Albert Einstein - Wikiquote

Albert Einstein
From Wikiquote
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-American physicist. He is best-known for his Special and General Theories of Relativity, but contributed in other areas of physics. He became famous for his explanation of the photoelectric effect (for which he received the Nobel Prize). As a Jewish scientist he had to flee from Nazi Germany, but it should be noted that he did not believe in traditional notions of a personal god, but rather perceived God to be a "superpersonal" entity, in ways that he declared to be inspired by Baruch Spinoza's and Arthur Schopenhauer's ideas. He also asserted that the Jewish scriptures, Jesus, Gautama Buddha and other religious figures were important guides for the ethical advancement of humanity.

1 Sourced 1.1 Principles of Research (1918) 1.2 Viereck interview (1929) 1.3 Wisehart interview (1930?) 1.4 Religion and Science (1930) 1.5 Mein Weltbild (1931) 1.6 My Credo (1932) 1.7 Obituary for Emmy Noether (1935) 1.8 Science and Religion (1941) 1.9 Only Then Shall We Find Courage (1946) 1.10 Religion and Science: Irreconcilable? (1948) 1.11 The World As I See It (1949) 1.12 "Why Socialism?" (1949) 1.13 On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation (1950) 1.14 Out of My Later Years (1950) 1.15 Albert Einstein: The Human Side (1954) 1.16 Sidelights on Relativity (1983) 1.17 Einstein's God (1997) 2 Disputed 3 Misattributed 4 Quotes about Einstein 5 External links
A hundred times every day I remind myself that my inner and outer life are based on the labors of other men, living and dead, and that I must exert myself in order to give in the same measure as I have received and am still receiving...


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Albert Einstein - Wikiquote

A happy man is too satisfied with the present to dwell too much on the future. "My Future Plans" an essay written at age 17 for school exam (18 September 1896) The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein Vol. 1 (1987) Doc. 22 E = mc² Mass and energy are both The equivalence of matter and energy was originally expressed by but different the equation m = L/c², which easily translates into the far more well manifestations of the known E = mc² in Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its same thing — a Energy Content? ( somewhat unfamiliar /www/) published in the Annalen der Physik (27 September 1905) : conception for the average mind. "If a body gives off the energy L in the form of radiation, its mass diminishes by L/c²." In a later statement explaining the ideas expressed by this equation, Einstein summarized: "It followed from the special theory of relativity that mass and energy are both but different manifestations of the same thing — a somewhat unfamiliar conception for the average mind. Furthermore, the equation E = mc², in which energy is put equal to mass, multiplied by the square of the velocity of light, showed that very small amounts of mass may be converted into a very large amount of energy and vice versa. The mass and energy were in fact equivalent, according to the formula mentioned before. This was demonstrated by Cockcroft and Walton in 1932, experimentally." Atomic Physics (1948) by the J. Arthur Rank Organisation, Ltd. (mp3 audio file of Einstein's voice ( ) We shall therefore assume the complete physical equivalence of a gravitational field and a corresponding acceleration of the reference system. Statement of the equivalence principle in Yearbook of Radioactivity and Electronics (1907) How does it happen that a properly endowed natural scientist comes to concern himself with epistemology? Is there not some more valuable work to be done in his specialty? That's what I hear many of my colleagues ask, and I sense it from many more. But I cannot share this sentiment. When I think about the ablest students whom I have encountered in my teaching — that is, those who distinguish themselves by their independence of judgment and not just their quick-wittedness — I can affirm that they had a vigorous interest in epistemology. They happily began discussions about the goals and methods of science, and they showed unequivocally, through tenacious defense of their views, that the subject seemed important to them. It is by no means an idle Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve game if we become such authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept practiced in analyzing them as unalterable givens. Thus they might come to be stamped as long-held commonplace "necessities of thought," "a priori givens," etc. The path of scientific concepts and showing progress is often made impassable for a long time by such errors. the circumstances on which their justification Therefore it is by no means an idle game if we become practiced in and usefulness depend... analysing long-held commonplace concepts and showing the circumstances on which their justification and usefulness depend, and how they have grown up, individually, out of the givens of experience. Thus their excessive authority will be broken. They will be removed if they cannot be properly legitimated, corrected if their correlation with given things be far too superfluous, or replaced if a new system can be established that we prefer for whatever reason. Obituary for physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach, Physikalische Zeitschrift 17 (1916) I am by heritage a Jew, by citizenship a Swiss, and by makeup a human being, and only a human

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Albert Einstein - Wikiquote

being, without any special attachment to any state or national entity whatsoever. Letter to Alfred Kneser (7 June 1918); Doc. 560 in The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein Vol. 8 I have also considered many scientific plans during my pushing you around in your pram! Letter to his son Hans Albert Einstein (June 1918) Make a lot of walks to get healthy and don’t read that much but save yourself some until you’re grown up. Letter to his son Eduard Einstein (June 1918) Dear mother! Today a joyful notice. H. A. Lorentz has telegraphed me that the English expeditions have really proven the deflection of light at the sun. Postcard to his mother Pauline Einstein (1919) How much do I love that noble man More than I could tell with words I fear though he'll remain alone With a holy halo of his own. Poem by Einstein on Spinoza (1920), as quoted in Einstein and Religion (1999) by Max Jammer "Einstein's Poem on Spinoza" (with scans of original German manuscript) at Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University ( /Einsteins_poem/Spinoza.html) We may assume the existence of an aether; only we must give up ascribing a definite state of motion to it, i.e. we must by abstraction take from it the last mechanical characteristic which Lorentz had still left it. On the irrelevance of the luminiferous aether hypothesis to physical measurements, in an address at the University of Leiden (May 5, 1920)
How much do I love that noble man More than I could tell with words...

What lead me more or less directly to the special theory of relativity was the conviction that the electromotive force acting on a body in motion in a magnetic field was nothing else but an electric field. Letter to the Michelson Commemorative Meeting of the Cleveland Physics Society as quoted by R.S.Shankland, Am J Phys 32, 16 (1964), p35, republished in A P French, Special Relativity, ISBN 0177710756 Raffiniert ist der Herrgott, aber boshaft ist er nicht. Subtle is the Lord, but malicious He is not. Remark made during Einstein's first visit to Princeton University. (April 1921) ( as quoted in Einstein (1973) by R.W. Clark, Ch. 14. "God is slick, but he ain’t mean" is a variant translation of this (1946) Unsourced variant: "God is subtle but he is not malicious." When asked what he meant by this he replied. "Nature hides her secret because of her essential loftiness, but not by means of ruse." (Die Natur verbirgt ihr Geheimnis durch die Erhabenheit ihres Wesens, aber nicht durch List.) As quoted in Subtle is the Lord — The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein (1982) by Abraham Pais ( Originally said to Princeton University mathematics professor Oscar Veblen, May 1921, while Einstein was in Princeton for a series of lectures, upon hearing that an experimental result by Dayton C. Miller of Cleveland, if true, would contradict his theory of gravitation. But the result turned out to be false. Some say by this remark Einstein meant that Nature hides her secrets by being subtle, while others say he meant that nature is

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If it's proven wrong. during Heisenberg's 1926 lecture at Berlin. today in Germany I am called a German man of science. but does not really bring us any closer to the secret of the 'old one'. Einstein in America (1985). related by Heisenberg. Maybe God is malicious.Albert Einstein . But an inner voice tells me that it is not yet the real thing. I.princeton. November 28. ed. [The Yale Book of Quotations by Fred R. I. Shapiro. quoted in The New Quotable Einstein by Alice Calaprice (http://press. 2006] Quantum mechanics is certainly imposing. New York. 1971) ISBN 0-8027-0326-7. am convinced that the world.Wikiquote http://en. 2005. Said to Vladimir Bargmann. and I shall become a Swiss Jew for the Germans and a German man of science for the English! (To The Times (London). The theory says a lot. quoted in Unification of Fundamental Forces (1990) by Abdus Salam ISBN 0521371406 By an application of the theory of relativity to the taste of readers. This quote is commonly paraphrased "God does not play dice" or "God does not play dice with the universe". The theory says a lot. Whether you can observe a thing or not depends on the theory which you use. Germany will any closer to the secret claim me as a German and France will declare that I am a citizen of of the 'old one'. David Rowe & Robert Schulmann.html) . I am a Jew and glad to belong to the Jewish people Letter. Should my theory prove untrue. at any rate. If I come to be represented as a bête noire. a German and Germany will declare that I am a Jew. The Born-Einstein Letters (translated by Irene Born) (Walker and Company. at any rate. 1920. but ISBN 0-691-12075-7) does not really bring us Variant: If my theory of relativity is proven successful. Letter to Max Born (4 December 1926).wikiquote. Quoted in Jamie Sayen. am convinced that He does not throw dice. 1919. Germany will claim me as a German and France will say I am a man of the world. the descriptions will be reversed. France will say I am a German and Germany will say I am a Jew. ISBN 9780691120942 4 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . and the French will call me a great scientist. with the meaning that God leads people to believe they understand things that they actually are far from understanding. Objecting to the placing of observables at the heart of the new quantum mechanics. and in England I am represented as a Swiss Jew. French press clipping (7 April 1922) [Einstein Archive 36-378] and Berliner Tageblatt (8 April 1922) [Einstein Archive 79-535]) Variant translation: If my theory of relativity is proven correct. It is the theory which decides what can be observed. the Swiss will call me a Swiss citizen. Shapiro. (Address to the French Philosophical Society at the Sorbonne (6 April 1922).org/wiki/Albert_Einstein mischievous but not bent on trickery. Variant: If relativity is proved right the Germans will call me a German. the Swiss will call me a German and the Germans will call me a Jew. [The Yale Book of Quotations by Fred R. France will say that I am He does not throw dice. to the Central Association of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith Quoted in Einstein on Politics. and other slight variants. 2006] I have second If relativity is proved wrong the French will call me a Swiss.

also in Glimpses of the Great (1930) by George Sylvester Viereck I am enough of an artist to draw freely upon my imagination. In response the telegrammed question of New York's Rabbi Herbert S... 202 (26 October 1929). As quoted in "What Life Means to Einstein : An Interview by George Sylvester Viereck" in The Saturday Evening Post Vol. 113 . Answer paid 50 words.Wikiquote http://en. is the attitude of even the knowledge. but admire even more his contributions to modern thought because he is the first philosopher to deal with the soul and the body as one. Comment during an interview. Viereck There have been disputes on the accuracy (http://www. Expanding on this he later wrote: "I can understand your aversion to the use of the term 'religion' to describe an emotional and psychological attitude which shows itself most clearly in Spinoza. To keep your balance you must keep moving. Who reveals Himself in the lawful harmony of the world. Aphorism for a friend (18 September 1930) [Einstein Archive 36-598]. If I were not a physicist. It is my view that the vegetarian manner of living by its purely physical effect on the human temperament would most beneficially influence the lot of mankind. I do know that I get most joy in life out of my violin. not in a God Who concerns Himself with the fate and the doings of mankind. accessible to human reason.. Belgenland (December 1930). I live my daydreams in music. We are in the position of a little child entering a huge library filled with I am enough of an artist books in many different languages. p. As quoted in "What Life Means to Einstein : An Interview by George Sylvester Viereck" in The Saturday Evening Post Vol. I would probably be a I believe in Spinoza's God. As quoted in Glimpses of the Great (1930) by G. Goldstein in (24 April 1929): "Do you believe in God? Stop.. I often think in music. Our limited minds cannot grasp the mysterious force that moves the constellations. but only dimly understand these laws. Knowledge most intelligent human being toward God.html) of this quotation. marvelously arranged and obeying certain laws.html) by Arnold V. It comes soon enough. it seems to me. p." Einstein replied in only 25 (German) words. Imagination is more important than knowledge. I see my life in terms of music. at least to a certain extent. I am fascinated by Spinoza's pantheism. Fate has made me an authority myself. Life is like riding a bicycle.einsteinandreligion." As quoted in Einstein : Science and Religion (http://www. 202 (26 October 1929). 5 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . S.Albert Einstein . Knowledge is limited. not two separate things. 117 I'm not an atheist and I don't think I can call myself a Lesikar I believe in Spinoza's God. Imagination suspects a mysterious order in the arrangement of the books but is more important than doesn't know what it is. Imagination encircles the world.wikiquote. It does not know how. That. not in a God Who concerns Himself with the fate and the doings of mankind. Spinoza's ideas of God are often characterized as being pantheistic. Who reveals Himself in the lawful harmony of the world. The child knows someone must to draw freely upon my have written those books. The child dimly imagination. I have not found a better expression than 'religious' for the trust in the rational nature of reality that Letter to his son Eduard (5 February 1930) To punish me for my contempt of authority. Imagination encircles the world. We see a universe is limited. as quoted in Albert Einstein: Creator and Rebel (1988) by Banesh Hoffman I never think of the future.

