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Speaker: Misty Sommers-Tackett
KENT STATE UNIVERSITY email@example.com
Self-Efficacy and ADHD
What is Self-Efficacy? What is ADHD?
How can I use this information?!
How are these related? What research says…
and produce a positive outcome Bandura’s Social Cognitive Model says that there are 3 factors that influence selfefficacy: Behaviors. They all effect each other. B P/C E Bandura believed that there is more to learning than just ‘behaviorism’.What is Self-Efficacy? It is the expectation that one can master a situation. Environment. and personal/cognitive factors. what you believe about a situation is important too. but the cognitive factors are important. .
. as well as failures in social relationships. Inattention Hyperactivity Comorbid learning disorders Results in a pattern of failures in classroom activities.What is ADHD? Disorder that impairs children in learning and social behaviors.
26 % risk among ADHD children by Young adulthood. PAST FAILURES?!?! ADHD children have difficulties in both academic and social areas…. . Depression is a serious problem due to mortality. ADHD and depression are theorized to have the same genetic predisposition. **Comorbidity is higher in boys than in girls. or ruminations over past failures. DSM IV-TR: one feature of a major depressive episode is a sense of worthlessness.How are these related? Comorbidity with Major Depression.
How are these related? ***MASTERY EXPERIENCES*** People develop Self Efficacy from 4 main sources: Performance accomplishment Observation of others performance Verbal/Social persuasions Mastery Experiences Concept of Mastery Experiences: if you master one task. then won’t their self-efficacy be lower than children without disorders? .) *** If ADHD children are experiencing more failures than others in class due to their disorder symptoms. or chance. (It is important to note here that the mastery experience must be attributed to themselves… not luck. there is a better chance of being successful at other similar tasks. or others help.
or to learn how to create liquid crystal inventions? Hmmm…Level of Self-Efficacy + interest = odds of participation? .How are these related? Know how to tie your shoe? How many of you… Know how to speak french? Know how to mix chemicals in the periodic table? Now. how many of you… Would be interested in taking a 2 hour seminar in how to tie your shoes in 12 different ways? Would be interested in 2 semesters of French? Would be interested in taking 8 years of college to become an expert chemist.
How are these related? The Emotion of interest Four variable directly influence interest: Conflict Complexity Novelty Uncertainty Self-efficacy is directly related to all four of these. . so self-efficacy indirectly influences interest through 4 variables… quadratically. it leads us to think that they might have a better chance at improving their attention for that activity. Uncertainty plays the biggest role in interest. affects uncertainty: “How will the activity end up?” Self-efficacy If ADHD children have interest in an activity.
interest decreased when it got too easy. try to hit target with dart at various distances. those who were placed farthest from the target agreed that it would be more interesting if the line was moved closer to the target. distance was adjusted at varying length for different groups. . as well as varying the lengths for another group. those put in the moderate difficulty condition were most interested in repeating the task.What research says… Fuzzy dart test – skill test.
What research says… 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 interest confidence difficulty low moderate high .
In general. Q: If a student has a learning disability. with regards to measures of high or low ability (IQ). would they have a higher self-efficacy? A: This study showed that LD students who had high ability actually had the lowest self-efficacy of all in the study. but has a high ability (IQ). One study compared the self-efficacy of LD students and Normal students. . Why is this? It’s suggested that this is due to the ‘label’ of being LD.What research says… Self-Efficacy and LD Study Comorbidity and similarity of LD to ADHD. but the study did not have evidence of this. those with LD had lower self-efficacy than normal students.
So now we know… What Self-Efficacy is… What ADHD is… How they affect each other… What research has to say about it Now I’m sure you are asking yourself How can I use this information?! .
calming fears Verbal Persuasion encouragement.How can I use this information?! 5 strategies for Enhancing Self-Efficacy Emotional and Physiological arousal Relaxation techniques. “Practice makes perfect!” Maddux (1995) . Vicarious Experiences observation of modeled behaviors Imagined Experience imagining yourself in the experience Performance Experience actual practice of the activity. convince them success is result of self.
