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Pocket guide to statistical

analysis techniques for use

with tightening tools

Chapter ..............................................................................Page

1. Introduction.......................................................................4

2. Basic statistics ...................................................................5

2.1 Variation........................................................................5

2.2 Distribution...................................................................6

2.3 Histogram .....................................................................6

2.4 Mean value ...................................................................6

2.5 Standard deviation ........................................................7

2.6 Estimation of a normal distribution .............................9

Sample mean and standard deviation ...............................10

3. Accuracy requirements ..................................................11

3.1 Meanshift and combined scatter.................................11

Example ............................................................................12

4. Understanding processes................................................13

5. Capability ........................................................................14

5.1 Cp................................................................................14

5.2 Cpk..............................................................................15

5.3 When is a process capable? ........................................16

5.4 Machine capability indices.........................................18

5.5 What else is there to think about? ..............................18

6. Control charts .................................................................19

6.1 X-bar charts ................................................................20

6.2 The subgroup ..............................................................21

6.3 Alarms.........................................................................22

6.4 Range charts ...............................................................22

6.5 Control charts conclusion...........................................23

Summary .........................................................................23

Appendix..........................................................................24

A1. Example of statistics calculation ...............................24

A2. Example of capability calculation .............................28

A3. Example of control chart calculation ........................29

A4. Analysis of assembly tool performance –

ISO 5393 Calculation ................................................32

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 3

1. Introduction

and how statistics can be used in production. You will learn

that with the aid of statistics we can compare tools with each

other, we can tell whether a tool is good enough for a speci-

fic application, and by using Statistical Process Control

(SPC) we can see how a production process develops over

time. Our hope is that you, after reading this guide, will have

a general knowledge and understanding of the potential of

using statistics as a tool in production.

4 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S

2. Basic statistics

2.1 Variation

Understanding statistics is much about understanding varia-

tion. Variation is present everywhere, in nature as well as in

industrial processes. In industrial processes, even a slight

deviation from the target value, a dimension for instance,

may have strong influence on the functionality of the finis-

hed product. This means it is important to understand, and

in some cases control, variation.

Figure 1. Variations in air

There are two different kinds of variation. Random varia- pressure and operator

tions are predictable, always present and with many contribu- influence are examples of

ting causes. Examples of random variations are small varia- random variations.

tions in hole diameter, inconsistent friction, operator influen-

ce and variations in air pressure. It is hard to isolate one of

these causes. The variations are tackled by improvement of

the process. Random variations are natural and depend on the

process and its environment. They are also called common

causes.

Systematic variations are sporadic and isolated. They are

not predictable but it is often easy to pinpoint the cause. They

are tackled by controlling the process. Systematic variation

has a determined cause and can often be identified and elimi-

nated. Examples are machine adjustments, wear of tools and

human error. They are also called special causes. Figure 2. Human errors like

missing washers and using

A great deal of importance has been placed on the use of wrong screws are exam-

ples of systematic varia-

statistical analysis techniques to control the quality of the tions.

assembly process. The traditional method of using these tech-

niques is to analyze what has already occurred and when a

problem is identified to adjust the process accordingly. It is

now becoming increasingly common to use statistical techni-

ques to predict how the process will perform in the future

and to identify systematic variations and adjust the process

before we end up with faulty products.

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 5

2.2 Distribution

Consider a tightening process where we measure the torque

applied to a bolt. As you know, we would not achieve the

same readings for all tightenings. Suppose we collect enough

readings to create a plot of the frequency (the number of

times a particular reading occurred) against the actual torque

readings. The result would be a plot similar to the one in

figure 3 below. In statistical analysis this curve is known as a

“distribution”. There are many different types of distribution,

but the one that best describes this example (and others like

it) is called the Normal or Gaussian distribution.

by the mean and the standard deviation. A normal distribu-

tion only occurs when random variations affect the result.

2.3 Histogram

A histogram is when you divide the results into categories

(for example all results between 20 – 21 Nm). Then it is pos-

sible to create a diagram by counting the number of results in

every category and putting them into a diagram. By doing

this it is possible to visualize the distribution with a fairly

limited number of results.

Figure 3. Histogram.

A normal distribution can be found everywhere, both in natu-

re and in industrial processes. If we have a big sample of

measures, i.e. we have made 1000 tightenings with one tool,

we can make a histogram. The more tightenings we have, the

better curve we get. If we were to measure the height of all

Swedish men, we would achieve an average (mean value) of

1.80. The mean value is the most common value in a normal

distribution. There are not that many men that are really tall

or really short. Another example could be when you cut off a

stick. The target value is 20.00 cm and this would probably

also be the mean value. However, some parts become only

19.90 and others 20.10, which is due to the natural variation

Figure 4. Normal of the process and is normal.

distributions can

be found every-

where. The height

of people is one

example. Another

example can be if

you try to cut off

sticks to the same

length.

