" (Taylor, undated, The four curriculum areas of ACSC are Staff Communications National Security p. 23).
and Research, Affairs, and
Command Leadersnip and Resource Management, Warfare Studies.
At this level of PME there is a shift in emphasis away from
"training," towards "education". As the officer progresses from relatively technical jobs to those of broader scope, his basic skills retain their importance, but require refinement. Writing ability is channeled into the distinctive formats and styles of the staff paper, the talking paper, and military correspondence. An understanding of Air Force organizations--their form, purposes, and procedures -- becomes necessary... The specific Study of tactics and doctrine expands and deepens. focus of this type of knowledge will vary depending upon the individual's assignment--whether his duties are on a staff or in operations, in the field or at a headquarters (Pittman, 1980, p.25). National Security Affairs deals with US national security policy and ,
regional studies, i.e., global perspectives. theory and history, and the types
Warfare Studies covers military Additionally, a sizeable profesForces
number of officers are sent each year to attend intermediate level sional military education at other institutions, i.e., the Armed
the Army Command and General
the Naval War Col-
lege (Command and Staff Course), the Royal Air Force Staff College,
the Marine Corps Command and Staff College, the Canadian Forces Staff College, and the
German Armed Forces Staff College (Dorger). Sir War College Senior level PME )s provided by the AMr War College. Air War College where is to they prepare have select officers for for key The mission of the command and staff dnd It is
employing air power as a component of national assumed at the senior level PME that students
already have acquired the spe-
cific skills of the various professions: Thus, military officers are thought to know tne intricacies of deploying, operating, and maintaining the weapons systems of their various services... Through curricula thought to be professionally unique, the colleges seek to provide them organized bodies of knowledge and enhanced perspectives on national defense in order to prepare them for high positionr of public trust and responsibility (Taylor. undated, p.25).
at the Air War College
sKills and the ability
integrate rultiple specialties to the fullest potential. Again, a numoer
in pursuit of d common objective,
education at other institutions. War College, the Industrial
Some of the-,
institutionS dre the National
College of the Armcd Forcs, the Army War College, Warfare Course), College, and the Royal Air Force College of the Canadian Forces National
the Naval War College (Naval Air Warfare, the NA7O
Despite abundant praise coming from military and civilian the many elaborate systems used to review, update,
and modify the programs of
the various PME schools, the services are constantly facing major challenges to their PME systems (from both inside and outside the military). The reason
for this is the cost of providing professional military education in an era of austere defense budgets. In this type of austere environment, it always becomes difficult to maintain programs which invest in long-term growth and development in the face of immediate demands, where the consequences of failing to provide must be managed by the current decision In the case of truly longmakers rather than their successors. term development, such as that represented by education, the difProfessional military education is such a ficulty is increased. The inability to quantify or categorically long-term program. identify the benefits derived from PME makes it particularly hard to convincingly articulate its value, especially in the highly pragmatic atmosphere of the panels and committees of the Air Staff Board Structure as they discharge their responsibility of "balancing" the Air Force budget (Pittman, 1980, p.1). The services can not fund all of their legitimate requirements. result has been a growing emphasis in recent years associated with all officer educational programs, on The
reducing the costs professional though, is
military education (Dorger). who believe the serv'ces'
There are some knowledgeable observers, need for professional military
a former Assistant
Secretary of Defense,
wrote recently: The challenge... is clear. Manifold factors compound and intensify the problems of continuing the thoughtful and purposeful development Knowledge obsolescence at an of the officer corps of the seryices. increasing rate, rapidly changing social patterns, and an increasingly sophisticated work onvirrunlent demand that even more... attention be devoted to the professional development and e,;ucational preparation of the officer of the future... With the increasing responsibility which all officers must assume in the increasingly ccmplex environment of the future, a telling argument is made for the need to expand the base of attendance at professional military education (Dorger, 1979, p.4).
The importance which the Air Force places on PME can be seen by the number of people (Air Force Officers) involved in the program (Appendix A). total of 2,498 officers graduated from residence PME between August June '82. This figure was derived from data of each PME school. An '81 A and
supplied by the Director of 18,828 graduated through
correspondence and seminar courses (FY 82), and 39,882 officers were enrolled in the PME program at the end of FY 82. The correspondence Programs Reports, and seminar
course data were provided by SOS's Plans, ACSC's Records Division, and AWC's Records,
and Research Division, and Analysis Section.
These figures do not include officers from the other branches of the service and civilians who attend Air Force PME.
