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DIGITAL SIMULATION OF LINEAR SYSTEM EXPT.NO : DATE AIM: To simulate the time response characteristic of higher-order Multiinput multi output (MIMO) liner system using state variable formulation. APPARATUS REQUIRED: MATLAB 6.5 THEORY: Time Domain Specification The desired performance characteristics of control systems are specified in terms of time domain specification. System with energy storage elements cannot respond instantaneously and will exhibit transient responses, whenever they are subjected to inputs or disturbances. The desired performance characteristics of a system of any order may be specified in terms of the transient response to a units step input signal. The transient response of a system to a unit step input depends on the initial conditions. Therefore to compare the time response of various systems it is necessary to start with standard initial conditions. The most practical standard is to start with the system at rest and output and all time derivatives there of zero. The transient response of a practical control system often exhibits damped oscillation before reaching steady state. The transient response characteristics of a control system to a unit step input are specified in terms of the following time domain specifications. :

1

Control Systems Laboratory Manual 1. Delay time, td 2. Rise time, tr 3. Peak time, tp 4. Maximum overshoot, Mp 5. Setting time, ts

FORMULA:

Risetime =

π −θ ωd

where θ = tan −1

1 −ζ 2

**ζ Damped frequency of oscillation,
**

ωd = ωn 1 − ζ 2

PROCEDURE: 7. Enter the command window of the MATLAB. 8. Create a new workspace by selecting new file. 9. Complete your model. 10.Run the model by either pressing F5 or start simulation. 11.View the results. 12.Analysis the stability of the system for various values of gain. PROBLEM: Obtain the step response of series RLC circuit with R = 1.3KΩ , L = 26mH and C=3.3µ f using MATLAB M – File.

**MATLAB PROGRAM FOR UNIT IMPULSE PRSPONSE:
**

2

den) Result: STABILITY ANALYSIS OF LINEAR SYSTEM 3 .2 impulse grid title (‘ unit impulse response plot’) MATLAB PROGRAM FOR UNIT STEP PRSPONSE: PROGRAM: Format long e num = [ 0 0 1.Control Systems Laboratory Manual PROGRAM: num = [ 0 0 1 ] den = [ 1 0.6e10 1 ] (num.6e10 den = [ 1 50000 step grid on title (‘step response of series RLC circuit’) (num. den) ] ] 1.

Bode Plot 2. Nichols chart Bode plot: The bode plot is a frequency response plot of the transfer function of a system. To analysis the stability of given linear system using MATLAB. One is plot of the magnitude of a sinusoidal transfer function versus log ω .Control Systems Laboratory Manual EXPT. A bode plot consists of two graphs. Frequency response analysis of control system can be carried either analytically or graphically. Polar plot (Nyquist plot) 3. Nyquist plot and root locus of the given transfer function. The main advantage of the bode plot is that multiplication of magnitude can be converted into addition. 4 .NO : DATE AIM: (i) : To obtain the bode plot. The various graphical techniques available for frequency response analysis are 1. The other is plot of the phase angle of a sinusoidal transfer function versus logω . Also a simple method for sketching an approximate log magnitude curve is available. Nichols plot 4. (ii) APPARATUS REQUIRED: System with MATLAB THEORY: Frequency Response: The frequency response is the steady state response of a system when the input to the system is a sinusoidal signal. M and N circles 5.

Gain margin 6. ω r.Control Systems Laboratory Manual Polar plot: The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G (jω ) on polar coordinates as ω is varied from zero to infinity. 4. Root Locus: The root locus technique is a powerful tool for adjusting the location of closed loop poles to achieve the desired system performance by varying one or more system parameters. The polar plot is also called Nyquist plot. Cut – off rate 5. Resonant peak. The path taken by the roots of the characteristics equation when open loop gain K is varied from 0 to ∞ are called root loci (or the path taken by a root of characteristic equation when open loop gain K is varied from 0 to ∞ is called root locus. Bandwidth. Mr 2. Phase margin 5 . Resonant Frequency.) Frequency Domain Specifications: The performance and characteristics of a system in frequency domain are measured in term of frequency domain specifications. 3. The requirements of a system to be designed are usually specified in terms of these specifications. Thus the polar plot is the locus of vectors [G (jω ) ] ∠ G (jω ) as ω is varied from zero to infinity. Then the closed loop system is stable. Nyquist Stability Criterion: If G(s)H(s) contour in the G(s)H(s) plane corresponding to Nyquist contour in s-plane encircles the point – 1+j0 in the anti – clockwise direction as many times as the number of right half s-plain of G(s)H(s). The frequency domain specifications are 1.