6 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S

2.5 Standard deviation

If a tool is used for a very large number of tightenings at a

set torque of e.g. 30 Nm, it is unlikely that every single tigh-

tening will reach this torque value exactly. This will be the

case even if the tool is run on the same screw joint, a test

fixture. Random factors, such as material wear and different

handling of the tool may cause the applied torque to exceed

or fall below the intended torque. The readings are said to

deviate from the mean and we measure this with what is

known as standard deviation.

It is not essential to fully understand the formula, which is

presented later. But it is helpful if you know how to calculate

it, and it is crucial that you understand what it is! The stan-

dard deviation is the amount by which each reading is most

likely to deviate from the average.

What is the practical use of standard deviation? We have alre-

ady said that the mean tells us the average value of the distri-

bution (all different tightenings) and standard deviation indi-

cates the scatter. We can use it to estimate how many of our

values will come within a certain range. The standard devia-

tion may be more accurately described as a calculation of

how far a known percentage of the distribution lies from the

mean.

σ is a letter in the Greek alphabet and it is used to symbolize

the deviation from the mean (average) of any distribution.

For a business or manufacturing process, the σ value indica-

tes how well that process is performing. A low σ value indi-

cates that most of the values are close to the target. A high σ

value indicates that the spread is big and that the values devi-

ate more from the target value.

them as shown in the figure. We make the assumption that

they belong to a normal distribution. This is in fact the “area”

within which you will get the next tightening. There is a

100% probability of getting inside the entire range. It is mat-

hematically proven that there is a

• 68% certainty that all data lies between +/– σ

• 95% certainty that all data lies between +/– 2 σ, and

• 99.7% certainty that all data lies between +/– 3 σ.

that the standard deviation is symmetrical around the mean, Figure 5. We always know how

and always covers the same percentage of the distribution. many percent of our values we

This is a mathematical law. will have within a certain range.

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 7

This now brings us to something very useful. Now that we

know the percentage of the values that will end up within a

certain σ boundary, we can predict how the process will

behave in the future. Do you remember the discussion about

random and systematic variation? We said that for a normal

distribution all systematic variations are eliminated and only

random variation is present. We now also know that 99.7% of

all values are within 6σ, (or +/– 3σ). This enables us to make

an important assumption: even though 0.3% of all tightenings

will fall outside the 6σ limits for a normal distribution, we

assume that all tightenings outside these limits happen becau-

se of systematic variations in the process. This means that

something new has entered the process – it is not under con-

trol any more.

tenings within the 6σ limits, the process is only affected by

random variations and is under control. When we have tighte-

nings outside the 6σ limits, the process is affected by syste-

matic variation and is not under control. When this happens,

this means that something new and strange has started to

affect the tightening process and we need to find the reason

for this and eliminate it. The following graphs show a com-

parison of two different normal distributions.

ture shows two curves

with the same avera-

ge, but different devia-

tion. The second pictu-

re shows two curves

with same deviation

but different averages.

8 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S

2.6 Estimation of a normal distribution

When we talk about measurements or readings on an applica-

tion, we can calculate an average and a standard deviation.

If we were to measure an infinite number of tightenings, we

would know for sure that we have the true value of the mean

and the standard deviation. This is the population mean and

the population standard deviation. But in reality this is not

possible and we have to rely on a limited number of tighte-

nings. In statistics we talk about a sample; in the tightening

business we talk about subgroup or a batch. This means that

we cannot really know for sure that our calculations (mean

and standard deviation) are correct, since they are only based

on a limited number of tightenings. In fact, what we have is Figure 7. It is impossi-

an estimate of the real values. The more tightenings we have ble to measure the

entire population. We

on which to base our calculations, the more sure we can be have to rely on a limi-

that we are close to the population mean and standard devia- ted number of values,

tion. a sample or a batch.

lation mean (µ) and the scatter is represented by the popula-

tion standard deviation (σ). The population mean (µ) is cal-

culated by:

n

Σ xi

µ= n i=1

of tightenings (n).

The population standard deviation (σ) is calculated by

Where:

xi is the value of each individual occurrence, the ith

measurement of variable x.

n

Σ xi is the value of all occurrences added together

i=1 (the sum)

i

is the sum of all values of (xi-µ)2

mean, and square this new value. Then we add each new

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 9

value together. We now divide this by the number of tighte-

nings. Finally, we need to take the root of this total value, as

we have (Nm)2 and need Nm, and we get the population stan-

dard deviation. The square and the root only exist because we

want to get rid of the positive and negative deviations from

the mean.

occurrence of the data. In fact, n would then have to be infi-

nite, which of course is impossible. Instead we use a repre-

sentative sample to predict the mean and standard deviation

of the population.

