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Page no. • • • • • • • • • •
INTRODUCTION ………………………………. 4 DESCRIPTION …………………………………. 7 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM …………………………... 12 P.C.B. LAYOUT ………………………………… 15
WORKING ………………………………………. 18 P.C.B. MANUFACTURING PROCESS ……… 21 COMPONENT PART-LIST …………………… 28
BASIC COMPONENT DESCRIPTION …….. 32 IC DISCRIPTION …………………………….. 44 ASSEMBLY CODING ………………………… 58 APPLICATION ………………………. 66
• • • •
MERITS & DE-MERITS ……………………… 68 CONCLUSION …………………………………. 70 REFERENCES…………………………………… 71
HOW WE DECIDED ON THIS PROJECT
Project making is a task which can be divided into a number of steps. The most important of these is actually deciding upon what actually to make. After a month long search, we found that all the project ideas we were coming up with were simple in principle and demonstration as well as hackneyed. What we finally did was to put together these small-small ideas & principles, which laid the foundation of our project.
"Security" that's all what people needs in today world. Human Beings are adopting different measures & techniques to lead a safe & secured life. Another thing they needs is convenience “control through messages”. This system has both the things security as well as convenience.
This project is designed to provide the car security by GSM phone in following ways: Each vehicle has a mobile number and you may start any of your vehicles by sending a SMS to (your password) it. It can be programmed to limit its operation only through a particular cell phone. It can send a SMS back to your mobile if any body else try to open the door.
Simultaneously, it can also send SMS to the other numbers.
it is possible to change the password and the target notification number from the voice menu. The tip connections can be made to any kind of sensor up to your request or necessity. For instance, after you park your vehicle and lock the doors with remote control. When the sensor trigged is increased, a SMS is sent.
Moreover to increase the security of the vehicle, stroke sensor, motion sensor etc. Can be placed.
“CIRCUIT DIAGRAM” 7 .
7 K + 5 V 1 0 K 1 0 K + 5 V + 5 V 1 0 u 9 1 0 k 3 f 41 0 3 9 3 8 1 41 51 6 2 8 2 2 3 p f 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 k 1 0 1 81 p f 3 9 1 k 3 3 m 4 1 1 K 0 2 5 6 2 P + 7 1 0 K 3 + 1 1 0 4 P + 5 V o T x x n R G b i l e 7 k + 5 V d v i b r a t i o s e n s o r n 1 k 5 4 8 5 4 8 C I R C U I T D A I G R A M 8 . 7 K + 5 V C D 1 6 X 2 4 .+ 1 2 V + 1 2 V L 4 .
C.“P.B. LAYOUT” 9 .
“THE WORKING” 10 .
THE WORKING 11 .
“P.B. MANUFACTURING PROCESS” 12 .C.
The production of boards with plated through holes is fairly expensive. that clearly defined all the details of the circuit and partly also of the final equipment is prerequisite before the actual lay out can start. A common target aimed is the fabrication of small series of highly reliable professional quality PCBs with low investment cost. working frequency and voltage levels etc. 13 . The layout of a PCB has to incorporate all the information of the board before one can go on the artwork preparation. MANUFACTURING PROCESS It is an important process in the fabrication of electronic equipment. High power PCBs requires a special design strategy. The target becomes especially important for custom tailored equipment in the area of industrial electronics. Double Sided Boards Double-sided PCBs can be made with or without plated through holes.B.P. Single Sided Boards The single sided PCBs are mostly used in entertainment electronics where manufacturing costs have to be kept at a minimum. The detailed circuit diagram is very important for the layout designer but he must also be familiar with the design concept and with the philosophy behind the equipment. This means that a concept. The fabrication process to the printed circuit board will determine to a large extent the price and reliability to the equipment.C. The design of PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards) depends on circuit requirements like noise immunity. 2. However in industrial electronics cost factors cannot be neglected and single sided boards should be used wherever a particular circuit can be accommodated on such boards. BOARD TYPES: The two most popular PCB types are: 1. Therefore plated through holes boards are only chosen where the circuit complexities and density does not leave any other choice.