A large bandwidth corresponds to a small rise time or fast response. Gain Margin. Mr The maximum value of the magnitude of closed loop transfer function is called the resonant peak. A large resonant peak corresponds to a large over shoot in transient response. The frequency at witch the phase of open loop transfer function is 180 is called the phase cross over frequency. Bandwidth is usually defined for closed loop system and it transmits the signals whose frequencies are less than cut-off frequency. ω r The bandwidth is the range of frequency for which the system gain is more than -3db. Mr. The frequency at which the gain is -3db is called cut off frequency. Kg The gain margin. γ The phase marginγ . noise rejection characteristics and rise time. Cut-Off Rate: The slope of the log-magnitude curve near the cut off frequency is called cut-off rate. The bandwidth is a measured of the ability of a feedback system to produce the input signal. ω pc. Kg is defined as the reciprocal of the magnitude of open loop transfer function at phase cross over frequency. Phase Margin. the gain cross over frequency ω gc is the frequency at which the magnitude of open loop transfer function is unity (or it is the frequency at which the db magnitude is zero). PROCEDURE: 6 .Control Systems Laboratory Manual Resonant Peak. The cut-off rate indicates the ability of the system to distinguish the signal from noise. Resonant Frequency. is that amount of additional phase lag at the gain cross over frequency required to bring the system to the verge of instability.

Enter the command window of the MATLAB. Execute the program by either pressing F5 or Debug – Run. View the results.Control Systems Laboratory Manual 1. 0 0] bode (a. 6. 4. Analysis the stability of the system for various values of gain. 1 1] d = [0 0 . 2. Problem 1 Obtain the bode diagram for the following system 1 x1 1 1 y1 x1 0 x = − 25 − 4 x + 0 1 y 2 2 2 1 x1 y1 0 y = − 25 − 4 x 2 2 MATLAB Program a = [0 1 . 5. d) grid title (‘BODE DIAGRAM’) Problem 2 Draw the Nyquist plot for G(s) = MATLAB Program num = [0 0 0] 7 1 s( s + 1) . 3. 0 1] c = [1 1 . Type and save the program. c. -25 -4] b = [1 1 . Create a new M – file by selecting File – New – M – File. b.

NO : DATE : 8 .3 5 rlocus (num.Control Systems Laboratory Manual den = [1 1 0] nyquist (num.den) grid title [‘Root Locus Plot’] 1] 0] Result: STUDY OF P. PI AND PID CONTROLLER EXPT.5)( s 2 + 0.-5.2.5] axis (v) grid title (‘Nyquist Plot’) Problem 2 Obtain the root focus plot of the given open loop T.den) v = [-2.1 10.6 s +10 ) MATLAB Program num = [0 0 0 0 den = [11.F is K G(s) H (s) = s ( s + 0.

integral control action and 9 . Kp represents the gain constant of proportional contoller. Reset rate is measured in terms of reset per minute. The combinations of the proportional control action. It is used in closed loop control system to enhance the system output.Control Systems Laboratory Manual AIM: To find the percentage peak overshoot and steady state error of the given P. the output is proportional to the input. The inverse of integral time Ti is called the reset rate. The reset rate is the number of time per minute that the proportional part of the control action is duplicated. SIMULINK THEORY: A controller is similar to an amplifier.F = Vo (s) / Vi (s) = Kp (1 + 1 / sTi) Where Vo = output voltage Vi = input voltage Ti = integral time constant Kp = gain constant Both Kp and Ti are adjustable. PI and PID APPARATUS REQUIRED: MATLAB. The integral time constant Ti adjusts integral control action while changed in the values of Kp affects both the integral parts of the control action. In proportional controller. KP = VO R =1 + F Vi RI Where Vo = output voltage Vi = input voltage Rf = feedback resistance Ri = input resistance Kp = gain constant The control action of proportional plus integral controller is defined by the equation Vo (t) = Kp Vi (t) + Vi (t) (Kp / Ti) The transfer function of the controller is T.

