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SUMMARIZING, PARAPHRASING,

PARAPHRASING: QUOTING, IN-TEXT PARENTHETICAL


Restating the idea of a short CITATIONS—APA STYLE
passage in your own words.
Summarizing: Restating the essential message of
The following text appears in Stephen R. Covey’s, The 7 Habits of Highly- a longer passage in your own
Effective People, Copyright 1989, pp. 210-211. words.
Another common alternative is simply to think Win. People with the * Does not require quotation marks.
Win mentality don’t necessarily want someone else to lose. That’s irrelevant. * Requires in-text parenthetical citation.
What matters is that they get what they want.
When there is no sense of contest or competition, Win is probably the
most common approach in everyday negotiation. A person with the Win
Quoting: Restating an author’s exact wording.
mentality thinks in terms of securing his own ends—and leaving it to others to * Requires quotation marks.
secure theirs.
* Requires in-text parenthetical citation.
Paraphrase with Author Mentioned in the Citation:
Paraphrasing: Restating the idea of a short passage
Author, Year of Publication, Page Number in your own words.
* Does not require quotation marks.
People operating in the “Win” paradigm are not concerned about others
achieving their goals, needs or desires. They do not mind if others * Requires in-text parenthetical citation.
reach their own goals, but their primary goal is to achieve their own
goals for themselves (Covey, 1989, pp. 210-211). Citations: Providing readers with details about
your source of information.
Paraphrase with Author Cited in the Text:
* Author and date always required.
Author, Year of Publication, Page Number * Page number (for quotes/paraphrases)
Covey (1989) believes that people operating in the “Win” paradigm are
not concerned about others achieving their goals, needs or desires.
They do not mind if others reach their own goals, but their primary goal
is to achieve their own goals for themselves (pp. 210-211).
SUMMARIZING:
Restating the essential message of a
Paraphrase that Plagiarizes:
longer passage in your own words.
Covey believes that people with the Win mentality are not concerned
about others achieving their goals, needs or desires. That’s irrelevant. APA Format: Author, Year of Publication
Their primary goal is to achieve for themselves.

Paraphrase that Alters the Meaning of the Original Passage: Stephen R. Covey (1989) discusses seven life-
Covey believes that people operating in the “Win” paradigm have the changing principles to help people understand their
strong desire to win at any cost. They consider it okay for other people interactions with others and with themselves.
to achieve their own goals, needs or desires, but their primary goal is to
achieve their own goals, needs, and desires—so others had better stay Note: Author and Year of Publication are never separated.
The following text appears in First Things First by Stephen R. Covey, A. Roger

QUOTING: Merrill, and Rebecca R. Merrill, Copyright 1994, p. 58.

We often go for the illusion of “cramming” instead of


Restating an author’s the reality of long-term development and growth. We’re into
exact wording. “get the degree . . . so you can get the job . . . so you can get the
money
The following text appears in Stephen R. Covey’s, The 7 Habits of Highly- . . . so you can buy the things . . . so you’ll be successful.” But
Effective People, Copyright 1989, pp. 210-211. what does that kind of “success” bring? The same character and
competence that come from deep, continuous investment in
Another common alternative is simply to think Win. learning and growth?
People with the Win mentality don’t necessarily want
someone else to lose. That’s irrelevant. What matters is that Direct Quote—2 or More Authors:
they get what they want.
When there is no sense of contest or competition, Win is
Authors, Year of Publication, Page Number
probably the most common approach in everyday negotiation. A
person with the Win mentality thinks in terms of securing his own
“We often go for the illusion of ‘cramming’ instead of the
ends—and leaving it to others to secure theirs.
reality of long-term development and growth” (Covey,
Merrill & Merrill, 1994, p. 58).
Direct Quote—1 Author:
Author, Year of Publication, Page Number Combining Your Writing with a Direct Quote—2 or More
Authors:
“People with the Win mentality don’t necessarily want
someone else to lose” (Covey, 1989, p. 210). Authors, Year of Publication, Page Number

According to some experts, “We often go for the illusion of


Combining Your Writing with a Direct Quote—Author in
‘cramming’ instead of the reality of long-term development
Citation:
and growth” (Covey, Merrill & Merrill, 1994, p. 58).
Author, Year of Publication, Page Number
Combining Your Writing with a Direct Quote—2 or More
As one prominent author explains, “People with the Win Authors Cited In Text:
mentality don’t necessarily want someone else to
lose” (Covey, 1989, p. 210). Authors, Year of Publication, Page Number

According to Covey, Merrill and Merrill (1994), “We often go


Combining Your Writing with a Direct Quote—Author
for the illusion of ‘cramming’ instead of the reality of long-
Cited in Text:
term development and growth” (p. 58).
Author, Year of Publication, Page Number
As Covey (1989) explains, “People with the Win mentality Remember: Author(s) and Year of Publication
don’t necessarily want someone else to lose” (p. 210). Always Go Together in APA Formats.