Prospects of aerobic rice  (Oryza sativa L ) cultivation in irrigated sativa L.

) cultivation in irrigated  areas of India

M.D.Reddy, K.M.Dakshina Murthy and V. Ramulu
Water Technology Centre, ANGRAU,  Water Technology Centre ANGRAU Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India
Presented in "Prospects of aerobic rice cultivation in irrigated areas of India.  National seminar on sustainable rice  production system under changed climate. Held at CRRI, Cuttack, Nov 27‐29, 2010 1

Grow rice like other cereal: no puddling, no standing  Grow rice like other cereal: no puddling, no standing water, no soil saturation, dry land preparation
(Bouman et. al. 2007 )


Rice Scenario in India Rice Scenario in India
• Rice area 45 million hectares 
1. 2. 3. 4. 4 46%irrigated,  28 % rain fed lowland,  14 %flood prone, and  12 %rain fed upland. 12 % i f d l d

• Four seasons occur in India: winter (December‐ February), summer (March‐May), rainy  eb ua y), su e ( ac ay), a y southwestern monsoon (June‐September), and  post monsoon (October‐November). • It is cultivated during Kharif (early) (Mar ‐ May  to Jun –Oct), Kharif (Jun – Oct to Nov‐Feb) and  summer (Nov‐Feb to Mar‐ summer (Nov‐Feb to Mar‐

•Irrigated rice in India typically grown under submerged conditions by keeping 5‐10 cm depth of water •The availability of water to agriculture and increasing costs of water threaten the traditional way of irrigated rice production •Need to develop an efficient water saving practices like aerobic rice, SRI, alternate wetting and drying in rice production

What is aerobic rice?? The aerobic rice is "improved upland rice" in terms of yield potential, and "improved lowland rice" in terms of drought tolerance Aerobic rice is a new system of rice cultivation for water saving in rice (Bouman et al. 2005, Yang et al. 2005), in this system fields remain unsaturated throughout the crop growth and water will b applied t b i th soil water th d t ill be li d to bring the il t content to field capacity. Rice could be grown aerobically under irrigated condition just like upland crops, such as wheat or maize (Bouman, 2001)

Aerobic rice Aerobic rice
• Aerobic rice is a new type of rice that is aerobic‐soil‐adapted and  input‐responsive.  • It grows well in non puddle and non saturated soils with water  content of 70% to 100% of water‐holding capacity throughout a  growing season.  • Aerobic rice can be a replacement of lowland rice wherever  available water is insufficient for lowland rice but sufficient for  aerobic rice.  • Aerobic rice is targeted to more favorable environments where  land is flat or terraced, and soil can be frequently brought to near  field capacity by rainfall or supplemental irrigation. 


• Aerobic rice crop yield of 3‐6 t/ha can be  obtained in different regions. obtained in different regions • The dry seeding technology (aerobic rice)  combined with other crop management  combined with other crop management techniques like supplementary irrigation and  proper fertilization, it is now possible to grow  local varieties using less water but obtaining  higher yields.


The driving factor for aerobic rice g
• Water resources for agriculture are shrinking Water resources for agriculture are shrinking – Traditional rice cultivation – flooded for 4 – 5 months – In India >70% of all water used to irrigate rice In India >70% of all water used to irrigate rice – Rice requires more water for land preparation – In low land rice water use is 1,000 – 2,000 mm – About 4.5 million ha in North China , 2.1million ha in  pakistan and 10.4 million ha in North India  and   Central India will face water scarcity by 2025 (Tuong  Central India will face water scarcity by 2025 (Tuong & Bouman )


Trade offs and challenges Trade offs and challenges
• Interactions among scales • Nutrients ‐ Phosphorus and Nitrogen are less available under    aerobic conditions  aerobic conditions ‐ Aerobic requires more N ‐ Micro nutrient deficiencies in Aerobic rice • Weeds ‐ ‐ Higher weed infestation ‐ ‐ Weed species shift • Sustainability


10 Aerobic rice cultivars at college farm, ANGRAU, Hyderabad, Kharif 2008.

Niches of aerobic rice in India 1. Upland flat rice growing areas where annual rainfall is high and rainfall with or without supplemental irrigation is sufficient to bring the soil water content close to field capacity, and farmers can apply recommended dose of fertilizers and adopt best management practices. 2. Rainfed lowland soils which are relatively coarse‐ coarse textured , well‐drained, and ponding of water occurs for short period in the season. 3. Irrigated lowland areas, where farmers do not have sufficient water to keep rice fields flooded for a substantial period of time.