Graduate Degree Education AFIT Resident and NonResident Courses
more specialized education and training
available to The bulk of of Technology
fulfill the specific educational these programs (AFIT),
requirements of the Air Force. Institute
are administered by the Air Force
a subordinate agency of the Air University. in scientific, areas (AU
AFIT provides education to meet Air Force requirements technological, Catalog). It managerial, and other designated
is through AFIT that officers
receive fully funded graduate
AFIT courses are administered in one of two ways:
resident AFIT programs Stu-
and AFIT administered programs conducted on civilian camlpuses (Dorger). dents are sent to graduate school
on civilian campuses for courses and areas Most of these civil-
of study which the AFIT residence prugrams don't cover.
ian campus programs normally last for one or two (exceptionally three) years at an accredited civilian institution to cumplete a master's degree or a
doctorate. According to AFMPC there were a total of 728 fully-funded, AFIT admin-
istered, officer graduate degree slots awarded in 1982. numbers of students assigned to each area, each area represents of the total, Engineering International Area Technical Management Physical Sciences Social Sciences Communications Mathematics
The areas of study, percentagc
and the corresponding
are as follows: 197 149 146 64 9 8 0 35% 26%7 25%7 11% 2%7 1% 0%
AFIT Administered Civilian Graduate Education Prior to the 60's, civilian graduate education for Air Force officers was primarily in the scientific and engineering areas. cover such areas psychology, as political science, economics, etc., This has been expanded to international (Taylor). relations, According to
Bletz and Taylor, civilian graduate schooling serves three main purposes. Analytical skills and critical judgement. First, it teaches analytical military practices. and inductive towards the manuals,
skills and critical The military seems methodology, future. The
judgement different from traditional
to lean toward learning through historical and speculation
as opposed to deductive reasoning military is
said to rely on field manuals, etc.
current statements of policy,
wisdom based on lessons of the past. 14
Civilian graduate schools tend to use not only inductive reasoning, tive reasoning as wel1, the result being a mind tha
is conditioned to recoy-
nize the limitations of conventional from those in which it was developed.
doctrine applied to situations different This brings to mind our experience in threats to national
Vietnam where the military tended to view pessimistically security (the worst case syndrome), rilities to get the job done
to report optimistically an military capado syndrome), and to show progress
toward achieving objectives by whatever measures their civilian masters established. These problems are a policy result, in part, from a less than adequate and a
understanding of public
and multivariate analysis
lack of understanding of the country civilian graduate schools deal Exposure of officers to
itself - problems with which
(Bletz & Taylor). civilian attitudes 6nd opinions. Second,
on-campus education also provides one of the few opportunities for Air Forze officers to qet a feeling first-hand for the attitudes and opinions of civilians on issues of common interest. are physically Many military officers and their families Air Force bases
isolated from adjacent ýivilian communities.
are designed to provide every conceivable service to its people. Physical isolation leads to cultural isolation: the horizons for most officers ,y end at the base bounderies ana their interests will tend to become superparochial. For officers commissioned from the service academies the problem will be exacerbated by the lack of the leavening experience of four years of civilian undergraduate education... For an increasing proportion uf ufiicers, the experience of full-time graduate school on a civilian campus will represent the only opportunity for significant exposLre to the pulse of the civilian society they serve - its problems, fears, ideals and aspirations (Bletz & Taylor, 1974, p. 258). The converse is also true; those in academia .;,eet are given a rare opportunity to an experience that
and work with members of the military establishment,
undoubtedly serves a positive cause (Bletz & Taylor).
Attraction and retention of better qualified officers. civilian Most schooling serves to attract and retain a vital better
graduate people. of of We
graduate education is a key factor
in the cost-benefit
officers whose graduate education has been provided can assume greater productivity from officers
by the government. graduate p. 256).
although this is difficult to measure (Bletz & Taylor,
Interviews with executives of four major corporations in 1973 yielded general agreement concerning the positive correlation between advanced aegree holders and high performance (resulting in increased return to the corporation), with emphasis on the broadening effect of graduate education. There was general agreement, too, that graduate education is associated with lower personnel turnover (Bletz & Taylor, 1974, p. 256). Data correlating fully-funded qraduate civilian schooling and retention was srarce prior to 1973. In 1973, the Department of Defense administered a to 18,000 officers of the four services Officers with lawyers, etc.)
random sample survey Questionnaire
who had obtained at least a master's degree (Bletz & Taylor). "profestional" degrees (i.e., chaplains, dentists, doctors,
were not included.
The sampling plan sought a disproportionately
ber of respondents in the lower grades.
The response was approximately
and useable data base consisted of 11,568 officers. was relatively clear. Fifty-three percent
Positive career intent they intend to
remain in the service as long as possible;
36% intend to stay for a minimal
career and only 11% intend to leave the service before eligible to retire. It appears significant that 93% of the respondents believe their advanced
degrees are useful
in making them more effective officers.
ing to the OSD survey were motivated positively by graduate civilian schooling. This has important implications for the recruitment and retention of
quality officers in the Volunteer Armed Forces (Bletz & Taylor).
Need for Civilian Graduate Education:
Pros and Cons
Opinions differ widely as to whether or not officers need the amount of civilian graduate education they currently receive. Civilian critics would Military
ike to see the military isolated from society as much as possible.
critics fear that civilian education for military personnel could have a contaminating effect, causing some to stray from the paths of duty. Cost-
benetit arguments are raised, where costs are easily measured and benefits not so readily definable (Taylor). When one weighs these arguments against the need for graduate for civilian
the unique purposes civilian graduate schooling serves, civilian education is compelling. First, The four
primary reasons school
graduate education are:
teaches analytical military practices;
skills and critical judgement different from traditional secend, it provides one o- the few opportunities first-hand, for the attitudes
for Air Force officers to on
get a feeling,
and opinions of civilians
issues of common interest,
and vice versa; third, civilian graduate education and fourth, it pro-
serves to attract and retain better qualified officers;
vides specialized education to meet Air Force educational needs not available in PME courses or resident AFIT progrars. This neec for civilian graduate
education is especially true considering the expanded roles and ever increasing responsibilities of today's Air Force officer.