9. 2. Fix the components on the PCB and solder them. 8. 4. 5. 6. 14 . Prepare the project report. Trace and rectify faults if any. Understand the working of the circuit. 10. Test the circuit for the desired performance. 1. Prepare the list of components along with their specification. 3. Plan and prepare PCB for mounting all the components. Study the books on the relevant topic. Estimate the cost and procure them after carrying out market survey.CHRONOLOGY The following steps have been followed in carrying out the project. 7. Give good finish to the unit. Prepare the circuit diagram.
Now the copper layout on PCB is rubbed with a smooth sand paper slowly and lightly such that only the oxide layers over the Cu is removed. (B) LAYOUT DESIGN: When designing the layout one should observe the minimum size (component body length and weight). Actual size PCB layout for the circuit shown is drawn on the copper board. There is less need for complicate and time consuming metal work of chassis contraception except perhaps in providing the final enclosure. Before starting to design the layout we need all the required components in hand so that an accurate assessment of 15 . the main attraction of using PCB is its role as the mechanical support for small components. The board is then immersed in FeCl3 solution for 12 hours. This base is manufactured with an integral bounded layers of thin copper foil which has to be partly etched of other wise remove to arrive at a pre designed pattern to suite the circuit connections or whatever other application is noted. In this process only the exposed copper portion that is etched out by the solution. Most straight forward circuit designs can be easily covered in to printed wiring layer the thought required to carry out the inversion cab footed high light an possible error that would otherwise be missed in conventional point to point wiring . The term printed circuit board is derived from the original method where by a printed pattern is used as the mask over wanted areas of copper. Now the petrol washes out the paint.DESIGN SPECIFICATION (I) (A) STEP TAKEN WHILE PREPARING CIRCUIT PCB DESIGNING The main purpose of printed circuit is in the routing of electric currents and signal through a thin copper layer that is bounded firmly to and insulating base material some time called the substrate.The finished project is usually neater and truly a work of art. The PCB provides an ideal baseboard upon which to assemble and hold firmly most of the small components. Now the holes are drilled at the respective places according to component layout as shown in figure. From the constructor’s point of view.
If possible try to route the outer supply line to the ground plane. The first set is tearing the circuit to eliminate the crossover with out altering the circuit detail in any way. Nitric acid can be used but in general it is not used due to poisonous fumes. The second is to make the interconnection pattern looking more like conventional point wiring by routing uniform width of copper from component to component. it can become little tricky to negotiate the route to connect small transistors. All common or earth lines should ideally be connected to a common line routed around the perimeter of the layout. If possible try to route the other supply lines around the opposite edge of the layout to through the center. The scale can be checked be positioning the components on the squared paper. First this should be translated inverse later for the etching pattern large areas rate recommended to maintain good copper adhesive it is important to bear in mind always that copper track width must be according to the recommended minimum dimensions and allowance must be made for increased width where termination holes are needed. (C) ETCHING PROCESS: Etching process requires the use of chemicals acid resistant dishes and running water supply. Other space consideration might also include from case of mounted components over the printed circuit board or to access path to present components. If any connection crosses. Plan the layout looking at the topside to this board. There are basically two ways of copper interconnections pattern in the under side to the board. Ferric chloride is mostly used solution but other etching materials such as ammonium per sulphate can be used. It might be necessary to turn some components round to a different angular position so that terminals are closer to the connections of the components. From this aspect.space can be made. 16 . This will act as the ground plane. The first is the removal of only the amount of copper necessary to isolate the junction to the components to each other resulting in the large areas of copper. then one can reroute to avoid such condition.