the idea of a Being who interferes with the sequence of events in the world is absolutely impossible.Albert Einstein . Interview with George Sylvester Viereck (January 1931) I believe in intuition and inspiration. The Born-Einstein Letters (translated by Irene Born) (Walker and Company. Like most people in the West. The Human Side : New Glimpses From His Archives (1981) ISBN 0691023689 Falling in love is not at all the most stupid thing that people do — but gravitation cannot be held responsible for it. New York. stimulating progress. p.. 101 By the way. As quoted in Albert Einstein. Environment (1950) by Harry Holtzman. Unsourced variants: Gravitation is not responsible for people falling in love. E. I shake your hand in heartfelt comradeship. For knowledge is limited. also in Transformation : Arts. try to find a few friends who think as you do. Einstein was apparently of a different opinion: he believed that when threatened by Hitler the Russians had no choice but to destroy as many of their enemies within their own camp as possible. humanitarian disposition. Goethe. Though we find it difficult to imagine this kind of internal thing. Jotted (in German) on the margins of a letter to him (1933).wikiquote. so to speak.. Letter to Max Born (no date. Then you will become a cheerful man once more and nothing will be able to trouble you. Make friends with a few animals. Born commented: "The Russian trials were Stalin's purges. I am willing to fight for peace. 138 For any one who is pervaded with the sense of causal law in all that happens. strictly speaking. and enjoy the natural beauties of Munich's surroundings.. and the classics of other lands. a real factor in scientific It is. I believed these show trials to be the arbitrary acts of a cruel dictator. 97. p. with which he attempted to consolidate his power. giving birth to evolution. read the wonderful writers of earlier times. Response to a letter from an unemployed professional musician (5 April 1933) as quoted in 6 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . based on lies and deception. Neither the religion of fear nor the social-moral religion can have any hold on him. p.jpg) to Nikola Tesla for Tesla's 75th birthday (1931) Falling in love is not at all the most stupid thing that people do — but gravitation cannot be held responsible for it. As quoted in Has Science Discovered God? : A Symposium of Modern Scientific Opinion (1931) by Edward Howe Cotton. those who know Russia best are all more or less of the same opinion. Kant. I was firmly convinced to begin with that it was a case of a dictator's despotic acts. Cosmic Religion : With Other Opinions and Aphorisms (1931) by Albert Einstein. who accepts in real earnest the assumption of causality. 1937 or 1938). but this was a delusion. Make believe all the time that you are living.Wikiquote http://en. on Mars among alien creatures and blot out any deeper interest in the actions of those creatures. 1971) ISBN 0-8027-0326-7. Einstein's letter (http://www. / You can't blame gravity for falling in love. I am the one to whom you wrote in care of the Belgian Academy. but that there is a plot among those who look upon Stalin as a stupid reactionary who has betrayed the ideas of the revolution. I find it hard to reconcile this point of view with Einstein's gentle. Bear in mind that those who are finer and nobler are always alone — and necessarily so — and that because of this they can enjoy the purity of their own atmosphere. there are increasing signs that the Russian trials are not faked." As an eminent pioneer in the realm of high frequency currents. I congratulate you on the great successes of your life's work. Imagination is more important than knowledge. Communication. Read no Letter to Vegetarian Watch-Tower (27 December 1930) I am not only a pacifist but a militant pacifist. Lessing. whereas imagination embraces the entire world. Nothing will end war unless the people themselves refuse to go to war.

Issue 3 (March 1936) 7 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM .wordorigins. There is not the slightest indication that [nuclear energy] will ever be obtainable.. all theory is to make the "On the Method of Theoretical Physics" The Herbert Spencer irreducible basic Lecture. It is also similar to one expression of what has become known as the "KISS principle": Keep It Simple. At a time like the present.Wikiquote http://en. Techie @ www. 2 (April 1934). It can scarcely be denied that the supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without It can scarcely be denied having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of that the supreme goal of experience. but no representation of a single simpler. he must have been something of a kindred spirit. delivered at Oxford (10 June 1933).org and JSTOR] surrender the adequate Variants: Everything should be made as simple as possible. and are necessities. with the addition that it warns about too much simplicity.. This is very similar to "Occam's Razor". and out of a job. No.wikiquote. Einstein received a letter from a professional musician who presumably lived in Munich. "Atom Energy Hope is Spiked By Einstein / Efforts at Loosing Vast Force is Called Fruitless. It would mean that the atom would have to be shattered at will. Why then should it not be the right thing for the physicist to let the philosopher do the philosophizing? Such might indeed be the right thing to do a time when the physicist believes he has at his disposal a rigid system of fundamental laws which are so well established that waves of doubt can't reach them. The musician was evidently troubled and despondent. the physicist cannot simply surrender to the philosopher the critical contemplation of theoretical foundations. that the man of science is a poor philosopher. and certainly not without justification. It has often been said. he must try to make clear in his own mind just how far the concepts which he uses are justified. 221. 163-169. yet at the same time.. Dubbed ''Einstein's Albert Einstein: The Human Side (1981) edited by Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman ISBN 0691023689 The editors precede this passage thus. all that survives being Einstein's reply. it is used when an appeal to Occam's razor results in an over-simplified explanation insufficient to meet needs or goals." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (29 December 1934) It was following the breakthroughs by Enrico Fermi and others did the use of nuclear power become plausible. datum of experience. "Physics and Reality" in the Journal of the Franklin Institute Vol. also published in elements as simple and as few as possible Philosophy of Science. Stupid — but never oversimplify. Vol. In looking for an new foundation. but not simpler. pp. when experience forces us to seek a newer and more solid foundation.Note the careful anonymity of the first sentence — the recipient would be safer that way:" Albert Einstein: The Human Side concludes with this passage. Make things as simple as possible. "Early in 1933. but it cannot be right at a time when the very foundations of physics itself have become problematic as they are now. His letter is lost. followed by the original passages in German. 1.Albert Einstein . for he himself knows best and feels more surely where the shoe pinches. without having to [thanks to Dr.

by Freeman Dyson Ch. All these aspirations are directed toward ennobling man's life. Humanity has every reason to place the proclaimers of high moral standards and values above the discoverers of objective truth. Written statement (September 1937) as quoted in Albert Einstein. the security of its existence. No one doubted the sacredness of the goal.wikiquote. generally speaking. to secure their influence in the political field. The essential unity of ecclesiastical and secular institutions was lost during the 19th century. Moses.html) . I consider it /18597. Who would not be cheered by this? But let us not forget that human knowledge and skills alone cannot lead humanity to a happy and dignified life.. 5 The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is at all comprehensible. What these blessed men have given us we must guard and try to keep alive with all our strength if humanity is not to lose its dignity. arts and One may say "the eternal mystery of the world is its sciences are branches of comprehensibility." the same tree. Humanity has every reason to place the proclaimers of high moral standards and values above the discoverers of objective truth. Later published in Out of My Later Years (1950) Our time is distinguished by wonderful achievements in the fields of scientific understanding and the technical application of those insights. whom he cites in the next sentence. Variants: The eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility… The fact that it is comprehensible is a miracle. "Moral Decay" (1937). also. for intellectual workers to get together. As quoted in Disturbing the Universe (1979) (http://www.Albert Einstein . All religions. p. It is no mere chance that our older universities developed from clerical schools. to the point of senseless hostility. They seek to fulfill this great task by spreading moral and cultural understanding. Yet there was never any doubt as to the striving for culture. "Physics and Reality" in Journal of the Franklin Institute (March 1936) as quoted in Einstein: A Biography (1954) by Antonina Vallentin.. 24. In a comment explaining why he joined the American Federation of Teachers local number 552 as a charter member (1938) 8 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . The Human Side: New Glimpses From His Archives (1981) edited by Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman ISBN 0691023689 Human knowledge and skills alone cannot lead humanity to a happy and dignified life. What humanity owes to personalities like Buddha. renouncing the use of brute force. As quoted in Speaking of Science (2000) by Michael Fripp All religions.Wikiquote http://en. and its joy in living.bartleby. Out of My Later Years (1956) this rendition reads as if he is quoting or paraphrasing the statement of someone else — perhaps Immanuel Kant. arts and sciences are branches of the same tree. lifting it from the sphere of mere physical existence and leading the individual towards freedom. both to protect their own economic status and. Both churches and universities — insofar as they live up to their true function — serve the ennoblement of the individual. and Jesus ranks for me higher than all the achievements of the enquiring and constructive mind. indeed urgently necessary. One may say the eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility. It was the approach that was The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is comprehensible.

Frequently seen variant: Generations to come. Raner Jr. quite sure his picture is the only one which could explain his observations. Variant: : Great spirits have always found violent opposition from mediocrities. and are lpg=PA240&dq=einstein+%22out+of+my+later+years%22+%22will+scarce+believe%22& source=web&ots=xRZlwUOcEY&sig=0oe_RZgwXaNYtrIGz-XDqmfWna0) (1950). I can assure you mine are still greater. the could be responsible for all the things he observes. Thorton. as his knowledge Physical concepts are free creations of the human mind. his picture of reality will become simpler and simpler and will explain a wider and wider range of his sensuous impressions. it may well be. Letter to Guy H. Statement on the occasion of Gandhi's 70th birthday (1939) Einstein archive 32-601. The latter cannot understand it when a man does not thoughtlessly submit to hereditary prejudices but honestly and courageously uses his intelligence and fulfills the duty to express the results of his thoughts in clear form.. and its joy in living. Einstein He will never be able to compare his picture with the real mechanism and he cannot even imagine the possibility or the meaning of such a comparison.Albert Einstein . 1940). uniquely determined by the external world. but he has no way of opening the alive with all our case. This independence created by philosophical insight is — in my opinion — the mark of distinction between a mere artisan or specialist and a real seeker after truth. In What these blessed men our endeavor to understand reality we are somewhat like a man trying to have given us we must understand the mechanism of a closed watch. If he is ingenious he may form some picture of a mechanism which strength if humanity is not to lose its dignity. and have always been an atheist. Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds. defending the appointment of Bertrand Russell to a teaching position (March 19. even hears its ticking. A knowledge of the historic and philosophical background gives that kind of independence from prejudices of his generation from which most scientists are suffering. He may also believe in the existence of the ideal limit of knowledge and that it is approached by the human mind. will scarcely believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth. of course. will scarce believe that such a man as this one ever in flesh and blood walked upon this Earth. The mediocre mind is incapable of understanding the Great spirits have always man who refuses to bow blindly to conventional prejudices and encountered violent chooses instead to express his opinions courageously and honestly. Jerusalem]. Physics Professor at University of Puerto Rico (7 December 1944) [EA-674. Thorton had written to Einstein on persuading colleagues of the importance of philosophy of science to scientists (empiricists) and science. Do not worry about your difficulties in Mathematics.Wikiquote http://en. But he certainly believes that.wikiquote. (2 July 1945). it may be. Letter to Barbara Lee Wilson (7 January 1943). Einstein Archives 42-606 I fully agree with you about the significance and educational value of methodology as well as history and philosophy of science. responding to a rumor that a Jesuit priest had caused 9 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM .. Letter to Robert A. however it may seem. the College of the City of New York. He sees the face and the guard and try to keep moving hands. He may call this ideal limit the objective truth. From the viewpoint of a Jesuit priest I am. professor emeritus of philosophy at mediocre minds. The Evolution of Physics (1938) (co-written with Leopold Infeld) Generations to come. published in Out of My Later Years (http://books. Hebrew University. I have never talked to a Jesuit priest in my life and I am astonished by the audacity to tell such lies about me. opposition from Letter to Morris Raphael Cohen. I received your letter of June 10th. So many people today — and even professional scientists — seem to me like someone who has seen thousands of trees but has never seen a forest. but he may never be security of its existence.