Other Graduate Degree Opportunities In in 1982, an additional areas, i.e., 155 officers legal began pursuing graduate Force degrees Academy etc.
the Senior Commander's Sponsored Education Programs, etc.).
Also, a total of 131 officers attended education in industry (IBM, Officers may fulfill
graduate degree requirements by enrolling in pro-
grams cosponsored by civilian colleges and universities and some of the professional military educational institutions.
In these programs,
cooperating civilian choose to their own
complete their advanced expense, with some
degrees on their through
off duty time and at military and Veterans
Administration sponsorship (Bletz & Taylor). Other Non-AFIT Specialized Education Programs There are numerous other specialized education programs available to the Air Force through non-AFIT sources. Management positions School in which prepares management Examples would be the Defense Systems for future executive
Air Force officers and acquisition, and
courses at the Leadership and Management Development Center (Dorger). Each year there are more advanced specialized education slots than there are intermediate essential and senior level PME slots combined, These programs are knowledge. They
Air Force officers with needed academic
Continuing education courses are also available through the Air Force.
are used to prevent the knowledge learned in the graduate degree programs and PME from becoming obsolete. AFIT conducts such courses in residency and
through cooperating civilian institutions (Dorger). The Air Force conducts numerous training programs which differ from the edu'Ational programs "primarily in their 1979, scope and emphasis on skills, as
opposed to knowledge" (Pittman,
One can appreciate the size of 5000
the Air Force training effort when one considers the fact that about officer programs, training and an slots are available additional 1500-2000 each year slots in various available basic each
trainirn year in
advanced functional training courses. The element of experience in an
process is administered by the Air Force personnel system through the Career Management Program. its purpose is to "provide the Air Force with a suffi-
cient number of qualified officers available to assume positions of responsibility by developing the capabilities of individual officers to handle
increasingly more challenging responsibilities" (Dorger,
Comparison to Industry In order to get a feel for how the Air Force compares to industry on the subject of the professional education is of its people., here. The information from four that
defense related corporations will
provided Douglas 8DM
four corporations The the
Communications Boeing Aircraft in the
These four companies
,,efense and aircraft industries.
McDonnell Douglas Corporation According to Mr. Bill Johnson, (1983) Training Kepresentative, Personnel
Training, McDonnell Douglas will toe cost of college courses.
reimburse any of its employees a portion of and a grade of
The courses must be joo related,
C or better is necessary to receive reimbursement. pursue an undergraouate employee is allowed $20 Uegree,
Should a person decide to i, reiiibured 60% and the addi-
Upon completion reimbursed.
of the degree an
tional 15% of the total tuition is wishing to pursue a graduate degree,
The same holds true for anyone
the only differecce being that instead of
receiving an additional 1S% reimbursement of the totc! tuition upon completion of the degree, an emploype is awarded an additional 46%, ,:,ny employee wishing to pursue a doctorate will front. for a total of 1(;0%. up the
receive 100% reimbursement with reimbursement,
For anyone wishing to pursue a college degree
curriculum must first be approved. Engineers who wish to acquire an MBA must have a masters or five years experience as a supervisor (there are in engineering to this
pol icy )
Basic adult education is another program in which McDonnell Douglas will help pay for costs (not a college credit program). This program consists of
remedial training, technical training and obtainment of high school diplomas. Under Basic Adult Education, the employee is reimbursed 100% of whatever costs are incurred. In the separate category of Skill Improvement, 60% of costs is reim-
bursed for individual courses which are job related. Between 1 July 1982 and the end of March 1983, obtain a college degree received curriculum approval, 596 persons wishing to and 55 employees had
some sort of curri :ulum approved under Basic Adult Education (Johitson). The Communications Satellite Company (COMSAT) COMSAT also reimburses employees for educational degrees. able to everyone and is important promotion considered a benefit. This is availfor an
An executive marked
is sent out to attend an advanced management programn at MIT, etc. This only averages about one person managers approval, per
such schools as Harvard, year. Add'tijnally,
with an individual seminar. In 1982,
an employee may of 2,705
attend an external
out of a total
people, COMSAT spent $165,000 on education
(an average of $61
per employee). assist-
Ten percent of COMSAT's employees availed themselves of educaticoal ance, 25% of which took two or more courses at one time (Rarnsdale, The BDM Corporation This analyses, company offers professional services In research,
design and tests in such areas as defense, transportation and public policy.
Major General W.R.
