HOW TO OPEN AND OPERATE A PHOTOGRAPHY BUSINESS

by James Vail

Copyright © 1997 by James Vail All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced except as may be expressly permitted by the Copyright Act or by the publisher. Cover and text illustrations by Laurel Vail Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Vail, James How to open and operate a photography business / James Vail p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN xxx 1. Photography--Business methods. I. Title Manufactured in the United States of America First Edition/First Printing

This book is intended to provide information on the topics covered that is accurate and useful. Neither the author nor the publisher is engaged in rendering legal, financial, accounting, and other professional services nor do they assume any liability resulting from this information. Reference or mention of any company does not constitute an endorsement.

INTRODUCTION Of the spectrum of small businesses available that can be built up from nearly nothing, photography stands out from the rest. Most photographers started out with equipment already on hand with operations out of their homes. They love their craft and their business fulfills their dreams. A day at work is a day of creation not just making a living. However, the field is very crowded and only the good survive. Good means skilled in photography and also skilled in business. This book is written to fill in the knowledge gap on the business of photography. It is not about how to photograph. If you don't know that already, don't even consider starting a photography business. The business side of the trade can, and may have to be, learned quite quickly. Hopefully this book contains all the basic information you will need until experience finishes your education.

CONTENTS
RUNNING YOUR OWN BUSINESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Are You Really Ready for a Business ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pros and Cons of Running Your Own Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Business Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHOICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assignment photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stock photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advertising photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corporate photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editorial photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specializations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . News photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Portrait photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wedding photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fashion photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . School photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Actor and model portfolios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Travel photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nature and wildlife photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Real estate photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Catalog photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specialized Subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Art Portfolio Photography, Copying and Reproductions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Where Do You Fit In? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BUSINESS STRUCTURE, AND STARTUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choice of Business Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sole Proprietorship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partnership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How to Register Your Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steps to Incorporating a Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RECORD KEEPING AND ACCOUNTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purpose of Keeping Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TAXES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Federal Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cash vs Accrual Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Capitalization Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Business Loss vs Hobby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vehicle Expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Depreciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Start Up Expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Office in the Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 2 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 15 16 17 17 17 18 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 33 33 33 35 35

. . . . . . . . . . . . Economic Development Commission (EDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Licensing the Use of Your Photographs . COPYRIGHT BASICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wire Services and News Syndicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Independent Contractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Estimated Tax Payments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pricing Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Self Employment Tax (SECA) . . . . . Additional Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MARKETING YOUR PHOTOGRAPHY BUSINESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editorial Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consumer and Commercial Finance Companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Debt Financing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FINANCING START-UP AND GROWTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your Own Mini-Agency . . U. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work for Hire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filing Dates for Tax Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temporary Personnel Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Employee Leasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retail Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Books and Periodicals for Marketing . . . . . . . . . . . Entertainment and Gifts . . . . . . . . . . . News Syndicates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Small Business Investment Companies (SBIC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Books . . Small Business Administration (SBA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRICING FOR PROFIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Galleries . . . . Personal Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advertising Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial Photography . . . DEALING WITH EMPLOYEES . . Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State Financing Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Agents: Stock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Friends and Relatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Publicity and Promotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assignment Representatives (Reps) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Galleries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 35 35 35 36 37 40 40 41 42 42 43 43 43 43 48 48 48 48 49 49 52 52 53 53 54 54 59 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 74 75 FORMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professional Organizations and Associations . . . . . . . . . Stock Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Corporate Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permanent Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

your direction should be goal-oriented. proceed no further. How. both personal and financial. why and how. A business plan goes a long way towards answering these questions. Why. Whether its a part time extension of your hobby or a full time commitment of your life and resources. their life. you had better be like them. Photography is an odd sort of profession.RUNNING YOUR OWN BUSINESS Are You Really Ready for a Business ? Starting a business is a personal act. do you have entrepreneurial skills? Listed below are personal traits that have been shown to be key characteristics for entrepreneurial success. Poor quality work will kill a business faster than any other cause. is made up of your skills and resources. They genuinely love their work. Yet they thrive in this competitive environment because it is their passion. Taking what conveniently happens along is a formula for dissatisfaction with your business further down the road. is rooted in your goals. Goal oriented Ability to be self-starting Commitment Decision-making ability Problem-solving ability Ability to deal with stress Ability to network and use feedback Integrity Ability to analyze opportunities Self-awareness Ability to deal with frustration Ability to deal with problems and failure 2 . it requires skills but no formal education. Before you do anything. Most are small businesses in a trade that anyone can get into. at least put together the information needed for a business plan. The list can be used to reveal what skills you possess and what weaknesses for which you need to compensate. Running a business is hard enough without a star to steer by. Only you can determine if the situation is right. Photography aside. Are you skilled and experienced enough to produce a professional quality photographic product demanded by the marketplace? If not. Most of its practitioners started out as hobbyists even if they were formally trained. If you want to compete with them. In addition to a plan. you need a hard. objective look in the mirror. There are really only two basic considerations.

2. Of course this freedom must be balanced with your responsibility to the business. Disadvantages You risk losing every thing you put in: If you fail. skill. The Business Plan A business plan can range from ideas in your head to a formal report that becomes an important business document. Some of them would lead you into elaborate and detailed plans but for a small business startup the plan should only be a few pages. money. The plan provides two major functions: 1. and marketing. 3 . In addition. This even includes family and friends but it really applies to financial institutions. There is a much higher ceiling to your earnings: The fixed pay scale of a job is now only limited by your skill and talent. The outline on the next page provides an adequate framework for a business plan. You have freedom to be creative and do the things you want to do. Stress can become a constant companion: Any problems at work become your problems. taxes. you risk losing your investment of time. personnel management. As a studio owner you must be knowledgeable in photography. Many books have been devoted to writing business plans. its your business and your the one to deal with them. You set your hours: You can adjust your work hours to when and as long as you want. It is your roadmap to your goals and it can show you if the path your taking is possible or doomed before you start out. You wear many hats: If your a photographer employee.Pros and Cons of Running Your Own Business Advantages You are in charge: You are in control of your life. No one will consider any type of financing for your business without some kind of a plan on your part. finance. You also take the business around in your head the rest of the time. and sacrifices. Working long hours can become the norm: 60 hours a week is not unusual. You can build a dream from scratch: Achieving your goal can fulfill your life. If it can't be made to work on paper it's unlikely you will make it work in practice. use your plan as a yardstick to establish objectives and the schedule to attain them. all you need to know is photography. You can do something you like: Nearly every professional photographer still has photography as a hobby.

if necessary Provide a short resume 3. income. Financial information A cash flow. from whom? 7. sole proprietorship. Personnel Staff needed now. Suppliers Who are they? What do they supply? Will your suppliers give you credit? Will you be leasing equipment. and expenses projection A balance sheet to reflect the availability of funds The cost of equipment and other major supplies required 4 . including their addresses. phone numbers and social security number Business structure. Business description Address of business Phone number of business Names of participants in the business.. partnership. Purpose State your business objectives Estimate start-up funds required and their source Repayment plan. Competition Who is your competition? What more will you offer your customers? 9. or corporation) Required permits or licenses Banker and insurance agent 2. Market Identify your customers Potential market growth Planned advertising and promotion Does your business fill a niche? 8. Management Operator of the business Your schedule of expected income and owner drawings 4. Location Why your location was selected Location benefits to your business Disadvantages of your location 5. and in the future Staff training plan Pay and incentives policy 6.g.Business Plan 1. (e.

most stock photographs are shot as stock photographs and not just assignment leftovers. advertising. An assigned shoot for these publications would cost a prohibitive amount. advertising. There are a few rules if you want to stay competitive: The greater number of images you present. It ranges from local sports coverage on a freelance basis to the major studio with daily fees in the thousands. Stock photography Stock photography is the creation of a collection of photographs in the hope that a stock agency can broker a market for them. To find where you fit in. Professional photography breaks down into two business types: photography commissioned by a customer. books. known as assignment photography and photography that is shot on speculation. Assignment photography Assignment photography is the major way of doing business today. Today. Most of the stock photographs carried by stock agencies are leftovers from photographs taken on assignment. all the major branches of the profession should be reviewed. and a hefty advance can minimize losses. and most work for others. Assignment photography includes portraits. known as stock photography. supply has become much larger than demand. sports. Unlike assignment photography. The lack of any significant financial risk is the big attraction of assignment photography. Its a win-win situation. The publishers get an affordable supply of photographs on almost any subject and the photographers profit from images that would otherwise have died in their files. magazine articles. Somewhere out there is a niche for you. Obviously being on location for an assignment is still a valuable opportunity that should not be passed up for stock oriented shooting. The down side is. The market is quite large: brochures. Thousands of photo markets fall in between. etc. the more likely a match to a 5 . This has resulted in a improvement in quality of images brought on by competition. weddings. A contract is signed before work begins.CHOICES The photographic career field is immense. Nearly all photographers will work on assignment their entire lives. school photography. calendars. stock photography is an open marketplace.

Most of these photographers have large portfolios extending over many years.customer's needs. scenics. There is no guarantee of any sales. If you are starting out with stock shooting expeditions on your own. But. had. By building a stock portfolio as a sideline while pursuing an assignment career is a much less risky direction to follow. insects. artistic and abstract photography Familiar places (landscapes. you have to open a lot of oysters to find a pearl. Photographers have reaped thousands of dollars from the multiple sale of a single photograph. They can be made unusual by carefully selecting location. or want to be Occupation(s) your friends and family have to which you can get access Sometimes a stock photograph will sell and sell again. The market is looking for all subjects not just the ones you think would be popular. composition. Weak or Crowded Market Areas: Natural pictures (birds. plants. popular travel spots. monuments. reading and activities) Local large cities and points of local interest Occupation(s) you have. Your stock file needs to be fresh images that will not get dated quickly The photographs must be unique from the competition. landmarks and historic sites) Strong Market Areas: Your personal interests outside of photography (hobbies. 6 . the up front expenses may devour you. Finding your niche in the market is probably the most influential factor in selling your stock. and subject matter. wildflowers and cute animals) Major pro sports Silhouettes Experimental.

If you prefer working with individuals to dealing with ad agencies. In fact. It seems to combine the freedom and glamour of photojournalism and art. Retail photography Retail photography is the next step down from corporate photography with regard to fees. wedding. Even newcomers can get more than a thousand dollars a day from smaller agencies if they have enough skill and imagination. and corporate news events. executive portraits.Markets The customers buying either stock or assignment photography can be sorted into four markets: Advertising. public relations material. Often you can start out only shooting on location until operating out of a studio is possible. and the media. and school photography. Editorial photography Editorial photography has a powerful lure to photographers just starting out. Editorial. However. It includes portrait. But that is not really the case. go for it. Corporate. Corporate photography includes annual report illustrations. The editors that buy the images get to make the call on what is used and how it is used. Look over a copy of the magazine Photo District News (PDN) to see the type of work that will be demanded of you. Some of the best photographers in this field can make over $10. corporate photography is the next step down from advertising photography. this may be your niche. Much of the work is on location in difficult lighting situations so you better have all your studio skills and then some. pet. selling professional photographic services to the public is the primary activity of the photographic trade. Advertising photography Advertising photography is where the money is. companies. and Retail. It is a major supplier of the lucrative multibillion dollar advertising industry. the volume of business can often more than make up the difference. Corporate photography As far as money goes. If you have a great portfolio or reputation for the type of work that these agencies are using. Stock photographs have taken over much of the market especially in the lower circulation magazines and textbook publishing but assignment photography is still alive 7 .000-a-day.

Published credits. An added benefit is the business experience gained in negotiating these assignments. Frequently executives and celebrities require portrait photography. Portrait photography The typical retail photographer is doing portrait photography. Editorial work is not hard to get from specialty magazines if low budget assignments are acceptable. Those jobs still exist here and there. As skill improves and you get better known you can grow into a regional or national career. and collegiate events. we can see how each specialty relates to each market. This latter group of professionals need portraits in their business. For nearly everyone in editorial photography. and can provide a good starting place for 8 . tear sheets. All you really need is ordinary 35mm equipment but autofocus lenses help out a lot. News photography The heyday of news photography with dozens of photographers on the staffs of newspapers and weekly magazines is long gone. There is no law saying you can't be in more than one specialty. but most work is assigned to wire service or news agency freelancers. Specializations Now that we have examined the markets. Fees are dismal. but its a start. Many specialties are tied to several markets that allow a much broader customer base. Personal or family subjects can provide a good customer base. Low pay and unsteady work is the norm.and well at the big general interest magazines. Determine what you want to pursue and make a plan. but there is also a portrait market in the corporate and editorial fields. Even the top performers in this field could do much better financially if they were in advertising. A comfortable living can be made at editorial photography alone if you are at the top of the profession but most photographers do it as a part time sideline. Portraiture can be a full time or part time practice. or a cover credit in your portfolio can be valuable enough to the newcomer to justify the poor rates. high school. Sport photography The photographers shooting for Sports illustrated have been at it for a long time. 35mm equipment is all you will need for news photography. it is a labor of love. so you better love constant hustle and two o'clock deadlines. Photographing sports as a sideline gives the photographer just starting out opportunities for local papers covering community.