(28 September 1949). But once we fully accept this. (1997) For the most part we humans live with the false impression of security and a feeling of being at home in a seemingly trustworthy physical and human environment. Vol. course of everyday life is Letter (26 April 1945).html) recorded in Einstein's study. Einstein to convert to Christianity. You may call me an agnostic. As quoted by Virgil Henshaw in Albert Einstein: Philosopher Scientist (1949) I have repeatedly said that in my opinion the idea of a personal God is a childlike one. I would believe that Gandhi's views were the most enlightened of all the political men in our time. 5. we have to prevent war. It is a scale of proportions which makes the bad difficult and the good easy. At the same time. for if we cannot prevent drifting. 'I cannot hate him. we are like Side: New Glimpses From His Archives (1981) edited by Helen shipwrecked people on a Dukas and Banesh Hoffman ISBN 0691023689 miserable plank in the The position in which we are now is a very strange one which in open sea. and if you have to prepare for war.. life becomes easier and When the expected there is no longer any disappointment.' That means for me more Spinoza than the prophets. New Jersey (17 November 1946) Er ist eine Skala der Proportionen. then you are in a state where you cannot abolish war.Wikiquote http://en. I prefer an attitude of humility corresponding to the weakness of our intellectual understanding of nature and of our own being. all the governments of the nations have to prepare for war. they will do it. from article by Michael R. No. but I do not share the crusading spirit of the professional atheist whose fervor is mostly due to a painful act of liberation from the fetters of religious indoctrination received in youth. Raner Jr. On the Christian maxim "Love thy enemy". But when the expected course of everyday life is interrupted. not to use violence in fighting for our Letter sent to Le Corbusier (1946).. as quoted in Albert Einstein. This is really the cornerstone of our situation. 2 (1997) Taken on the whole. so long as war is not prevented. and in spite of all promises they make.wikiquote. New Jersey. On the Golden ratio. 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . die das Schlechte schwierig und das Gute leicht macht. because he must do what he does. Gilmore in Skeptic magazine. quoted in Modulor (1953) I agree with your remark about loving your enemy as far as actions are concerned. but by non-participation in what we believe is evil.Albert Einstein . and every other point of view must be of secondary importance. having general political life never happened. war every nation will use every means that is at their disposal. 5. But for me the cognitive basis is the trust in an unrestricted causality. The Human interrupted.gandhiserve. United Nations radio interview (http://streams. quoted in an article by Michael R. Namely. having forgotten where they came from and not knowing whither they are drifting. 2. we are like shipwrecked people on a miserable plank in the open sea. Address to the symposium "The Social Task of the Scientist in the Atomic Era" at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. in a letter to Michele Besso (6 January 1948) Never do anything against conscience even if the state demands it. Princeton. Letter to Guy H. (1950) 10 of 37 It is a scale of proportions which makes the bad difficult and the good easy. Gilmore in Skeptic magazine. No... I believe what we should try to bring about is the general conviction that the first thing you have to abolish is war at all costs. the thing that I refer to forgotten where they came from and not is this: To have security against atomic bombs and against the other knowing whither they are biological weapons. We should strive to do things in his spirit. Now.

But on that stage. Statement upon joining the Montreal Pipe Smokers Club. Letter to California student E. his thoughts and feelings as something separated from the rest — a kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. The highest principles for our aspirations and judgments are given to us in the Jewish-Christian religious tradition. This delusion is a kind of prison for us.13 Scientific endeavor is a natural whole the parts of which mutually support one another in a way which. on which the actors under the floodlights play their ordained parts.etc. in Out of My Later Years (1950). his thoughts and feelings as something separate from the rest—a kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. our fate of tomorrow. p. It is a very high goal which. Einstein Archives 39-013 A truly rational theory would allow us to deduce the elementary particles (electron. quoted in Albert Einstein. The New Quotable Einstein by Alice Calaprice (Princeton University Press. p. Letter to Carl Seelig (11 March 1952). but which gives a sure foundation to our aspirations and valuations. which she dates to February 12. with our weak powers. restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us. as quoted in The New York Times (29 March 1972) and The New York Post (28 November 1972). However. Letter of For scientific endeavor is a natural whole the parts of which mutually support one another in a way which. He experiences himself. He experiences himself." a part limited in time and space. 27.) and not be 11 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . is being decided. 2005: ISBN 0691120749). a part limited in time and space. called by us "Universe". (1950) Science is a wonderful thing if one does not have to earn one's living at it. Everyone is aware of the difficult and menacing situation in which human society -. but delicious in the years of maturity. called by us "Universe. 206. but only a few act accordingly. Most people go on living their every-day life: half frightened. Not to nourish it but to try to overcome it is the way to reach the attainable measure of piece of mind.Wikiquote http://en. but the striving for such achievement is in itself a part of the liberation and a foundation for inner security. and in The New Quotable Einstein (2005) by Alice Calaprice I have no special talents. in Out of My Later Years (1950). The striving to free oneself from this delusion is the one issue of true religion. they behold the ghostly tragicomedy which is being performed on the international stage before the eyes and ears of the world. half indifferent. to be sure. p. 1950 and describes as "a letter to a distraught father who had lost his young son and had asked Einstein for some comforting words": A human being is a part of the whole. 12 a collection of Einstein's essays which cover a period of 1934 to 1950.Albert Einstein . we can reach only very inadequately. "The Menace of Mass Destruction" in Out of My Later Years (1950) A human being is a part of the whole. no one can anticipate. On religion and society. Nobody is able to achieve this completely. no one can anticipate. p.wikiquote. I am only passionately curious. Holzapfel (March 1951) Einstein Archive 59-1013. the Human Side (1979) by Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman. to be sure. Our task must be to free ourselves from this prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty. life or death of the nations. has a different and presumably more accurate version of this letter. Out of My Later Years (1950). I live in that solitude which is painful in youth. I believe that pipe smoking contributes to a somewhat calm and objective judgment in all human affairs.shrunk into one community with a common fate — now finds itself. On scientific freedom and holism or holistic science.

as of the stifling of mutual human considerations by a "matter-of-fact" habit of thought which has come to lie like a killing frost upon human relations. has led directly to the impairment of ethical values. Whenever this feeling is absent. that overemphasis on the purely intellectual attitude. Most people are even incapable of forming such opinions. P. The reciprocal relationship of epistemology and science is of noteworthy kind. Letter n°190. at the present state of military technique. often directed solely to the practical and factual. Working on the final formulation of technological patents was a veritable blessing for me. a disastrous illusion. forced to state them a priori. Schilpp. Essays on the Unexpected. They are dependent on each other. Science without epistemology is — insofar as it is thinkable at all — primitive and muddled. . p3). In my opinion.Wikiquote http://en. by Pierre Speziali. Epistemology without contact with science becomes an empty scheme.html) at NationalGeographic. Michele Angelo Besso. The astonishing thing is that these discoveries were made at all. Quoted in Cleopatra's Nose.. published by Hermann. and the discovery of the possibility to find out causal relationships by systematic experiment (during the Renaissance). Daniel J Boorstin (1995).com/ngm/0505 /resources_who. (The Library of Living Philosophers. indeed. insofar as it is accessible to human reason. IL (1949). I am not thinking so much of the dangers with which technical progress has directly confronted mankind. (1 January 1951) [Einstein Archive 21-174]. Contribution in Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. a lie what you read about my religious convictions.. Correspondance. p. one has not to be astonished that the Chinese sages have not made these steps. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it. a lie which is being systematically repeated. New York: Vintage Books. 684) I have found no better expression than "religious" for confidence in the rational nature of reality. 1903-1955.A. ed. Letter to an atheist (1954) as quoted in Albert Einstein: The Human Side (1981) edited by Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman ISBN 0691023689 Few people are capable of expressing with equanimity opinions which differ from the prejudices of their social environment. Ideas and Opinions (1954) The idea of achieving security through national armament is.wikiquote. in our education. The frightful dilemma of the political world situation has much to do with this sin of omission on the part of our civilization. Letter to Michele Besso (10 September 1952). It enforced many-sided thinking and also provided important stimuli to physical (May 2005) Few people are capable of expressing with equanimity opinions which differ from the prejudices of their social environment. Evanston. It was. science degenerates into uninspired empiricism. Without 12 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . Most people are even incapable of forming such opinions. Ideas and Opinions (1954) Development of Western Science is based on two great achievements — the invention of the formal logical system (in Euclidean geometry) by the Greek philosophers.Albert Einstein . As quoted in "Who Knew?" (http://www7. published in Letters to Solovine (1993) I believe. [Academia] places a young person under a kind of compulsion to produce impressive quantities of scientific publications — a temptation to superficiality. of course.nationalgeographic. I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. Letter to Maurice Solovine.

I would not try to become a scientist or scholar or teacher. present. Now he has departed from this strange world a little ahead of me. The Guardian. If I would be a young man again and had to decide how to make my living. As far as my experience goes. Statement to William Miller. "The Need for Ethical Culture" celebrating the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Ethical Culture Society (5 January 1951). of the marvelous structure of reality. curiosity has its own reason for existing. who believe in physics. as quoted in LIFE magazine (2 May 1955) Try to become not a man of success. the Bible a collection of honourable. Queen and Servant of the Sciences (1952) by Eric Temple Bell Unsourced variant : Common sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen. never lose a holy curiosity. but try rather to become a man of value. That means nothing. No interpretation no matter how subtle can (for me) change this. but an equation is something for eternity. Letter to the editor of The Reporter about the situation of scientists in America (13 October 1954).Wikiquote http://en. The important thing is not to stop curiosity has its own reason for existing." there is no salvation for humanity. 71. Otherwise I cannot see anything 'chosen' about them.publicradio. As quoted in Mathematics. also quoted at Einstein's God (NPR) (http://speakingoffaith.religion) ". after learning of his because politics is for the present. of life. (March 1955) as quoted in Science and the Search for God Disturbing the Universe (1979) by Freeman Dyson Ch. but still primitive legends which are nevertheless pretty childish. as quoted in The New York Times (22 April 1955) Equations are more important to me. 13 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . And the Jewish people to whom I gladly belong and with whose mentality I have a deep affinity have no different quality for me than all other people. Gutkind Letter (3 January 1954). People like us. Common sense is nothing more than a deposit of prejudices laid down by the mind before you reach eighteen. "Childish superstition: Einstein's letter makes view of religion relatively clear (http://www. I would rather choose to be a plumber or a peddler in the hope to find that modest degree of independence still available under present circumstances. they are no better than other human groups. It is enough if one tries merely to comprehend a little of the mystery every day. As quoted by LIFE magazine (2 May 1955) The important thing is not to stop questioning. One cannot help but be in awe when contemplating the mysteries of eternity.wikiquote. That is simple my friend: because politics is more difficult than physics. Response to being asked why people could discover atomic power. although they are protected from the worst cancers by a lack of power. Helle Zeit.Albert Einstein . 13 May The word god is for me nothing more than the expression and product of human weaknesses. 17 "A Distant Mirror" . know that the distinction between "ethical culture. but not the means to control it. Letter to the family of his lifelong friend Michele Besso. and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion. p.shtml) The important thing is not to stop questioning. … For me the Jewish religion like all others is an incarnation of the most childish superstitions. Dunkle Zeit: In Memoriam Albert Einstein (1956) edited by Carl Seelig.