USAF (Ret.) Corporate Vice President of BDM,
To further enhance our success through the continued technical and management education and training of our professional staff, we have strongly supported the personal growth of our people through a combination of education and training programs. All permanent, full time employees are eligible to receive 100 percent reimbursement for the cost of tuition, books, and related fees associated with attending courses at college and universities. During 1982,
301 BDH personnel attended 525 (_uurses le~dinq to graduate degrees
population in 1982
-pursued graduate degrees
(employees who receive fully-funded educa-
tion incur no obligations). In addition to full-time, seminars, fully-funded education, BDM employees may
attend short courses,
and symposia which will enhance their skills
or broaden their knowledge in a particular interest area. Finally, Force PME. BDM has developed a program similar, in some respects, to Air
As General MacDonald explained:
The BDM style of management makes many demands, especially on relaRapid growth, tively new people at the middle management level. plus the dynamics of our unique matrix management organizational structure, have demanded an effective, systematic program to impart To meet this demand, BDM BDM management expertise to newer managers. has developed an in-house, management development system which trains Addiprofessional personnel in various aspects of manigement... tionally, BDM sent seven of its personnel to special management training courses at Harvard University, Psychological Associates, etc, in 1982 (1983). The Boeing Aircraft Corporation
1, 1981 and August
Boevng 61 PnDs) Tnis
2,570 employees pursuing graduate (3,326 masters, degrees (6,932), and individual courses (2,249).
and undergradiate figure represents
14% of a total
of 90,O00 persons
sued graduate degrees). ate degrees (113 masters, total of 206 (Gayton, ,kills that:
During this period, 1 PhD)
114 individuals received grad,|for a
and 92 received underjraduate degrees, many employeet
develop their mandyeridl Corporate policy states
in the Boeing Management Development System.
The management development program will emphasize self-development by all managers, on-the-job development of all managers, personal attention of eac" manager to the development of his subordinates, and the integration of these individual actions with organizational management developm2nt under an overall system (iNiven, 1983, p.1).
• _. _
Following are the eight key programs which comprise the overall management development system, Management ('80-1500, and their respective participation levels: Pre-
Basics of Supervision '81-185), Program
Management for excellence ('80-244, nar (120 participants per year),
Senior Boeing Management SemiManagement ('81-57), Aerospace
Industry Manufacturing Seminar (40 participants per year), ('80-65, (50 '81-13, 5 military participants each year), over the last 20 years). Also,
and Sloan Fellowships Management provide Development for a wide
organizations within the major operating organizations range of management training operations.
These programs fall in the general Functional and Cross-Functional Boeing has the people who have responsibilities
areas of One-hour Management Skill Courses, Programs,
and Outside Short Courses and Seminars. designed to identify, for eventual
Expo Program, high potential
early in their careers, level
promotion to executive
(Niven). It appears that these four defense related industries place as if not more, much than
emphasis nn the professional does the Air Force.
education of its employees,
A figure for the total number of Air Force officers purin 1982 was not readily obtainable. With 728 new
suing graduate degrees
graduate degree slots started in FY 82, and graduate degree programs lasting normally two years, not more then 2% of the entire Air Force officer corps
can be involved in pursuing a fully-funded graduate degree at any one time (.72% of the entire Air Force officer corps began pursuing graduate degrees on a full-time, fully-funded basis in FY 82).
Thus far we have looked at: Force officers; degree programs professional ano the
The need for professional education for Air education; AF;T administered educational programs graduate to
and a comparison of Air Force professional
educdtion to industry. being spent is also on officer apparent for in
is evident that a considerable amount of money is education While there is there by is the Air Force.
professional industry. programs,
This trend intuitive
a scarcity of hard evidence to support these expenditures. and Management Development Center there are data which can the interactions and effects qhich PME and graduate
At the Leadership be used
education might have on officers skill. "I
in the areas of supervisory
METHOD In an attempt school analys's has on to determine what influence and management how PME and civilian graduate an
the supervision conducted to
of officers, their
Supervision, and a host
Supervisory of other
factors (Appendix B). (OAP) data base,
The data within the Organizational Assessment Package contains survey information collected
used for this study,
since January Center (LMDC).
1979 by the Air Force Leadership and Management Development The 109 question survey was designed by the Air Force Human (a) provide management (b) to provide
Resources Laboratory to aid LMJC in its mission to: consulting services to Air Force commanders upon
leadership and management training, and (c)
to conduct research on Air Force
systemic issues with information within the accumulated data base (Hendrix & Halverson, 1979). of the survey is the first step in the consultation
The survey is given to a stratified random sample of the organizaThe results of the survey are an iMporThe results are handled After approximately Is then provided to
tion to which LMDC has been invited.
tant feature in the assessment of the organization. in a confidential manner between five to six weeks for analysis,
LMDC and the client. feedback of data
commanders ard supervisors within the organization. When specific problems are revealed, a consultant and the supervisor
develop a management action plan designed to reduce the problem at that level of the organization. Within six months, the consulting team returns to
readminister the survey instrument as a means to help assess the Impact of the consulting process. 24
The data from each consulting base for research purposes. developed for this instrument.