How can I use this information?! WHO can use this information… Educators and Parents Children School Psychologists Discuss ways that people in each of these areas might apply this information to their settings… .
which says to help students only as it is needed… Exercises that not only encourage learning. but show students success – give them feedback that shows them what they have accomplished… not what they have left to learn. without embarassing them about reading books for ‘little kids’. .They are revised to help a student feel confident/successful.How can I use this information?! Educators and Parents can use child guided learning: Use suggestions from the child when planning lessons Use interests of children to create ‘centers’ tailored to interests Gauge level of help needed from teacher according to student: Use the Zone of Proximal Development theory from Vygotsky. Utilize books and projects created specially for these issues: Publisher Sopris-West has books adapted from the author Louis L’amour that start out exciting and are reading level appropriate.
such as alertness. not from others. behavior. effort… Example: Performance Log Time 8:00-8:30 am 8:30-9:00 am 9:00-9:30 am Schedule/Activity Reading time – read 2 pgs Math Class – seat work Math Class – group work X X X Level of performance Great Good Not so Good . Use tracking logs to observe successes and find interests.How can I use this information?! Suggestions for Children: Concentrate on attributing success to self. Can use logs for numerous issues.
com Video called “Too much attention” at this link: http://www.allkindsofminds.aspx?articleID= Books made to help children feel more successful: Sopris-West Products: www.allkindsofminds.sopriswest.com For those who are interested in research on this topic.RESOURCES All Kinds of Minds. by Mel Levine Books and article links on site: www. Maddux . these theorists are a good place to start: Vygotsky Bandura James E.com/articleDisplay.
cec.org Council for Learning Disabilities (CLD) http://www.chadd.org All Kinds of Minds. Division of Learning Disabilities (DLD) http://www.sped. by Dr.com .com Sopris West Educational Services http://www.Websites: RESOURCES Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Disorder (CHADD) http://www.org The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC).allkindsofminds. Mel Levine http://www.sopriswest.cldinternational.
Vol 73. Behavior Management Training Alone. 73:2. . and Barkley. and Wigfield. J. Eric J. Santrock. Delfino. Childhood Mood Disorders. NY: The Guilford Press. 11. Eccles. Cognitive Therapy and Research. Dunn and Shapiro. and Barkley. Mash. Osgood. and Barkley. and Lozano. M. A. Fletcher. (2003) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (2002).W. No 1. Lanza.. Russell A.233-278).REFERENCES Barkley. Adaptation. and Adjustment. (2002) Changes in Children’s Self-Competence and Values: Gender and Domain Differences across Grades one through Twelve. Eric J. and Barkley. Metevia. 2430. Second Edition (pp. New York: Simon & Schuster.. R. Vance. G. Whalen.. Second Edition (pp. 327-344. (2003) Children. Child Psychopathology. combined type (ADHD-CT): differences in blood pressure due to posture and the child report of anxiety. A Mind At A Time.75-143). New York. Levine. Eric J. . Child Development.. and Their Combination for Parent– Adolescent Conflict in Teenagers With ADHD and ODD. In Mash. M. J. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2002) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (2003). (2001) The Efficacy of Problem-Solving Communication Training Alone. No. Costin and Maruff . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Volume: 69. (Ed). Maddux. 509-527 Jamner. Self-Efficacy. New York. Russell A. Jacobs. New York: Plenum. Issue: 6. NY: McGraw Hill. Theory. (1995). and Application. Mash. Research. and Drinking. L. 926-941. Russell A. (2002) The ADHD Spectrum and Everyday Life: Experience Sampling of Adolescent Moods. 23. E. New York. (1999) Gender Differences in the Achievement Goal Orientations of ADHD children. 7th Edition. Child Development. Russell A. 209-227. Activities. Smoking. K. Child Psychopathology. In Mash. Henker.. Laneri. NY: The Guilford Press. Eric J. Edwards.3.
edu/~mtackett/psyc .mcs.edu 330-672-9050 www.kent.CONTACT ME Questions for Me? Contact me at: mlsommer@kent.