. published in Albert Einstein-Hedwig und Max Born (1969) "Briefwechsel 1916-55" In view of such harmony in the cosmos which I. I just want to explain what I mean when I say that we should try to hold on to physical reality. 287. as quoted in Best Quotes of '54. it should also be independent of whether or not a measurement is made in A. in the Faraday-Maxwell sense. and I do surely not among them. If one attempts. Statement to German anti-Nazi diplomat and author Prince Hubertus zu Lowenstein around 1941. where the "original source" is cited as being a fictitious magazine: Amazingly. For what is thought to be a "system" is after all. then one can hardly view the quantum-theoretical description as a complete representation of the physically real.Wikiquote http://en. 102. Vol. That is. Paraphrased variant: Put your hand on a hot stove and it seems like an hour.Albert Einstein . as quoted in his book Towards the Further Shore : An Autobiography (1968) 14 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . If a physical system stretches over A and B. the real in one that one can make part of space. But let him sit on a hot stove for a minute and it's longer than any hour. the field. then what is present in B should somehow have an existence independent of what is present in A. '55. 1938). But that which we conceive as existing ("real") supposed to divide up the world objectively so should somehow be localized in time and space. just conventional. all aware of the situation regarding what will turn out to be the "system" is after all. Simpson. A. An explanation of relativity which he gave to his secretary Helen Dukas to convey to non-scientists and reporters. What is thought to be a We are . with my limited human mind. not see how one is but not with certainty. That's relativity. if one renounces the assumption that what is present in different parts of space has an independent. 1. Vol. am able to recognise. there are yet people who say there is no God. If one adheres to this program. But what makes me really angry is that they quote me for support of such views. What is actually present in B should thus not depend the type of measurement carried out in the part of space A. it seems like a When a man sits with a pretty girl for an hour. B. then I don't see at all what physics is supposed to be describing. 9. just basic foundational concepts in physics: the point-mass or the particle is conventional. Iss. l56 (1957) by James B.wikiquote. 3. No. "What must be an essential feature of any future fundamental physics?" Letter to Max Born. My physical instincts bristle at that suggestion. pg. the pretty girl/hot stove quote is actually the abstract from a short paper written by Einstein that appeared in the now defunct Journal of Exothermic Science and Technology (JEST. but within a satirical piece. That's relativity. should (in theory) somehow "exist" independently of that statements about parts. then one must assume that the physically real in B undergoes a sudden change because of a measurement in A. and I do not see how one is supposed to divide up the world objectively so that one can make statements about parts. real existence. so to view it. nevertheless. also in Expandable Quotable Einstein (2005) edited by Alice Calaprice This was also quoted by Steve Mirsky in Scientific American (September 2002). Sit with a pretty girl for an hour and it seems like a minute. However. which is thought of as real in another part of space.. might be.

and various indeed are they that dwell therein and the motives that have led them thither. As quoted in Reality and Scientific Truth : Discussions with Einstein.. Response to religious. a skeptical attitude toward the convictions that were alive in any specific social environment — an attitude that has never again left me. had instead disproved it. History. even though.html) In the temple of science are many mansions.wikiquote. behind all the discernible concatenations. found an abrupt ending at the age of twelve. it was a crushing impression. intangible and inexplicable. Nature shows us only the tail of the lion. To that extent I am. As quoted in Einstein.Albert Einstein . New Scientist (15 July 2006) It is high time the ideal of success should be replaced with the ideal of service . Letter to Harry S. But I do not doubt that the lion belongs to it even though he cannot at once reveal himself because of his enormous size. behind all the discernible concatenations. Autobiographical Notes (1979) Edited by Paul Arthur Schilpp Then I would have felt sorry for the dear Lord. during a visit to the University of Oxford. there remains something subtle. Truman as quoted in ‘The culture of Einstein" by Alex Johnson (http://www. by Gerald Holton. Only a life lived 15 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . Mistrust of every kind of authority grew out of this experience. there remains something subtle. G. intangible and inexplicable. I do not know with what weapons World War III will be fought. which confirmed relativity. As quoted by Abraham Pais in Subtle is the Lord:The Science and Life of Albert Einstein (1982) ISBN 0-192-80672-6 Deep religiosity. As quoted in "Recording the Experience" (10 June 2004) at The Library of Congress (http://www. in point of fact. p. but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones. 1971) Try and penetrate with our limited means the secrets of nature and you will find that. Kessler .com/id/7406337/) at MSNBC (18 April 2005) Even on the most solemn occasions I got away without wearing socks and hid that lack of civilisation in high boots. p.newscientist. von Laue.msn. Albert Einstein in a letter to his cousin and second wife Elsa. Through the reading of popular scientific books I soon reached the conviction that much in the stories of the Bible could not be Try and penetrate with our limited means the secrets of nature and you will find that.. later on.msnbc. it has been tempered by a better insight into the causal connections.ns?id=dn9555& feedId=online-news_rss20) .. and Planck (1980) by Ilse Rosenthal-Schneider. 74 When asked by a student what he would have done if Sir Arthur Eddington's famous 1919 gravitational lensing experiment. in collection donated to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel by Einstein's stepdaughter Margot. Veneration for this force beyond anything that we can comprehend is my religion. quoted in "Einstein in no-sock shock" (http://www. 172 Never memorize what you can look up in The theory is correct. through the reading of popular scientific books. and Other Passions (1996). Alfred Kerr (Winter 1927) who after deriding ideas of God and religion at a dinner party in the home of the publisher Samuel Fischer. The consequence was a positively fanatic orgy of freethinking coupled with the impression that youth is intentionally being deceived by the state through lies.loc. had queried him "I hear that you are supposed to be deeply religious" as quoted in The Diary of a Cosmopolitan (1971) by H.Wikiquote http://en.

A finely tempered nature longs to escape from the personal life into the world of objective perception and thought. feel sure: if the types we have just expelled were the only types there were. perhaps chiefly. each in his own fashion. whether they become straight from the heart. For these people any sphere of intention or program. This is what the painter does. the daily effort comes from no deliberate intention or program. With this negative motive goes a positive one. and the natural scientist do. 330 Unsourced variant : Only a life in the service of others is worth living. and various indeed are they that dwell therein and the motives that have led them thither.Wikiquote http://en. in spite of these common characteristics. from the fetters of one's own ever-shifting desires. science is their own special sport to which they look for vivid experience and the satisfaction of ambition. and in many cases to that of the religious our angel would find it a pretty ticklish job to decide. of both present and past times. for Max Planck's 60th birthday (http://www. a simplified and lucid image of the world. in order to find in this way the peace and security which he cannot find in the narrow whirlpool of personal experience. Variant translation: One of the strongest motives that lead men to art and science is escape from everyday life with its painful crudity and hopeless dreariness. any more than a forest can grow from no deliberate which consists of nothing but creepers.wikiquote. many others are to be found in the temple who have offered the products of their brains on this altar for purely utilitarian /einstein_essay2. Berlin.cs. p. uncommunicative. solitary fellows. in order to attain the peace and serenity that he cannot find within the narrow confines of swirling personal experience. left inside. The state of mind which enables a man to do work of this kind is akin to that of the religious worshiper or the lover. Most of them are somewhat odd. What has brought them to the temple? That is a difficult question and no single answer will cover it. and the poet.ucla. the speculative philosopher. enables a man to do work of this kind is akin responsible for the buildings of the temple of science. but human activity will do. Many take to science out of a joyful sense of superior intellectual power. Now let us have another look at those who have found favor with the angel. Our Planck is one of them. he then tries to some extent to substitute this cosmos of his for the world of experience. but there would still be some men. Were an angel of the Lord to come and drive all the people belonging to these two categories out of the temple. he places the center of gravity of his emotional life. and thus to overcome it. and that is why we love him. 16 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM .Albert Einstein . if it comes to a point. Into this image and its formation. the daily effort comes the temple would never have come to for others is a life worthwhile. but straight from the heart. the poet. officers. the speculative philosopher. Man tries to make for himself in the fashion that suits him best a simplified and intelligible picture of the world. each in his own way. the assemblage would be seriously depleted. engineers. Principles of Research (1918) Address at the Physical Society. than the hosts of the rejected. tradesmen. in whatever manner is suitable for him. or scientists depends on circumstances. I am quite aware that we have just now lightheartedly expelled in The state of mind which imagination many excellent men who are largely. Each makes this cosmos and its construction the pivot of his emotional life. the natural scientist. really less like each other.html) In the temple of science are many mansions. This is what the painter. and so to overcome the world of experience by striving to replace it to some extent by this image. Man seeks to form for himself. As quoted in Wisdom for the Soul : Five Millennia of Prescriptions for Spiritual Healing (2006) by Larry Chang. But of one thing I worshiper or the lover.

love. also in The Great Influenza (2004) by John M. K. theoretically. I am a Jew.Albert Einstein . when asked about a clipping from a magazine article reporting his comments on Christianity as taken down by Viereck. No one can read the Gospels without feeling the actual presence of Jesus. and support prompts men to form the social or moral conception of God. but I am enthralled by the luminous figure of the Nazarene. Einstein carefully read the clipping and replied. who sources it from M. and punishes. just as the man who spends too much time in the theaters is apt to be content with living vicariously instead of living his own life. Quoted in Charles Filmore. The Jewish scriptures admirably illustrate the development from the religion of fear to moral religion. The desire for guidance. As reported in Einstein — A Life (1996) by Denis Brian. Wisehart. No man can dispose of Christianity with a bon mot. disposes. "That is what I believe. the Institute. No myth is filled with such life. I received instruction both in the Bible and in the Talmud. But the development of physics has shown that at any given moment. however artful. Any man who reads too much and uses his own brain too little falls into lazy habits of thinking. American Magazine.Wikiquote http://en. Wisehart interview (1930?) Much reading after a certain age diverts the mind from its creative pursuits. Viereck interview (1929) "What Life Means to Einstein: An Interview by George Sylvester Viereck" The Saturday Evening Post (26 October 1929) As quoted in The Professor. 1930) Everything that the human race has done and thought is concerned with the satisfaction of deeply felt needs and the assuagement of pain. The Twelve Powers of Man 1930 (http://books. one might suppose that there were any number of possible systems of theoretical physics all equally well justified.wikiquote. but I am enthralled by the luminous figure of the Nazarene. can reach them. In this methodological uncertainty. the comforter in sorrow and unsatisfied longing. he who preserves the souls of the dead. Feeling and longing are the motive force behind all human endeavor and human creation. only intuition. out of all conceivable constructions. A Close Look at the World's Greatest Thinker. 17 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM .com/books?id=qLr1xG9ZUS0C& pg=PA87&dq=reading) . who protects. and this opinion is no doubt correct. His personality pulsates in every word. This is the social or moral conception of God. a single one has always proved itself decidedly superior to all the rest. Jesus is too colossal for the pen of phrasemongers. Religion and Science (1930) New York Times Magazine (November 9. One has to keep this constantly in mind if one wishes to understand spiritual movements and their development. the God who. June 1930. 17. loves and cherishes the life of the tribe or of the human race. according to the limits of the believer's outlook. Barry The supreme task of the physicist is to arrive at those universal elementary laws from which the cosmos can be built up by pure deduction. in however exalted a guise the latter may present themselves to us. or even or life itself. I am a Jew. resting on sympathetic understanding of experience." As a child. and DNA (1976) by Rene There is no logical path to these laws. This is the God of Providence. rewards.

An important advance in the life of a people is the transformation of the religion of fear into the moral religion. Individual existence impresses him as a sort of prison and he wants to experience the universe as a single significant whole. especially as there is no anthropomorphic conception of God corresponding to it. and Spinoza are closely akin to one another. of course. but the charge is unjust. men like Democritus. A man's ethical behavior should be based effectually on sympathy. The individual feels the futility of human desires and aims and the sublimity and marvelous order which reveal themselves both in nature and in the world of thought. and social ties and needs.Wikiquote a development continued in the New Testament. The truth is that all religions are a varying blend of both types. sometimes also as saints. that primitive religions are based entirely on fear and the religions of civilized peoples purely on morality is a prejudice against which we must be on our guard. Buddhism. The religions of all civilized peoples. are principally moral religions.Albert Einstein . Science has therefore been charged with undermining morality. if it can give rise to no definite notion of a God and no theology? In my view. How can cosmic religious feeling be communicated from one person to another. and exceptionally high-minded communities. Common to all these types is the anthropomorphic character of their conception of God. Hence it is precisely among the heretics of every age that we find men who were filled with this highest kind of religious feeling and were in many cases regarded by their contemporaries as atheists. no religious basis is necessary. with this differentiation: that on the higher levels of social life the religion of morality predominates. cannot be responsible.g. a 18 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . The religions of all civilized peoples.. even though it is rarely found in a pure form: I shall call it cosmic religious feeling.htm) as a statement that precedes the last three sentences here. so that there can be no church whose central teachings are based on it. external and internal.positiveatheism. especially those of the Orient. The beginnings of cosmic religious feeling already appear at an early stage of development. rise to any considerable extent above this The development from a religion of fear to moral religion is a great step in peoples' lives. as we have learned especially from the wonderful writings of Schopenhauer. which knows no dogma and no God conceived in man's image. education. Man would indeed be in a poor way if he had to be restrained by fear of punishment and hopes of reward after death. It is very difficult to elucidate this feeling to anyone who is entirely without it. only individuals of exceptional endowments. any more than an inanimate object is responsible for the motions it undergoes. especially the peoples of the Orient. Francis of Assisi. I also cannot imagine some will or goal outside the human sphere" has been cited (http://www. but this might have originated in a paraphrase. which is carried further in the New Testament. in many of the Psalms of David and in some of the Prophets. Variant: "It seems to me that the idea of a personal God is an anthropological concept which I cannot take seriously. And yet. The religious geniuses of all ages have been distinguished by this kind of religious feeling. contains a much stronger element of this. Variant translation: It is easy to follow in the sacred writings of the Jewish people the development of the religion of fear into the moral religion. it is the most important function of art and science to awaken this feeling and keep it alive in those who are receptive to it. But there is a third stage of religious experience which belongs to all of them. A God who rewards and science to awaken this punishes is inconceivable to him for the simple reason that a man's actions feeling and keep it alive are determined by necessity. so that in God's eyes he in those who are receptive to it.wikiquote. He has no use for the religion of function of art and fear and equally little for social or moral religion. are primarily moral religions. Looked at in this light. The man who is thoroughly convinced of the universal operation of the law of causation cannot for a moment entertain the idea of a being who interferes in the course of events — provided. e. In general. that he takes the It is the most important hypothesis of causality really seriously.