as personnel category, age, sex,
stored in a cumulating
These data are aggregated
by work group codes
The data nay be reca'ied by demographics such
Air Force Specialty level. Code (AFSC), pay grade, the 93 atticontent, job
zime in service and educational tudinal items are combined various
Through factor analysis, measures of which cover job
into 24 types
Using the data from the LMDC data base, of PME and formal study is education can be tested. the perceptions
several notions about the impact In general, the purpose of this across key
of subordinates the
limensions to determine
impact of various impact, tine in
levels of PME and sevice will be used were tested by
formal education. as a covariate. tnis study: 1. There
To reduce maturational Specifically,
the following null
responses across the levels of PME. 2. ordinates education There will whose be no significant have a differences bachelors in mean (as responses highest acquired of sublevel either of a
masters or docto-ate. 3. of degree. To performed test the null hypotheses, an analysis of covariance effects (ANCOVA) was for There is no significant interaction between level of PME and level
tests main effects and interaction (level of college deyree Differences at
a covariate) completed) considered
using a 2
between/aionq the various cells are or below the .05 alpha level of
This establishes a 95% confidence level In error. out. they
that the null hypothe-
sis will not be rejected covariate, and thus
The effect of time in service was made a Medical usually doctors identify were excluded as from the holding a
study due to the
doctorate degree during survey administration. The first independent (a) variable, level of college degree obtained, con-
sists of 2 levels: (b)
officer supervisors who hold a bachelors
officer supervisors who hold a graduate degree. as indicated by overall mean responses,
This study compares the of subordinates of offi-
cers grouped into these two categories. The second independent variable, sists of 4 levels: Service overall School and (a) no PME, (d) (b) level of PME completed by officers con(c) Intermediate of the these
Squadron Officer School, Comparisons
Senior Service School. of subordinates
of officers who have completed
various levels of PME. In addition to investigating these main effects by level, this research selected of the
determines any interaction effect on each of the OAP factors two independent variables (level of education and level
as distinguished from the main effect of each independent variable. (factors and items) measured by the OAP were selected was based on the dimension's relationship to
Twelve dimensions for the study.
the purported benefits of the various types of education.
The dimensions are
further defined at Appendix B and depicted graphically at Appendix C.
The selected sample for this study includes all officers with subordinate workgroups within While the the Social the LMDC aata base from 1 Oct 1980 from the through I Jan 1983. for use is
selected statistical Sciences treatments (Nie, for
procedures Jenkins, cases,
Statistical Bent, by
Package 1975) category
Steinbrenner, the subject pool
:resented in Table 1.
TABLE 1 Officer Sample By Category
Education dacnelors uraduate TOTAL NONE 224 50 274 SOS 2s1 222 473 ACSC 156 449 605 AWC 76 310 386 OTALI 707 1031
Results A total of 12 dependent measures were used in the analysis of each nf as
These measures were chosen for their representativeness indicators.
supervisory and management Null Hypothesis 1: nate mean responses completed. ables.
There will be no significant differences the levels of PME which their
Null Hypothesis 1 was rejected
in 10 of the 12 factors
A summary of the significant
in Table 2.
detailed statistical presentation is provided in Appendix B, Tables 3 through 12. TABLE 2 Summary of Significant Main Effects On Level of Professional Military Education
Factors Job Motivation Task Autonomy Management and Supervision Supervisory Commnnicatlois Climate Organizational Communications Climate Climate
General Organizational Items To what extent do you feel your job?
accountable to your supervisor in accomplishing
My supervisor performs well under pressure. My supervisor explains how my Job contributes to the overall mission. When I need technical advice, I usually qo to my supervisor.
The two variables that reflect no significant 6ifference are Job Related Satisfaction (Table 13) and Pride (Table 14). It is on apparent that those with supervisory dimensions by
nigher levels of PME are rated more positively "hreir subordinates.
Null responses nighest
Hypothesis of level
There will whose
be no significant have those a
in mean (as have a in
acquired either a masters or doctorate.
The onl,, variable that [F(I, 8) 7 7.85, p.
revealed < .05].
significant main effect was Job Satisfaction this case,
the subordinates of those with graduate degrees shared greater Job (Table 13, Figure 11). However, the 1-10, trend ,2, across all other (not
significant) edge to those with graduate degrees. Null Hypothesis 3: PME and level of degree. There is no siynificdnt irttrdctiun between level Of the 12 selected depenc•nt The Item, "When variables, of
only ole Advice, [F(3, 8)
produced a significant interaction. 1 Usually Go To My Supervisor," 2.93,
I Need Technical
was found to produce an interaction presented in Table 12 and depicted
The data is
noted that the trends once again appear to favor advanced although not significantly the variable effect on "Time the (Figure 12). in Service" was that was used significant in as a all
education and PME, Finally, covariate cases
to eliminate its
the data shows that officer's professional military education has
an extremely positive relationship with the perceptions of their subordinates on many key supervisory measures. 12 measures chosen for this study. Only one measure, has a significantly Job Related Satisfaction, positive effect. indicates that graduate school subordinates whose PME is significantly positive in 10 of thE
sunervisors had obtained either a masters or doctorate degree seemed to have more job sat'sfaction. favor of graduate Additionally, though there is a trend across all the data in significant. This can be seen in
Figure; 1-12. Interactions turned out to be, for the most part, as expected. On the
item concernina technical advice,
graduate degrees appear to provide officers questions across the
the knowledge necessary for them to answer technical board. PME does not have much of an effect,
except that having no PME and no
grdduate education leaves the supervisor unable to field technical questions with much oroficiency. parallel advice. No-mally, we would have expected to see relatively This is not the case on technical
lines between the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS From the discussions believes a cas! Force Policy. aimed by exists It to and analyses presented in this study, the author the Air foreign
has been made to support several serve as a one of several
First, American to
instruments at all and
aggression Its very
existence allows the United States an extra events States in a way favorable to the national and its allies, and, if all
amount of leverage to influence security fails, interests the of the United military to protect
establishment must have a war-fighting capability, vital national interests.