Control Systems Laboratory Manual derivative combined action has the advantages of the three individual control actions.85. Set the values by using knobs on the trainer as follows: ♣ Input amplitude to 1 V (p-p) ♣ Frequency at low value 4. The system shows fairly large overshoot.6. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram 2. PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL DERIVATIVE CONTROLLER: 1. Ki = 54. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram 2. For various values of Kc. Kd = 0 ♣ Frequency at low values 3. Keep Kc = 0. ♣ Input amplitude to 1V (p-p) ♣ Kc = 0. observe the waveforms PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL CONTROLLER: 1. 2. 10 . Set the values by using knobs on trainer as follows ♣ Input amplitude to 1V (p-p) ♣ Frequency at low value and Ki to zero. Make the connections as per the circuit diagrams. 3.6 and increase Ki in small steps and observe the waveforms. Set the values by using knobs on trainer as following. The transfer function of the controller is given by Vo (s) / Vi (s) = Kp (1 + 1 / (Ti + Td)) where Vo = output voltage Vi = input voltage Ti = integral time constant Td = derivative time constant Kp = gain constant PROCEDURE: PROPORTIONAL CONTROLLER: 1.

6. 5. The improvement in transient performance is observed using CRO with increasing values of Kd. while the steady state error remains unchanged.NO : DATE : 11 . Result: DESIGN OF LAG AND LEAD COMPENSATORS EXPT.Control Systems Laboratory Manual The above steps are repeated for a few non – zero values of Kd. Calculate the values of peak overshoot and steady state error. 4.

In such case. Then the system can be designed by using root locus or frequency response plots. The first step in design is the adjustment of gain to meet the desired specifications. Adjustment of gain alone will not be sufficient to meet the given specifications. 1. A device inserted into the system for the purpose or satisfying the specifications is called compensator. it is necessary to introduce additional devices or component in the system to alter the behavior and to meet the desired specifications. Single output linear time invariant systems. Such a redesign or addition of a suitable device is called compensations. then in steady state the output will have a phase lag with respect input. 2. The compensator behavior introduces pole & zero in open loop transfer function to modify the performance of the system. The different types of electrical or electronic compensators used are lead compensator and lag compensator. increasing the gain may result poor stability or instability. In many cases. 12 . LAG COMPENSATOR: A compensator having the characteristics of a lag network is called a lag compensator. When the system is absolutely unstable then compensation is required to stabilize the system and to meet the desired performance. When the system is stable.Control Systems Laboratory Manual APPARATUS REQUIRED: System employed with MATLAB 6. When performance specification are given for single input. In practical system. If a sinusoidal signal is applied to a lag network.5 THEORY: The control systems are designed to perform specific taskes. Compensation is provided to obtain the desired performance. In control systems compensation required in the following situations.

If the pole is introduced by the compensator is not cancelled by a zero in the system. which improves the speed of response and also reduces the amount of overshoot. Lead compensation appreciably improves the transient response. FORMULA: Gain = B y0 = A x0 = 20 log( B / A) Phase θ = − sin −1 ( x0 / A) = − sin −1 ( y 0 / B ) 13 . The attenuation due to the lag compensator will shift the gain crossover frequency to a lower frequency point where the phase margin is acceptable. Thus the lag compensator will reduce the bandwidth of the system and will result in slower transient response. then lag compensator increase the order of the system by one. LEAD COMPENSATOR: A compensator having the characteristics of a lead network is called a lead compensator.Control Systems Laboratory Manual Lag compensation result in a improvement in steady state performance but result in slower response due to reduced bandwidth. then lead compensator increases order of the system by one. If sinusoidal signal is applied to a lead network. then in steady state the output will have a phase lead with respect to input. A lead compensator is basically a high pass filter and so it amplifies high frequency noise signals. Generally lead compensation is provided to make an unstable system as a stable system. If the pore introduce by compensator is cancelled by a zero in the system. Lag compensator is essentially a low pass filter and high frequency noise signals are attenuated. whereas there is a small change in steady state accuracy. The lead compensator increase the bandwidth.

