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Major Project (Planning and Literature)


Line Follower Robot

Submitted By:-
PRATEEK MODI(0114EC071077)
What is a line follower?
Line follower is a machine that can follow a path. The path can be visible like a
black line on a white surface (or vice-versa) or it can be invisible like a magnetic

Why build a line follower?

Sensing a line and maneuvering the robot to stay on course, while constantly
correcting wrong moves using feedback mechanism forms a simple yet effective
closed loop system. As a programmer you get an opportunity to ‘teach’ the robot
how to follow the line thus giving it a human-like property of responding to
stimuli. Practical applications of a line follower : Automated cars running on
roads with embedded magnets; guidance system for industrial robots moving on
shop floor etc.

The present condition in Industry is that they are using the crane system to carry
the parcels from one place to another, including harbor’s .Some times the lifting
of big weights may cause the breakage of lifting materials and will cause damage
to the parcels too.

Application of the proposed system is for industries. The robot movement

depends on the track. Use of this robot is to transport the materials from one
place to another place in the industry. IR transmitter and receiver are used to find
the obstacles in the path.
Theory of operation
The light that strikes any platform is reflected. The reflection and absorption
coefficient of light depend upon material, color of platform and other factors. In
simple words the black surface absorbs the light and the white surface reflects it,
this is the basic concept behind making a line follower. So the line follower has
an emitter and a reflector. The reflector receives the light and generates a voltage
proportional to the intensity of the light, if this voltage is above a threshold it
means SIGNAL=1 (logic one) else SIGNAL= 0 (logic zero).

How it works ?

• The robot structure is based on differential design, 2 wheels at rear end and
a castor in front.
• The circuit contains 2 sensors and 2 power transistors for motor driving.
• The sensors switch the motors through transistors as per sensing of line.
• If left sensor is on line left motor stops and right motor keeps rotating, so
robot takes right turn.
• If right sensor senses line, right motor stops and robot takes left turn.
• If no sensor is sensing line both motors rotate and robot moves forward.
• This small logic is capable of making robot to follow a line.
Motors and Driving Mechanism:

We will need a set of two motors that have same rpm (revolution per minute).
We will be using differential drive for maneuvering our bot i.e. we will have
three wheels for our bot, the front two will be powered and the rear will be
free wheel. When the bot is moving straight both the motors should have
equal speed. For turning, one of the motor is switched off. If we switch off the
left motor, the bot will turn left and vice versa.
How to sense a black line
The sensors used for the project are Reflective Object Sensors. The single sensor
consists of an infrared emitting diode and a NPN phototransistor. When a light
emitted from the diode is reflected off an object and back into the
phototransistor, output current is produced, depending on the amount of infrared
light, which triggers the base current of the phototransistor.

Software for write to AT89C2051 is robot1.hex ,which was written by C-
language ,the source code is robot1.c compiled by using MC51 in TINY model
with start up code robot.asm .MPEG files

Basic Components

• Chassis
• Tyres
• IR LED sensors
• Photodiodes
• AT89C2051 Microcontroller
• L293D Motor Driver
• 7805 Voltage Regulator
• DC geared motors
• Connecting Cords
• 12V Battery
• Resistors
• Capacitors

Base of robot: The base or the material of the platform of robot can be made with
any easily available material like switch board, wood, acrylic sheet or steel sheet.


A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into
either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation.

AT89C2051 Microcontroller
L293D Motor Driver

7805 Voltage Regulator

DC geared motors

Circuit Diagrams

1. With Microcontroller
2. Without Microcontroller

• Industrial automated equipment carriers

• Automated cars.
• Tour guides in museums and other similar applications.
• Second wave robotic reconnaissance operations.


• Software control of the line type (dark or light) to make

automatic detection possible.
• “Obstacle detecting sensors” to avoid physical obstacles and
continue on the line.
• Distance sensing and position logging & transmission.