second to none,
The key to both deterrence and war-fighting capability is unit operational readiness. The military establishment is not just another American institution and its leaders are not simply members of another profession ... military officers carry from the time of commission, extraordinary responsibilhties, endure unusual hardships, receive no additional compensation for longer and harder work, and bear unlimited liability extending to the risk of life itself. Military units train and fight only as well as they are led by their officers (Taylir, undated, p. 44). The volatile and constantly technological changing international scene, and the new
age in which the military must operate,
a military As even
tnat is well educated and trained to meet the many challenges the world environment increases in complexity, the 1980's
facing it. will put
greater demands amount "nigher
on officers. of for
Officer effectiveness will and training invested
be dependent in in way these both to
and quality education
officers. civilian the
professional the best
institutions intellectual (Sarkesian, Second,
and service sensitivity 1979, p. 45).
maintaining of a hignly-ecucated and trained staff an essential element for a quality professional related firms. organization, as indicated by a sampling of four defen.,e S96 Mcuonneil
between I july I982 and the end or Marco ii93, 31
and 55 employees In 1982,
had some sort
of curriculum approved under Basic
out of a total COMSAT population of 2,705 people, (an average of $61 per employee). Ten per25%
$165,000 was spent on education
cent of COMSAT's employees availed themselves of educational of which took two or more courses at one time. tion population of not less than
Out of a total approximately
BDM Corpora18% pursued incur
graJuate degrees in 1982 no obligation).
(employees who receive fully-funded education 1, 1981 and August 31, 1982,
14% of a total
Boeing Aircraft Corporation population of 90,000 employees pursued some sort of .cademic degree. Witi 728 new 3.8% of the Corporation was pursuing a graduate degree. slots started in FY 82, and graduate degree
programs lasting normally two years, officer
approximately 2% of the entire Air Force graduate degrees at any one time degrees
corps can be involved in pursuing
(.72% of the entire Air Force officer on i full-time basis in FY 82). if not higher, responses indicate
indicate that industry places education than the Air Force.
emphasis on professional to LMDC's AP survey,
by an analysis
schools and graduate education
may help Ten of the
preý)are Air Force officers to be better managers and supervisors. twelve factors positive managerial Masters-Ph.D. Overall, the chosen showed PME on the vs. no PME as and One had a having had a of
significantly on the
perceptions issues. having
attitudes of the
positive PME as
effect. being a
to the OAP
positive and worthwhile influence on Air Force officers.
the importance of professional
education for Air Force officers has
This is seen by the number of officers actively involved 'n PME PME is the most widEly used tool for officer levels indicate. international Rapid advances political shall arena not
and other educational programs. professional in technology that development,
as participation changes and in
and constant the need
If anything, education. indicate and
the need will Information their
increase, supplied of
oarticularly by four
in the area of defense-related abreast of thie
the need this into
consideration, (2%) to
current level of Air Force emihasis on graduate edjuation .2,thouqh
may be lo•. increasinq
cost and manpower requirements may seem prohibitive
qradLjate education expenditures, desire for a well costs now, trained
the Air Force emph.sis on PME reveals tie What apoear to be mostly
and educated officer.
in the area o* eaucation,
could very well reap enormous benefits
in the future.
.• , '- =
References Air University Catalog. Air University: Maxwell AFB, AL, 1982-1983.
Bletz, D. F., & Taylor, W. J., Jr. A case for officer graduate education. Journal of Political and hM-itary Sociology, 1974, 2, 251-267. Bricker, 8-9. Brodsky, 1967, R., Professional military education. Air Reservists, 1982, 34,
N. The professional education of officers. 48, 429-432.
Phi Delta Kappan,
Dent, D. R. Roles of PME in officer development. 1975, 26, 92-99.
Air University Review,
Dorger, J. M. USAF Officer PME in the 1980s: A look at the Air Force need for professional military education in the coming decade (Report Number 0600-79). Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, AL: 1979. We are in danger of losing our scientific leadership. Fitch, V.L. U.S. News & World Report, June 21, 1982, 56. Gayton, Carber. Personal communication, 6 May, 1983. survey assessment package Brooks AFB TX: Air Force 1983 1983.
Hendrix, W. H., & Halverson, V. B. Organizational for Air Force organizations (AFHRL-TR-78-93). Human Resources Laboratory, 1979. Johnson, Bill. Personal communication, Personal communication, 18 April,
MacDonald, W. R.,
Niven, J., From a corporate policy letter by T. A. Wilson, dated June 27, 1977, number 8D10, in the Boeing Management Development System Manual, dated April 1983. Niven, J., Personal communication, R M., The Real War, N.Y.: 18 April, 1983. Inc., 1981.
Pittman, W. C., Jr. Why PME? The purpose of professional military education. Student Research Report. 79-80, Air War College, Air Unive:sity, Anril 1980. A )lan to win in El Salvador.