A big school can require hundreds of photographs. A studio is a must unless location portraiture is chosen as a specialty. With typical advance planning of several months. team and club group shots. Such large sums are routinely spent on weddings that an extensive wedding photography package can be justified. Fashion is usually thought of as an advertising market but there is a sizable editorial market too. The packages that are offered tend to consist of candids of the event along with optional portraits often taken at the studio. the photographer's schedule and income become more predictable. Wedding photography Wedding photography is a major segment of retail work. Most wedding photographers use medium. Many publications will assign portrait shots even if publicity shots are already available. you should consider portrait photography as part of your product line. your work can be exposed to the sort of people that use photographers on a commercial basis. Breaking in at the large fashion magazine level may seem impossible but newspaper ad and catalog jobs are quite available to a capable photographer starting out. You had better have a studio with medium-format or larger equipment for this work. Many wedding photographers offer wedding videos.part time portrait photography. Having a studio or at least portable lighting and backdrops is almost a necessity. Keep in mind the editorial market often requires portrait shots. Actor and model portfolios Actors and models both need photographic portfolios. The fees are low but the experience is super. Also. and more. A good bookkeeping system or cameras that log every shot are a big help. especially for the beginning photographer. 9 . Medium. Fashion photography Fashion photography is glamour. If you find yourself shooting people with quality results. yearbook pictures. It pays well if you are good enough to compete with the best.and large-format equipment is the rule for portraiture. School photography Schools have wide photographic opportunities for the retail market: portraits. with some location shots in 35mm.and large-format equipment.

Editorial work calls for 35mm equipment.or even large-format equipment. Real estate photography Real estate photography serves the needs of the real estate industry. Catalog photography Catalog work can be boring and demanding. Shooting candids of people is often not an easy task. 35mm or medium format equipment is used in editorial travel photography. The demand for travel photographs is fairly steady. The demanding aspect of catalog work is the very precise dimensions and layout requirements. One great advantage to this field is the ability to shoot several assignments on the same trip. Often. The boring aspect comes from photographing products for marketing 10 . travel photography is your field. while artistic work such as calendars use medium. the catalog has to be updated and issued monthly. Advertising or editorial photography promoting travel are both considered travel photography. Nature and wildlife photography There is a large editorial.Travel photography If you dream of far away places. The demand for catalog photography is increasing as mail-order marketing expands. Making a living from nature and wildlife photography is nearly impossible initially. a photographer can gain experience and build a reputation good enough to make a living at it. so it will take special "people" skills to photograph them. Few photographers make a living from this narrow field alone. but with years of determined effort. Shooting places without people in them is scenic or postcard photography not travel photography. Many cultures worldwide will resist having their image captured on film. People bring places and cultures alive and creates an experience for the viewer. Equipment can be 35mm or medium-format. but you can make a living at it. Most of the work involves brochures published about expensive properties. but it can be a profitable item in a line of services. For this reason it has become a sideline field rather than a full time pursuit. Advertising may require large-format equipment. stock shot. but competition from local photographers and stock agencies has increasingly cut the supply of assignments to a much smaller piece of the pie. and advertising market for natural subjects.

but you must earn a living too. the photo booth can be an perfect sideline opportunity. For the photographer such work is useful as a secondary source of income. photography should be fun. Art Portfolio Photography. Because most events are held on weekends. 11 . motorcycles. It is an ideal sideline for the retail photographer. old cars. Keep in mind. specialized magazines need the same type of photos. In addition. Where Do You Fit In? The choices are almost too wide. Specialized Subjects These are specialized subjects for photographers that enjoy pets. Beyond owners and breeders. or boats and photography. Some photographers specialize in these subjects and go to shows and gatherings. these subjects are common place in advertising. But it is steady repeat business with good experience.qualities rather than your artistic desires. Copying and Reproductions Artists need photographs of their work for presentation purposes and photographers need copying for archiving and restoration. You will probably end up as a combination of these specialties that will make you unique.

If this sounds a lot like a marriage. Procedures for withdrawal of a partner must also be described in the agreement or else the legal tangle can equal a divorce. hire. 12 . All partners own the total business. Sole Proprietorship The one person owner business is a sole proprietorship. On the plus side. This means each partner can make decisions. You are taxed on the income of the business regardless of whether you withdrew a larger or a smaller amount for your own use. 3. signed partnership agreement is recomended and it should specify: 1. Partnership A partnership is similar to a sole proprietorship except it is owned by two or more people joined by a partnership agreement that can range from a handshake to a detailed legal document. How the profits and losses will be divided. you may have sole control but you also have sole responsibility. are by default. financial resources. Debts. a sole proprietor. but a sizable fraction still choose the other two options. You get to make all the decisions and the profits are all yours and taxed like personal income. taxes and obligations can be extracted from the owner as if they were personal liabilities. the operation need not be any more complex than a sole proprietorship. a partnership can often bring together the skill. remove cash and borrow money without even consulting the other partners who are all responsible for any liabilities incurred. What are the business goals. lawsuits. What each partner contributes. 2. misunderstandings are less likely but the liability is still there. A written. If your not a partnership or a corporation you. Everyone is a sole proprietor right now. Starting and ending the business is a snap. labor sharing and management ability that is needed to start a business at all.BUSINESS STRUCTURE. On the other hand. its because it is. assets and debts. If a partnership agreement is carefully written. Federal laws do not require partners to make equal contributions or even make them at the same time. AND STARTUP Choice of Business Structure All businesses must be one of three possible legal structures: Sole proprietorship Partnership (general or limited) Corporation (regular 'C' type or close 'S' type) Most start out as sole proprietorships. Many laws that benefit your employees don't apply to you personally. fire. In addition.

the liabilities of the corporation do not extend to stockholders beyond their original investments (unless there is negligence by its officers).4. Partners are not employees and can only draw a "guaranteed payment". Il 60606-1719 or J. you should look into forming an S corporation instead. Some good books that covers startup and operation of a corporation and also comes with fill-in-the-blanks software are: The Corporate Forms Kit by Ted Nicholas. 6.95 from: Upstart 155 North Wacker Drive Chicago. Defining the limits of financial and legal powers of each partner. Provisions for the death of a partner or if a partner wants out. 5. Another possibility is the limited partnership involving one general partner that runs the business and one or more limited partners that only invest money without further liability. Special tax laws apply and state or county registration is usually required. K. but it does protect the owners without resorting to a detailed partnership agreement. $19. It can be bought and sold by simply marketing its shares. If you are considering a partnership. Books are available at most large bookstores or libraries that can walk you through the incorporation process. The reason corporations aren't more popular are complicated set-up. Unlike its proprietorship or partnership cousins. The regulation consists mainly of record keeping and documenting meetings and decisions. Partnerships must file a form 1065 "partnership income tax return" even though a partnership itself pays no taxes. extensive regulation and double taxation. The set-up isn't as bad as most people think. Self-employment tax that includes social security and Medicare tax is also the responsibility of each partner. Corporation A corporation is a business organization that exists as a legal entity separate from its owners. or share in the profits of the partnership or both. It is more complex to run.95 13 . Profits and guaranteed payments are personally taxable to each partner. It can have a single owner and a single share of stock or hundreds of stockholders. How and when withdrawal of funds and payments of profits are made. Lasser's Legal and Corporate Forms for the Smaller Business Macmillan $34.

source: Your city or county clerk State. It should be noted that family members even if paid a salary are not necessarily employees. "Tax Information on S Corporations." (if applicable) Labor laws and immigration requirements . S corporations have the advantage of no corporate tax and the ability to pass losses to its owners so they can apply them to their personal income taxes.source: Internal Revenue Service Publications #334 "Tax Guide For Small Business. and sales taxes .source: Your state's Department of Consumer Affairs.Double taxation by means of corporate tax on profits and income tax on stock dividends has a work-around for the smaller corporation that can treat its stockholders as employees and pay out salaries instead of dividends." Otherwise the IRS will send you payroll forms." #15 "Circular E.source: Your state's Department of Revenue Federal taxes and other mandatory employment deductions . usually it is under the Attorney General's Office A partnership must obtain a federal identification number by submitting Form SS-2. mark the form "FOR IDENTIFICATION ONLY." If there are to be no employees. not the federal government. gather information on the following topics: Licenses. Steps to Incorporating a Business Corporations are licensed by the states.source: Internal Revenue Service Publication. Employer's Tax Guide" and #589. This is known as filing a Fictitious Name Statement. "Employer's Federal Identification Number. Prior to starting your business. Your city or county clerk will register your business name and can tell you if it is already in use. How to Register Your Business If the name of your business is different from your personal name you need to register it. Most libraries and bookstores carry a book that 14 . "Handbook for Employers" also try your state's Department of Labor Consumer protection legislation . A sole proprietorship only needs to submit a Form SS-4 if there are employees involved. Zoning and municipal business taxes . The requirements and fees vary from state to state. Another alternative for corporations with not more than 30 or so stockholders is the S corporation.

many states require one or more of the following procedures: 1. The name of the corporation. 15 . 3. Reserving a name with the state prior to filing the certificate of incorporation. This document usually must show the following information: 1. 2. Typically several documents are submitted as part of the incorporation procedures The primary document is a "certification of incorporation" that is often only one page. 2. Location of the registered office of the corporation 3. After the first board of directors meeting a statement naming the elected officers must be filed. The type and maximum amount of capital stock to be issued 5. Names and mailing addresses of incorporators 6. Formal permission to issue stock must be Requested.describes incorporation in your specific state. "Stated capital" required at time of incorporation (Most states have a minimum) In addition to filing the certificate of incorporation. The nature of the business (Word this as broadly as possibly) 4. Names and mailing addresses of acting director(s) until elections can be held 7. This includes a description of stock distribution and proposed use of the proceeds.

as a minimum. Beyond taxes.RECORD KEEPING AND ACCOUNTING Financial record keeping isn't just a good idea. Requirements Legally. The ledgers at the end of this chapter include: Income ledger and year-end summary Expenditure ledger and year-end summary Profit & Loss statement Petty Cash ledger 16 . Businesses must keep records for both planning and tax reasons. there is no single official method required for accounting records. Additional columns can be added that will help you visualize unique aspects of your business but in the end. Bank credit is possible. If your running a small operation and own a computer. it should be an easy transition between ledger and tax form. However. This allows you to find the ripest areas for efficiency and profit. and interprets the condition and activity of your business. Banks require at least a balance sheet for a business loan. Even some of the larger wordprocessors such as "WordPerfect" or "MS Word" Have a tables function that can do automatic mathematical operations. The ledgers should be at least as comprehensive as those included at the end of this chapter. The ways to achieve this ranges from cross hatch paper with hand lettered headings to customized computer software. At least one years of records are needed to establish your financial condition. your bookkeeping must keep track of both your income and expenses. its the law. The column headings should. Purpose of Keeping Books Accounting measures. It is required to document income and expenses claimed on your tax returns. It gives you detailed hindsight to see where your income is coming from and see where your major expenses came from. correspond to financial data required by the IRS tax forms. What ever method you choose is ok as long as they are in a form that can reconstruct your business activities. software such as "Quickbooks" can meet most of your needs. bookkeeping is important for the following benefits: Information on your present financial condition that will allow you to make better business decisions. records.

negatives and prints are a necessity for even a modest level of business. model release and category can all be stored in a computer file even if it isn't all printed on the label. Everything that is an image comes in either a box. account. a receipt or expense record should be produced immediately. a formal accounts filing system is needed. stock files are set up by subject and wedding files are set up by client. subject.g. Its very easy to let this stuff get away from you. Files for your slides. 17 . sleeve or slide mount. A computer data base can be developed that cross-indexes names and dates. a monthly envelope system will work. Using the example above. expense forms and receipts. For larger businesses. An ordinary wordprocessor set up to print tiny labels can double as a simple searchable database by virtue of its word search capability. Other Records Associated with the ledgers are a steady flow of invoices. For small businesses. wedding files are different from stock files). Try not to go to bed at night without the books up to date.Credit ledger Equipment ledger & Depreciation worksheets Balance sheet Payroll ledger In addition. This file has different structure depending on your type of business (e. If cash must be used at all. envelope. a check/deposit ledger is needed but that can be associated with the business checkbook. your inventory and they must be easily retrievable. These are your product. location. How the storage file is set up is once again a function of what type of photographer you are. A little printed label can be affixed to any of these containers without damage. Information such as date.

Income Ledger Sales Date Taxable Sales Sales Tax Month of: Non-Taxable Sales Shipping Wholesale Other Total Sales $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Totals for month $ $ $ $ $ $ 18 .

Income Ledger Year-End Summary Totals for Month of Taxable Sales Sales Tax Non-Taxable Sales Handling Wholesale Other Total Sales January February March April May June July August September October November December $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Total for year $ $ $ $ $ $ 19 .

Expenditure Ledger Date Check Number Payee Month of: Total Supplies and Postage Labor Nonemployee Transportation Advertising Telephone & Utilities Taxes and Licenses Other Nondeductible $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 20 .

Payable) TOTALS FOR YEAR ADDITIONAL EXPENSES: Returned checks ( from "Bad Debts" folder) Uncollectible accounts (from "Bad Debts" folder) Auto expense (if you take the standard mileage rate) Depreciation (from Equip ledger & Depreciation worksheet $ $ $ Month of : $ $ $ $ Year-to-Date $ $ Profit & Loss Statement 21 .Expenditure Ledger Year-end Summary Total Supplies and Postage Labor Nonemployee Transportation Advertising Telephone & Utilities Taxes and Licenses Other Nondeductible January total February total March total April total May total June total July total August total September total October total November total December total Unpaid bills (Acc'ts.

Income from ledger Beginning inventory Purchases $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Estimated inventory $ Cost-of-goods-sold $ $ $ Gross Profit $ $ Other expenses Rent Supplies Other Total Other Expenses $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Net Profit $ $ 22 .