Only those who realize the immense efforts and. above all. I maintain that the cosmic religious feeling is the strongest and noblest motive for scientific research. it does not appear in any editions of the essay which have thus far been checked. another compilation which includes it is Ideas and Opinions (1954) How strange is the lot of us mortals! Each of us is here for a brief sojourn. but not will as he will. for what purpose he knows not. to whose destinies we are bound by the ties of sympathy. can transcription error.. I have never looked upon ease and happiness as ends in themselves — this critical basis I call the ideal of a pigsty.. The ideals that have lighted my way. remote as it is from the immediate realities of life. A hundred times every day I remind myself that my inner and outer life are based on the labors of other men.Albert Einstein ." has been an inspiration to me since my youth up." has been an inspiration to me since my youth up. It is therefore easy to see why the churches have always fought science and persecuted its devotees. has its due place.html) from the book The World As I See It (1949). and time after time have given me new courage to face life cheerfully. On the other hand. unknown to us. above all. or a misquotation. Only one who has devoted his life to similar ends can have a vivid realization of what has inspired these men and given them the strength to remain true to their purpose in spite of countless failures. but not will as he will. Schopenhauer's saying. 19 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . were it but a feeble reflection of the mind revealed in this world.Wikiquote http://en. Schopenhauer's saying. or portions of it. surrounded by a skeptical world. Kepler and Newton must have had to enable them to spend years of solitary labor in disentangling the principles of celestial mechanics! Those whose acquaintance with scientific research is derived chiefly from its practical results easily develop a completely false notion of the mentality of the men who. and Truth. Without the sense of kinship with men of like mind. and that I must exert myself in order to give in the same measure as I have received and am still receiving. What a deep conviction of the rationality of the universe and what a yearning to understand. Beauty.] Various translated editions have been published of this essay.einsteinandreligion. living and dead. the eternally unattainable in the field of art and scientific endeavors. and a continual consolation and unfailing well-spring of patience in the face of the hardships of life. that in this materialistic age of ours the serious scientific workers are the only profoundly religious people. luxury — have always seemed to me contemptible. A contemporary has and then for the many. life would have seemed empty to me. In human freedom in the philosophical sense I am definitely a disbeliever. This feeling mercifully mitigates the sense of responsibility which so easily becomes paralyzing. It is cosmic religious feeling that gives a man such strength. without the occupation with the objective world... Mein Weltbild (1931) "Mein Weltbild" (1931) [My World-view.wikiquote. "My View of the World"] translated as the title essay "The World As I See It" (http://www. outward success. that "a man can do as he will. and a continual consolation and unfailing well-spring of patience in the face of the hardships of life. including one titled "What I Believe". my own and others'. have shown the way to kindred spirits scattered wide through the world and through the centuries. But without deeper reflection one knows from daily life that one exists for other people — first of all for those upon whose smiles and well-being our own happiness is wholly dependent. and it prevents us from taking ourselves and other people too seriously. have been Kindness. it conduces to a view of life in which humor. though he sometimes thinks he senses it. The trite objects of human efforts — possessions. Everybody acts not only under external compulsion but also in accordance with inner necessity. the devotion without which pioneer work in theoretical science cannot be achieved are able to grasp the strength of the emotion out of which alone such work. that "a man can do as he will. not unjustly.

with my whole heart. I have never lost a sense of distance and a need for solitude.wikiquote. they must be able to choose their leader. it alone creates the noble and the sublime. This plague-spot of civilization ought to be abolished with all possible speed. have been Truth. The cause of this may well be the desire. sentient individual. and all the pestilent nonsense that goes by the name of patriotism — how I hate them! War seems to me a mean. sentient individual. since for him the spinal cord would fully suffice. Variant translation: In my opinion. That a man can take pleasure in marching in formation to the strains of a band is enough to make me despise him. to understand the few ideas to which I have with my feeble powers attained through ceaseless struggle. This topic brings me to that worst outcrop of the herd nature. through no fault.. But the led must not be coerced. life would have seemed to me empty. or even my immediate family. Without the sense of fellowship with men of like mind. the eternally unattainable in the field of art and scientific research. My passionate sense of social justice and social responsibility has always contrasted oddly with my pronounced lack of need for direct contact with other human beings and human communities. which I abhor. An autocratic system of coercion. while the herd as such remains dull in thought and dull in feeling. with my whole heart. He has only been given his big brain by mistake. He has been given a large brain by mistake. For force always attracts men of low morality. of the need for solitude — a feeling which increases with the years. my home. and no merit. The ordinary objects of human endeavor — property. my friends. of preoccupation with the objective. outward success. luxury — have always seemed to me contemptible. in the face of all these ties I have never lost an obstinate sense of detachment.Albert Einstein ..Wikiquote http://en. The ideals which have lighted me on my way and time after time given me new courage to face life cheerfully.. My passionate sense of social justice and social responsibility has always contrasted oddly with my pronounced lack of need for direct contact with other human beings and human communities. soon Variant translation: I have never looked upon ease and happiness as ends in themselves — such an ethical basis I call more proper for a herd of swine. 20 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . For this reason I have always been passionately opposed to systems such as we see in Italy and Russia to-day.. in the face of all these ties. force attracts men of low morality. Variant translation: I am truly a 'lone traveler' and have never belonged to my country.. I gang my own gait and have never belonged to my country. and I believe it to be an invariable rule that tyrants of genius are succeeded by scoundrels. my friends. unattainable for many. contemptible thing: I would rather be hacked in pieces than take part in such an abominable business. the personality. of my own. the personality. Goodness. the military system. Heroism by order. It is an irony of fate that I myself have been the recipient of excessive admiration and reverence from my fellow-beings. in my opinion. and Beauty. or even my immediate family.. Let every man be respected as an individual and no man idolized. a backbone was all he needed. He who joyfully marches to music in rank and file has already earned my contempt. one man must do the thinking and directing and generally bear the responsibility. My political ideal is democracy. an autocratic system of coercion soon degenerates. senseless violence. The really valuable thing in the pageant of human life seems to me not the State but the creative. This disgrace to The really valuable thing in the pageant of human life seems to me not the State but the creative. my home. I am quite aware that for any organization to reach its goals.

which only in their most primitive forms are accessible to our minds: it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute true The most beautiful religiosity. Neither can I believe that the individual survives the death of his body. In this sense. although feeble souls harbor such thoughts through fear or ridiculous egotisms. is as good as dead. who is but a reflection of human frailty. He who knows it not and can no longer science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger.Albert Einstein . whose gross forms alone are intelligible to our poor faculties — this knowledge. 44 The most beautiful emotion we can experience is the mysterious.. that is the core of the true religious sentiment.Wikiquote http://en. or has a will of the type of which we are conscious in ourselves. As quoted in Introduction to Philosophy (1935) by George Thomas White Patrick and Frank Miller Chapman. I am a deeply religious experience we can have man. Heroism at command. and in this alone. I am a deeply religious man. a snuffed-out candle. Variant translation: I cannot imagine a God who rewards and punishes the objects of his creation. in short.. It is the source of all true art and science. a snuffed-out candle. in this sense. The finest emotion of which we are capable is the mystic emotion. It was the experience of mystery — even if mixed with fear — that engendered religion. his eyes are closed. I would rather be torn to shreds than be part of so base an action! It is my conviction that killing under the cloak of war is nothing but an act of murder. It was the experience of mystery — even if mixed with fear — that engendered religion. who can no longer wonder and stand rapt in awe. how violently I hate all this.. such notions are for the fears or absurd egoism of feeble souls. is as good as dead. and his eyes are dimmed. nor do I wish it otherwise.wikiquote. of the manifestations of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty. He who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe. is as good as dead. which are only accessible to our reason in their most elementary forms — it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute the truly religious attitude. It is the fundamental emotion which stands at the cradle that stands at the cradle of true art and true of true art and true science. A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate. He to whom this emotion is a stranger.. deplorable love-of-country stance. It is the fundamental emotion that stands at the cradle of all true art and science. To know that what is impenetrable for us really exists and manifests itself as the highest wisdom and the most radiant beauty. I cannot conceive of a God who rewards and punishes his creatures. Anyone to whom this feeling is alien. wonder. A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate. The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. whose purposes are modeled after our own — a God. I rank myself among profoundly religious men. It is the fundamental emotion that stands at the cradle of true art and true science. who is no longer capable of wonderment and lives in a state of fear is a dead man. The most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious. p. our perceptions of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty. is as good as dead: his eyes are closed. no longer marvel. and in this sense alone. In this sense. and only this sense. no longer feel amazement. As quoted in his obituary in The New York Times (19 April 1955) It is enough for me to contemplate the mystery of conscious life perpetuating itself through all 21 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . Whoever does not know it and can no longer wonder. Herein lies the germ of all art and all true science. is as good as dead. An individual who should survive his physical death is also beyond my comprehension. how despicable and ignoble war is. It is Variant translations: The fairest thing we can experience is the the fundamental emotion mysterious. this feeling . who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe. senseless brutality. is the civilisation should be done away with at once.

even in the guise of mere patriotism. although I well know the weaknesses of the democratic form of government. I am against any nationalism. as published in Einstein: A Life in Science (1994) by Michael White and John Gribbin This repeats or revises some statements and ideas of Mein Weltbild (1931). Berlin (Autumn 1932). a sense.html) ) Our situation on this earth seems strange. As quoted in Introduction to Philosophy (1935) by George Thomas White Patrick and Frank Miller Chapman. together with the single-hearted endeavor to comprehend a portion. Although I am a typical loner in daily life. of the marvelous structure of existence — as well as the humble attempt to understand even a tiny portion of the Reason that manifests itself in nature. Schopenhauer's words: “Man can do what he wants. and justice has preserved me from feeling isolated. p. (Full text online (http://www. My Credo (1932) Speech to the German League of Human Rights. I am an adherent of the ideal of democracy. My passion for social justice has often brought me into conflict with people. of the reason that manifests itself in nature. Every one of us appears here involuntarily and uninvited for a short stay. and to try humbly to comprehend an infinitesimal part of the intelligence manifested in nature.einsteinandreligion. beauty.Albert Einstein . beauty. 22 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . to reflect upon the marvelous structure of the universe which we dimly perceive. Social equality and economic protection of the individual appeared to me always as the important communal aims of the state.Wikiquote http://en. I always have a high regard for the individual and have an insuperable distaste for violence and clubmanship. All these motives made me into a passionate pacifist and anti-militarist. I do not believe in freedom of the will. 44 Variant translations: I am satisfied with the mystery of life's eternity and with a knowledge. I am often worried at the thought that my life is based to such a large extent on the work of my fellow human beings and I am aware of my great indebtedness to them. and the inkling of the marvellous structure of eternity. Enough for me the mystery of the eternity of life. Although I am a typical loner in daily life. but he cannot will what he wills” accompany me in all situations throughout my life and reconcile me with the actions of others even if they are rather painful to me. This awareness of the lack of freedom of will preserves me from taking too seriously myself and my fellow men as acting and deciding individuals and from losing my temper. for those whom we love and for many other beings whose fate is connected with our own. as did my aversion to any obligation and dependence I do not regard as absolutely necessary. my consciousness of belonging to the invisible community of those who strive for truth.wikiquote. without knowing the whys and the wherefore. and justice has preserved me from feeling isolated. Privileges based on position and property have always seemed to me unjust and pernicious. In our daily lives we only feel that man is here for the sake of others. my consciousness of belonging to the invisible community of those who strive for truth. be it never so as did any exaggerated personality cult.