Drilling is one of those operations that calls for great care. Before going to next stage. (D) COMPONENT ASSEMBLY: From the greatest variety of electronic components available. Drill all holes with this size first those that need to be larger can be easily drilled again with the appropriate larger size. If using crystal of ferricchloride these should be thoroughly dissolved in water to the proportional suggested. of water for 125 gm of crystal. Have running water ready so that etched board can be removed properly and rinsed. Waste liquid should be thoroughly deflated and dried in water land. For most purposes a 1mm drill is used. then they can be repaired by soldering a short link of bare copper wire over the affected part. check the whole pattern and cross check against the circuit diagram. This leads to over etching. Inspite of there being a resistive coating there is no protection against etching away through exposed copper edges. While the board is drying. This will halt etching immediately. 17 . which runs into thousands of different types it is often a perplexing task to know which is right for a given job. Never pour down the drain. To prevent particles of copper hindering further etching. test all the components.5 lt. Then apply the resist solution. If there are. There should be 0. which can be a kind of ink proportion for the purpose of maintaining smooth clean outlines as far as possible. There could be damage such as hairline crack on PCB. The etching bath should be in a glass or enamel disc. The board should not be left in the bath a moment longer than is needed to remove just the right amount of copper. agitate the solutions carefully by gently twisting or rocking the tray.The pattern prepared is glued to the copper surface of the board using a latex type of adhesive that can be cubed after use. Check for any free metal on the copper. The pattern is laid firmly on the copper using a very sharp knife to cut round the pattern carefully to remove the paper corresponding to the required copper pattern areas.
they could be internally damaged.So it is best to start mounting the smallest first and progressing through to the largest.The most popular method of holding all the items is to bring the wires far apart after they have been inserted in the appropriate holes. Some capacitors are also very small but it would be best to fit these after wards. Next will probably be the resistor. A longer duration contact between soldering iron bit & components lead can exceed the temperature rating of device & cause partial or total damage of the device. Hence before soldering we must carefully read the maximum soldering temperature & soldering time for device. 18 . small signal diodes or other similar size components. When fitting each group of componets mark off each one on the components as it is fitted and if we have to leave the job we know where to recommence. Before starting. Although transistors and integrated circuits are small items there are good reasons for leaving the soldering of these until the last step. 1. Now they are mounted according to the component layout. All the components before mounting are rubbed with sand paper so that oxide layer is removed from the tips. be certain that no further drilling is likely to be necessary because access may be impossible later. This will hold the component in position ready for soldering. Some components will be considerably larger . (D) SOLDERING: - This is the operation of joining the components with PCB after this operation the circuit will be ready to use to avoid any damage or fault during this operation following care must be taken. The main point is that these components are very sensitive to heat and if subjected to prolonged application of the soldering iron.
3. 5. 4. We should select the soldering wire with proper ratio of Pb & Tn to provide the suitable melting temperature. Proper amount of good quality flux must be applied on the soldering point to avoid dry soldering. To protect the devices by leakage current of iron its bit should be earthed properly.2. 19 . The wattage of soldering iron should be selected as minimum as permissible for that soldering place.
20 . ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS ARE OF 25V WITH 20% TOLERANCES. CERAMIC CAPACITORS ARE OF 50V WITH 5% TOLARANCES.“COMPONENT LIST” COMPONENT PART-LIST ALL RESISTANCES ARE CARBON TYPE AND ARE OF QUARTER WATTS WITH 5% TOLERANCES.
COMPONENT LIST 1.00 21 1 3 3.50 4 1. IC’s Number AT89C52 LM358 LM7805 2.00 10. Transistors BC548B 6 3. Light Emitting Diodes (LED’s) Red 4.00 1 340.50 7.00 22.00 6 1. 150. DISPLAY LCD 6. Crystal 12 MHz 1 30. Diodes 1N4007 5.00 3.00 Quantity 1 1 1 Rate/P. Ceramic Capacitors 33pf 2 1.00 7.00 . Electrolytic Capacitors 1000µ F/25V 10µ F/25V 8.
00 1 90. Miscellaneous IC Base (40 pin) IC Base (16 pin) IC Base (8 pin) Mains Cable Ferric Cloride Soldering Wire Connecting wires Soldering Paste 1 1 1 1 100gms.00 5.00 15.25 11.Transformers 9/0/9 500mA 12. 14.00 10.00 10.25 0.00 5.25W) 100K 10K 1K 1 8 4 0. Variable Resistors Preset 10K 1 5.00 3.00 12.Carbon Resistors (0.00 1 40.9.25 0. PCB 6” X 8” 13.00 40. 3mtrs.00 22 . 20gms. 10gms.