Petty Cash Ledger Date Payee Amount Balance (Beginning balance) $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 23 .

Credit Ledger Sale Date Customer Invoice Number Total Sale amount Month of: Date Paid Memo 24 .

portion due within one year Long-Term Liabilities Balance of loan payments $ $ $ $ $ $ Total Liabilities $ NET WORTH (owner's equity) $ $ 25 . at cost Less accumulated depreciation $ $ $ Total Assets Liabilities Current Liabilities Accounts Payable Loan payable.Balance Sheet as of December 31 Assets Current Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Less allowance for bad debts $ $ $ Prepaid insurance Inventory (at lower of cost or market) $ $ $ $ Other Assets Equipment.

PAY PERIOD HOURS REG GROSS O/T F.PAYROLL LEDGER Name___________________________________________________________________ Address_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ PAYCHECK DATE CHECK NO.I.T SOCIAL SECURITY MEDICARE STATE INCOME OTHER WITHHOLDING NET PAY Social Security____________________ Pay Rate_________________________ EQUIPMENT LEDGER AND DEPRECIATION WORKSHEETS 26 .

DEPR. 19 _ BAL. CREDIT WRITE OFF BAL. TO BE DEPR. DEPR.TO BE DEPR. WRITE OFF PERIOD NEW OR USED % COST REDUCTION FOR INV.DATE DESCRIPTION METH. 19 _ BAL.TO BE DEPR.TO BE DEPR. DEPR. TAXES 27 . 19 _ BAL.

Cash vs Accrual Accounting Photographers often receive cash advances on work to be performed. Is a photograph a product or a service? Interpretation of this question varies from state to state. the business collects it for the state and must have a business tax number issued by the state tax office. Ditto with vehicles of any kind. State Taxes State taxes often include income. Often your office and studio equipment is assessed as capital equipment and taxed as if it were real property. If you use cash accounting the money is considered earned income when you receive it and it is 28 .Local Taxes Local taxes usually take the form of business license fees and property taxes. Some states tax goods but not services unless the goods and services are commingled. "Tax Information on S Corporations. If your looking for free guidance. expenses and services (non-taxable). Check with city or county tax offices for a complete picture." #15 "Circular E. In most states the sales tax is at the state level. this may be confusing. Federal Taxes Volumes have been written on dealing with federal income and employment taxes so this thin chapter is not even close to a complete guide. the IRS has a set of publications directed to the small businessman. Because they all appear on the same invoice the entire amount is taxed because they all become part of the goods. An example of this type of pitfall would be an invoice with a combination of photographs (taxable goods). They are: Internal Revenue Service Publications #334 "Tax Guide For Small Business. Employer's Tax Guide" and #589. Property taxes may mean more than real estate. sales and property taxes. How these are handled depends on whether you use cash or accrual accounting method. A call to your state tax office should get you a package of instruction and forms. Even if photographs are treated separately." What I have tried to do is to point out issues that most impact the photographic trade or small business in general. In every state that has a sales tax. so get a firm answer from a local tax specialist.

This is an obvious dilemma for the travel stock photographer. Many businesses with losses for several years get by without ever being audited by the IRS. Its the same sort of problem as was discussed earlier under business vs. Business Loss vs Hobby If you show a consecutive loss for three out of five years. They can deduct their costs the same year they are incurred. The uniform capitalization rules do not apply to self-employed photographers. A record of marketing activity is usually sufficient. it must be entirely business related with any personal travel expenses removed. Per Diem Rates. Expense accounts reflect actual detailed and receipted records of expenses while per-diem is a fixed allowance acceptable to the IRS. IRS rates are found in IRS publication #1542. not when it's paid. If you want to hold the IRS at bay until the full five years are up. Entertainment and Gift Expenses. Makers of goods can't deduct production expenses until the goods are sold. This applies to individuals who produce photographs. Travel. a fraction of the advance may have to be reported on your tax return. you can by filing Form 5213. is a reduction in your income at that later time. Travel For travel to be deductible. if you have work partially completed. with the same sort of remedy. At year-end. the IRS may allow the losses based on evidence that you are operating a real business with a profit motive. However. the IRS can determine your business to be a hobby and disallow any losses. expense account or perdiem. Sales of the travel photographs or a travel sales history is the best defense. and general travel rules are found in IRS publication #463. Any part of it you return later. photographic negatives or transparencies but not to film makers. This form must be filed no later than the third tax return of the business. If travel is primarily personal. There are two ways of establishing travel expenses. Uniform Capitalization Rules Photographers have a special IRS exemption from the burdensome "uniform capitalization rules" that apply to craftsmen and manufacturers. 29 . no deduction for the travel itself is allowed except the cost of business activities alone. The rates vary year to year and location to location.subject to taxes. hobby. Election to Postpone Determination. Accrual basis bookkeeping records income at the time it is earned.

A final word on travel. The alternative is to distribute it over five years using your choice of three methods. Using the automobile limits. The first involves a record of actual expenses and deprecation that is prorated for personal use. The other is a flat per mile rate with a separate per mile rate deducted from the vehicle's depreciation.500 the year of purchase under "Section 179 Deduction" rules. These rates vary from year to year so you should keep current with the IRS travel publications." Here's how it works.000/yr equipment purchases) you can deduct up to $17. photographic apparatus and vehicles are considered "five year equipment. some of the cost can be written off the first year but some of the cost may have to be spread out over five years. Depreciation When a piece of durable equipment is brought into the business. The list is also useful at foreign customs exams where they want a declaration list of all the equipment your bringing in. These are presented in the table below: Year MOD ACRS 20% 32% 19% 12% 11% 6% 150% ACRS 15% 26% 18% 17% 16% 8% Straight Line 10% 20% 20% 20% 20% 10% Automobile Limits $3060 max $4900 max $2950 max $1775 max $1775 max $1775 max per year 1 2 3 4 5 6 The automotive numbers are subject to change so check the IRS instructions each year. if available. When overseas travel is necessary. (less than $200. Most office equipment. Your write off can't exceed your income.235 must be Depreciated over more than 5 years. 30 . You can get this useful slip of paper by lugging all your equipment down to the customs office at any US coastal city or international airport. but you can carry it forward. and certify it. returning home through customs with bags of foreign made cameras and equipment can be simplified with a customs receipt. any vehicle costing more than $16. If you are a small business. Vehicle Expenses Vehicle expenses are handled similar to travel with two methods available. They will record a description of each piece along with its serial number.

expect some questions from the IRS. Entertainment in general can only be 80% deductible.Start Up Expenses Expenses incurred prior to your first income producing activity are treated like equipment (capital investment) and must be amortized over five years. Basically. Self Employment Tax (SECA) Social Security and Medicare taxes for individuals and partners kick in at $400 income. The tax applies to all of your business income. details the requirements. Business Use of Your Home. Tax Withholding and Estimated Taxes. Once you reach that point. Office in the Home IRS Publication #587. details the rules covering home office/studio. not just the part above $400. Entertainment and Gifts A rule of thumb for gift giving is. you may prorate the cost of operating your home by the percentage of floor space used. 31 . no more than $25/year to any individual and free samples don't count. If entertainment becomes a major expense of your business. the IRS wants quarterly payments. Estimated Tax Payments If you will owe more than $500 in taxes. Often your bank can set up a special tax account and automatically transfer the funds to the IRS. The solution to this problem is to start the business at home and don't set up a studio until after the "official" start of the business. you pay The SECA tax that represents both employer and employee halves of the Social Security and Medicare taxes. IRS Publication #505.

is non-deductible. Insurance Insurance is about as complex as interest. if a large amount is at stake. such as tax interest. 32 . use a tax accountant. Debt on assets are deductible but real estate and non-assets must be capitalized. Health insurance is 25% deductible for individuals but it becomes 100% deductible if you have employees that can all have the opportunity to join the plan. Hazard liability insurance is deductible. Some interest.Interest Interest payment write-offs are very complicated and they depend on the type of debt. Other types of insurance that are considered benefits such as life insurance are not deductible at all.

Indiv. extension for filing 3 mo. rent or > $10 royalties > $ 10 dividend payment > $ 10 interest payment Corp. extension for filing 6 mo./Part. Corp Indiv. extension for filing Corp./Part./Corp Corp Corp Indiv./Part. 9/15 4/15 Indiv./Part. Indiv. Corp Part. 4/30./Part. 7/31./Corp 4/15 3/15 4/15 4/14 4/15 4/15 4/15 Applicability Key Dates Useful Publications from the IRS 33 . electing to become S corp. 2128 2/28 end of year 1/31. 10/31 1/31 1/31 1/31 3/15 3/15 4/15 4/15 4/15. /Part./Corp Employer Employer Employer Employer Employer Employer Employer Indiv. /Corp Corp Indiv. Use Special use forms: 4868 7004 8736 2553 5213 4562 8829 4 mo./Part. 4/15 1/31. income tax return Income from business Self employment tax Estimated tax for individuals Partnership tax return Indiv. 4/30. Indiv. Election to postpone determination Vehicle expenses & depreciation Business use of home Normal use forms: 1040 W-2 W-3 W-4 941 940 5500 508 1099-MIS 1099-DIV 1099-lNT 1120 1120S Sch C Sch SE 1040-ES 1065 Income tax return Withholding info to employee Withholding info to IRS Employee deductions for withholding Income tax & SS deposit Fed unemployment tax return Employee benefits Fed unemployment tax deposit > $600 fee./Corp Indiv. income tax return S-Corp. 7/31.Filing Dates for Tax Returns For calendar-year businesses the dates of IRS form submittal are given in the following table: Form No. 10/31 1/31 7/31 1/31./Part. Part.

Government Internal Revenue Service Eastern Area Distribution Center P. Entertainment.Number 17 334 463 505 523 525 533 534 535 536 538 541 542 544 550 551 553 560 583 587 589 590 917 946 Title Your Federal Income Tax Tax Guide for Small Business Travel. IL 61702 Western Area Distribution Center Rancho Cordova.S.O. Box 85074 Richmond. CA 95743 34 .O. VA 23261 Central Area Distribution Center P. and Gift Expenses Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax Tax Information on Selling Your House Taxable and Nontaxable Income Self-Employment Tax Depreciation Business Expenses Net Operating Losses Accounting Periods and Methods Tax Information on Partnerships Tax Information on Corporations Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets Investment Income and Expenses Basis of Assets Highlights of (the Year's) Tax Changes Retirement Plans for the Self-Employed Taxpayers Starting a Business Business Use of Your Home Tax Information on S Corporations Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs) Business Use of a Car How to Begin Depreciating Your Property U. Box 8903 Bloomington.

how you manage your operation. -It's far cheaper to do business in Idaho than in New York. From these brochures the price ranges for every service and package can be compiled. Your prices will depend on your expenses and how you run your business. Market -Portraits or weddings are priced locally and magazine or stock are priced nationally. try to lead them with quality and service not with prices so low that nobody makes money. Retail Photography If you plan to start a retail operation. The easiest way to do this. several have been published and they still leave you wondering what you should charge. Its a simple matter to gather up all the brochures from every studio in your region.PRICING FOR PROFIT It is possible to write an entire book on just the subject of pricing your work. equipment deprecation. In fact. All this survey tells you is what the competition is charging. if you have the time to wait. where you sell your work. along with personal income needs and try to translate that into specific prices. There are books and associations that can help you. retouching. Your bottom line will be based on what branch of photography you choose. a local price survey is needed. film. You are the only one that can determine prices for your photographic products and services. There is no magic single answer to the question. either from a studio or from your home. is to visit one of the local bride shows they have every spring at large shopping malls. and how you stand among the competition. There are only pathways to follow to find what your work is worth. charging anything less than what you could be getting gives your profit to the customer not to 35 . Most portrait photographers calculate the cost of operating the studio. print finishing. In dealing with the competition. An example of this sort of survey for 1996 in eastern Idaho is presented on the following pages.Wildlife shooting in nearby mountains will cost only a fraction of the cost of a Sports Illustrated swimsuit shoot. but you will have to do your own research. where you work. You are in business to make profits. The major variables include : Local cost of living. Nature of the business -. Often the costs are divided between a sitting fee and the charges for prints.