We calculate sample mean ( ) in the same way as for the

population mean (µ):

n

Σ xi

i=1

x= n

The calculation for Sample standard deviation (s) differs

slightly from the population standard deviation (σ):

Where

xi is the value of each individual occurrence

in the sample

n is the total number of occurrences in the

sample

Σ xi is the sum of the values of all occurrences

in the sample

i is the sum of all values of (xi - )2

of the population standard deviation, σ, and is very important

when small sample sizes are used. So remember that we can

never use the total population in our calculations; that is

impossible. We have to use smaller samples and calculate

estimates of the real average and the real standard deviation.

mean (µ).

The sample standard deviation (s) is an estimation of the

population standard deviation (σ).

10 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S T A T I S T I C S

3. Accuracy requirements

ments of the tools. Accuracy requirements are written as a

target torque +/– a maximal acceptable deviation from the

target, for example +/– 10%. The accuracy of a tool is often

calculated as 50% of the natural variation (3σ) divided by the

target value. This makes it possible to compare different tools

at a certain target value, without relating them to a certain

application (tolerances). As you will notice in the next chap-

ter, the accuracy calculations are similar to some capability

calculations (in accuracy calculations we compare the natural

variation to the mean value, in capability calculations we

compare the natural variation to tolerance demands in the

application)!

check that 3s is within 10%, or 100 * 3σ/Ave is less than

10%. Assume that we test the tool and achieve a mean value

of 40 Nm, and a standard deviation of 1.2 Nm. Then we cal-

culate the accuracy: (3*1.2 / 40) = 9%. We now see that the

tool is accurate enough to do the job.

Mean shift is what occurs when you run a tool on both hard

Figure 8. The mean shift is the dif-

and soft joints. You will most probably get two different ference between the mean values

mean values, a higher value for the hard joint, with two diffe- of the hard and the soft joints.

rent distributions. The difference between these two mean

values is the mean shift. We want to find the limits (compa-

rable to the normal distribution) where the probability of get-

ting a torque outside these limits is 99.7% on the hard or soft

joint. This is the combined scatter and corresponds to 6σ on

the normal distribution. Once we have the combined scatter

we can relate this to the combined average. This gives us

something that is often referred to as the “accuracy”.

Accuracy = 100 x 0.5 ((Avehard +3σ hard) – (Avesoft –

3σsoft))/Ave

Where Ave = (Avesoft+Avehard)/2 (the combined average). Figure 9. Combined average and

combined scatter.

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 11

This is normally true, but we cannot know for sure that the

distribution will look like this. We can, for example, have a

negative mean shift. We need to check which of the limits are

the outermost.

Where Deviation = max (Avehard +3σhard, Avesoft +3σsoft)– min

(Avesoft –3σsoft, Avehard –3σhard)

Ave = (Avesoft + Avehard)/2 (the combined average)

Example:

Tests on a hard joint (30 degrees) and a soft joint (800

degrees) produced the following data.

Soft joint: Ave = 60.2 Nm and σ = 1.0 Nm

60.2-3*1.0) = 7.4 Nm

Ave = (61+60.2)/2 = 60.6 Nm

Accuracy = 100*0.5*7.4/60.6 = 6.1%

of:

• Different accuracy on hard, soft and combined applica-

tions.

• Different accuracy if the tool is used high up in the torque

range or in the lower part.

12 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S T A T I S T I C S

4. Understanding processes

ducts or activities, and this is done in many different ways.

But what all organizations have in common is that the way

they work can be described as methods and activities.

A process is simply a structured set of activities designed to

produce a specified output for a particular customer or mar-

ket. It has a beginning, an end, and clearly identified inputs

and outputs. A process is therefore a structure for action, for

how work is done. Within the quality area, the process con-

cept is defined as “a set of activities, which are repeated in

time, for the purpose of creating value for a customer”. As

you now understand, the process approach implies adopting

the customer point of view. Processes also have performance

dimensions, such as cost, time, output quality and customer

satisfaction. Bear in mind that all of these dimensions can be

measured and improved.

activities designed to produce an

output for a customer or a market.

tive process” i.e. it creates value for the person buying the

car. Along the line, the cars are assembled with different

kinds of nutrunners, all with different functionality, perfor-

mance and reliability. In the assembly process there are a lot

of things that affect the outcome of the tightening. The opera-

tors, the screws, the holes and many other things affect the

tightenings. All this contributes to the total process variation

for each application. Remember the discussion about

variation in chapter 1.