“COMPONENT DESCRIPTION” BASIC COMPONENT DESCRIPTION RESISTORS A Resistor is a heat-dissipating element and in the electronic circuits it is mostly used for either controlling the current in the circuit or developing a voltage drop across it. which could be utilized for many application. There are 23 .
The following characteristics are inherent in all resistors and may be controlled by design considerations and choice of material i. (1) Base (2) Resistance element (3) Terminals (4) Protective means. Temperature co–efficient of resistance. Resistors may be classified as (1) Fixed (2) semi variable (3) Variable resistor CAPACITORS The fundamental relation for the capacitance between two flat plates separate by a dielectric material is given by C=0.08854KA/D where C= capacitance in pf. high frequency characteristics. power rating and. K= dielectric constant 24 .e. tolerance voltage rating of Resistors. Voltage co–efficient of resistance.various types of resistors. which can be classified according to a number of factors depending upon: (1)Material used for fabrication (2)Wattage and physical size (3)Intended application (4)Ambient temperature rating (5)Cost Basically the resistor can be splitted in to the following four parts with the construction viewpoint.
paper. Aluminum.A=Area per plate in square cm. frequency and aging. Commercially available diodes usually have some means to indicate which lead is P and which lead is N. If the anode voltage is not at least Vth greater than the cathode voltage. Glass. then unlimited current can flow without causing the voltage across the diode to increase. The capacitance value marked on the capacitor strictly applies only at specified room temperature and at low frequencies some of the capacitor used in circuits are impregnated paper dielectric capacitor. glass dielectric capacitors. Likewise. the diode is said to be reverse-biased and no current will flow. no current will flow. Diodes have a minimum threshold voltage (or Vth. Under certain field condition it changes with temperature. This pnjunction exhibits the unique characteristic of allowing current to flow in only one direction (from the anode to the cathode). but they are simpler devices that have only two terminals. the two ends of the diode are constructed of positively doped silicon (the anode) joined directly to negatively doped silicon (the cathode). In an ideal diode. if the diode 25 .7V) that must be present between the anode and cathode in order for current to flow. if the cathode voltage is greater than the anode voltage. vitreous enamel dielectric capacitors etc. The dielectric material used for capacitors may be grouped in the various classes like Mica. DIODES + It is a two terminal device consisting of a P-N junction formed either of Ge or Si crystal. ceramic. The P and N type regions are referred to as anode and cathode respectively. electrolytic etc. The value of capacitance never remains constant. if the diode voltage equals the threshold voltage (plus a small amount). Diodes are constructed from the same type of silicon as transistors. air. D=Distance between two plates in cm Design of capacitor depends on the proper dielectric material with particular type of application. And. Called the anode and cathode. usually around 0.
is reversed-biased. and they are used to force given circuit nodes to remain at or below a certain voltage. Blue. three individual diodes are used to limit the voltages applied to the Red.higher voltages would damage computer display electronics). and the silkscreen pattern has both a line at the cathode end and a square pad for the cathode lead. they are used to limit the amount of over-voltage that can be applied to a given circuit node. When loading a diode into a circuit board. Diodes have many uses in electronic circuits. they are frequently employed in power supply circuits to turn alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC).7VDC or less (VGA colour signals must lie in that voltage range to meet relevant specifications . and Green pins of the VGA connector (J6) to 0. a backwards diode will cause the circuit to malfunction.transistor is composed of two n-type semiconductors separated by a thin section of p type. As examples. there are two types of transistors namely: (1) n-p-n-transistor (2) p-n-p-transistor (NPN) (PNP) An n-p-n. However a p-n-p transistor is formed by 26 . On the Digilab board. Accordingly. Note the identification methods used to mark a diode's cathode terminal: the schematic symbol has a line at the point of the triangle. no current will flow regardless of reverse-voltage magnitude. Remember that since diodes allow current to flow in only one direction. the physical diode has a dark line on the plastic component housing. TRANSISTOR A transistor consists of two junctions by sandwiching either p-type or ntype semiconductor between a pair of opposite types. make sure that the dark line on the diode matches the line in the silk-screen pattern.