The retail client has to pay someone to make prints from the negatives anyway so it might as well be you that gets their business. that publisher's going rate is what you will get paid. unless you negotiate more. Writer's Digest Books. you can then raise your rates as your reputation for quality and service matures. If you work through a stock agency and it sells rights to one of your shots. If you choose the negotiation path. Typically photographers sell only limited rights to their photographs and never sell the copyright. Additional prints have always been a significant source of income for the retail photographer. a pre-deposit of at least 50 percent should be part of the contract. Without some form of leverage the negotiations will end quickly. stock agencies or publications often have control of your prices. The road to financial ruin is paved with photographers that handed over the pictures without full payment. In the case of magazine and book publishers. This rate structure is summarized in the data that follows. For weddings and such. If you're going to win at negotiation you better have a product better than the competition or unique work. Good images can be sold over and over again if the sale of rights are done properly. you will get a portion of what the agency negotiated.you. for enough money a buyout can be 36 . M. The photographer owns and should retain the negatives of each assignment. The first is the annual book: Photographer's Market. Obviously. The client only buys the right to use the image for a limited number of times and over a limited time period. The second source is : American Society of Media Photographers Inc. Retail photographers should require payment upon or prior to delivery of any photographic products. The contract should indicate this and include the pricing of future prints. If they want credit ask to put it on a credit card. two sources of price information are very useful. If you start out pricing in mid-range for your area. Commercial Photography In commercial photography. NY 10016 (212) 889-9144. Willins. The differences between the first source and the second is the gap to be negotiated. (ASMP) 419 Park Avenue South York. This book lists every publisher that you would ever encounter and the rates they will initially quote you. The ASMP periodically publishes suggested rates for the profession to strive for.

and national location. and weekly rates. Budgets. and duration of use. but rarely is a client that anxious to pay a very large sum. It is typical to charge time and a half overtime for work exceeding eight hours in any day and for any weekend work. skills and creativity demands can range from the local used car dealer ad to a national account. A little legalese is in order here. Beyond the specified time and geographic limits. audience size. the photographer is free to use the image at will. each a bit more economical than the shorter rate. and margin. Some photographers have half-day. A creative fee can be added if the assignment is technically demanding or if a creative director gives the photographer discretion in creating the image. Neither the client or you are allowed to resell the image to a third party. hourly." Once the issue containing the image comes out. a usage fee will top it off based on rights being bought. There are only about half a dozen terms that you really need to know: Nonexclusive unlimited use The client is granted multiple use of the image for any purpose. The client has exclusive use of the image for any purpose and as often as the client wishes. Pricing Practices Advertising Photography Every advertising assignment is different. All rates should be portal to portal. Geographic and Time limits The rights described above can have time limits and geographic limits placed on them. and include 37 . Finally. state. Nonexclusive limited use The client is granted use of the image for a specific purpose. you would lose all control over its use and resale. Magazines often demand "First North American Rights. Fees are often adjusted by local. Exclusive limited use The client has exclusive use of the image but for only a limited specific purpose. Exclusive unlimited use This is called a buyout. but the photographer has no restrictions on reselling the image. The starting point is day rate plus expenses.considered. but the photographer has no restrictions on reselling the image. weather days. daily. the photographer can resume resale efforts with the image. If the copyright were to be sold to the client.

38 . operating costs. Never sell an image for significantly less than market value. Creative fees. This does not mean the same price to every customer. office supplies. If you are working through a stock agency. Books There are two common forms of compensation for coffee table books. Stock Photography The pricing of stock photographs is entirely different from assignment photography. In such a buyer's market average photographs are usually purchased on a take-it-or-leave-it price ceiling. on the other hand. The photographer gets a flat fee. The usage fee is much smaller because the use of images is typically very limited. Know your prices for every market and usage. The few editorial assignments that are given out by the big magazines are paid on a similar negotiable fee plus expenses basis as advertising and corporate photography. as they are called. travel expenses. Editorial Photography The industry increasingly meets photo needs from the stock agencies on a price per image basis. Corporate Photography Pricing of corporate photography has similarities to advertising photography although it pays a little less. can be much larger due to a tendency of corporate clients to depend on the photographer to double as a creative director. A national ad campaign should have to pay many times more for an image than a local marketing brochure. Stock photography has become the big growth area in commercial photography but the sellers have increased much faster than the buyers. and materials. and anything else that's not a direct material or labor cost must be pro-rated over all the hours you bill over an entire year. Textbook publishing has gone almost entirely to stock sources.mileage. Rent. utilities. For food and lodging there is a choice between per diem or actual expenses. or royalties on the book sales often with an advance on future royalties. depreciation. your cut may only be half of what the client pays. Stock pricing is by the image and varies from buyer to buyer. Overhead should be included as part of your hourly rate or day rate. Don't separate it out on your bill but include it as part of your personal billing rate.

Prices Edit Adver $1000 $1900 $500 pd/$500 page Assign Magazines (National) (National ad $15000+/Dbl pg) Sunday Supp.45 Multiple use: 1-3 baserate+20% 4-10 baserate+50% Television Circulation: National network National cable Regional/cable Local cable Advertising $800-1500 $700-1250 $500-750 $250-500 News $400 $300 $200 $150 1 . Dbl. Billboards Locations 1 Yr.4-.75 . Additional 13 week cycles: Base price plus 25%.55 . . Cover Circulation: 3 million+ 1-3 million 500K-1 mill 250K-500K 100K-250K Under 100K Type: Color B&W 1 2 1. or Magazine (Regional or trade) $850 $1100 $400 pd/$400 page Daily Newspapers (Large >300K) Daily Newspapers (Small <300K) Brochures Corporate work $1000-1500 $750 $200 max $1200 $1500 $500-1K pd/$500-1K pg (1-3 hr 25% off) Buy-outs = 5 x base price. 1 yr unlimited use = base+200%.5 1/2 pg. . City(less than 12) $1200 State (12-40) $1750 Region (up to 100) $2750 National (100+loc) $3000 20% more or less for each 3 Months Greeting cards & textbooks $500 flat 39 .5+ 1.6 .6 3/4 pg. . Rate multipliers Space used: 1/4 pg.pg.75 Internal (house) testing: Flat fee $300-500.2 1 . 1 yr exclusive use = base+125%.75 Full pg.

$36-$75 $10 $50-$100 $100-$150 20% 40 . the negatives often go to the customer but prints are limited to 8x10 max.1 unit = 1 8x10 or 2 5x7 or 4 4x5 or 8 wallets) 48 wallet 2 passport 4 unit package 6 unit package student discount Wedding Packages: 30 to 50 shots @ $10-$32/unit $50/hour $125/location $1/mile If 35mm film is used. Studios in urban high cost of living areas may be much higher.Studio Rates Sitting fees: 4 to 5 poses 8 to 10 poses 8 to 10 poses on location (in-town) 8 to 10 poses on location (out of town) 4 to 16 poses glamour 8 to 32 poses glamour A-La-Carte Prints: Plain Color or B&W $5-$11 $10-$18 $16-$28 $39-$65 $99-$120 $140-$199 Retouched & Enhanced $25-$30 $31-$32 $37-$40 $78-$80 $146-$155 $195-$235 $13-$15 $24-$40 $35-$75 $75-$100 $40-$65 $65-$80 Size 4x5 5x7 8x10 11x14 16x20 20x24 Deluxe $48 $95 $175 $225 Packages: (note. Discount chains and non studio photographers can be much lower.

In a seasonal peak demand situation. try to become involved in the operations of the business. the excess cash should be invested in liquid savings accounts or other safe investments. Keeping excess cash on hand can slow down your return on 41 . That way the relationship will remain professional and it will minimize future misunderstandings. Friends and Relatives Friends and relatives often can be a valuable source of business capital. Their knowledge of you and your abilities give you a high credibility and they may be willing to invest in your business even when others refuse you credit. The length of time before the business improves to the point that a steady income is established is much more of a guess. If you can't cover your living expenses for three to six months while your business is starting then you should consider a part time business along with a part time job. leaving you short of operating cash. Debt Financing Short-term loans are often needed to cover cash flow problems. Also consider sources such as a home equity loan or the cash value of a life insurance policy. Equity loans and revolving credit lines are the usual types of credit used to cover this situation. through good intentions. if your business sees bad times. Raising money for your personal expenses is much harder than raising money for your business. This type of short-term borrowing works well in good times. because friends and relatives know you so well. they may. and no paperwork. Repayment terms will probably be more flexible than those of commercial lenders. the cost of operation has usually been estimated with a fair amount of precision. Having your own start-up capital ensures that you retain control of your business. Long-term loans that are amortized monthly can stabilize your operating cash. it is wise to keep it formal with a written agreement. No matter who gives you money. short-term borrowing can be cut off or called in by a bank. When most photographic businesses start out. There are no applications. no presentations to lenders.FINANCING START-UP AND GROWTH Personal Funds The nice thing about using personal savings is your easy access to them. Be careful. However. They may feel their investment entitles them to a routine say in how the business is run. Don't just keep the money on hand to avoid a short-fall when cash is needed. Amortized monthly means the monthly payment is constant.

Your equity that is required for an SBA loan can be 30 percent versus the 40 to 50 per-cent bank requirement. An SBA loan can be longer than bank loans with lower payments. U. Loan terms are typically better than for ordinary bank loans. If your fraction of the investment amount needed to get the business established (called equity) is less than 25 percent. most lenders won't touch you. They come in several varieties. Small Business Administration (SBA) SBA has a Congressional mandate to assist in meeting small businesses financing needs.000. Keep in mind when dealing with any bank that bankers don't like risk. don't give up on a savings bank for a business loan. The SBA Loan Guarantee Program provides financing in cases in which banks feel uncomfortable with the risk by allowing banks to recover up to 90 percent of their money from the SBA if the borrower defaults. Obviously the less money you put into the business the less risk you take and the more risk your investors and lenders take. Banks Banks are set apart from other financial institutions because they make loans and accept deposits.000. The SBA's 7(a) loan program. The interest rate also less because the SBA has established a 2 percent 42 . Their category can indicate the kinds of loans these banks specialize in making. Many nation-wide commercial banks have sizable set-asides for small business loans. However.investment. This feature is an incentive for small banks. the Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) program and the new Greenling revolving line of credit are the primary tools in meeting this mandate. credit unions. Savings banks specialize in consumer loans. They are regulated in such a way that they must be prudent with the depositors money and they can make only the safest of loans. Your contribution is viewed as an incentive to work hard to make the business successful. There is a financial term called leverage. It may be hard for a starting business to borrow from a bank since established businesses that are competing for the same money are viewed as having less risk. Safety of their funds is always the highest concern. There is no lower limit. such as thrift institutions. Don't just limit your efforts to small community banks.S. It may know you better or have more money available. or commercial banks. however. Commercial banks prefer business loans. savings and loans. The guarantee allows banks to loan above their normal regulatory limit. lots of collateral or an outstanding past management history can bring about an exception to this rule. The SBA guarantees the loan up to the maximum of $750. which is the use of other people's money to make a profit for yourself. Of course. most banks prefer to work with amounts over $10.

The Luetic loan program has reduced the old one-inch folder of paperwork down to a two-page application. Even the application is easier if the loan amount is under $100.000 are available to borrowers who are unable to find a lender in spite of a good faith effort to finance the project with a private lender. currently are not eligible. you're out of luck. low-income borrowers and businesses located in high unemployment areas. the applicant can still apply for a direct loan from the SBA if s(he) falls into one of the categories of special loans discussed above. the applicant should request that the lender utilize the SBA Guaranty Program. direct loans are available only to Vietnam-era and disabled veterans. Several types of businesses are not allowed to receive loans directly from or guaranteed by the SBA. Everyone else should be careful to avoid the above words or the term "media" in any application. Direct Loans smaller than $150.000. Businesses dealing in the creation. the handicapped. If the lender is not agreeable. The lender in turn interacts with the applicant. 43 . However. The SBA generally deals only with the private lender if a guaranteed loan is involved. thoughts or opinions. Most of the information comes out of your business plan. if your photography business is journalistic in nature or inseparably related with the television or printed media. the applicant then completes a formal application for the SBA.above the prime rate upper limit. values. origination. If the lender is agreeable. If the lender can't or won't make the loan. expression or distribution of ideas. Application begins with a loan request at a bank along with supporting documentation. Therefore.

Interest Rate Set quarterly up to 2.75% above prime Small Loan Program General $75.000 Guaranteed-- $750. 10-25 yrs for M & E 25 yrs for buildings Must meet SBA's size & policy & be low income or located in a high unemployment area 7(a)11 Loan Direct-$150.000 (SBA Share) Up to 2.000 Lender retains one half of guaranty fee 5 years Negotiated up to 2.000 Handicapped Loan Direct-- $150.75% above prime Program Regular Business Loan Direct-- Eligibility Must meet SBA's size and policy $150.75% above prime Must meet SBA's size & policy $750.000 (SBA Share) 7-10 yrs for working cap. 10-25 yrs for M & E 25 yrs for bldgs Set quarterly Must meet SBA's size & policy & be Vietnam-era veterans and veterans with 30 percent or more disability Veterans Loan Direct Only- $150.000 (SBA Share) 7-10 yrs for 10-25 yrs for M & E 25 yrs for bldgs 12 months 3 per cent Guaranteed-- Must meet SBA's size & policy & be operated by or for the handicapped Seasonal Line of Credit Guaranteed Only Up to 2.000 3 per cent Guaranteed-- $750. Amount Up To Maximum Maturity 7-10 yrs for working cap.000 (SBA Share) 10-25 yrs for M & E 25 yrs for bldgs 7-10 yrs for working cap. $750.The table that follows is a summary chart of the special loans of the 7(A) program.25% above prime 3 per cent Must meet SBA's size and policy Greenling $750.000 working cap.000 (SBA Share) Disaster Loans President or SBA declares disaster area & physical or economic damage 44 .

. Small Business Administration. or your local office of the Department of Commerce.sba. DC 20416 (202) 653-6600 SBA Publications P. 45 . CO 80201 Free guides on business and shareware software are available at their Internet Home page: http://www.Department of Commerce.C. Economic Development Commission (EDC) The Economic Development Commission is a part of the U. DC 20416.S. The EDC can be contacted through the U. privately owned organizations. Forms and publications are available at: Small Business Administration (SBA) 1441 L Street Northwest Washington.D.The SBA is the mother lode of everything you could want for small business information. N.W.gov/index.sbaonline. U.. The SBICs make direct loans to entrepreneurs for start-up and expansion as well as equity investments.C. 1441 L Street.O. The Directory of Operating SBICs is available by visiting the SBA regional or district office nearest you or by writing to: Deputy Associate Administrator for Investment. D. They are state chartered. Its mission is to lends to businesses in order to create new jobs in economically deprived areas. There are several qualifying conditions that must be met. Your business must meet several conditions in order to receive assistance from these sources. Department of Commerce in Washington.S. with location the dominating one.html Small Business Investment Companies (SBIC) SBICs are licensed by the SBA and work under its guidelines. Box 30 Denver. Washington. Additional information can be obtained by contacting the National Association of Small Business Investment Companies located in Washington.S.