5. From the bode plot find the new gain crossover frequency. 2. 2. R2 and C. With lag compensator: 1. Insert the lag compensator with the help of passive components and determine the phase margin of the plant. 5. Make the connection as per the circuit diagram. 6. 3. View the results. Observe the step response of the compensated system. G(s). 2. 4. 6. PROCEDURE: 1. 3. Find out β values and writ the frequency function. Enter the command window of the MATLAB. With lead compensator: 1.Control Systems Laboratory Manual PROCEDURE: With out compensator: 1. Draw the bode plot. Type and save the program. Very the frequency of the sin wave input and tabulate the values of xo and yo 4. 14 . 3. Create a New M-File by selecting file New M-File. Execute the program by pressing F5 or Debug Run. From the transfer function calculated R1. Enter the command window of MATLAB. Set the amplifier gain at unity. Apply the 2V p-p sin wave input and observe the waveform. 4. 5. 2. Type and save the program. Analyze the Results. 3. Calculated gain and phase angle. Create a new M – file by selecting File – New –M-File.

MATLAB coding with out Compensator for loop system PROGRAM: den=[ 1 0. Analyze the results. t=0:0. Execute the program by either pressing F5 or Debug – Run. wgc ] = margin (sys). de=0. wpc. sys_cl=feedback (pitch. den) (sys) Margin (sys) [ gm. title (‘BODE PLOT OF UNCOMPENSATED SYSTEM’). MATLAB coding with Compensator: PROGRAM: num den sys margin = [ 0 0 100 = [ 400 = (sys) (sys) 202 5 ]. 15 . wpc.1). den). = [ 2 1 0 ]. 5. 6.01:10.2. View the results. ph. wgc ] = margin (sys) title (‘BODE PLOT OF COMPENSATED SYSTEM’) MATLAB coding with out lag Compensator: PROGRAM: num den sys bode = [ 0 0 5 ]. [ gm.739 0. 1 0 ].Control Systems Laboratory Manual 4. pitch=tf(num. = tf (num. ph.921 0 ].

10).921 0 ]. figure step (de*sys_cl.Control Systems Laboratory Manual figure step(de*sys_cl. alead=200. bode(lead*pitch) sys_cl=feedback(lead*pitch.NO : DATE AIM: 16 : .1. K=0. de=0.01:10.0025. t) sys_cl=feedback (pitch.10).1774 ]. t) grid on title ( 'BODE PLOT FOR CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM WITHOUT COMPENSATOR') MATLAB coding with Compensator for loop system PROGRAM: num=[1 151 0. den=[1 0. t=0:0. t) title('BODE PLOT FOR CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM WITH COMPENSATOR') Result: TRANSFER FUNCTION OF DC SHUNT MOTOR EXPT. pitch=tf(num. de=0.01:10. t=0:0. [Tlead 1]).739 0.2. den). lead=tf(K*[alead*Tlead 1].2. bode(sys_cl. Tlead=0.

If applied voltage is kept. a ratio of maximum to minimum speed of 6:1 which is fairly common. The field excited by a constant DC supply. N ∝ 1 φ By decreasing the flux speed can be increased and vice versa. Since the Ish relatively small. FORMULA: Armature Control D. Eb = V – IaRa will Remain constant. It is known that N ∝ Eb. Hence this method is called field control method. Shunt motor: It is DC shunt motor designed to satisfy the requirements of the servomotor.C. Ish with the help of shunt field rheostat. Then.No Name of the Equipment Range Type Quantity THEORY: Speed can be controlled by varying (i) flux per pole (ii) resistance of armature circuit and (iii) applied voltage. the shunt filed rheostat has to carry only a small current. If the field current is constant then speed is directly proportional to armature voltage and torque is directly proportional to armature current. In interpolar machine. 17 φ . This method is very efficient. In non-interpolar machines. speed can be increased by this methods up to the ratio 2: 1.Control Systems Laboratory Manual To determine the transfer function of the DC shunt motor APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. which means Ish2 R loss is small. The flux of the DC shunt motor can be changed by changing field current.