The collector current flowing through a high load resistance Rc produces a large voltage across it. There are three terminals taken from each type of semiconductor. The weak signal is applied between emitter base junction and output is taken across the load Rc connected in the collector circuit. but may 27 . As the input circuit has low resistance therefore a small change in signal voltage causes an appreciable change in emitter current. TRANSFORMER A TRANSFORMER is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by electromagnetic induction (transformer action). It is in this way that a transistor acts as an amplifier. The middle section is a very thin layer. This causes almost the same change in collector current due to transistor action. A transistor raises the strength of a weak signal and thus acts as an amplifier. In each type of transistor the following points may be noted. This is the most important factor in the function of a transistor. 4. a dc voltage is applied in the input in addition to the signal. To do so. Thus a weak signal applied to the input circuit appears in the amplified form in the collector circuit. This dc Voltage is known as biasing voltage and its magnitude and polarity should be such that it always keeps the input circuit forward biased regardless of the polarity to the signal to be amplified. 1. the input circuit should always remain forward biased. Therefore a transistor may be regarded as combination of two diodes connected back to back.two p-sections separated by a thin section of n-type. 2. In order to achieve faithful amplification. 3. These are two p-n junctions. Transistor can be used as an Amplifier. The electrical energy is always transferred without a change in frequency.
two 28 . for example. The figure shows four leads. are placed between the layers of windings to provide additional insulation. In the transformer shown in the cutaway view in figure. or P = EI. the E and I sections of the iron core are inserted into and around the windings as shown. it must be used with an input source voltage that varies in amplitude. When the primary winding is completely wound. terminals may be provided on the enclosure for connections to the windings. it too is covered with insulating paper. The secondary winding is then wound on top of the primary winding. That is. the voltage can be decreased (stepped down) to 10 volts and the current increased (stepped up) to 2 amperes.involve changes in magnitudes of voltage and current. the voltage and current levels can be increased or decreased by means of a transformer. Sometimes. If. the amount of power used by the load of an electrical circuit is equal to the current in the load times the voltage across the load. After the secondary winding is complete. In a transformer designed for high-voltage applications. The leads from the windings are normally brought out through a hole in the enclosure of the transformer. the primary consists of many turns of relatively small wire. the circuit could not normally be used with this particular source. Notice in the above case that the power remains the same. such as paper. the load in an electrical circuit requires an input of 2 amperes at 10 volts (20 watts) and the source is capable of delivering only 1 ampere at 20 volts. The wire is coated with varnish so that each turn of the winding is insulated from every other turn. Next. if a transformer is connected between the source and the load. However. 20 volts times 1 ampere equals the same power as 10 volts times 2 amperes. The alternating current has certain advantages over direct current. One important advantage is that when ac is used. transformer action will be explained using an ac voltage as the input source. it is wrapped in insulating paper or cloth. sheets of insulating material. There are many types of power that fit this description. Because a transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. for ease of explanation and understanding. As you know.
Transformers used at low frequencies. . Refer to the transformer circuit in figure -1 as you read the following explanation: The primary winding is connected to a 60 hertz ac voltage source. These leads are to be connected to the source and load. such as 60 hertz and 400 hertz. The voltage may be stepped up or down depending on the design of the primary and secondary windings. require a core of low29 . respectively. In effect.Basic transformer action. the core material is air and the transformer is called an AIR-CORE TRANSFORMER. Figure -1. Basic Operation of a Transformer In its most basic form a transformer consists of: A primary coil or winding. The expanding and contracting magnetic field around the primary winding cuts the secondary winding and induces an alternating voltage into the winding. The Components of a Transformer Two coils of wire (called windings) are wound on some type of core material. • • A secondary coil or winding. This voltage causes alternating current to flow through the load. The magnetic field (flux) builds up (expands) and collapses (contracts) about the primary winding.from the primary and two from the secondary. A core that supports the coils or windings. In some cases the coils of wire are wound on a cylindrical or rectangular cardboard form.