Consumer and Commercial Finance Companies Consumer finance companies and commercial finance companies deal in small loans secured by collateral. Some of these programs can take a second mortgage position to existing debt and charge lower interest rates. 46 . failure to repay your debt will result in the seizure of the item that you purchased with the funds. the interest rate you will be charged will be the highest allowed by law for your state.State Financing Programs Many states have programs available to small businesses who need financing. They will consider loans with 100 percent financing and can be more flexible about lending because the loans are secured by an asset. or minorities are typically found in these programs. Most finance companies limit loans to several thousand dollars. In some cases. However. Most of these programs are tied to economic development and job creation. Many special set-asides for women. In addition. Loans from this source are more expensive because they are considered to be more risky.

When reality finally sets in. The path to effective advertising is a road with many branches. Advertising The need for advertising is dependent on the branch of photography. you must decide on the form of media and budget. Effective advertising pays for itself and then some but with advertising being so expensive a bad choice can be a dreadful financial burden. Start-up businesses need to take it slow and careful with an emphasis on low cost public relations and limit advertising to the minimum. Hiring an agency is a good idea for a mature business with sales that can absorb the additional cost of an agency fee. newspapers. more than half your time can be tied up in the marketing effort. If advertising is needed. Retail photographers typically use the Yellow Pages. There is no best way. 47 . at least during the early years of your business.MARKETING YOUR PHOTOGRAPHY BUSINESS So often at the start up of a studio. and brochures. It has to single out the photographer from all others. It has to be an affordable loss if the ad fails to produce business. Much of the effort involves maintaining a reputation for quality and service." Only a modest fraction of time and resources are allotted to marketing. direct mail. Commercial photographers typically use display advertising and photography directories specifically aimed at photo buyers. radio. All advertising should meet certain criteria: It has to be targeted at users in the geographic market for the photographer. You must explore for your individual situation the various forms of advertising and choose those which will most influence customers and be cost-efficient. the entrepreneur has to some degree the attitude "build it and they will come.

The advertising rates will be proportional to the newspaper's circulation. Can help you describe the differences between you and your competition. 48 . Buying space in weekly TV and entertainment guide sections or weekend supplements are a way to make newspaper ads last longer. Location is important. Newspapers are short-lived and discarded daily. Telephone book advertising is a must for retail photographers. Although yellow page ads don't seem to be highly effective. Yellow pages staff can assist you with layout. Don't include price information. Newspapers are leaders among the media used for localized advertising. Readers accept newspaper ads and even seek them out. Newspaper circulation goes down on Saturdays and rises to a peak on Sundays. practically all photographers take out an ad. Keep them concise and clean with enough information so the reader can to make a contact decision. such as phone numbers. Only one opportunity a year to place an ad with a full year commitment. Your competitors have ads next to yours. Disadvantages Unless people look in your part of the Yellow Pages they won't see your ad at all. You may have to operate much of your first year without a listing. If your page is cluttered with advertising. address and phone number in the ad but don't crowd or clutter the layout space. Quality of reproduction is so poor it will do injustice to any photograph. Advantages Directories are in virtually every home. A single ad lasts all year. The ads can be as large and as detailed as you wish. The deadline for ads is in the autumn. Don't be afraid to pay a surcharge for exact location if you need it.Medium Yellow Pages. coupons and prices. Your ad can reach specific groups of people by selecting different sections of the paper. Newspapers can be read at leisure. Anyone looking in your part of the Yellow Pages is looking for a photographer. so if your targeting a audience or need an outside position for ads that have coupons. Newspaper ads are expensive relative to other media. Include your company name and logo. A newspaper is also read most thoroughly on Sunday. A newspaper ad can include details. Tips Don't clutter your ads. Newspapers. You have monthly payments instead of one lump sum. it can bury your ad. specify the section that you want your ad to appear.

Disadvantages The large number of stations in urban areas causes the audience to become fragmented. Portrait photographers use them as handouts and rate listings. Response rates are often low. Mail advertising is effective with the right mailing list. time must be purchased on several stations. Message duration is usually brief. Direct-mail is the most focused medium for targeting the specific market you are trying to reach. Brochures provide the most informative media with virtually no restraint on detail.M. One half to two percent is a typical range of return rates. The effects of diluting the advertising over multiple stations is loss of a concentrated message. It is a poor place for prices and telephone numbers.M. Tips The effect of advertising is cumulative. Even bulk postal rates and volume printing may not make this method affordable. When you buy the time you'll have to specify what time period you want to the radio station . You can control the quality of printing and paper to best present your work. Advantages Specific groups can be targeted (for example. usually from 6:00 to 9:00 A. Direct Mail. Radio commercials are most effective when tied into simultaneous print ads. The right mailing list is the key to successful direct-mail. Radio can effectively present an image or a couple ideas at best. radio provides a medium that is highly competitive for local advertising. it's often received as an endorsement. commercials on rock stations for high-school portraits). Sometimes stations will barter a promo for prizes they can give away to on the air. with minimal detail. You should refer the audience to your Yellow Pages ad. You can make a computerized list yourself or buy a list from a list company already on labels. are considered prime times. and 3:00 to 7:00 P. Radio audiences peak in size in the spring and summer. 49 . It's also better to group your ads together than to widely distribute them.Medium Radio. It is the best approach to produce repeat business. Several small ads are better than a single large one. Good time slots are very expensive. Commercials can't be avoided or skipped. To cover a broad audience. as opposed to television viewers which increase in the fall and winter Brochures. When a radio personality announces a commercial. Use a reply card with a Business Reply Postage Number so you will only pay for the returned cards. Radio personalities have high credibility with their audience. Commercial photographers have long relied on brochures as miniportfolios. People listen to the radio only during certain times of the day. The morning and evening driving slots. In many places. Brochures are expensive and are not effective unless used with a highly targeted market.

use them. services and industries. Trade magazines are publications that go to certain types of businesses. and location. reach data. People like them. Outdoor advertising targets an audience in motion. It should be coordinated with other advertising. 50 . and carry them around as a constant reminder Rarely do you have space for more than a name and logo They have a very slow return period for actual sales. Magazine advertising is often effective for certain types of photographers. calendars. location. As in real estate the three most important aspects are location. Even city and regional magazines can have high rates. It includes demographic and.Medium Magazines. Tips Most magazines will send you an "Ad Kit" on request. People that pass by are exposed to your message over and over for months because it is in one of their pathways to work. The same ad can run 3-5 times before its appeal lessens. Messages must fit in a 2-3 second glance time. Specialty advertising is a great goodwill gesture but don't do it unless you have a beneficial distribution plan. benches. You can include as much detail as you wish. Messages tend to be more image-oriented rather than price-oriented. signs and transit advertising all share the same category. and tee shirts carrying an advertising message. Niche or local publications allow precise targeting of a market. often months. posters. and ads can be clipped and saved. their rate schedule and a sample magazine. Consumer magazines are generally the kind you find on the average newsstand. There are two categories of magazines: trade magazines and consumer magazines. The lead time is long. Disadvantages Magazines are passive so readers can skip the ads. Ask around before buying specialty advertising through the mail and never buy it over the telephone. Outdoor advertising is best when coupled with other media. school. Investigate which type would do your business the most good. Advantages The quality of the reproduction and paper are superior to newsprint. These are promotional items such as pens. often months or years. Local bridal catalogs that are distributed for free are highly targeted and very effective. Specialty Advertising. or shopping. The typical three month contract is not very flexible. OUTDOOR ADVERTISING Billboards.

Tips TV is a visual media. Not only is actual commercial time expensive but production costs can be even higher. Cable advertising can be a much lower cost alternative and it's often easier to reach a targeted audience. Disadvantages One television ad during prime time can exceed the cost of one radio spot during drive time by 10 to 30 times. Advantages TV commercials reach the largest audience of any media. TV is a highly effective medium. 51 .Medium Television. Your ad can reach the audiences you have targeted with less fragmentation. Advertising on television can create instant validity. Don't use TV unless you can afford it. so is photography. It offers a great opportunity to use your own creative skill in presenting your message. Its effectiveness is reflected in its price.

Your Portfolio Your portfolio is the bottom line presentation of your abilities.Nothing but your best work should be shown. They also can be a pathway to publicity opportunities. Getting a positive image of your business in print and electronic media is the main goal of public relations. don't do it so often that you become the on-call free photographer for all the organizations in town. Your booth can showcase your best work and provide personal contact with potential clients. There a few considerations that should be taken when you getting one ready to present to a potential client. and local papers may run your photographs and give you a credit line. hospitals. Although the process is different. inns. and galleries is good publicity you shouldn't pass up. Your media sales rep can often be helpful in getting your story or upcoming announcement to the right reporter or editor because the advertising and editorial staff is a lot closer than the total autonomy image they try to portray. If you cover events by local organizations. Showing Your Work at shows. competitions.recognition of your business by potential clients. Most clients will want to an example of your work as part of the decision process to hire you. Even if you have a personal favorite but it is technically flawed. 52 . Early in your career you should begin compiling a portfolio. leave it out. Business profiles of local entrepreneurs. Quality not quantity -. and the list goes on. Volunteering your time and skills is often good publicity.Publicity and Promotion Publicity differs from advertising in two ways: Advertising is paid for and controlled by you while publicity is provided and controlled by someone else. However. professional offices. Community service and business organizations can expose you and your business to people that may become clients or business associates.sport shops. Don't just limit displaying your work to these rare occasions when there are everyday opportunities on the walls of banks. Publicity is of greater value than advertising because it is not paid for and controlled by you. awards on their work. and community service are common themes in business news and community news. Mall bridal shows are often excellent publicity and marketing for the retail photographer. the goal is the same . This adds to its credibility. These events tie up you or one of your staff for a few days but most studios feel it is worth to cost. there will be gratitude for your help.

Assignment representatives or "reps" usually have only a handful of photographers they handle on an exclusive basis within their territory. Agents: Stock. 10 East 23rd Street. Don't agree to any contract unless you fully understand every phrase. Stock Agencies LOCATING A STOCK AGENT Listings of the major stock agents are contained in the Photographer's Market by Writers Digest Books. The stock agencies have a high turnover of material in order to maintain fresh and upto-date images. Nearly all of these agents will be engaged with a written contract that give them some form of exclusive rights over at least part of your work that is often a major limitation on your business. and Galleries Stock picture agents market photographer's existing file images.The published page carries with it an aura of credibility. Reps. Business reputation sales history are the key considerations when choosing an agency. Galleries exhibit and sell fine prints. Good-quality duplicates may be substituted for originals. New York NY 10010. They try to maintain a steady flow of client assignments for their photographers. Transparencies should be in sleeves that can be examined on a light table unless the client requests Carousel trays.95. News Syndicates. Chicago. Their agent status only applies to those photographs that the photographer has submitted to them. The best investment you could make before launching any type of contract is to buy: Business and Legal Forms for Photographers.Target your market -. It's found in most libraries and bookstores. contact is often limited to the mail. They are found in New York City. Stock agencies usually represent hundreds to thousands of photographers. Los Angeles. $21. Include published work -. by Tad Crawford. and other major cities. Put it into a format that customers use -. Except for planning exhibits. Published by Allworth Press. 53 .Prints and mountings should be of the highest quality put into a portfolio box.The images should be relevant to your clients interest.

Any contract section that you disapprove of. Good reps are hard to find and almost none of them will take on new photographers just starting out. ask a few questions on the rep's policies before you agree to anything. call first to find out what type of images they carry. A business must be very active and healthy to support a rep. CONTRACTS Most agency contracts ask for exclusive rights. If you must deal through the mail. In addition. you can ask clients and potential clients for recommendations. if you sell any image on your own. If they want your photographs bad enough they will negotiate. If your business is located in a major urban market and has grown to the point that marketing time is limiting your assignment time and you hate marketing. Some agencies also charge a handling fee of $2 per slide submitted. Assignment Representatives (Reps) LOCATING A REP Most reps focus on getting advertising accounts and other commercial accounts for their photographer clients. Use registered mail. draw a line through it and initial it. photographers understand and appreciate the work of the rep much better and it will demonstrate that their talent is a marketable product. the time is ripe for finding a rep. its probably too soon. The best place to start looking is the directories of professional reps and their organizations. that a rep will consume a fourth of your fees. Keep in mind. FEES The typical cut for a stock agency is 50%. photographers must have acquired at least a few advertising or corporate clients on their own. If you're looking for a rep before they come looking for you. treat them like a client and make an appointment. Once you pick your rep. To be considered. If a rep seems interested. First thing you should do before getting a rep is to be sure you need one.If you are approaching an agency in person. they get 50 %. enclose a stamped return envelope. Always send copies not originals and include a SASE if you want them back. however. use phone contact like you would a client and send either a promotion sheet or a dozen slides with a letter requesting representation. With even a little real selling experience behind them. Does the rep handle competitive photographers in the same market? 54 .