In this effort toward logical beauty spiritual formulas are discovered necessary for the deeper penetration into the laws of nature.Wikiquote http://en. Philosophy and Religion. One seeks the most general ideas of operation which will bring together in simple. Obituary for Emmy Noether (1935) Emmy Noether.mcs. A Symposium. in its way.einsteinandreligion. later published in Out of My Later Years (1950) Full text online (http://www. To sense that behind anything that can be experienced there is a something that our mind cannot grasp and whose beauty and sublimity reaches us only indirectly and as a feeble reflection. Pure mathematics is.Albert Einstein . none the less the fruits of their endeavors are the most valuable contributions which one generation can make to its /Noether_Emmy_Einstein. either through fortune or some special gift. In the judgment of the most competent living mathematicians. New York (1941). To me it suffices to wonder at these secrets and to attempt humbly to grasp with my mind a mere image of the lofty structure of all that there is. investigators and thinkers have always been persons of this kind. Beneath the effort directed toward the accumulation of worldly goods lies all too frequently the illusion that this is the most substantial and desirable end to be achieved. It is the underlying principle of religion as well as all serious endeavor in art and He who never had this experience seems to me. fortunately. if not dead. a minority composed of those who recognize early in their lives that the most beautiful and satisfying experiences open to humankind are not derived from the outside. letter to the Editor of The New York Times.html) 23 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . However inconspicuously the life of these individuals runs its The most beautiful and deepest experience a man can have is the sense of the mysterious. published May The efforts of most human-beings are consumed in the struggle for their daily bread. Science and Religion (1941) In this sense I am religious. then at least blind. Inc. To sense that behind anything that can be experienced there is a something that our mind cannot grasp and whose beauty and sublimity reaches us only indirectly and as a feeble reflection. Philosophy and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life. but there is. 1935 Full text online (http://www-history.wikiquote. but most of those who are. logical and unified form the largest possible circle of formal relationships. published by the Conference on Science. Fräulein Noether was the most significant creative mathematical genius thus far produced since the higher education of women began. this is religiousness. The genuine artists.. the poetry of logical ideas. this is religiousness. relieved of this struggle are largely absorbed in further improving their worldly lot. thinking and acting. but are bound up with the development of the individual's own feeling.

it is the attempt at the posterior reconstruction of existence by the process of conceptualization. In this sense religion is the age-old endeavor of mankind to become clearly and completely conscious of these values and goals and constantly to strengthen and extend their effect. but not what should be. Even though the realms of religion and science in themselves are clearly marked off from each other. religion without and understanding. During the youthful period of mankind's spiritual evolution human fantasy created gods in man's own image. To put it boldly. Science is the century-old endeavor to bring together by means of systematic thought the perceptible phenomena of this world into as thoroughgoing an association as possible. For science can only ascertain what is. this is where the struggle of the Church against the doctrines of Galileo and Darwin belongs. it has. This means an intervention on the part of religion into the sphere of science. It objects and goals which seems to me that what is important is the force of this superpersonal neither require nor are content and the depth of the conviction concerning its overpowering capable of rational meaningfulness. for otherwise it would not be possible to count with the same necessity Buddha and Spinoza as religious personalities. and in this way have set themselves in opposition to religion. This qualification has to do with the concept of It would not be difficult to come to an agreement as to what we understand by science. learned from science. representatives of science have often made an attempt to arrive at fundamental judgments with respect to values and ends on the basis of scientific method. even to a slight extent. Man sought to alter the disposition of these gods in his own favor by means of magic and 24 of 37 A religious person is 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . religion without science is blind. with reference to the actual content of historical religions. This source of feeling. to the best of his ability. Though religion may be that which determines the goal. person is devout in the sense that he has no doubt of the significance and loftiness of those superpersonal objects and goals which neither require nor are capable of rational foundation. I cannot conceive of a genuine scientist without that profound faith. who. regardless of whether any attempt is made to unite this foundation. in the broadest sense. by the operations of their will were supposed to determine. the phenomenal world.wikiquote. sphere of religion. and outside of its domain value judgments of all kinds remain necessary. the thoughts of all those who have given this question serious consideration. If one conceives of religion and science according to these definitions then a conflict between them appears impossible. Accordingly. To this there also belongs the faith in the possibility that the regulations valid for the world of existence are rational. however. A conflict arises when a religious community insists on the absolute truthfulness of all statements recorded in the Bible.Wikiquote http://en. or at any rate to influence. Though I have asserted above that in truth a legitimate conflict between religion and science cannot exist. A person who is religiously enlightened appears to me to be one who devout in the sense that has.Albert Einstein . that is. And even after finding an answer which may satisfy me at this particular moment. feelings. nevertheless there exist between the two strong reciprocal relationships and dependencies. liberated himself from the fetters of his he has no doubt of the significance and loftiness selfish desires and is preoccupied with thoughts. what means will contribute to the attainment of the goals it has set up. nevertheless. comprehensible to reason. and of those superpersonal aspirations to which he clings because of their superpersonal value. On the other hand. springs from the science is blind. I must nevertheless qualify this assertion once again on an essential point. The situation may be expressed by an image: science without religion is lame. These conflicts have all sprung from fatal errors. They exist content with a divine Being. But science can only be created Science without religion by those who are thoroughly imbued with the aspiration toward truth is lame. I still remain convinced that I can never under any circumstances bring together. They exist with the same necessity and matter-of-factness as he himself. a religious and matter-of-factness as he himself. But when asking myself what religion is I cannot think of the answer so easily.

on the other hand. a more difficult but an incomparably more worthy task. One need only think of the weather. Science not only purifies the religious impulse of the dross of its anthropomorphism but also contributes to a religious spiritualization of our understanding of prayer. For a doctrine which is able to maintain itself not in clear light but only in the dark. how is it possible to think of holding men responsible for their deeds and thoughts before such an almighty Being? In giving out punishment and rewards He would to a certain extent be passing judgment on Himself. To be sure. with incalculable harm to human progress. 25 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . and guidance. give up that source of fear and hope which in the past placed such vast power in the hands of priests. In their labors they will have to avail themselves of those forces which are capable of cultivating the Good. the doctrine of a personal God interfering with natural events could never be refuted. will of necessity lose its effect on mankind. will deny that the idea of the existence of an omnipotent. This is. That is. and the Beautiful in humanity itself. which have been painfully felt since the beginning of history. When the number of factors coming into play in a phenomenological complex is too large. Its anthropomorphic character is shown. The idea of God in the religions taught at present is a sublimation of that old concept of the gods.Wikiquote http://en. by virtue of its simplicity it is accessible to the most undeveloped mind. Occurrences in this domain are beyond the reach of exact prediction because of the variety of factors in operation. just. and every human feeling and aspiration is also His work. For him neither the rule of human nor the rule of divine will exists as an independent cause of natural events. Science not only purifies the religious impulse of the dross of its anthropomorphism but also contributes to a religious spiritualization of our understanding of life. scientific method in most cases fails us. certainly. the more certain it seems to me that the path to genuine religiosity does not lie through the fear of life. the True. But. help. there are decisive weaknesses attached to this idea in itself. also. if this being is omnipotent. Nevertheless no one doubts that we are confronted with a causal connection whose causal components are in the main known to us. but through striving after rational knowledge. A doctrine which is able to maintain itself not in clear light but only in the dark. every human thought. in which case prediction even for a few days ahead is impossible. The more a man is imbued with the ordered regularity of all events the firmer becomes his conviction that there is no room left by the side of this ordered regularity for causes of a different nature.wikiquote. that is. and omnibeneficent personal God is able to accord man solace. and blind faith. then every occurrence. including every human action. In their struggle for the ethical good. But I am persuaded that such behavior on the part of the representatives of religion would not only be unworthy but also fatal. with incalculable harm to human progress. in the real sense.Albert Einstein . to be sure. teachers of religion must have the stature to give up the doctrine of a personal God. Nobody. not because of any lack of order in nature. for this doctrine can always take refuge in those domains in which scientific knowledge has not yet been able to set foot. by the fact that men appeal to the Divine Being in prayers and plead for the fulfillment of their wishes. and the fear of death. by science. for instance. How can this be combined with the goodness and righteousness ascribed to Him? The main source of the present-day conflicts between the spheres of religion and of science lies in this concept of a personal God. The further the spiritual evolution of mankind advances. will of necessity lose its effect on mankind.

the task colossal. man’s own genius. Future thinking must prevent wars. the time is short. For the function of setting up goals and passing statements of value transcends its domain.. As the issues are greater than men ever sought to realize before. in general. with the emotional foundation of human thinking and acting." Often in evolutionary processes a species must adapt to new conditions in order to survive. produces knowledge and. These ideals religion attempts to attain by exerting an educational influence on tradition and through the development and promulgation of certain easily accessible thoughts and narratives (epics and myths) which are apt to influence evaluation and Religion is concerned with man's attitude toward nature at large. This must be the central fact in all our considerations of international affairs. on the other hand. What complicates the solution. given rise to considerable dispute and. As regards religion. it is necessary for survival. in my own mind there can be no doubt that in both cases a dispassionate consideration can only lead to a negative answer. indeed. is the fact that while most people readily agree on what is meant by "science. Religion is concerned with man's attitude toward nature at large. and with mutual human relationship. with the establishing of ideals for the individual and communal life. must move forward in the faith of that philosopher who held that there is no problem the human reason can propound which the human reason cannot reason out. The stakes are immense.einsteinandreligion.Wikiquote http://en. indeed all men. means of action. In light of new knowledge…an eventual world state is not just desirable in the name of brotherhood. This must be the central fact in all our considerations of international affairs.Albert Einstein .com/irrec. Today we must abandon competition and secure cooperation. 26 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . and with mutual human relationship. Yet. as far as these are not predetermined by the inalterable hereditary disposition of the human species. Today the atomic bomb has altered profoundly the nature of the world as we know it. otherwise we face certain disaster. the recriminations will be fiercer and pride more desperately Only Then Shall We Find Courage (1946) New York Times Magazine (23 June 1946) Many persons have inquired concerning a recent message of mine that "a new type of thinking is essential if mankind is to survive and move to higher levels. in the immediate. the independent and fundamental definitions regarding goals and values remain beyond science's reach. however.wikiquote. Religion and Science: Irreconcilable? (1948) The Christian Register (June 1948). otherwise we face certain disaster. It leads to methodical action if definite goals are set up in advance. may reach important conclusions as to the compatibility and incompatibility of goals and evaluations. for centuries. will not destroy him. Past thinking and methods did not prevent world wars.html) Does there truly exist an insuperable contradiction between religion and science? Can religion be superseded by science? The answers to these questions have. one is generally agreed that it deals with goals and evaluations and. and the human race consequently finds itself in a new habitat to which it must adapt its thinking." they are likely to differ on the meaning of "religion. with the establishing of ideals for the individual and communal life. to the extent of its grasp of causative connections.. Scholars. While it is true that science. republished in Ideas and Opinions (1954) Full text online (http://www. But we may hope — we must hope — that man’s own creation. It may help to recall that many recognized before the bomb ever fell that the time had already come when we must learn to live in One World. indirectly." Science. Today we must abandon competition and secure cooperation. bitter fighting.

Wikiquote http://en. they would hardly have been capable of that untiring devotion which alone enables man to attain his greatest achievements. While it is true that scientific results are entirely independent from religious or moral considerations. since otherwise this community is bound to perish. the actual spectacle more resembles a battlefield than an orchestra. it is of vital importance for the preservation of true religion that such conflicts be avoided when they arise from subjects which. Is there any sense then. and murder would be unable. Good and Evil The true value of a human being is determined primarily by the measure and the sense in which he has attained to liberation from the self. Society and Personality When we survey our lives and endeavors we soon observe that almost the whole of our actions The man who regards his own life and that of his fellow creatures as meaningless is not merely unfortunate but almost disqualified for life. in putting it? I answer. It is this mythical. to subsist for very long. Everywhere. those individuals to whom we owe the great creative achievements of science were all of them imbued with the truly religious conviction that this universe of ours is something perfect and susceptible to the rational striving for knowledge. you ask. it is those who propound such views that are the enemies of true religion. however.wikiquote. fraud. 27 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM .org/wiki/Albert_Einstein action along the lines of the accepted ideals. the man who regards his own life and that of his fellow creatures as meaningless is not merely unfortunate but almost disqualified for life. Thus. in economic as well as in political life. content of the religious traditions which is likely to come into conflict with science. seems to have made it sufficiently evident that such a defeatist view is wholly unwarranted. artistic geniuses in the art of living. This occurs whenever this religious stock of ideas contains dogmatically fixed statements on subjects which belong in the domain of science. or rather this symbolic. in a way. or of organic life altogether? To answer this question at all implies a religion. The Meaning of Life What is the meaning of human life. If this conviction had not been a strongly emotional one and if those searching for knowledge had not been inspired by Spinoza's Amor Dei Intellectualis. destroying all feelings of human fraternity and cooperation. There are pessimists who hold that such a state of affairs is necessarily inherent in human nature. in fact. The study of the social patterns in certain so-called primitive cultures. The moral attitudes of a people that is supported by religion need always aim at preserving and promoting the sanity and vitality of the community and its individuals. but as springing from personal ambition and fear of rejection. defamation. the guiding principle is one of ruthless striving for success at the expense of one's fellow men.Albert Einstein . This competitive spirit prevails even in school and. conceives of achievement not as derived from the love for productive and thoughtful work. for they imply thereby that religious teachings are Utopian ideals and unsuited to afford guidance in human affairs. A people that were to honor falsehood. The great moral teachers of humanity were. While religion prescribes brotherly love in the relations among the individuals and groups. are not really essential for the pursuance of the religious aims. The World As I See It (1949) For the title essay in this work see Mein Weltbild (1931) above. indeed.