The dimensions with which we measure the perfor-

mance of the nutrunners are torque and sometimes

angle. By using statistics, we can analyze the perfor-

mance of the process (tightenings) and we can monitor, con-

trol and improve the assembly process. This means, in the Figure 11. Industrial production is

an operative process. A lot of

long run, more accurate tightenings, better and safer cars and things contribute to the process

better value for the customers. variation.

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 13

5. Capability

accuracy. The accuracy of a tool tells us something about the

performance, but this is not enough. The important aspect for

our customers is how the tool performs in an application, on

the production line. So, somehow we have to relate the accu-

racy of the tool to the application. Every joint has a target

value, but also some tolerance that is acceptable for the cus-

tomer. By relating the mean and the standard deviation to the

target value and the tolerance limits of an application we can

tell how a tool is performing where it really matters, in its

application. This is possible thanks to different capability

indices.

quite simple and some of them more intricate. This pocket

guide deals with the most commonly used ones, the ones our

customers use.

its mean and its standard deviation. We also remember our

assumption that all values, when the process is under control,

are within the 6σ limits, although only 99.7% really are. This

is called the process natural variation.

5.1 Cp

The first, and most commonly used capability index, is called

Cp. The formula for the Cp is:

Cp = Tolerance interval = HI – LO

6σ 6σ

If you look at the formula, you can see that it simply relates

the tolerance interval (HI-LO), to the process natural varia-

tion! If we have a tool with a big spread, and an application

Figure 12. When calculating Cp,

the tolerance interval is related to with very high demands (narrow tolerance limits), we get a

the 6σ. low Cp value. Conversely, if we have a tool with very small

spread (small σ), but very wide tolerance limits, we get a

high Cp. Of course this is what we want, because the smaller

the variation in relation to the tolerance limits, the lower the

risk of tightenings outside the tolerances. The Cp require-

ments vary. The most common is that Cp has to be greater

than 1.33. This indicates that 6 times the standard deviation

covers no more than 75% of the tolerance interval.

14 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S T A T I S T I C S

But is this enough for us to tell if the tool is good or bad for

a specific application? Do we need something more? Yes.

The Cp does not consider whether the mean of the distribu-

tion is close to the target value or not. This index does not

guarantee that the distribution lies in the middle of the tole-

rance interval. In the picture below you can see the same tool

on the same application, but before and after torque adjust-

ment. In both cases we would have the same Cp. If we are off

target, it is possible that the tightenings are outside one of the

tolerance limits, even if the scatter is small in relation to the

tolerance interval (high Cp). So we need something more that

also relates the distribution to the target value.

Figure 13. High Cp does not guarantee that we are close to the target

value.

5.2 Cpk

The Cpk also relates the mean of the distribution to the target

value of the application. The way to do this is to divide the

distribution and the application into two different parts and

make one calculation for each side. The formula looks like

this:

limit and the average to half the natural variation (3σ). Then

we make another calculation, relating the difference between

the average and the lower tolerance limit to 3σ. We now have

two potentially different values, and the LOWER of the two

is the Cpk. If you think this is difficult, just take a few minu- Figure 14. When calculating

tes to think about this. If the average is higher than the target Cpk also the target value is

considered.

value, then the difference between the upper tolerance limit

and the average is smaller than the difference between the

average and the lower tolerance limit. If this is the case, the

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 15

“upper calculation” will give us the Cpk, because we are clo-

ser to the upper tolerance limit.

this case we are as close to the upper tolerance limit as to the

lower, and both calculations will give us the same result.

In this case, we can also see that the Cpk has the same value

as the Cp.

Bad Cp Good

Process not capable Process capable

Change tool or but average needs

Bad adjust for good to be adjusted.

accuracy.

Cpk

Figure 15. The relation bet- Not possible. Process capable

ween Cp and Cpk. Good and well adjusted.

the formulas it is easy to see that Cp only relates the toleran-

ce interval to the process 6σ. Cpk also considers the target

value. We want both Cp and Cpk to be higher than 1.33. If

our average is right on target, the Cp and Cpk are the same.

The more off target we are, the bigger the difference between

Cp and Cpk. Obviously Cpk can never be higher that Cp.

The question of “how good is capable?” has still not been

definitively answered. Since Cp was first used, a Cp value of

1.33 has become the most commonly acceptable criterion as

a lower boundary. The Cpk requirements vary. The most

common is that Cpk has to be greater than 1.33. A process

that has a Cpk lower than 1.00 is never capable.

Cp and the Cpk. If we only use the Cp, we do not know

whether we are on target or not. If we only use the Cpk, we

cannot know whether a good or bad Cpk value is because of

the centering of the process or because of the spread. So we

have to use both. Together they can give us a very good indi-

cation of how well a specific tool is performing in a specific

application. They are also the perfect way to compare diffe-

rent tools.