yet efficient. These steel laminations are insulated with a nonconducting material. and steel. Commonly used core materials are air. Iron-core transformers are usually used when the source frequency is low (below 20 kHz). usually iron. and then formed into a core. and frequency. which receives energy from the primary winding and delivers it to the load. This type of transformer is called an IRON-CORE TRANSFORMER. The majority of transformers you will encounter in Navy equipment contain laminated-steel cores. thus it provides for the efficient transfer of power. The PRIMARY WINDING. 30 . Most power transformers are of the ironcore type. air-core transformers are used when the voltage source has a high frequency (above 20 kHz). Size limitations and construction costs are also factors to be considered. The principle parts of a transformer and their functions are: • • • The CORE. Core Characteristics The composition of a transformer core depends on such factors as voltage. A soft-ironcore transformer is very useful where the transformer must be physically small. An important point to remember is that the most efficient transformer core is one that offers the best path for the most lines of flux with the least loss in magnetic and electrical energy. Each of these materials is suitable for particular applications and unsuitable for others.reluctance magnetic material. Generally. The purpose of the laminations is to reduce certain losses which will be discussed later in this chapter. which receives energy from the ac source. A transformer whose core is constructed of laminated sheets of steel dissipates heat readily. such as varnish. which provides a path for the magnetic lines of flux. The iron-core transformer provides better power transfer than does the air-core transformer. current. It takes about 50 such laminations to make a core an inch thick. soft iron. The SECONDARY WINDING.
When power is first applied. A well-designed crystal oscillator will provide good performance with TTL gates. or one with parallel resonance. 31 . Because of the inherent characteristics of the quartz crystal the crystal oscillator may be held to extreme accuracy of frequency stability.C. Two types of crystal oscillator circuits can be used: One with series resonance. Temperature compensation may be applied to crystal oscillators to improve thermal stability of the crystal oscillator. is the reason for crystal oscillators. random noise is generated within our active device and then amplified. This noise is fed back positively through frequency selective circuits to the input where it is amplified again and so on. Crystal Oscillator Crystal oscillators are oscillators where the primary frequency determining element is a quartz crystal. fixed frequency oscillators where stability and accuracy are the primary considerations. be they inductors and capacitors (L.) or a crystal. The amount of positive feedback to sustain oscillation is also determined by external components. For example it is almost impossible to design a stable and accurate LC oscillator for the upper HF and higher frequencies without resorting to some sort of crystal control. Hence. Crystal oscillators are usually. Ultimately a state of equilibrium is reached where the losses in the circuit are made good by consuming power from the power supply and the frequency of oscillation is determined by the external components.
The 74AS04 inverter performs the 180-degree phase shift that a parallel oscillator requires. The 4K7 resistor provides the negative feedback for stability. The circuit is designed to use the fundamental frequency of the crystal.The Figure above shows implementation of a parallel resonant oscillator circuit. 32 .
LED As its name indicates it is a forward biased P-N junction. During 33 .The Figure above shows implementation of a series resonant oscillator circuit. using TTL AND GATES. which emits visible light when energized. Electrons are in the higher conduction band on the N side whereas holes are in the lower valance band on the P side. Charge carrier recombination takes place when electrons from the N-side cross the junction and recombine with the holes on the P side.
some of the energy difference is given up in the form of heat and light. the plunger is attracted and the bulb glows. Gallium phoshide (Gap) and Gallium arsenide phoshide (GaAsP).LED emits no light when p-n junction is reverse biased. insulated copper wire coil is used to magnetize and attract the plunger . In the case of semiconductor materials like Gallium arsenide (GaAs).recombination. 34 . A greater percentage of energy is released during recombination and is given out in the form of light . When output is received by relay. A spring is connected to attract the plunger upper side.The plunger is normally connected to N/C terminal. RELAY In this circuit a 12V magnetic relay is used. In magnetic relay.