Aerobic rice production Technology p gy


1. Varietal development

•In India, the research on aerobic rice is limited •Lack of high yielding varieties which can provide higher i ld hi h yields under aerobic conditions i major setback d bi di i is j b k for aerobic rice cultivation in India •varieties recommended for low land transplanted conditions the medium and short duration varieties under 120 days maturity period are recommended for aerobic conditions

•aerobic rice cultivars called Han Dao have been developed that yields up to 6‐7.5 t ha‐1 under flash irrigation in bunded fields. •Low land varieties like MTU 7014, IR 64, IR 13525 recorded 4.88, 3.87 and 3.86 t/ha yield respectively •Hyderabad also proved that medium duration varieties like Erramallelu (4.07 t/ha), Naveen (4.57 t/ha) , MTU 1010 (4.23 t/ha) ( ) ( ) ( ) and Tell Hamsa (3.7 t/ha) given higher yields compared with other varieties •It was also observed that aerobic rice technology combined with other crop management techniques like supplementary irrigation and proper f ili i fertilization, i i possible to grow l l varieties recommended it is ibl local i i d d for lowlands like Erra Mallelu, Jagtial sannalu and Polasa prabha using less water with reasonably good yields in A.P

Tab 1. Performance of Han Deo aerobic rice varieties as observed from 1997-99 in farmers fields in China
Variety  Han Dao  Han Dao 277 Han Dao  297 Han Dao  502 Regions of adoption Huang‐Huai‐Hai Huang Huai Hai region Northern China Growth  Yield  duration (days) (t/ha) 105‐115 105 115 5.0‐6.0 5060 130‐140 5.0‐6.5 6.0‐7.0 Irrigations  water (mm) 150‐225 150 225 225‐375 225‐300

Along Huai River and 115‐130 in Chang Jiang river valley


Tab 2. Water input and water productivity and grain yield of rice varieties at Rajendranagar, Hyderabad (kharif 2003) under aerobic rice )
Varieties Grain yield t/ha Water input Water  productivity  kg/m3 221.5 239.5 239 5 210.1 187.6 187 6

Varaalu Erramallelu E ll l Jagtial sannalu Polasa prabha Polasa prabha

3.87 5.28 5 28 4.94 4.68 4 68

709.8 882.7 882 7 940.4 1001.6 1001 6


Tab 3.  Performance of promising rice cultures under  p g aerobic rice cultivation
Cultivar Erramallelu WGL‐14 Jagtial sannalu Tella hamsa IR 64 Naveen N MTU 1010 ARB 17(1) X 06 Rajendra Varalu LSD (p=0.05) ( ) Aerobic  4.07 4 07 2.14 2.11 3.70 4.02 4.57 4 57 4.23 4.48 3.59 3.15 1.20 Transplanted* 4.60 4 60 2.00 1.26 2.88 2.23 3.92 3 92 2.42 3.68 2.57 2.07 1.37

* Transplanted with over aged seedlings (50 dys)

II. Cultural management II. Cultural management
a. Time of sowing  dry seeding in rainfed upland is recommended after receipt of 60‐75  mm rainfall . Experimental results indicated that the crop sown on   early (6 June ) received greater effective rainfall and also irrigation  early (6th June ) received greater effective rainfall and also irrigation water with higher yield  b. Method of sowing b Method of sowing Line sowing at 20 cm apart recorded higher grain yield over      broadcast seeding, sowing in lines at 30 c m apart and transplanted broadcast seeding sowing in lines at 30 c m apart and transplanted rice(Anon. 2003) p g p p p / , close spacing at 15 cm apart produced more panicles/m2, but fewer grains per panicle. Similarly, a seed rate of 150‐kg/ha produced  more panicles per square meter but fewer grains per panicle


Tab 4. Grain yield of aerobic , wet seeded and transplanted  rice as influenced by method of sowing

Method of establishment Method of establishment Broad cast sown Dry  Broad cast sown‐ Dry seeding Line sown dry seeding Line sown‐ dry seeding Braodcast sprouted‐wet  seeding g Transplanting

Grain yield  Grain yield (t/ha) 2.88 2 88 3.59 3.29 3.40


C. Irrigation and Water requirement

In majority of experiments, it was observed that compared to lowland rice cultivation, the water used by aerobic rice was lower by more than 30‐50% At Rajendranagar, studies on water requirement of rice revealed that flooded lowland rice required about 1168 mm of water, whereas aerobic rice used only 726 mm In Andhra Pradesh studies on performance of aerobic rice under drip and sprinkler irrigation indicated that drip method of irrigation with 714 mm water recorded significantly higher grain yields (5208 kg/ha) compared to sprinkler method of irrigation with 920 mm of water (4092 kg/ha).