030 N / rpm Field Control D.No If Ia S1 S2 N V T Eb ω Kb = Eb / ω Kt = ∆ T / ∆ Ia Eb = V-Ia Ra Constant Values J = B = 0.039 Kg2m 0. K Transfer Function = Js2 (1 + ζ s) K = Kt / Rf ζ = Lf / Rf = V Zf2 – Rf2 / 2π f / Rf ω = 2π N / 60 T = r ( S1 – S2 ) * 9. Torque is directly proportional to field flux controlling the field current controls the torque of the motor. 1 Finding the value of Kb Avg Kb = 18 .C. In this motor the armature is supplied with constant current or voltage.075m OBSERVATION TABLE FOR TRANSFER FUNCTION ARMATURE CONTROL DC SERVO MOTOR: Table No.81 N-m and r = . Shunt motor: It is DC shunt motor designed to satisfy the requirements of the servomotor.Control Systems Laboratory Manual Km Transfer Function = S (1 + TmS) Km = 1 / Avg Kb Tm = JRa / Kb Kt Sl.

2. and field F and FF to motor field terminal F and FF respectively. 5.No Volt Va Current Ia Ra = Va / Ia Avg Ra = PRECAUTIONS: At starting. Switch ON the power switch. Keep all switches in OFF position. Set the field voltage 50% of the rated value. Initially keep voltage adjustment POT in minimum potential position. 3. • The field rheostat should be kept in minimum resistance position PROCEDURE FOR TRANSFER FUNCTION OF ARMATURE CONTROL DC SHUNT MOTOR: Finding Kb 1. 7. 9. 6. 4. Plot the graph Torque as Armature current to find Kt. Set the field current 50% of the rated value. 19 . Connect the module armature output A and AA to motor armature terminal A and AA respectively. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position. S1. Tight the belt an take down the necessary readings for the table – 1 to find the value of Kb.Control Systems Laboratory Manual Table No. 2 To find Ra Sl. S2. 8.

C. 4. 20 . Connect module filed output F and FF to motor filed terminal F and FF respectively. Initially keep voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.Control Systems Laboratory Manual 1. Finding Zf 1. 4. Keep all switches in OFF position. 3. Keep all switches in OFF position. SHUNT MOTOR: Finding Rf 1. Switch ON the power. 3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum potential position. 2. Tabulate the value in the table no – 3 average resistance values give the fied resistance. Switch on the power note down reading for the various AC supply by adjusting varaic for the table no – 4. 5. S1 and S2. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum potential position. Keep armature field voltage POT in minimum potential position. Now filed voltage and filed current are taken by varying the armature POT with in the rated armature current value. PROCEDURE FOR TRANSFER FUNCTION OF FIELD CONTROL D. Keep armature and field voltage POT in minimum position. 5. 4. 6. 2. Now armature voltage and armature current are taken by varying the armature POT with in the rated armature current value. The average resistance value in the table -2 gives the armature resistance. 3. 2. 7. Finding Ra Keep all switches in OFF position. Connect module varaic output P and N to motor filed terminal F and FF respectively. 5. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position. 6. 7. Connect module armature output A and AA to motor armature terminal A to AA respectively. Switch ON the power switch and S1.

Plot the graph Torque as Field current to find Ktl OBSERVATION TABLE FOR TRANSFER FUNCTION OF ARMATURE CONTROL DC SERVO MOTOR: Table No:3 To find Rf Sl. 4. and field F and FF to motor field terminal F and FF respectively. 8. Switch ON the power switch. 6. 5.No If (amp) Vf (Volt) Rf (ohm) Avg Rf = Table No:4 To find Zf If (amp) Sl. Connect the module armature output A and AA to motor armature terminal and AA respectively. Initially keep voltage adjustment POT in minimum potential position. Set the filed voltage at rated value (48V). 3. Keep all switches OFF position. 2.Control Systems Laboratory Manual Finding Ktl 1. Tight the belt and take down the necessary reading for the table – 5 Ktl 9. 7. S1 and S2. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.No If l t Avg Zf = Ia S1 S2 21 T( N – m) N (rpm) .No mA Vf (Volt) Zf = Vf / If Table No: 5 To find K Sl. Adjust the armature voltage using POT on the armature side till it reaches the 1100 rpm.

Control Systems Laboratory Manual MODEL GRAPH: ∆ T ∆ If Field Current ∆ Ktl = ∆ T / T ∆ If T ∆ Ia ∆ ∆ Kt = ∆ T / ∆ Ia T Armature Current MODEL CALCULATION: 22 .

Control Systems Laboratory Manual Result: 23 .

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