1983. Air University Review,
fkogers, F. M., Why professional military education? 1975, 26, 2-9. 34
Sarkesian, S. C., Changing dimensions of military professionalism: Military Review, 1979, 59, 44-57. and enlightened advocacy.
Taylor, W. J. Jr., Professional enculturation of the U.S. officer corps. Washington, D.C. T-eorgetown University Center for Strategic and International Studies, undated. Aalsh, E., & Walsh, Digest, November, T. The status of science education. 1982, 48, 36-39. The Education
APPENDIX A Air Force Officer PME Participation Levels
RESIDENCE PME SOS Total graduated (August '81 Mav '82) AC SC Total graduated (August '81l- June '82) AWC Total graduated (August '81
164 2498 FISCAL YEAR 1982
Total residence PME graduated NON-RESIUENCE PME
CorresponJer.ce Total graduated Total enrolled at end of FY '82 ACSC Correspondence Total yraduated Total enrolled at end of FY '82 Semi na r
Total graduated 6022
lctal enrolled at end of FY '62 A14C Correspondence Total graduated
Total enrolled at end of FY '82
Semi nar Total graduated Total enrolled at end of FY '82
Total non-residence PME graduates
Total nrn-residence PME enrolled at end of FY '82 37
APPENDIX B OAP Factors and Variables
~~~~~~~.. . ........... ...... ..... .
Tdble 3 Z807 Jub Motivation Index Andlysis of Means
Analysis of Variance Sum of Squares 41417.450 1428.598 37866.540 Mean Square 10354.363 1428.598 12622.180 Significaice of F 0.001 0.434 0.001
Source of Variation MAIN EFFLCTS Degree PME Z-WAY 1NIL;ýACTIONS Degree PME Covariate Time in Service
DF 4 1 3
F 4.434 0.612 5.405
Table 4 Z813 Task Autonomy Analysis of Means
Mean (Count) Bachelors
NONE 4.19 (238)
SOS 4.28 (257)
ACSC 4.45 (160)
AWC 4.70 (76)
Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation MAIN EFFECTS Degree PME 2-WAY INTERACTIONS Degree PME Covariate
of Squares 50.665 3.199 40.851 1.053
DF 4 1 3 3
Mean Square 12.666 3.199 13.617 0.351
F 12.143 3.067 13.054 0.337
Significance of F 0. 0.080 0.000 0.799
Time in Service
Z618 Management and Supervison
Analysis of Means
Mean (Count) Bachelors
NONE 4.70 (237)
SOS 5.18 (248)
ACSC 5.21 (158)
AWC 5.37 (76)
Analysis of Variance Source of Variation MAIN EFFICTS Degree PME 2-WAY INTERA(lIUNS Degree PME Covari ate Time in Service Sum of Squares 29.440 0.383 24.943 1.428 62.791 DF 4 1 3 3 1 Mean Square 7.36U 0.383 8.314 0.476 62.791 F 6.470 0.337 7.309 0.419 55.199 Significdnce of F 0.000 0.562 0.000 0.740 0.00U
Table 6 Z819 Supervisory Communications Climate Analysis of Means
NONE 4.37 (237)
SOS 4.74 (248)
ACSC 4.80 (158)
AWC 4.88 (76)
Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation NAIN EFFECTS Degree PME a-WAY INTERACTIONS Degree PME Covariate Time In Service
Squares 19.603 2.329 12.516 0.838 44.967
DF 4 1 3 3 1
Mean Square 4.901 2.329 4.172 0.279 44.967
F 4.118 1.957 3.506 0.235 37.785
Significance of F 0.003 0.162 0.015 0.872 0.000
- - ------.--
Table 7 Z820 Organizational Cornmunications Climate Analysis of Means
Medn (Count) bachelors
NONE 4.48 (224)
SOS 4.73 (251)
ACSC 4.78 (156)
AWC 4.87 (76)
Source of Variation MAIN EFFECTS Degree PME 2-WAY INTFRACTIONS Degree PME Covariate Time In Service
Analysis of Variance Sum of Squares 11.227 1.104 8.260 0.511 23.404 DF 4 1 3 3 1 Mean Square 2.807 1.104 2.753 0.170 23.404 F 2.968 1.167 2.911 0.18U 24.744 Significance of F 0.019 0.280 0.033 0.910 O.OUO
Table 8 Z824 General Organizational Analysis of Means Climate
Mean (Count) Bachelors
SOS 4.94 (251)
ACSC 5.08 (156)
AWC 5.16 (7b)
Analysis of Variance Source of Variation lAIN EFFECTS Degree PME 2-WAY INTERACTIONS Degree PME Covariate Time In Service Sum of Squares 15.264 1.895 9.417 0.844 39.706 DF 4 1 3 3 1 Mean Square 3.816 1.895 3.139 0.281 39.706 F 4.058 2.015 3.338 0.299 42.225 Significance of F 0.003 U.156 0.019 0.826 0.000
Table 9 Z216 To What Extent Do You Feel Accountable To Your Supervisor In Accomplishing Your Job? Analysis of Means
Analysis of Variance Sum of Squares 44.885 0.463 39.352 Mean Square 11.221 0.463 13.117 Significance of F 0.000 0.525 0.000
Source of Varlatlon MAIN EFFECTS Degree PME 2-WAY INTERACTIONS Degree PME Covarlate Time in Service
DF 4 1 3
F 9.779 0.4U4 11.432
Table 10 Z416 My Supervisor Performs Well Under Pressure Analysis of Means
Mean (Count) Bachelors
NONE 4.72 (231)
SOS 5.31 (252)
ACSC 5.30 (159)
AWC 5.57 (75)
Analysis of Variance Source of Variation MAIN EFFECTS Uegree PME A-WAY INTERACTIONS Uegree PME Covariate Time In Service Sum of Squares 37.363 3.8U5 25.153 4.821 132.012 DF 4 1 3 3 1 Mean Square 9.341 3.805 8.384 1.607 132.012 F 5.609 2.285 5.035 0.965 79.275 Significance of F 0.000 0.131 0.002 0.408 0.000
. . .