But the scientist is possessed by the sense of universal causation. independently thinking and judging personalities the upward development of society is as unthinkable as the development of the individual personality without the nourishing soil of the community. spiritual.Wikiquote http://en. or Gandhi armed with the money-bags of Carnegie? Religion in Science You will hardly find one among the profounder sort of scientific minds without a peculiar religious feeling of his own. 28 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . We see that our whole nature resembles that of the social animals. compared with it. Can anyone imagine Moses. Without creative. a sublimation of a feeling similar to that of a child for its father. It looks at first sight as if our estimate of a man depended entirely on his social qualities. and thereby create new values for society — nay. The greater part of our knowledge and beliefs has been communicated to us by other people through the medium of a language which others have created. therefore. It is clear that all the valuable things.wikiquote. But it is different from the religion of the naive man. And yet such an attitude would be wrong. It is beyond question closely akin to that which has possessed the religious geniuses of all ages.Albert Einstein . we have. Only the individual can think. in so far as he succeeds in keeping himself from the shackles of selfish desire. to admit that we owe our principal advantage over the beasts to the fact of living in human society. comparable to those of the higher animals. thoughts. which directs his material and spiritual existence from the cradle to the grave. it is a purely human affair. the cultivation of edible plants. Without language our mental capacities would be poor indeed. The future. Bernard Shaw The example of great and pure characters is the only thing that can produce fine ideas and noble deeds. Money only appeals to selfishness and always tempts its owners irresistibly to abuse it. and actions are directed towards promoting the good of his fellows. wear clothes that others have made. the steam engine — each was discovered by one man. Greeting to G. The health of society thus depends quite as much on the independence of the individuals composing it as on their close political and desires are bound up with the existence of other human beings. The use of fire. which reveals an intelligence of such superiority that. all the systematic thinking and acting of human beings is an utterly insignificant reflection. even set up new moral standards to which the life of the community conforms. The individual. material. and moral. Of Wealth I am absolutely convinced that no wealth in the world can help humanity forward. We eat food that others have grown. a being to whom one stands to some extent in a personal relation. This feeling is the guiding principle of his life and work. Jesus. A man's value to the community depends primarily on how far his feelings. but rather as a member of a great human society. His religious feeling takes the form of a rapturous amazement at the harmony of natural law. is every whit as necessary and determined as the past. We call him good or bad according to how he stands in this matter. The individual is what he is and has the significance that he has not so much in virtue of his individuality. even in the hands of the most devoted worker in this cause. live in houses that others have built. if left alone from birth would remain primitive and beast-like in his thoughts and feelings to a degree that we can hardly conceive. There is nothing divine about morality. however deeply it may be tinged with awe. For the latter God is a being from whose care one hopes to benefit and whose punishment one fears. to him. which we receive from society can be traced back through countless generations to certain creative individuals. The example of great and pure characters is the only thing that can produce fine ideas and noble deeds.

S. thank God. But America is a large country and its people have so far not shown much interest in great international problems.wikiquote. The prestige of government has undoubtedly been lowered considerably by the prohibition law. 29 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . This proves that knowledge and justice are ranked above wealth and power by a large section of the human race. the prohibition law.Albert Einstein . to select a few of them for boundless lowered considerably by admiration. My experience teaches me that this idealistic outlook is particularly prevalent in America. The consciousness of this extraordinary state of affairs would be unbearable but for one great consoling thought: it is a welcome symptom in an age which is commonly denounced as materialistic. It strikes me as undoubtedly been unfair. Some Notes on my American Impressions first published as "My First Impression of the U.Wikiquote http://en. For nothing is more destructive of respect for the government and the law of the land than passing laws which cannot be enforced. nature distributes her gifts variously among her children. The part of passive spectator is unworthy of this country and is bound in the end to lead to disaster all round. The last war has shown that there are no longer any barriers between the continents and that the destinies of all countries are closely interwoven. unregarded lives. that it makes heroes of men whose ambitions lie wholly in the intellectual and moral sphere. The United States is the most powerful technically advanced country in the world to-day. in my view. if only in the essential interests of the Americans. which is usually decried as a particularly materialistic country.. and even in bad taste. This has been my fate." (1921) The cult of individual personalities is There are few enough people with sufficient independence to see the weaknesses and follies of their contemporaries and remain themselves untouched by them. But there The prestige of are plenty of the well-endowed ones too. To-day I salute with sincere emotion the supreme master of this method. It is an open secret that the dangerous increase of crime in the United States is closely connected with this. and the contrast between the popular estimate of my powers and achievements and the reality is simply grotesque. To be sure.A. attributing superhuman powers of mind and character to them. unjustified. The people of this country must realize that they have a great responsibility in the sphere of international politics. and I am firmly government has convinced that most of them live quiet.. Its influence on the shaping of international relations is absolutely incalculable. who has delighted — and educated — us all. among which the problem of disarmament occupies first place today. And these isolated few usually soon lose their zeal for putting things to rights when they have come face to face with human obduracy. Only to a tiny minority is it given to fascinate their generation by subtle humour and grace and to hold the mirror up to it by the impersonal agency of art. This must be changed.

But he does not experience this dependence as a positive asset. and deprived of the naive. one is left with a teaching which is capable of curing all the social ills of humanity.htm) (1949) Monthly Review New York (May 1949) Modern anthropology has taught us. that the social behavior of human beings may differ greatly. both measured in terms of real value. so that we may reach a new stage in the life of Christianity and Judaism If one purges the Judaism of the Prophets and Christianity as Jesus Christ taught it of all subsequent additions. The owner of the means of production is in a position to purchase the labor power of the worker. depending upon prevailing cultural patterns and the types of organisation which predominate in society. progressively deteriorate.Wikiquote http://en. as a protective force. "Why Socialism?" (http://www. through comparative investigation of so-called primitive cultures. It is the measles of mankind. Unconfirmed: The following quotes have been cited as being from The World As I See It but are not in later abridged editions of the original 1949 book and thus these citations are not yet confirmed. It concerns the relationship of the individual to society. or even to his economic existence. If one purges the Judaism of the Prophets and Christianity as Jesus Christ taught it of all subsequent additions. as an organic tie. one is left with a teaching which is capable of curing all the social ills of humanity. Unknowingly prisoners of their own egotism. the worker produces new goods which become the property of the capitalist. not man for the state. Man can find meaning in life. they feel insecure. and unsophisticated enjoyment of life.monthlyreview. Moreover. so far as he can. By using the means of production. where people will look back on war as an incomprehensible aberration of their forefathers! Nationalism is an infantile disease. whatever their position in society. It is important to understand that even in theory the payment of the worker is not determined by the value of his product. I have now reached the point where I may indicate briefly what to me constitutes the essence of the crisis of our time. In so far as the labor contract is free what the worker receives is determined not by the real value of the goods he produces.wikiquote. to annihilate each other or to be at the mercy of a cruel. May the conscience and the common sense of the peoples be awakened. self-inflicted fate. because of their biological constitution. only through devoting 30 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . If he makes an honest attempt in this direction without being crushed and trampled under foot by his especially those of the priests. It is on this that those who are striving to improve the lot of man may ground their hopes: human beings are not condemned. which are by nature weaker. are suffering from this process of deterioration. but by his minimum needs and by the capitalists' requirements for labor power in relation to the number of workers competing for jobs. especially those of the priests.Albert Einstein . It is the duty of every man of good will to strive steadfastly in his own little world to make this teaching of pure humanity a living force. his position in society is such that the egotistical drives of his make-up are constantly being accentuated. All human beings. short and perilous as it is. he may consider himself and the community to which he belongs lucky. lonely. The individual has become more conscious than ever of his dependence upon society. but rather as a threat to his natural rights. The state is made for man. while his social drives. simple. And in this respect science resembles the state. The essential point about this process is the relation between what the worker produces and what he is paid.

wikiquote. In other words. free and unhindered discussion of these problems has come under a powerful taboo. accompanied by an educational system which would be oriented toward social goals. in looking for the fundamental concepts and relations of physics. I am convinced there is only one way to eliminate these grave evils. I consider the foundation of this magazine to be an important public service. Referring to the Monthly Review. namely through the establishment of a socialist economy. Albert Einstein: The Human Side (1954) Politics is a pendulum whose swings between anarchy and tyranny are fueled by perpetually rejuvenated illusions. and it forces us to apply free speculation to a much greater extent than is presently assumed by most physicists. The comparative smallness of what we know today as gravitational effects is not a conclusive reason for ignoring the principle of general relativity in theoretical investigations of a fundamental character. The achievement of socialism requires the solution of some extremely difficult socio-political problems: how is it possible. but on the whole in faithful compliance with legally established rules. I do not believe that it is justifiable to ask: What would physics look like without gravitation? Out of My Later Years (1950) Everything that is really great and inspiring is created by the individual who can labor in freedom. although historically understandable. in which the essay was published. The economic anarchy of capitalist society as it exists today is. We see before us a huge community of producers the members of which are unceasingly striving to deprive each other of the fruits of their collective labor — not by force.Wikiquote http://en. On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation (1950) Scientific American (April 1950) This is the reason why all attempts to obtain a deeper knowledge of the foundations of physics seem doomed to me unless the basic concepts are in accordance with general relativity from the beginning. however comprehensive. p. the real source of the evil. Since. to prevent bureaucracy from becoming all-powerful and overweening? How can the rights of the individual be protected and therewith a democratic counterweight to the power of bureaucracy be assured? Clarity about the aims and problems of socialism is of greatest significance in our age of transition. in view of the far-reaching centralisation of political and economic power. it is necessary to remember that a planned economy is not yet socialism.Albert Einstein . and I consider ethics to be an exclusively human concern with no superhuman authority behind himself to society. I do not think that such an attitude. in my opinion. 31 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . can be objectively justified. Nevertheless. A planned economy as such may be accompanied by the complete enslavement of the individual. I do not see any reason to assume that the heuristic significance of the principle of general relativity is restricted to gravitation and that the rest of physics can be dealt with separately on the basis of special relativity. with the hope that later on the whole may be fitted consistently into a general relativistic scheme. under present circumstances. 38 I do not believe in immortality of the individual. This situation makes it difficult to use our empirical knowledge.

Albert Einstein . they are not certain. but should hope. 96 . 63-64 .5 Feb 1921 Nothing truly valuable arises from ambition or from a mere sense of duty.letter to Cornel Lanczos.Wikiquote http://en.28 Sep 32 There has been an earth for a little more than a billion years. 21 Mar 1942 Philosophy is like a mother who gave birth to and endowed all the other sciences. pp. is so admirably appropriate to the objects of reality? Is human reason. p. But that He plays dice and uses 'telepathic' methods. is for me no more than a symptom of weakness and confusion. above all other sciences. able to fathom the properties of real things? One reason why mathematics enjoys special p. Goldman ISBN 1568219830 32 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . Therefore. Zionism gave the German Jews no great protection against annihilation. and combinations of sensory impressions.30 July 47 . which shows itself particularly in the rampant growth of the so-called Theosophy and Spiritualism. 68 . Einstein's God (1997) Einstein's God — Albert Einstein's Quest as a Scientist and as a Jew to Replace a Forsaken God (1997) by Robert N. while those of other sciences are to some extent debatable and in constant danger of being overthrown by newly discovered facts. p. the concept of a soul without a body seem to me to be empty and devoid of meaning.statement to Christian conference Sidelights on Relativity (1983) ISBN 048624511X How can it be that mathematics.27 Jan 47 . Since our inner experiences consist of reproductions. 46 . As for the question of the end of it I advise: Wait and see! p. 39 . Americans. 106 . and as far as they are certain. condemning the Zionist movement as "nationalistic" is unjustified. etc. is something that I cannot believe for a single moment. Even the conflicts and the realm of religion would be expoesed as insignificant. But it did give the survivors the inner strength to endure the debacle with dignity and without losing their healthy self respect. Frenchmen. merely by taking thought. then. Thus already our precarious situation forces us to stand together irrespective of our citizenship. without experience. Consider the path by which Herzl came to his mission. As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality. 40 . p. Initially he had been completely cosmopolitan.. that part of her Don Quixote ideal will live on in her children so that they do not sink into philistinism. p. And courageously he drew the conclusion that we are discriminated against or murdered not because we are Germans. it stems rather from love and devotion towards men and towards objective things. But during the Dreyfus trial in Paris he suddenly realized with great clarity how precarious was the situation of the Jews in the western world. 34 .wikiquote.c.19 Jun 51 If the believers of the present-day religions would earnestly try to think and act in the spirit of the founders of these religions then no hostility on the basis of religion would exist among the followers of the different faiths. they do not refer to reality. p.unsent letter The mystical trend of our time.letter In my opinion. rather. Keep in mind that perhaps a similar fate could be lying in wait for your children. being after all a product of human thought which is independent of experience. of the "Jewish faith" but simply because we are Jews.17 July 1953 . 1946 It seems hard to sneak a look at God's cards.. is that its laws are absolutely certain and indisputable. one should not scorn her in her nakedness and poverty.