“IC DESCRIPTION” 35 .
000 Write/Erase Cycles • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz • Three-level Program Memory Lock • 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM 36 .IC 7805 VOLTAGE REGULATORS The IC used here in our project basically converts 9V supply to usable 5V. It is a positive voltage regulator. 89C51(MICROCONTR0LLER) Features • Compatible with MCS-51™ Products • 4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory – Endurance: 1.
high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM).0 .0 .0 .7 PORT 1 LATCH PORT 1 DRIVERS P1.• 32 Programmable I/O Lines • Two 16-bit Timer/Counters • Six Interrupt Sources • Programmable Serial Channel • Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes Description The AT89C51 is a low-power. SERIAL PORT.P1.P3.P2.7 FLASH PORT 0 RAM LATCH PROGRAM ADDRESS REGISTER BUFFER PC INCREMENTER PROGRAM COUNTER DPTR RAM ADDR. AND TIMER BLOCKS STACK ACC POINTER TMP2 TMP1 ALU PSW TIMING AND CONTROL PORT 3 LATCH PORT 3 DRIVERS P3.0 . REGISTER INSTRUCTION REGISTER B REGISTER INTERRUPT.7 OSC GND VCC PSEN ALE/PROG EA / VPP RST PORT 0 DRIVERS P0. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip. the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pinout.7 AT89C51 37 . The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. PDIP 8-bit Microcontroller with 4K Bytes Block Diagram PORT 2 DRIVERS PORT 2 LATCH P2.P0.
When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. As inputs. In this mode P0 has internal pullups. it uses strong internal pullups when emitting 1s. As inputs. two 16-bit timer/counters. a five vector two-level interrupt architecture. Pin Description VCC Supply voltage. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed loworder address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pullups. 32 I/O lines. the AT89C51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. As an output port.3 The AT89C51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of Flash. Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. 128 bytes of RAM. Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. During accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI). When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by 38 . When 1s are written to port 0 pins. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pullups. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming. External pullups are required during program verification. and outputs the code bytes during program verification. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. timer/counters. Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. In this application. on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. In addition. GND Ground. The Power-down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset. the pins can be used as highimpedance inputs. a full duplex serial port. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs.
even though operated from only a single power supply voltage.1 TXD (serial output port) P3. In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency. Unique Characteristics n In the linear mode the input common-mode voltage range includes ground and the output voltage can also swing to ground. Application areas include transducer amplifiers.6 WR (external data memory write strobe) P3. Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups. the LM158 series can be directly operated off of the standard +5V power supply voltage which is used in digital systems and will easily provide the required interface electronics without requiring the additional ±15V power supplies.4 T0 (timer 0 extern al input) P3. As inputs. Advantages 39 .the internal pullups and can be used as inputs.5 T1 (timer 1 external input) P3. dc gain blocks and all the conventional op amp circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C51 as listed below: Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. RST Reset input. internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1) P3. n The input bias current is also temperature compensated.0 RXD (serial input port) P3. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. Note. n The unity gain cross frequency is temperature compensated. For example.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0) P3. high gain. Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage.7 RD (external data memory read strobe) LM358 Low Power Dual Operational Amplifiers General Description The LM158 series consists of two independent. The LM358 is also available in a chip sized package (8-Bump micro SMD) using National’s micro SMD package technology. that one ALE Port Pin Alternate Functions P3. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. however.
5V 40 . (See AN-1112) n Internally frequency compensated for unity gain n Large dc voltage gain: 100 dB n Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature compensated) n Wide power supply range: — Single supply: 3V to 32V — or dual supplies: ±1.n Two internally compensated op amps n Eliminates need for dual supplies n Allows direct sensing near GND and VOUT also goes to GND n Compatible with all forms of logic n Power drain suitable for battery operation n Pin-out same as LM1558/LM1458 dual op amp Features n Available in 8-Bump micro SMD chip sized package.5V to ±16V n Very low supply current drain (500 μA)—essentially independent of supply voltage n Low input offset voltage: 2 mV n Input common-mode voltage range includes ground n Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage n Large output voltage swing: 0V to V+− 1.