16 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S T A T I S T I C S

Look at the following dartboards:

The first dartboard shows a poorly centered process, but with Figure 16.

Dartboard 1:

a low spread (high accuracy). In this case the Cp is high and High Cp and low Cpk.

the Cpk low. On the second dartboard, the darts are spread Dartboard 2:

randomly around the bull’s eye, but the spread is quite large Low Cp and low Cpk.

Dartboard 3:

related to the tolerances. Cp is probably not so good, but if High Cp and high Cpk

the “mean value” is on target, the Cpk has the same value as

the Cp. The third dartboard shows a well centered process,

with high accuracy. This means that both the Cp and Cpk are

high; the process is capable.

An example:

A joint should be tightened at 70 Nm ± 10 %. A tool is tested

and we get an average of 71 Nm and a σ of 1.2 Nm.

Cpk = min [ (77-71) / (3*1.2) , (71-63) / (3*1.2) ] =

min [ 1.67, 2.22 ] = 1.67

Both the Cp and Cpk values are greater than 1.33 and the

process is capable and does not need to be adjusted.

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 17

5.4 Machine capability indices

As you now know, Cp and Cpk are process capability indices.

Everything that affects the process affects these indices. But

if we take away all variation affecting the assembly process,

except the variation in the tool itself, we get what are called

Machine Capability indices. This must be done under very

controlled circumstances, preferably in a tool crib. The tests

should be carried out on the same joint and by the same ope-

rator (or even better, place the tool in a fixture in order to get

rid of all the operator influence). The calculations are the

same for Cm as for Cp, and the same for Cmk as for Cpk.

capable. The Cm and Cmk determine whether the machine

(tool) is capable.

When you analyze the capability of a tool, the sample size is

of great importance in order to obtain reliable mean and stan-

dard deviation calculations. A sample size of at least 25 is

strongly recommended.

a tool that always can live up to a Cpk demand of 2.0”, there

are two alternatives:

1. He does not know what he is talking about, because it is

meaningless to talk about capability indices without rela-

ting the tool performance to an application with customer

demands (tolerance limits)!

2. He knows what he is talking about and is trying to make

the tool look better than it really is.

18 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S T A T I S T I C S

6. Control charts

and capability. Now we are going to learn about control

charts. Statistics, tool performance and a production environ-

ment (process variation) are important elements in understan-

ding this.

Process Control. The idea is to repeatedly collect a number of

observations (samples) with a certain interval from the pro-

cess. With help from these observations (measurements) we

want to calculate some kind of quality indicator and plot it in

a diagram. The indicator normally used in the tightening

industry is subgroup mean and/or subgroup range.

variation? If not, do go back and read the section again,

because this is very important. If the plotted quality indicator

is within the 6σ limits, we say that the process is under statis-

tical control, only random variation affects the tightenings.

When we use these limits in control charts, they are called

control limits. We also have an “ideal level”, a target value

marked between the control limits, and of course it should be

the same as our target value in the assembly process. If some

special variation enters the process, it can affect the tighte-

nings in two different ways; it can affect the average of the

tightenings, the spread or both.

• It should be possible to quickly detect systematic changes

in the process, enabling us to find sources of variation.

• It should be easy to use.

• The chance of getting a “false alarm” should be very

small (if we use the 6s limits as control limits, the chance

is 0.3 %).

• It should be possible to know when the change started to

affect the process.

• It should prove that the process has been under control.

• It should be motivating and constantly bring attention to

variations in the process and to quality related issues.

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 19

6.1 X-bar charts

First we introduce a control chart for controlling the average

level of a certain unit. It can be the diameter of a bolt, or the

torque applied to a joint. It is called -chart, and when using

it we plot the average of the observations (measurements)

into the diagram. At pre-defined intervals we collect a num-

ber of measurements, a subgroup, from the process. We then

calculate the mean for each subgroup and use this value as

our quality indicator.

a normal distribution. We know that the mean and the stan-

dard deviation help us to do that. We also know that all pro-

cesses vary over time, due to different kinds of variation, i.e.

material differences, operator influence etc. The 6σ limit

LO makes it possible to tell whether the process variation is due

to random or special causes, so the control limits are normal-

ly based on the 6σ limits, the natural variation of the process.

The procedure for plotting these charts is straightforward, the

relevant variable (in our case torque or angle) is measured at

regular intervals (maybe once every hour or once a day), and

typically a group of 5 consecutive readings are taken each

time.