How large is the client base? What is the split on promotion and advertising costs? How much experience does the rep have? FEES Typical commission percentage is 25 percent of the fee. published by Writer's Digest Books. The problem is 55 . half are in New York City and California. A list of galleries is easy to find. For editorial or low fee accounts the rates are lower. No commissions are paid on expenses normally charged to the client. very few of these make a good living at it . LOCATING A GALLERY Selling fine art photography is one of the hardest tasks there are in photographic marketing. they are in the Yellow Pages. and regional and city magazines. CONTRACTS When you and a rep decide to join into an arrangement. Gallery commission rates of 33-1/3 percent to 50 percent reflect this difficult sales environment. much like alimony. Many contracts stipulate fees that are paid after termination of the relationship. you should enter into some kind of written agreement that covers the following items: @ Commissions. Photographer's Market. some also include 30% percent on out-of-town accounts. The costs of advertising and promotion are usually split 75/25 on the same basis as the fee/commission ratio. @ Pre-existing accounts @ Billing @ Rep's exclusive market @ Expenses @ Termination @ Advertising and promotion Galleries Of the 200 to 300 photographic galleries in the country. Only a few hundred photographers make a living at it. Photojournalism rates are higher.

000 to 10. They will want to see actual prints not slides. you should have a written agreement that covers the following items: @ Gallery's territory and exclusivity. If you don't have time to run it alone. @ Duration. try a co-op arrangement with other stock photographers.to find the ones that carry photography. 56 . it should be approached for an appointment. A specialized agency can get by with only 5. These new agency homepages are plentiful enough that you can get an idea of what you need to do by just looking at a few of them. all the big agencies are already there. The varieties go further because some are local. and are welcoming new talent. some are limited to a specific type of image. some carry other art media. some are co-ops. A newer method of self marketing is through the Internet. You can make it easier to find your homepage if all the right words are put in the description so the various search engines can find it with the usual key words. It would probably be more active in selling your photographs. Don't just drop in because you're in town that day. Virtually every media editor in the US has this capability now. Once a prospective gallery is selected. @ Type of work involved @ Commissions @ Exhibits @ Pricing @ Accounting and payments @ Copyright @ Consignments @ Damage or loss @ Change of ownership Your Own Mini-Agency A Do-it-yourself stock agency for marketing your pictures may be the best plan for you. some are national. A small agency can survive if it is specialized or regional.000 pictures and less than a dozen photographers. these additional photographers can be recruited from lists made up from membership directories of photographic associations. The usual form of stock marketing on the "net" is a collection of small images with the opportunity to download a full sized image with a credit card or membership arrangement. CONTRACTS When you and a gallery decide to join into an arrangement. In fact.

(212) 262-4000. 225 West 57 Street. (212) 765-1820 and. These agencies have been the major spawning ground for independent photojournalists for half a century. Magazine news picture agencies (production agencies) are a separate world from newspaper services. For this reason they are very important to the photojournalist. 450 Park Avenue South. The two news organizations which dominate the American market are the Associated Press (AP) and United Press International (UPI). whatever offer you accepted is all that you will ever get. Wire services and news syndicates rarely use freelance pictures unless its hard news missed by the regular press.Wire Services and News Syndicates Each wire service has its own photographers and stringers. 150 East 58 Street. 50 Rockefeller Plaza. (212) 682-0400 AP and UPI have offices nation wide and sell to subscribers on an general fee basis and sell to non-subscribers on an per use basis. New York 10016. Contact-Press Images. Magnum cooperative. New York 10020. They are set up such that the photographer shares in the sales more like a stock agency. Indeed the original agencies-Gamma-Liaison. New York 10022. and Los Angeles Times-Washington Post. Newspaper syndicates operate much in the same way as the wire services that also have syndication such as the Associated Press' Wide World syndicate. Whether your photograph appears in one or every paper in the country. Chicago Tribune-New York News. New York. New York. New York 10017. 57 . Black Star-Sipa. (212) 888-7272. New York. New York. The largest syndicates are: New York Times News Service. (212) 679-3288. along with more recent groups. Their headquarters are: Associated Press (AP). dominate major news magazine photographs beyond what their staffs produce. 220 East 42 Street. New York 10019. New York. Newhouse News Services. They do not act as agents and they prefer to buy all newspaper rights. Sygma Photo News. United Press International (UPI).

. Local 644: 250 West 57th Street. (212) 889-9144. (312) 299-8161.. (212) 832-3123. (213) 888-9270. New York 10017 (212) 679-9650. New York. San Diego. LaSalle Street. New York 10016. Society of Photographers and Artists Representatives (SPAR) Box 845. FDR Station. New York. Woodland Hills. De Plaines. Chicago. West Reps Suite 102. National Press Photographers Association (NPPA) #306. (312) 341-0966. Local 659: 7715 Sunset Boulevard. Durham. California 92112. 3200 Croasdaile Dr. American Society of Picture Professionals (ASPP) Box 2401.Professional Organizations and Associations Advertising Photographers of America (APA) 27 W. Hollywood. 1258 North Highland Avenue. Professional Photographers of America (PPA) 1090 Executive Way. Contact the New York office for details. Nashville TN 37202. Illinois 60018. (714) 299-3131.. 58 . California 90046. (919) 489-3700 (800)-2896772. New York 10019. California Press Photographers Association Box 191. (213) 876-0160. ASMP has chapters in major cities. International Photographers (IATSE) Unit still photographers on motion picture and television productions. Los Angeles. New York. North Carolina 27705. New York 10022. (213) 469-2254. California 91365. (212) 247-3860. (212) 807-0399 American Society of Magazine Photographers (ASMP) 419 Park Avenue S. Overseas Press Club of America 52 East 41 Street. (Photographers of stock photography. Local 666: 327 S. N Y 10016. New York.) Associated Photographers International 23024 Ardwick Street. New York. Illinois 60604. California. California 91364 Box 206 Woodland Hills. 20th St.

St. telephone (212) 536-5121 or (800) 451-1741. ART DIRECTOR'S INDEX TO PHOTOGRAPHERS. MO 63102-2036 TEL: 314-421-5445 Formerly: Picture and Gift Journal. telephone (212) 673-6600. 249 W. Chicago. Writer's Digest Books.. ($135) CELEBRITY SERVICE INTERNATIONAL CONTACT BOOK. to: Box 7820. in subscr. Ohio 45207. New York. NY 10036. New York. Available from Miller Freeman Inc. CA 90504-9220) 59 . Illinois. GUIDE TO LITERARY AGENTS & ART/PHOTO REPS. Cahners Publishing Company (New York). 1780 Broadway. AMERICAN SHOWCASE. NY 10011 TEL: 212-645-0067 FAX: 212-242-6987 (Subscr. trade directory. GIFT AND DECORATIVE ACCESSORIES BUYERS DIRECTORY. NY 10010 TEL: 212-689-4411. GEBBIE PRESS ALL-IN-ONE DIRECTORY. telephone (212) 536-5121 or (800) 451-1741.. (New York) (Subsidiary of: United News & Media) One Penn Plaza. $18. CONTRACT DESIGN--DIRECTORY OF SOURCES. trade directory produced by American Showcase. New York 12561.. incl. Commerce Publishing Co. 330 N. 51 Madison Ave. Box 1000. Inc. 915 Broadway.Books and Periodicals for Marketing Available in reference or business libraries or from the publisher.95 (published periodically). Cincinnati. 17th St. It is sold by the publisher: Watson Guptill Publishing Inc. Louis. Inc. New York 10010-7108. New York. New York. Fourth St. 14 Flr. 1515 Broadway. 1515 Broadway. Published by Gebbie Press.. New York. American Showcase is sold in some bookstores (usually in the art sections) and by the publisher: Watson Guptill Publishing Inc.. 300. $15 is published in September as an extra issue of Interior Design magazine. the January special issue of Contract--The business magazine of commercial and institutional interior design and architecture. planning and construction. John Butsch and Associates. 1507 Dana Ave. New Paltz. F&W publications. New York. NY 10119 TEL: 212-714-1300 Fax: 212-714-1313 DECOR: the magazine of fine interior accessories ANNUAL. trade directory of the entertainment industry $40 Celebrity Service. New York. INTERIOR DESIGN BUYERS GUIDE. NY 10019 TEL: 212-757-7979 FAX: 212-397-4626 Status: out of print. Design Division of Reed Elsevier Inc. to Gifts and Decorative Accessories Geyer-McAllister Publications. available only from the publisher. Ste. NY 10036. available for $105 from the publisher.. Torrance. telephone (914)255-7560.

telephone (312) 470-3100. STANDARD DIRECTORY OF ADVERTISING AGENCIES ("The Advertising Red Book"). telephone (800) 553-2345. Bowker. 1507 Dana Ave. Bowker. Orchard Road. published annually by R. 424 North Third Street. Status: out of print. Secaucus... Part of the Reed Elsevier group (Subsidiary of: Reed Telepublishing) 500 Plaza Dr. Florida 33065. R. $22. Writer's Digest Books. National Register Publishing Company. 1180 Avenue of the America.O. PHOTOGRAPHER'S MARKET. 5201 Old Orchard Road. Published by the National Register Publishing Company.O. O'DWYER'S DIRECTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS FIRMS. available for $110 from the publisher. New York 10016 telephone (212) 679-2471.LITERARY MARKET PLACE.. VOLUME V: INTERNAL PUBLICATIONS DIRECTORY. Inc. TEL: 914-358-6213. STANDARD DIRECTORY OF ADVERTISERS.. published annually by J. NJ 07096 TEL: 201-902-8460 Directory Formerly: World Travel Directory. 800-747-1056.99). New York. available in some reference and business libraries or from the publisher. P. MAIL ORDER BUSINESS DIRECTORY Is available for $85 from the publisher. Ohio 45207 (published annually. New York. $150 Reed Travel Group. Box 301. telephone (212) 679-2471. West Nyac. WORKING PRESS OF THE NATION. ULRICH'S INTERNATIONAL PERIODICALS DIRECTORY. P. Klein Publications. O'Dwyer Co. published annually by the National Research Bureau. J. O'DWYER'S DIRECTORY OF CORPORATE COMMUNICATIONS. available for $479 from the publisher. It is available for $45 from the publisher. R. Iowa 52601.R. available for $479 from the publisher. Burlington. Todd Publications. TRAVEL WEEKLY'S WORLD TRAVEL DIRECTORY: official guide to the worldwide travel industry. Box 8503. telephone (312) 470-3100. Skokie. Cincinnati. published annually by R. F&W publications. telephone (908) 464-6800 or (800) 521 8110. telephone (305) 752-1708. 271 Madison Avenue. R. 121 Chanlon Rd. New York. available for $169. B.95 from the publisher. New York 10016. New York 10036. 60 . O'Dwyer Co. Illinois 60077. telephone (212) 764-5100. Illinois 60077. MADISON AVENUE HANDBOOK. Coral Springs. NY 10994. Skokie. New Providence NJ 07974. available for $399 from the publisher. available for $110 from the publisher.

However. want to make more money and consider managing employees and marketing as bothersome necessities. look at the risks: You will have to make the payroll no matter what the condition of your cash flow. equipment or insurance for the new worker? If only as a last resort. You stop it when you feel it is large enough to give you what you wanted and still small enough so it won't lead you to burnout. Photographers. They do it to make more money and have control of a business that will eventually reach a point that they only have to manage employees that do all the functional day to day work. harassment and a host of other requirements if you have less than four employees. Commercial photographers see the same type of cyclic variation only at other times of the year. With less than four employees. More laws kick in at fifteen employees and all of them apply above fifty. Help comes in two flavors. Can you go without pay for extended periods? Will the new employee pay for itself in a very short time? Will you lose money without assistance or are you just tired of working alone? Will you need more space. permanent and temporary. half the time and labor spent is business related and not photography. Most weddings fall between Easter and July. smoking. growth will rapidly increase its size in a few years. you finally decide to hire someone. Many photographers start out alone or rely on the wife and kids for help. At some point you are going to want some additional help. love the craft of photography. Initially. at least you have the benefit of being a small business. Permanent Employees Before you embark on creating a staff. If your business is run well. Almost no one opens a shoe store because they love to fit shoes. you're free to hire and fire without worrying about discrimination. The variation for retail photographers between the Christmas season and mid summer can be as much as 4 to 1. Overlaid on this growth pattern are the seasonal business cycles. family or medical leave. on the other hand. only a few labor laws and regulations apply to you. Initial growth rates of 33% per year are not unusual.DEALING WITH EMPLOYEES The motives behind starting a photographic business are a little different than other types of businesses. 61 . This growth can continue until you stop it.

The best way to avoid common problems is to set down personnel policies in writing and give each employee a copy. The final hassle an employer must put with is managing people such that they behave the way you want them to behave. Leave.Unfortunately. Substance abuse. Temporary Personnel Services Photography was made for temporary help. and local income taxes as well as Social Security taxes from an employee's pay. state. You get all the forms you need when you file for an employer's identification number using IRS form SS-2. Consider policies for the following areas: Hours. Compensation. what seems like a lot of state and federal regulations still do apply. You're also responsible for deducting federal. Grievances. Probation. Termination. they are seldom extended to part time workers. Personal use of company equipment or facilities. Promotion. Smoking. Confidential information. Safety and security responsibilities. 62 . The cost can reach an amount that is equivalent to 40 percent of the employee's pay. These deducted payments must be submitted with all the proper documentation. Retirement. Employee benefits. In addition to taxes and fees. Hence the popularity of part time employment. and workers' compensation. Nearly every piece of equipment. unemployment insurance. Training. vacation. All you need is one or two typed pages not a thick employee handbook. there is usually holidays. sick days. Similarly you don't want them to be angry at you over misunderstandings. You're responsible for payment of the employers half of Social Security. Personnel evaluation. along with life and health insurance offered as benefits. Although many employers provide benefits to full time workers. Attire.