surely would not approve of such behavior. As quoted in Conscious Courage : Turning Everyday Challenges Into Opportunities (2004) by Maureen Stearns. In essence. At the least. he is unable to fulfill. the tragic-comical is found in this: that the Christian religion demands love from the faithful. Most of so-called philosophy is due to this kind of fallacy. p. If I would follow your advice and Jesus could perceive it. 99 33 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . The love. but because of the people who don't do anything about it. without reaching a better understanding of anything.. This demand. as a Jewish teacher.. However. To take those fools in clerical garb seriously is to show them too much honor. We are succumbing to illusions produced by our self-created language. there has yet been no earlier source located for this remark than this 1996 book. "I said before. the Virgin Mary. it is a subtle spirit. And this mystically is the power of all true science. not because of the people who are evil. A man who is convinced of the truth of his religion is indeed never tolerant. he.wikiquote. In the case of a Christian The bigotry of the nonbeliever is for me nearly as funny as the bigotry of the believer. not because of those who do evil. which on the Christian side is the basis for the conciliatory attempt towards Judaism is the same as the love of a child for a cake." Disputed The world is a dangerous place to live. Variant: The world is a dangerous place. hatred then leads to persecution when the might of the majority is behind it. If there is any such concept as a God. he is to feel pity for the adherent of another religion but usually it does not stop there. and convert to Christianity. Letter to Rabbi Solomon Goldman of Chicago's Anshe Emet Congregation I have always believed that Jesus meant by the Kingdom of God the small group scattered all through time of intellectually and ethically valuable people.Albert Einstein . even love for the enemy. p. The faithful adherent of a religion will try first of all to convince those that believe in another religion and usually he goes on to hatred if he is not successful.Wikiquote http://en. the most beautiful and most profound religious emotion that we can experience is the sensation of the mystical. my religion consists of a humble admiration for this illimitable superior spirit that reveals itself in the slight details that we are able to perceive with our frail and feeble minds. Reply to a Roman Catholic student urging him to pray to Jesus Christ. … I have always believed that Jesus meant by the Kingdom of God the small group scattered all through time of intellectually and ethically valuable people. As quoted in Breakthrough : Israel in a Changing World (1996) by Gad Yaacobi. Comment on the Union of Orthodox Rabbis after expelling a rabbi because of his disbelief in God as a personal entity. Thus intolerance and hatred ring through the oily words of the clergyman. 98. The fact that man produces a concept "I" besides the totality of his mental and emotional experiences or perceptions does not prove that there must be any specific existence behind such a concept. not an image of a man that so many have fixed in their minds. That means that it contains the hope that the object of the love will be eaten up. though this is widely quoted in this form and the variant below. because it is indeed superhuman. One has a feeling that one has a kind of home in this timeless community of human beings that strive for truth. but because of those who look on and do nothing.

no. as a meaningful unity. If there is any religion that would cope with modern scientific needs. I am forced thus to confess that what I once despised I now praise unreservedly. avoids dogmas and theology.skeptic. it covers both the natural and the spiritual. Notable Einstein scholars such as John Stachel and Thomas J. This is similar to a quote attributed to Mark Twain: "I never let my schooling get in the way of my education". but without attribution or any sort of context.snopes. the universities immediately were silenced. Two things inspire me to awe: the starry heavens and the moral universe within. were silenced in a few short weeks. I never had any special interest in the Church before. and it is based on a religious sense aspiring from the experience of all things. William C. This statement has been attributed to others before Einstein. You do not really understand something unless you can explain it to your grandmother. cited in the Columbia World of Quotations (http://www. Evil is the absence of natural and spiritual as a meaningful unity. variant: If you can't explain something to a six-year-old. He added that this statement had subsequently been drastically exaggerated beyond anything that he could recognize as his own.asp) for more discussion.Albert Einstein . knowing that they had always boasted of their devotion to the cause of truth. natural and spiritual. he was almost certainly quoting philosopher Immanuel Kant (from the conclusion to the Critique of Pure Reason (1788). like the Misattributed Being a lover of freedom.html) indicates that in a letter to Count Montgelas (March 28. its first attribution to Einstein appears to have been in an email story that began circulating in 2004. it would be Buddhism. Then I looked to the great editors of the newspapers whose flaming editorials in days gone by had proclaimed their love of freedom. Quoted in Time magazine (23 December 1940) page 38. widely quoted. These two statements are very similar. 34 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . See the Urban Legends Reference Pages (http://www. but now I feel a great affection and admiration because the Church alone has had the courage and persistence to stand for intellectual truth and moral freedom. 1947). item number 58-548] Einstein "explained that early in the Hitler years he had casually mentioned to some journalist that hardly any German intellectuals except a few churchmen were supporting individual rights and intellectual freedom. but. I looked to the universities to defend Waterhouse at eSkeptic (http://www. Covering both the natural and the Variant: The religion of the future will be a cosmic religion. This quote does not actually appear in "Albert Einstein: The Human Side" as is sometimes claimed.html) ) The only thing that interferes with my learning is my education." Buddhism has the characteristics of what would be expected in a cosmic religion for the future: It transcends a personal God.. but they. Any information on any definite original sources for these is welcome. There comes a time when the mind takes a higher plane of knowledge but can never prove how it got there. If Einstein said this. but neither has been properly sourced. and seem to paraphrase some ideas in the essay "Religion and Science". when the revolution came in Germany.bartleby. McFarlane (author of Buddha and Einstein: The Parallel Sayings) know of this statement but have not found any source for it. you really don't understand it yourself. Only the Church stood squarely across the path of Hitler's campaign for suppressing truth.Wikiquote http://en. it should be based on a religious sense arising from the experience of all things. [Einstein Archives.wikiquote.. It should transcend a personal God and avoid dogmas and theology.

astrology reinforces this power to some extent.html) . Aber eine wegweisende. 1951. according to Snopes. but seems to have no earlier source than an obscure web essay "Reinventing Failure: Designing Success" by Harald Anderson. Skeptical Inquirer. It taught me many things.Wikiquote http://en. If the bee disappears from the surface of the earth.wikiquote. Ich habe viel aus ihr gelernt und vielen Nutzen aus ihr ziehen können. 39-43 Alice Calaprice. no more men! Probably from a beekeepers' protest in 1994 in Frequently attributed to Richard Feynman Cf. It is clear for example that he had respect for the religious values enshrined within Judaic and Christian traditions .. He hypothesized that your answer to that question would determine your destiny. man would have no more than four years to live.. unidentified 1987 work Contradicted by Denis Hamel. They show that the inner enemy. but what he understood by religion was something far more subtle than what is usually meant by the word in popular discussion. Hoenikker used to say that any scientist who couldn't explain to an eight-year-old what he was doing was a charlatan. someone may have invented the phrase and attributed it to Einstein for political reasons. Philosophical Library." Einstein said on astrology: "The reader should note [Kepler's] remarks on astrology. This has been quoted in a relatively few places on the internet.asp) . No more bees. pp. The most fundamental question we can ever ask ourselves is whether or not the universe we live in is friendly or hostile. 31." In his introduction to Carola Baumgardt's Johannes Kepler: Life and Letters. 41 The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results.. . Die Astrologie ist eine Wissenschaft für sich. Rita Mae Brown Quotes about Einstein Arranged alphabetically by author Like many other great scientists he does not fit the boxes in which popular polemicists like to pigeonhole him. and I am greatly indebted to it. In turn. Geophysical evidence reveals the power of the stars and the planets in relation to the terrestrial. No. 6 (Nov-Dec 2007). Die Astrologie aber unterstreicht in gewissem Sinne wiederum die physikalischen Erkenntnisse. Die physikalischen Erkenntnisse unterstreichen die Macht der Sterne über irdisches Geschick. was not yet completely dead. New York. Deshalb ist sie eine Art Lebens-elixier für die Gesellschaft! English: Astrology is a science in itself and contains an illuminating body of knowledge. This is why astrology is like a life-giving elixir to mankind. The Expanded Quotable Einstein: "Attributed to Einstein […] An excellent example of a quotation someone made up and attributed to Einstein in order to lend an idea ( no more pollination .uk/~theo0038/biogbrooke.. John Brooke (http://users. The End of the Einstein-Astrology-Supporter Hoax. conquered and rendered innocuous. where the statement seems to have been a loose summation of Einstein's ideas rather than a quote: "Albert Einstein once commented that the most fundamental question we can ever ask ourselves is whether or not the universe we live in is friendly or hostile. this from Kurt Vonnegut's novel Cat's Cradle: Dr. as quoted in "Childish superstition: Einstein's letter makes view of religion relatively clear" in The Guardian (13 May 35 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . German quote attributed to Einstein in Huters astrologischer Kalender 1960 [A] Translated by Tad Mann.Albert Einstein . Quoted in Morris Berman: Coming to Our Senses (1989) pp.

Attributed to Chaim Weizmann.html) Einstein on Science and Religion ( The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921 (http://www. arms race ( Einstein was a Scotland (http://www-gap.html) Einstein and Religion (1999) by Max Jammer ( /poc/audio/einstein1. which credits Carl Seelig. a slightly different version appears in David Einstein Papers Project at Caltech (California Institute of Techology) ( Albert Einstein Archive at the University of Jerusalem ( Official Einstein® website (http://www.pupress. Einstein's Universe (1979). Studs Terkel. Know why? Because nobody dares contradict 2008) (http://www.html) Einstein's wife: Mileva Maric ( xix I like quoting / Living Einstein at the Max Planck Institute (http://living-einstein.a comprehensive listing of online resources about Einstein.ram) .org/history/einstein/index.html) Einstein explained his theory to me every FBI files ( but his feet were on the Einstein Timeline ( /Mathematicians/ Albert Einstein Biography from "German-American corner: History and Heritage" (http://www.ram) (From Time magazine archives) Albert Einstein: The World as I see it (http://lib.wikiquote. as quoted in "Voice of America" in The Guardian (1 March 2002) (http://www.html) — Albert Einstein (http://www. Simpson's Contemporary Quotations (6822) credits Nigel Calder.idsia.Albert Einstein .uk/Archive/Article/ and on my arrival I was fully convinced that he understood it.pbs.Wikiquote http://en.nobel. Those of us who are not so tall have to choose! Richard .westegg.html) Official Einstein Archives Online : 3000 documents (http://www. after a long trans-Atlantic journey.html) Einstein's letter to Roosevelt ( as quoted in Collective Electrodynamics : Quantum Foundations of Electromagnetism (2002) by Carver A. His head was in the clouds.pbs.pbs.html) Profile at the University of St Andrews.php) NOVA : Einstein Revealed at PBS (http://www.html) Einstein at the American Museum of Natural History (http://www.00.time. 80–81 External links Einstein at the American Institute of Physics ( Albert Einstein Online (http://www.htm) Einstein family pictures ( Theory of relativity in 4-letter words or shorter (http://www.muppetlabs. Albert Einstein: Why Socialism? ( Audio excerpts of famous speeches: e=mc2 & relativity (http://www.dcs.germanheritage.alberteinstein. Impossibility of atomic energy ( E=mc² /poc/audio/einstein2.einsteinandreligion. pp.amnh.4273.html) Juergen Schmidhuber's Einstein biographical highlights (http://www.fbi.pdf) (PDF document) 36 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM . Albert Einstein: A Documentary Biography (1956).physik.

co. additional terms may apply. 37 of 37 2009/07/12 07:38 PM" Categories: Germans | Americans | Jews | Nobel Prize winners | Cosmologists | Mathematicians | Physicists | Scientists This page was last modified on 3 July 2009.Albert Einstein .uk/science/2008/may/12/peopleinscience.religion) Albert Einstein ( Retrieved from "http://en. See Terms of Use for http://en. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike "Childish superstition: Einstein's letter makes view of religion relatively clear" in The Guardian (13 May 2008) (http://www. at 19:46.

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