When the control limits are set, the -values from each

group of readings can be plotted on the charts. When the

Figure 17. We collect a num-

assembly process is under control (only random variation

ber of measurements, a affects the tightenings), the subgroup averages will spread

subgroup from the process, randomly around the overall mean ( ).

and plot the averages into

the diagram.

20 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S T A T I S T I C S

6.2 The subgroup

Assume that the quality variable (in our case the tightenings)

we want to control has the average µ and standard deviation

σ when the process is under control. Remember that our qua-

lity indicator is the subgroup mean, . Ideally the individual

measurements and the subgroup averages have the same

mean value (see picture). But we can also see that the spread

between the individual measurements (σ) is bigger than bet-

ween the subgroup averages, which in fact is σ/√n, where n

is the number of measurements in each subgroup. So the

chance of detecting a deviation from µ is greater when we Figure 18. The spread between

study subgroups instead of individual measurements. So, in individual measurements is

fact, the control limits are normally set to (the subgroup 6σ- bigger than between subgroup

averages.

limits):

UCL = µ + 3σ/√n

Estimated by:

LCL = µ – 3σ/√n

But how big does the subgroup need to be? If you look at the

picture below you see that as we increase the size of the sub-

groups (n), the standard deviation does not decrease so much

when we go over 4 or 5. This explains why 4, 5 or 6 are very

common choices of subgroup sizes. Historically, a subgroup

of 5 is a very common choice.

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 21

6.3 Alarms

Now to the good stuff; what happens if something non-ran-

dom starts affecting the tightenings? What if the quality of

the screws suddenly deteriorates? Well, maybe it will affect

the mean of the subgroups. Maybe it will affect the spread

within the subgroups. Maybe the torque applied to the joints

will slowly decrease. All this can now be detected. The beau-

ty of control charts is that the quality engineer, or quite often

the operator, can pick up potential problems at an early stage

before we get tightenings outside the tolerances, before faul-

ty assemblies are made.

started to affect the process is when we get values outside the

control limits. This is an ALARM and we have to find out

what has happened immediately, before we get tightenings

outside the tolerance limits!

In the figure to the left you can see what a control chart

CAN look like when special variation starts affecting the

assembly process. The first two cases show “trend alarms”.

Production can continue during investigation. The fourth case

is when the overall mean ( ) starts to deviate from the target

Figure 20. Examples of value. We have to find out why this has happened, but maybe

what control charts can look an adjustment of the tool is enough; this depends on the rea-

like when systematic varia-

tion has entered the pro- son for the change.

cess.

6.4 Range charts

To control the spread in the process we can use either the

standard deviation or the range within the subgroups. The

range (R) is the difference between the biggest and the smal-

lest value of each subgroup. The standard deviation is of

course based on all values within the subgroup, whereas the

range is only based on two. This means that the s-chart is

more reliable and gives us more information about the spre-

ad. However, the range is easier to calculate and even though

we now have very good tools, which calculate everything for

us, the R-chart is still the most popular chart to use.

22 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S T A T I S T I C S

The Range R helps us to estimate the spread of the subgroup.

This can be done with the aid of different devisors, which

can be found in manuals for statistical process control. If you

want the centerline to be , the control limits for the control

chart will be:

UCL = D4*

LCL = D3*

develops. It makes it possible to detect when a systematic

change in the process affects the subgroup spread.

The control limits should be based on a large and reliable

number of tightenings and they should be re-calculated, using

the actual production results, at regular intervals in order to

obtain reliable charts.

This chapter is only intended as an introduction to Process

Control charts and does not cover all aspects of these charts.

Summary

This guide explains the basics of statistics such as the distri-

bution, mean value and standard deviation. It also describes

how this can be related to an application by capability calcu-

lations. The process can be monitored and controlled by

using SPC, and this is also described and explained.

This pocket guide does not explain all aspects of and the

potential of statistics. This is an introduction to the subject,

and if there is a need for further studies we recommend you

refer to specialist literature.

to help customers utilise the potential of statistics in produc-

tion are not explained in this guide. If you need to discuss

Atlas Copco’s product range, please contact your local Atlas

Copco sales representative.

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 23

Appendix

The following example will help you to understand the basics

of statistics. In this example we compare the torque levels of

two different tools. You then might obtain the torque values

shown below. Target torque is 10.

10 10

10.1 11

10.2 9

9.7 8

10.0 12

10.2 10

10.1 9

9.7 12

9.8 8

10.2 11

this, we first calculate the mean value of the two series. The

mean value gives us an average of all values received from

the different tightenings and we use the symbol . The mean

value is calculated by adding all tightening data, x, and divi-

ding by the number of tightenings, n.

n

Σ xi

i=1

x= n

Mean value,

Atlas Copco Tool Other tool

10 10

24 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S T A T I S T I C S

Both tools have a mean value of 10. If one tool were to have

a mean value of 15, we would know that that tool is not as

good as the one hitting the target torque. Do both tools have

the same accuracy? Accuracy tells us how accurate a tool is,

i.e. how well it hits the target. It is the degree to which an

indicated value matches the actual value of a measured varia-

ble.