They are more expensive than permanent employees so temps should be maintained as a luxury for peak periods and vacation fill-ins. and benefits are handled by the contractor. that is usually OK because the temporary personnel service will simply charge you a fee the same as an employment agency would. All taxes. A little warning is needed here. Along the same lines. If you need help of a more common type there are temporary personnel services or temp services as everyone calls them. a student co-op program is an even cheaper way to test drive a potential employee. Temporary help should be just that. 63 . Are they used for special skills or projects versus just working a shift? Usually there is no trouble or challenge to using a contractor unless they fail to pay their taxes or worker compensation insurance and a legal claim is placed on you. These can range from cleaning services to a makeup artist. If you want to steal an employee of a temporary personnel service. Independent Contractors Another alterative to direct hiring is to use independent contractors. You only have to file an IRS Form 1099 for any payments exceeding $600 to an independent contractor over a tax year. A simple test to determine contractor status is: Do you control the person's activities or decisions. Although hiring an independent contractor can save you most of the headaches of being an employer.transport. forms. Employment agencies are for permanent employees and should not be confused with temporary personnel services. It may be a self-employed individual that works under written contract. Models are a phone call away for just as long as you need them. Are you their only customer? Are they responsible for their own profit and loss. and finishing service you need can be leased or contracted. it is a good way to find a good permanent employee. The 20 criteria the IRS consider when defining contractor/employee status is found in their publication 937 on independent contractors. location. The benefits of finding employees this way is that you get to try out someone without risk before you invest the resources to make them a permanent employee. There is an exception however. the US government is very demanding when it comes to showing that a person is an independent contractor and not your employee. temporary.

benefits. Employers cannot escape legal responsibilities or liabilities with employee leasing. 64 . Employee termination will be complicated by the documentation requirements of the leasing company. Most employee leasing contracts have joint employment responsibilities. Employee benefits see an improved economy of scale with a larger firm. You retain responsibility for productivity and conduct of your staff. The leasing company becomes the legal employer and is responsible for payroll. and participates in hiring. leave. The employee leasing firm then leases them back to the original employer. The leasing company pays and reports wages and employment taxes out of its own accounts and has a right but not the right of direction and control of the leased employees. firing and evaluations.Employee Leasing Employee leasing is similar to temporary personnel services. Advantages of Employee Leasing The burden of personnel management and accounting is lifted. The leasing can assist in the development of personnel policies. Disadvantages of Employee Leasing You give up some of your controls over your employment policies. but it utilizes permanent company employees that have been transferred to the payroll of an employee leasing firm.

Conceiving of the idea for the image doesn't count. Before that time." or the copyright was transferred by a written and signed contract. Copyright protection is available for all unpublished works. all photographs should be marked with a copyright notice. plus an additional 50 years. Works first published before March 1. U. postcards. or any useful article. The year of first publication of the work. jewelry. dolls. the legal right to copy original work. The symbol © (the letter c in a circle). This right belongs to the photographer that created the original image. and 2.S. and 3." "Fair use" applies to photographs that are used for educational or public interest purposes such as news reporting. The year date may be omitted where a pictorial work is reproduced on greeting cards. The major limitations are the doctrines of "fair use" and "compulsory license. Code. copyright was created by publication with a copyright notice. 1989. Copyright protection is provided by title 17. The copyright notice has three elements: 1. or a nation that has a copyright treaty with the US.COPYRIGHT BASICS A copyright is just what it sounds like.". unless the image was made "for hire. toys. 65 . use of the copyright notice is recommended but optional. Published works are eligible for copyright protection in the United States if the photographer is a citizen or resident of the US. after that date. Example: © 1996 Jane Doe Although it is no longer a legal requirement. A copyright exists from the instant the image is created in fixed form whether it is registered or not or whether it is published or not. An unmarked photograph is an invitation for infringement based on a claim of "innocent infringement". regardless of the nationality or domicile of the photographer. No action is required to secure copyright for images made after 1977. The rights are not unlimited. only the photographer gets to copyright it. The name of the owner of the copyright. or a generally known alternative designation of the owner. A copyright is usually granted for the author's life. or is a stateless person. "Compulsory license" allows limited uses of copyrighted materials under conditions and royalties set by law. or the word "Copyright" or the abbreviation "Corp. and schools. must bear a copyright notice for full protection. stationery.

Licensing the Use of Your Photographs A copyright may be transferred.C. In granting exclusive rights avoid poorly defined terms like "all rights" or "buyout. Customs Service to prevent the importation of infringing copies. work for hire automatically applies without further agreement. and it is subject to the various state laws that govern the ownership. A non-employee such as a freelancer can only do a work for hire under two special conditions. Otherwise only actual damages may be claimed which are often hard to prove.Copyright is a personal property right. which can be as much as $100. Library of Congress. Instead they limit the exclusive rights to a defined time span. inheritance. even the ones taken for your own use. Work for Hire If you are an employee taking photographs for an employer. If you register within 3 months after publication of the work or prior to an infringement of the work. it will apply to every photograph taken while on the assignment. 20559. a nonrefundable filing fee of $20. However. Copyright Office." because they can lead to misunderstandings and legal confusion. Registration You may ask. D.000. geographic region. and a nonreturnable deposit of the work being registered together in the same package to the Register of Copyrights.S. or transfer of personal property as well as terms of contracts or conduct of business. There are seven other categories but they mostly concern text. if registration is no longer required for protection. send an application form VA. Non-exclusive licenses do not have to be made in writing. but the transfer of exclusive rights is not valid unless that transfer is in writing and signed by the owner or the owner's agent. If work for hire does apply. see an attorney. why go through registration at all? The answer has to do with legal remedies for infringement. Don't use "exclusive" unless you intend to transfer part or all of the copyright ownership. you can sue for statutory damages. It is simple enough that an attorney is not required. Copyright registration also allows registration with the U. even if it is just a letter of understanding. The photographs must be specifically commissioned and the photograph is either a contribution to a collective work such as a magazine or is a contribution to a motion picture or audio-visual work. Washington. The 66 . That way they don't permanently lose the copyright. Most photographers are reluctant to offer unqualified exclusive rights to their work. To register a work of the visual arts. a written copyright license is always a good business practice. For information on your state laws. or media.

Additional Information Information from the Copyright office Internet Homepage. including announcements. Telephone connection to a Copyright Information Specialist. Library of Congress. LM 455. consult an attorney. is available by calling (202) 707-3000 during federal business hours. Washington.effective date is when the Copyright Office receives the application in acceptable form As with any law. the Copyright Act can change without warning.C. If legal action is being considered. 67 . D. is available via: World Wide Web URL: Gopher: http://lcweb. regulations.loc. 20559-6000. Application forms and circulars are requested by calling (202) 707-9100 and recording your order. The material contained here should not be used as your only source of information.loc. and Copyright Office records from 1978 onward.gov/copyright marvel. circulars.gov Mail requests for publications or information on copyright problems should be addressed to: Copyright Office.

FORMS .

check off which special moments you would like to see in your wedding albums: BEFORE THE CEREMONY: _ Bride in dress _ Bride at gift table _ Bride with mother _ Everyone getting flowers _ Bride with father _ Bride leaving house _ Bride with both parents _ Bride. father getting out of car _ Bride. father going into church _ Ushers escorting guests _ Groom's parents being seated _ Bride's mother being seated _ Soloist and organist _ Groom and groomsmen at alter _ Giving-away ceremony _ Alter or canopy during ceremony _ Bride and Groom exchanging vows _ Ring ceremony _ Bridesmaids coming down aisle POSED SHOTS BEFORE THE RECEPTION: _ Bridesmaids looking at bride's ring _ Bride's and groom's hands _ Bride and groom together _ Bride with parents _ Groom with parents _ Bride and groom with honor attendants _ Bride and groom with children AT THE RECEPTION: _ Bride and groom arriving _ Bride and groom getting out of car _ Bride and groom going into reception _ The receiving line _ Buffet table _ Bride. groom talking to guests _ Passing the guest book _ The cake table _ Maid or matron of honor _ Flower girl and ring bearer _ Bride and father _ Groom meeting bride _ The kiss _ Bride and groom coming up aisle _ Bride and groom on church steps _ Bride alone in the chapel _ Bride and groom among guests _ Bride and groom getting in car _ Bride and groom in back seat of car _ Other ceremony moments _______________________________ _ Bride with her attendants _ Groom with his attendants _ Bride. all the parents _ Other people with bride. groom. groom feeding each other cake _ Bride. father getting in car _ Bride with honor attendant _ Groom alone _ Bride with maids _ Groom with best man _ Bride touching up make-up. groom ________________________________ _ Bride. his mother dancing _ The musicians _ Bride. groom dancing _ Bride. groom at bride's table _ Parent's table _ Bride. groom. groom cutting the cake _ Bride. hair _ Groomsmen getting boutonnieres Other moments______________________________________________________________ AT THE CEREMONY: _ Guests outside church _ Bride. groom toasting _ Throwing and catching bouquet _ Groom taking off bride's garter _ Throwing. all the wedding party _ Bride. her father dancing _ Groom.WEDDING DATE: NAME WEDDING CANDIDS On the list below. catching garter _ Wedding party decorating car _ Bride and groom ready to leave _ Guests throwing rice _ Bride and groom getting in car _ Rear of car speeding off _ Table shots _ Outside grounds (wedding party) _ Other reception fun .

5. 4. Signature of Photographer Signature of Contracting Party Address date ____________________________ . at the wedding and that interference while the photographer is working. All deposits are non-refundable if date is changed or wedding cancelled for any reason. The photographer is authorized to exclude other photographer. It is understood that any and all proofs. 2. the photographer limits any liability for inability to deliver pictures for any reason to return of all deposits made. 3. No photographs can be taken while photographer is posing couple and groupings. with 1/3rd to be paid two weeks prior to wedding and the remainder to be paid upon completion of photography. Although great care will be taken with the photographs taken at the wedding.AGREEMENT FOR WEDDING PHOTOGRAPHY Wedding Date___________________ Bride's Name ___________________________________________________________Phone____________________ Address Groom's Name ______________________________________________Phone ____________________ Address Address After Wedding Location bride will prepare Time to start Photography Time for arrival of flowers Ceremony time and location Name of presiding clergyman ________________________________________Phone ______________ Reception time and location Best man_____________________________________ Maid/Matron of honor 1. With packages. a deposit of 1/3rd is due at signing of this contract. All terms of this agreement are understood and agreed upon. will constitute a reason for non-completion of the job with no liability to the photographer and loss of initial deposit by signing party. sample prints and negatives remain the property of the photographer and they may be used for advertising or display.s amateur or professional. This constitutes an order for wedding photographs and albums and prints.

insurance consumer collateral trade TOTAL FEE __________ __________ __________ __________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ crew travel time crew model fees travel time models props parking mileage telephone delivery food for crew lodging travel Contingency 10% Total _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ ___________________________________ SIGNATURE OF PHOTOGRAPHER __________________________________________ SIGNATURE OF BUYER .ASSIGNMENT ORDER to ____________________________________ ordered by ____________________________________ firm ____________________________________ address ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ date ____________________________________ client ____________________________________ your purchase order & job number ____________________________________ our job number ____________________________________ required date DESCRIPTION OF ASSIGNMENT: FEES: fee for reproduction and use of____ photographs @ $ ________________ number of days _____@ $___________ per day fee and terms if experimental______________________________ use and rights granted: ______________________________________ national ___________ ______________________________________ regional ___________ ______________________________________ local ___________ all rights ___________ ESTIMATED EXPENSES: pre-production: pre-production fee _______________________ polaroid styling _______________________ food set construction _______________________ lodging ___________________________________________ location scouting ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ production: film & processing: polaroid black & white color rush processing prints styling location fee rental of props " wardrobe " lighting " grip " eqipt.

! Payment Schedule: ___% of the Total Estimate upon signing of this agreement. crew and per diem are full rate. ! Postponement due to weather is billed at 50% fee for photographer and models. ! In the event of a dispute arising out of this agreement. and to abide by its decision. .Terms of this Order ! Photographic Fee is based on ______ days of shooting. In the event of a legal suit being filed. ! All direct expenses in connection with this assignment are additional to photographic fee and will be billed. If for any reason the shooting is cancelled by the client. It is understood that they will be billed on what actually is incurred. ! The costs estimated on page one of this agreement represent only an estimate which has been prepared as accurately as possible. then _____ % of the Photographic Fee will be billed.833% Finance Charge per month after 30 days. ___% of the Total Estimate upon delivery of the photographs. Client agrees to submit said dispute to the American Arbitration Association in ___________. the prevailing party shall be entitled to recover attorney's fees. ! Use of Photography: (Unless otherwise specified. ! Retake fee to be based upon agreement between agency and photographer. photographer herein grants one-time non-exclusive rights to the use of photographic images. 0. unless otherwise noted. ___% Balance _____ days after receipt of the final invoice.