Tab 5. Yield of aerobic rice (Jagtial sannalu) under drip and sprinkler method of irrigation Irrigation  system No of  tillers m‐2 No of  panicles  m‐2 460 414 Yield  (kg/ha) Water applied

Drip Sprinkler

507 447

5208 4092

714 920

Tab 6. Water input , water productivity and grain yield of aerobic rice at Hyderabad Varieties Grain  yield  (t/ha) 3.87 5.28 4.94 4.68 Effective RF 264 317 322 324 Irrigation Total Water  productivi ty (kg/m3) 221.5 239.5 210.1 187.6

Varalu Erramallelu JGL 1798 JGL 1798 JGL 384

445 565 617 677

709 882 939 1001

d. Fertilizers d Fertilizers
The application of 80 or 100 kg N along with 50 kg each of  P2O5 and K2O per ha found to give higher yields. d h f d i hi h i ld Grain yield and all major yield components progressively  y j y p p g y increased with increased nitrogen application from 60 to 120  kg ha Significant increase in grain yield with increase in N level  from 60 to 90 and 90 to 150 kg N/ha


e. Iron deficiency
Iron deficiency is one of the serious nutritional disorders that encountered in aerobically grown rice on upland alkaline and calcareous soils which were never before under rice cultivation results in decline in productivity Spraying of Fe SO4 @ 1% and in severe p y g deficiency even 1.5 to 2.0% along with 0.1% citric acid at weekly intervals 2‐3 times will correct the deficiency and increases yields


f. Weed management f. Weed management
The major constraint in getting higher yields in aerobic rice is weed  infestation which cause reduction in grain yield g y Experiments conducted at many places over India reveled that pre‐ emergence application of  pendimethalin @ 1 kg a.i. ha‐1 followed by HW at  25‐30  DAS could able to reduce weed intensity considerably In line sown crop the bullock drawn implements can effectively utilized for  weed control d t l


III. BMP for aerobic rice
1. The field should be prepared during summer with help of pre monsoon showers by plowing and harrowing. Further ploughings are to be taken after recipet of monsoon so as to kill the weeds which germinated earlier (Stale seed bed) to obtain a smooth seed bed. The dry seed has to be sown manually or mechanically at 2‐3 cm deep i rows spaced at 20 25 cm apart b adopting a seed rate of 80 d in d t 20‐ t by d ti d t f kg/ha. Pre emergence application of pendimethalin @ 1 0 kg a i/ha followed 1.0 a.i/ha by one hand weeding at 25 DAS checks most of the weeds


3. 3



The total amount of nitrogen (120 kg N/ha) has to be divided into three splits and applied one at sowing/at 2 weeks after emergence and remaining two splits at active/maximum tillering and at panicle initiation stage. The entire P2O5 and K2O @ 40‐60 kg/ha each and zinc at 20 kg ha‐1 are to be applied as basal. Irrigation after sowing is needed if there is no sufficient rain to promote uniform emergence. Subsequent irrigation applications needed when soil moisture tension at top 15‐20 cm reaches ‐20 kPa during vegetative stage and ‐10 kPa during flowering stage. The amount of irrigation water should be sufficient to bring the top 20 cm soil to field capacity. Irrigation can be applied by either flash flood, furrow or sprinkler method. FeSO4 spraying @ 1 0 – 1 5% may be advocated whenever iron 1.0 1.5% deficiency is noticed in the field. Spraying has to be repeated 3 times at weekly intervals depending on the crop recovery.


6. 6


IV. Conclusions
The shortage in water has forced to give emphasis on development of dry seeded rice production technology With aerobic rice technology , apart from saving water and raising / sustaining grain yields, any system of non flooded rice g gg y y y cultivation may bring other advantages such as maintenance of soil structure beneficial to non rice crops in the rotation, timely sowing of succeeding crop after rice extended area rice, under cultivation in the command of a project Finally h Fi ll there i a need to study the i in d d h impact of aerobic method f bi h d of cultivation on soil fertility, pest and disease buildup and sustainability in the long term.

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