How do we now see the difference? Let us look at the range

of the values of the two tools. The range, R, tells us between

which values we have received our tightenings, and is calcu-

lated as the difference between the highest and the lowest

value in the range.

R = xmax – xmin.

Range, R

Atlas Copco Tool Other tool

0.5 4

With the Atlas Copco tool, our tightening values differ by 0.5

Nm between highest and lowest value; while the other tool

has a deviation of 4 Nm. But if you perform 1000 tightenings

with the Atlas Copco tool and get one value totally out of the

range, e.g. 5, you get a range for the Atlas Copco tool of 5.5.

Then the Atlas Copco tool becomes the bad one. We have to

find a function to remove the influence of that one tighte-

ning.

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 25

The standard deviation is a statistical index of variability,

which describes the deviation and tells us the average diffe-

rence between the value of a specific variable and some desi-

red value, usually a process set point. Let us calculate the

deviation for each value received and sum them up.

Torque xi - Torque xi -

10 0 10 0

10.1 0.1 11 1

10.2 0.2 9 -1

9.7 -0.3 8 -2

10.0 0 12 2

10.2 0.2 10 0

10.1 0.1 9 -1

9.7 -0.3 12 2

9.8 -0.2 8 -2

10.2 0.2 11 1

=10

=0 =10 =0

in this case? We have both positive and negative values. We

need to take away the minus, to get the absolute values of

each deviation. To mathematically take away the minus, we

can square each value.

26 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S T A T I S T I C S

Atlas Copco Tool Other tool

σ xi - (xi - ) 2

σ xi - (xi - )2

10 0 0 10 0 0

10.1 0.1 0.01 11 1 1

10.2 0.2 0.04 9 -1 1

9.7 -0.3 0.09 8 -2 4

10.0 0 0 12 2 4

10.2 0.2 0.04 10 0 0

10.1 0.1 0.01 9 -1 1

9.7 -0.3 0.09 12 2 4

9.8 -0.2 0.04 8 -2 4

10.2 0.2 0.04 11 1 1

=10 (xi – )=0 (xi– )2= 0.036 =10 (xi – )=0 (xi– )2=2

does this value tell us? It tells us something about deviation.

This value depends on the number of tightenings. What we

do is to divide this value by the number of tightenings –1 to

get an average. We have to take the square root of this sum to

get the value back to Nm.

0.2 1.4

deviation. Standard deviation is a way of measuring how well

the tool performs, how close we are to the expected value.

Now we can see a clear difference. The Atlas Copco tool has

a standard deviation of 0.2 Nm from the target; while the

other tool has a standard deviation of 1.4 Nm.

So what this example tells us is that although both tools have

the same mean value, the first tool is more accurate. The

different tightenings are closer to the target value and the

standard deviation is a way for us to prove this.

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 27

A2. Example of capability calculation

We know that the capability of a tool is how the tool is per-

forming in a specific application. So what we do when calcu-

lating capability indices is to relate the tool accuracy (mean

value and standard deviation) to the demands on the applica-

tion (target value and tolerance limits).

15 Nm, and tolerances +/– 8%. This means that the upper

tolerance limit is 16.2 Nm and the lower limit is 13.8 Nm.

We have collected 20 tightening results from one tool, on the

production line:

15.4

15.6

15.4

15.1

15.1

15.5

15.0

15.3

15.2

15.1

15.5

15.3

15.4

15.3

15.3

15.1

15.2

15.4

15.1

15.2

28 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S T A T I S T I C S

It is now easy to calculate the mean value and standard devi-

ation:

n

Σ xi

x= i=1n

min [(16.2-15.275)/3*0.165 , (15.275-13.8/3*0.165] =

min [1.87 , 2.98] = 1.87

Both the Cp and Cpk values are greater than 1.33 and the

process is capable and does not necessarily need to be adjus-

ted, even though the average is slightly off target.

Now we want to create a control chart from the same tighte-

nings, as in the previous example. Let us assume that we are

starting up a production process after it has been stopped for

some time. Then we do not really know the mean value µ and

the standard deviation σ. In order to calculate the control

limits for the control chart, the calculations must be based on

a reliable number of tightenings. A good rule of thumb is to

collect at least 20-25 subgroups before calculating the control

limits for a control chart. The reason for this is that at least

20 subgroups are needed for us to be able to say whether the

process is under control or not. However, in this example we

have simplified things and collected only 4 subgroups.