“APPLICATIONS” 41 .
42 . But with this system owner can open the door by just a click of his mobile buttons. his family member is waiting at the door for hours.This system has both the things security as well as convenience. The mobile unit at home with message the owner about someone's presence at home. This is the convenience person seek for. Suppose a person is out of house & someone entered the house either by breaking the door or some other way. It can be implemented anywhere but for an example let us take it at the door of a house.APPLICATIONS The project finds wide range of applications in following areas: As we have presented in Vehicle Security . The door is locked & owner is out. This is security required to be provided.
“MERITS & DEMERITS” 43 .
The transmitter section will remain on till the special pulse beat sensor circuitry is sensing pulses of the bus movement is sent. but 44 . The working range covers big area by simply increasing the power transmitted. The software consists of simple coding and graphics in C . it should be taken as a scope to improve and analyze in a better way. So some of them are: The major drawback of this system is the power failure at the site. DE-MERITS Each and every task done has some limitation & this project too have some but instead of taking them as failures and sitting back.MERITS The circuitry involved is simple basically having only two main sections namely transmitter and receiver. The project can be extended for any number of users by simple duplication of circuitry and by minor adjustments. The person who is giving the command expects the execution to be done. It provide the display that gives the information about the next station and distance covered by the bus. As compared to its wide range of applications it proves to be very cheap.
the absence of supply at the mobile unit and computer can't help it. This might also lead to delivery of more than one message to the mobile unit. The second major draw back is due to the congestion in network. but due to high traffic in route message got delayed or sometimes due to collision the message is lost. This also misleads the user and creates inconvenience to him. Thus the person even after receiving acknowledgement of his message didn't get the job done. In this case the sender didn't get the acknowledgement as the message is undelivered. 45 . Another reasons for inconvenience way be the absence of network to the user. In this case user is unable to send message. The message is send by a user. so it keep sender waiting for long time & sometimes has to resend it.
“CONCLUSION” 46 .
We also came across a lot of new concepts making our learning a value addition. Also the number of tracking bus can be increase by using different ID no. THANK YOU 47 . By getting permission to use high power transmission we can simply establish this project for controlling the city bus service by sitting in control room.CONCLUSION At the fag end of the project we feel that the whole working period was a great learning experience due to a number of friendly & unfriendly encounters with various situations. One of theimprove that is possible is: In place of using RFID we can use GPRS to improve the performance. Beside this there may be many more practical applications of this system and there is a large scope of improvement in its current features. By incorporating advanced IC systems the size of all the hardware units involved can be reduced to great limits. The project is only a demonstration of a system that can be developed into a full scale commercial utility for modern day scientific as well as corporate requirements.
“REFERENCES” 48 .
com REFERENCE FROM DOWNLOADED FILES OF FOLLOWING URL: FOR DIODE SPECIFICATIONS: http://www.national.electricomconsulting.com http://www.ROBERT L.com (yahoo search engine) http://www.html http://www.REFRENCES REFERENCE FOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION FROM FOLLOWING BOOKS OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING: • “ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUIT THEORY” BY:.com/pf/CD/CD4066.co.pd THANK YOU 49 .com/pf/1N/1N4007.com/ds/1N/1N4007.uk/overview.dzu. BOYLESTAD • “PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS” BY:.com (Google search engine) http://www.html http://www.electronicprojects.inetg.yahoo.google.bg/dzu/telecom.ascom.html http://www.TAUB SCHILLING • “PROGRAMING IN C” BY:-ROBERT LAFORE • “A TEXT BOOK OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING VOL:IV” BY:-B L THERAJA • “ UP TO DATE C-MOS DATA & COMPARISION TABLE” REFERENCE FOR ARTICLES & TECHNICAL INFORMATION ON LOCAL POSITIONING SYSTEM FROM FOLLOWING SITES: http://www.htm http://www.fairchildsemi.fairchildsemi.
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