(D) PHOTOGRAPH SUBJECT/ID NO THAN $1. AIR COURIER OR OTHER BONDED MESSENGER WHICH PROVIDES PROOF OF RETURN. FORMAT ____________ TOTAL COLOR ____________ TOTAL B&W CHECK COUNT AND ACKNOWLEDGE BY SIGNING AND RETURNING ONE COPY. PHOTOGRAPHS MUST BE RETURNED BY REGISTERED MAIL. (O) DUPL.500/ITEM) IN EVENT OF LOSS/DAMAGE OUR JOB NO: YOUR PO NO: YOUR JOB NO: QTY. COUNT SHALL BE CONSIDERED ACCURATE AND QUALITY DEEMED SATISFACTORY FOR REPRODUCTION IF SAID COPY IS NOT IMMEDIATELY RECEIVED BY RETURN MAIL WITH ALL EXCEPTIONS DULY NOTED.STOCK PHOTOGRAPHY DELIVERY MEMO TO: DATE: SHIPMENT NO: PROJECT: PHONE NO: ORDERED BY: CLIENT: PHOTOGRAPHS TO BE RETURNED BY: VALUE (IF OTHER ORIG. SUBJECT TO ALL CONDITIONS ABOVE AND ON REVERSE SIDE Acknowledged and Accepted: Please sign here Date .

Invoice amount will be tripled if said credit s not provided. including reasonable legal fees and expenses arising out of any use of any photographs for which no release was furnished by Photographer or any photographs which are altered by Client. projected. or registered mail. negatives. Client and its principals. The reasonable and stipulated fee for any other use shall be three times Photographer's normal fee for such usage. or misuse of any photographs and (b) to return all photographs prepaid. Client assumes full liability for its principals. by bonded messenger. additions. legal representatives. [7] Client may not assign or transfer this agreement. fully insured. [11] Client will indemnify and defend Photographer against all claims. No amendment or waiver of any terms is binding unless set forth in writing and signed by the parties.500) or such other amount set forth next to said item on the front hereof. [8] Except as provided in (9) below any dispute regarding this agreement shall be arbitrated in [PHOTOGRAPHER'S CITY AND STAT]E under rules of the American Arbitration Association and the laws of [STATE OF ARBITRATION]. This agreement binds and inures to the benefit of Photographer. copied. or used in any way without (a) express written permission on Photographer's invoice stating the rights granted and the terms thereof and (b) payment of said invoice. and legal interest on any award or judgment in favor of Photographer. or subtractions in respect of the photographs.00) per week per print. agents. liability. and expenses. employees.00) per week per color transparency and One Dollar ($1. affiliates. agents and affiliates ore jointly and severally liable for the performance of all payments and other obligations hereunder. successors and assigns (including without limitation messengers and freelance researchers) for any loss damage or misuse of the photographs. including without limitation any digitalization or synthesization of the photographs alone or with any other material by use of computer or other electronic means or any other method or means now or hereafter known. or any rights granted hereunder. [10] Client will not make or permit any alterations. [4] Client assumes insurer's liability (a) to indemnify Photographer for loss. Any dispute involving $________[LIMIT OF LOCAL SMALL CLAIMS COURT] or less may be submitted without arbitration to any court having jurisdiction thereof. Client Client's principals.TERMS & CONDITIONS [1] "Photograph(s)" means all photographic material furnished by Photographer hereunder. employees. employees. damages. air freight. [3] Submission is for examination only. . costs. reasonable legal fees. Photographs may not be reproduced. [2] After 14 days the following holding fees are charged until return: Five Dollars ($5. whether transparencies. Client shall pay all arbitration and court costs. safe and undamaged. successors and assigns. [5] Reimbursement by Client for loss or damage of each original transparency shall be in the amount of One Thousand Five Hundred Dollars ($1. prints or otherwise. and expenses. Photographer and Client agree that said amount represents the fair and reasonable value of each item. agents and affiliates and their respective heirs. This agreement incorporates by reference Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code and the Copyright Act of 1976 as amended. and that Photographer would not sell all rights to such item for less than said amount. [9] Client hereby expressly consents to the jurisdiction of the Federal courts with respect to claims by photographer under the Copyright Act of 1976 as amended. Reimbursement by Client for loss or damage of each other item shall be in the amount set forth next to sold item on the front hereof. Unless so furnished no release exists. damage. [6] Photographer copyright notice" © [YEAR OF FIRST PUBLICATION][PHOTOGRAPHER'S NAME]" must accompany each use as an adjacent credit line.

trade. reproach. does grant to_________________("Photographer"). or the advertising copy or printed matter that may be used in connection therewith. release. alteration.PROPERTY RELEASE For good and valuable consideration herein acknowledged as received. the undersigned warrants that he/she is fully authorized to do so This release shall be binding upon the undersigned and his/her/its heirs. or for any purpose The undersigned also consents to the use of any printed matter in conjunction therewith. in advertising. successors. whether intentional or otherwise. legal representatives. The undersigned states further that he/she has read the above authorization. or having the right to permit the taking and use of photographs of. his/her heirs. or the use to which it may be applied. or use in composite form. The undersigned hereby releases. and assigns. If the undersigned is signing as an agent or employee of a firm or corporation. ___________________________________ _________________________________________ DATE NAME ___________________________________ WITNESS _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ ADDRESS . from any liability by virtue of any blurring. and indignity. being the legal owner of. scandal. and all persons acting under his/her permission or authority. the undersigned. prior to its execution and that he/she is fully familiar with the contents thereof. The undersigned hereby warrants that he/she is of full age and has every right to contract in his/her own name in the above regard. and assigns. distortion. as well os any publication thereof. his/her heirs. The undersigned hereby waives any right that he/she/it may have to inspect or approve the finished product or products. or those for whom he/she is acting. and assigns the full rights to use such photographs and copyright same. optical illusion. that may occur or be produced in the taking of said picture or in any subsequent processing thereof. discharges. certain property designated as____________________. legal representatives. scorn. legal representatives. and agreement. agents. and agrees to save harmless Photographer. even though it may subject me to ridicule.

Name (Print) __________________________ Date ______________ Signature _____________________________ Phone _____________ Address _____________________________________________________ City _______________________ State _______ Zip ___________ If Minor. ____________ and his/her legal representatives and assigns. Signature of Parent/Guardian ______________________ Witness _____________________________________________________ .RELEASE For valuable consideration received. I hereby release Photographer and his/her legal representatives and assigns from all claims and liability relating to said photographs. for editorial. advertising and any other purpose and in any manner and medium. trade. I hereby grant to ("Photographer"). or in which I may be included. and to copyright the same. to alter the same without restriction. the irrevocable and unrestricted right to use and publish photographs of me.

I hereby grant to ("Photographer"). as well as any publication thereof. and all persons acting under his/her permission or authority or those for whom he/she is acting. and assigns. __________________________ (MINOR'S NAME) __________________________ __________________________ MINOR'S ADDRESS __________________________ DATE __________________________________ (FATHER MOTHER) (GUARDIAN) _________________________________________ _________________________________________ ADDRESS ___________________________________ WITNESS . I hereby release discharge and agree to save harmless Photographer. re-use. or use in composite form. and agreement. release. I also consent to the use of any printed matter in conjunction therewith. optical illusion. prior to its execution. alteration. _________________________ his/her legal representatives and assigns. in whole or in part. or any other purpose whatsoever. and for other good and valuable consideration herein acknowledged as received. or reproductions thereof in color or otherwise. those for whom Photographer is acting. and in any and all media now or hereafter known. and re-publish photographic portraits or pictures of the minor or in which the minor may be included. and that I am fully familiar with the contents thereof. advertising. from any liability by virtue of any blurring. distortion. made through any medium at his/her studios or elsewhere. his/her legal representatives or assigns. I hereby waive any right that I or the minor may have to inspect or approve the finished product or products or the advertising copy or printed matter that may be used in connection therewith or the use to which it may be applied. without restriction as to changes or alterations from time to time. including without limitation any claims for libel or invasion of privacy. I hereby warrant that I am of full age and have every right to contract for the minor in the above regard. in conjunction with the minor's own or a fictitious name. I state further that I have read the above authorization. for art. trade. that may occur or be produced in the taking of said picture or in any subsequent processing thereof. or composite or distorted in character or form. whether intentional or otherwise. and those acting with his/her authority and permission. upon the terms hereinafter stated. This release shall be binding upon me and my heirs. the absolute right and permission to copyright and use. legal representatives. publish.MINOR RELEASE In consideration of the engagement as a model of the minor named below.

SIMPLIFIED ADULT RELEASE

For valuable consideration received I hereby grant to ("Photographer"), _________________ the absolute and irrevocable rights and unrestricted permission in respect of photographic portraits or pictures that he/she had taken of me or in which I may be included with others, to copyright the same in his/her own name or otherwise, to use, re-use, publish, and re-publish the some in whole or in part, individually or in conjunction with other photographs, and in conjunction with any printed matter, in any and all media now or hereafter known, and for any purpose whatsoever for illustration, promotion, art, editorial, advertising, and trade, or any other purpose whatsoever without restriction as to alteration; and to use my name in connection therewith if he/she so chooses. I hereby release and discharge Photographer from any and all claims and demands arising out of or in connection with the use of the photographs, including without limitation any and all claims for libel or invasion of privacy. This authorization and release shall also inure to the benefit of the heirs, legal representatives, licensees, and assigns of Photographer, as well as the person(s) for whom he/she took the photographs. I am of full age and have the right to contract in my own name. I have read the foregoing and fully understand the contents thereof. This release shall be binding upon me and my heirs, legal representatives, and assigns.

___________________ DATE ___________________ WITNESS

_________________________________________ NAME _________________________________________

_________________________________________ _________________________________________ ADDRESS

ADULT RELEASE

In consideration of my engagement as a model and for other good and valuable consideration herein acknowledged as received, I hereby grant to ("Photographer"),_________________, his/her heirs, legal representatives, and assigns, those for whom Photographer is acting, and those acting with his/her authority and permission, the irrevocable and unrestricted right and permission to copyright, in his/her own name or otherwise, and use, re-use, publish, and re-publish photographic portraits or pictures of me or in which I may be included, in whole or in part, or composite or distorted in character or form, without restriction as to changes or alterations, in conjunction with my own or a fictitious name, or reproductions thereof in color or otherwise, made through any medium at his/her studios or elsewhere, and in any and all media now ar hereafter known for illustration, promotion, art, editorial, advertising, trade, or any other purpose whatsoever. I also consent to the use of any printed matter in conjunction therewith. I hereby waive any right that I may hove to inspect or approve the finished product or products and the advertising copy or other matter that may be used in connection therewith or the use to which it may be applied. I hereby release, discharge and agree to save harmless Photographer, his/her heirs, legal representatives and assigns, and all persons acting under his/her permission or authority or those for whom he/she is acting, from any liability by virtue of any blurring, distortion, alteration, optical illusion, or use in composite form, whether intentional or otherwise, that may occur or be produced in the taking of said picture or in any subsequent processing thereof, as well as any publication thereof, including without limitation any claims for libel or invasion of privacy. I hereby warrant that I am of full age and have the right to contract in my own name. I have read the above authorization release and agreement prior to its execution and I am fully familiar with the contents thereof. This release shall be binding upon me and my heirs, legal representatives, and assigns.

____________________ DATE ____________________ WITNESS

_________________________________________ NAME _________________________________________

_________________________________________ _________________________________________ ADDRESS

Name

Part ___ Previews

of ___ ORDER

Order Date

Finish Date Outside Lab

Rush

9 Rush charge

Address

Salesman

Date & Invoice #

Home Phone Billing Address

Business Phone

Notify Photographer

Mail

Surprise Retoucher

Will Call Printer

COD Finisher Thank you Card Mailed

QUANTITY

SIZE

DESCRIPTION

PRICE COLOR

Copy Commercial Portrait B&W Restoration

Frame Reorder Photo Fin. Misc

ID Passport School

AMOUNT OF ORDER SALES TAX TOTAL AMOUNT DUE 50% DEPOSIT BALANCE DUE BALANCE PAID
Signed Date Received by Important to customer. Check above order carefully. An order cannot be changed once it is placed. Customer agrees to pick up order and pay balance upon completion. Reasonable collection costs will be added to delinquent balances. I hereby accept the terms of this order:

INDEX

accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 actor and model portfolios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 advertising photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 42 agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 art portfolio photography, copying and reproductions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 assignment photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 66 business loss vs hobby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 business plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 business structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 cash vs accrual accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 catalog photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 commercial photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 contractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 copyright . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 corporate photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 43 corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 dealing with employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 debt financing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 depreciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 economic development commission (edc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 editorial photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 43 employee leasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 entertainment and gifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 entrepreneurial skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 estimated tax payments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 exclusive limited use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 exclusive unlimited use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 fashion photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 federal taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 filing dates for tax returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 finance companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 financing start-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 friends and relatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 galleries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 geographic and time limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 hobby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 incorporating a business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 marketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 registration . . . . . . . . 74 local taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 nonexclusive unlimited use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 self employment tax (seca) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 register your business . . . 60 taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 personal funds . . . . . . . . . . . 2 publicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 sole proprietorship . . . 12 start up expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 licensing the use of your photographs . .interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 news syndicates . 1 school photography . . . . . . . . . . . 43 stock. . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 small business investment companies (sbic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 small business administration (sba) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . 60. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 running your own business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 uniform capitalization rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 pricing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 nature and wildlife photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 record keeping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 permanent employees . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 news photography . . . . . 31 stock photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 temporary personnel services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 specialized subjects . 74 retail photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 office in the home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 portrait photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 travel photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 market areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 state financing programs . . . 64 nonexclusive limited use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 real estate photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 partnership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 specializations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 promotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 pros and cons . . . . . 53 state taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .useful publications from the irs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 33 10 64 74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wedding photography . . . . vehicle expenses . . . . wire services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . work for hire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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