Table 11 Z428 My Supervisor Explains How My Job Contributes to the Overall Mission Analysis of Means
NONE 4.38 (237)
SUS 4.78 (248)
ACSC 4.97 (158)
AWC 4.84 (76)
Analysis of Varlance Source of Variation MAIN EFFECTS Deyree PME 2-WAY INTERACTIUNS Degree PME Covariate Time in Service Skim of Squares 22.436 1.492 16.152 1.4b9 66,926 OF 4 1 3 3 1 Mean Square 5.609 1.492 5.384 0.486 66.926 F 3.695 0.983 3.547 0.320 44.085 Significance of F O.U05 0.322 0.014 0.811 0.00O
Table 12 Z439 When I Need Technical Advice, I Usually Go To ?*Y Supervisor
Analysis of Means
Mean (Count) Bachelors
NONE 3.77 (237)
SOS 4.30 (248)
ACSC 4.13 (158)
AWC 4.41 (76)
Analysis of Variance
Source of Variation MAIN EFFECTS Degree PME 2-WAY INTERACTIONS Degree PME Covariate Time in Service
Sum of Squares 18.652 0.108 17.772 19.275 12.521
DF 4 1 3 3 1
Mean Square 4.663 J.108 5.924 3.425 12.521
F 2.128 0.049 2.703 2.932 5.714
Significance of F 0.075 0.825 0.044 0.032 0.017
Table 13 Z822 Job Related Satisfaction Analysis of Means
Mean (Count) Bachelors
NONE 4.92 (224)
SOS 5.08 (251)
ACSC 5.28 (156)
AWC 5.17 (76)
Analysis of Variance Sum of Squares 10.207 5.572 1.892 2.239 51.862 Mean Square 2.552 5.572 0.631 0.746 51.862 Significdnce of F 0.000 0.005 0.447 0.369 0.000
Source of Variation MAIN EFFECTS Degree PME 2-WAY INTERACTIONS Degree FPE Covariate Time In Service
DF 4 1 3 3 1
F 3.593 7.846 0.888 1.051 73.026
Table 14 Z811 Pride Analysis of Means
Mean (Count) Bachelors
NONE 5.08 (238)
SOS 5.21 (257)
ACSC 5.42 (160)
AWC 5.19 (76)
Analysis of Variance Sum of Squares 4.632 0.152 4.597 4.524 32.056 Mean Square 1.158 0.152 1.532 1.508 32.056 Significance of F 0.340 0.700 0.214 0.220 0.000
3ource of Variation hAIN EFFECTS Degree PME '-WAY INTERACTIONS Degree PME Covariate Time In Service
UF 4 1 3 3 1
F 1.131 0.149 1.497 1.473 31.317
125 120 116
LvELOF PME Lc
Fioje 1.Comiparison 04 the perceot ons of subordinates o
LENEL OF FWE Fiqu-e 2. Co,!pijrison of the perceptions of subordinates of officers on iask Autonomy.
5. 4.8 .
LEML OF PME
-igure 3. Comparison of the perceptions of subordinates of officers on 73nagenment and Supervision.
i -- ',re
,)f the ierceptions oi, 'unica tLOrs C iu, te.
of officers on
MMRESPONtSE &.4 5.2 5
NL~ Or PME
Friou -e 5. Comparison of the p-rceptioris of subordinateS of officers on Oroanizationa1 Commnunications Climate.
6. reIpa ri ý.on of thE, purceptions of subordinates of officers on 1Orq;inj 7at erm 1 l i::ýte. c
LEM! OF PME
cure 7. Comparison of the Derceptiors of subordinates of officýers on
Aý,ccountability To Supervisor.
1 ue . uCoopari son of tile 1r-rceit ions of suhiordi nates of officers on -,,jrervi sor Pr-rforrc; ýqe! I inder Pressure.
LEVEL OF PME
Fioure 9. Comparison of the perceptions of subordinates of officers on MyvSwervisor Explains How Mv Job Contributes to the Overall Mission.
Ltvm or rut
10. Colý)arison of *he perceptions of subordinates of officers on , ',"ed Technical Advice, I '.sually Go To My Supervisor.
f qure 11. Comparison of the perceptions of subordinates of officers on ;ob Related Satisfaction.
Comparison of the i)erceptions
of officers on
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