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 29

Let us assume that we have collected these results on 4 diffe-

rent occasions. We have set the subgroup size to 5, so we

have collected 5 results on each occasion:

Day 1 15.4

15.6

15.4

15.1

15.1

Day 2 15.5

15.0

15.3

15.2

15.1

Day 3 15.5

15.3

15.4

15.3

15.3

Day 4 15.1

15.2

15.4

15.1

15.2

30 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S T A T I S T I C S

The first thing we do is to calculate the average for every

subgroup:

= 15.32

= 15.22

= 15.36

= 15.2

value is the same as the overall average value. It is easy to

calculate the overall average ( ) = 15.275. We know from

before that the control limits are based on the natural varia-

tion between the average values of the subgroups.

LCL = – 3s / √n = 15.275 – (3*0.165 / √5) = 15.275 – 0.22 = 15.05

average as centerline and also mark the control limits in the

chart. Now we can plot the subgroup averages in the chart.

As we can see they are all within the control limits and the

production is under control (even though the individual tigh-

tening values are outside the limits. Remember that the limits

are based on the variation between the subgroup averages,

not the individual tightenings.

the chart every day. As long the plotted values are spread ran-

domly round the centerline, the process is under control. Figure 21. The process is

under control when the

subgroup averages spread

randomly around the ove-

rall mean.

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 31

A4. Analysis of assembly tool performance –

ISO 5393 Calculation

To allow us to assess the performance of different tools and

to compare one tool with another, there is an international

standard (ISO 5393), which sets out a basic test procedure

and analysis of results. Based on this, many motor vehicle

manufacturers have developed their own certification stan-

dards.

As an example we will assume we have tested a tool accor-

ding to the procedure stated in ISO 5393.

On a hard joint with the tool set at the highest torque setting

the following results were obtained (in Nm).

31.5 33.2 32.6 33.7 31.4 32.5 33.1 31.2 33.5 32.6 33.1

31.0 32.3 33.2 32.4 31.5 33.5 33.3 31.5 32.6 31.3 33.7

33.0 31.8 33.0

tightening accuracy as described in ISO 5393.

For the data on the hard joint at the highest torque setting.

Mean torque ( )

= (31.5 +33.2 + 32.6 + 33.7 + ....+ 33.0) / 25

= 32.5 Nm

Range

= 33.7 - 31.0

= 2.7 Nm

= 0.863 Nm

6 x 0.863 = 5.18 Nm

= (5.18 / 32.5) x 100

= 15.93 %

32 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S T A T I S T I C S

Now let us assume that for the same tool we calculated the

following values for the data collected at the other torque

settings and joint conditions described in ISO 5393.

For the higher torque setting on the soft joint

A mean of 31.95 and a standard deviation of 0.795.

For the lower torque setting on the hard joint

A mean of 23.72 and a standard deviation of 0.892.

For the lower torque setting on the soft joint

A mean of 22.87 and a standard deviation of 0.801.

the higher torque setting

a= Mean hard joint +3S hard joint

b= Mean soft joint +3S soft joint

c= Mean hard joint – 3S hard joint

d= Mean soft joint – 3S soft joint

b= 31.95 + (3 x 0.795) = 34.34

c= 32.50 – (3 x 0.863) = 29.91

d= 31.95 – (3 x 0.795) = 29.56

(35.09 + 29.56) / 2 = 32.33 Nm

Mean shift

32.5 – 31.95 = 0.55 Nm

35.09 – 29.56 = 5.53 Nm

(5.53 / 32.33) x 100 = 17.1 %

a= Mean hard joint + 3s hard joint

b= Mean soft joint + 3s soft joint

c= Mean hard joint – 3s hard joint

d= Mean soft joint – 3s soft joint

b= 22.87 + (3 x 0.801) = 25.27

c= 23.72 – (3 x 0.892) = 21.04

d= 22.87 – (3 x 0.801) = 20.47

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 33

Combined mean torque

(26.40 + 20.47) / 2 = 23.44 Nm

Mean shift

23.72 -22.875 = 0.85 Nm

26.40 – 20.47 = 5.93 Nm

(5.93 / 23.44) x 100 = 25.3 %

as the greatest torque scatter was at the lower torque setting.

to within ± 13 % of its pre-set torque value. (i.e. 99.7 % of

results will fall within ± 3s of the mean).

34 P O C K E T G U I D E T O S T A T I S T I C S

Atlas Copco Pocket Guides

P O C K E T G U I D E T O S TAT I S T I C S 35

www.atlascopco.com

9833 8637 01 Recyclable paper. Jetlag 2003:1. Printed in Sweden

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