Deformation Processing & Forging Introduction

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ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Overview
• • • • • Types of Deformation Processing Forging Wire drawing Extrusion E t i Rolling

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Types of deformation processing
• • • • Forging Wire drawing Extrusion Rolling R lli

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Forging

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Colton © GIT 2009 5 .Wire drawing ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.S. J.

Colton © GIT 2009 6 .Extrusion ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.S. J.

Rolling ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 7 .

J.What is deformation processing? • Process to make parts without material removal • Deformation occurs on parts with L/D ≈1 • High volume ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 8 .S.

Examples of products • • • • Connecting rods Wire Bars Window f Wi d frames ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 9 . J.S.

S. J.Railroad engine connecting rod g g ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 10 .

Colton © GIT 2009 11 .S. J.Typical product dimensions • Small: – coins – surgical wire i l i • Large: – power plant turbine shafts – aircraft landing gear ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.

Aircraft landing gear ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J. Colton © GIT 2009 12 .S.

Colton © GIT 2009 13 .Process characteristics • Material is deformed – improvement of material properties • grain refinement • grain orientation • work hardening σ t = σ oε n • Material is conserved – minimal trimming and machining ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.S. J.

Important parameters • Plasticity • Friction • Elasticity negligible – usually much smaller magnitude ll h ll it d than plastic deformation ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 14 .

S.Plasticity analysis • Slab method – plane strain – plane stress Forging Platen Forging force Forging force Platen ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 15 . J.

J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 16 .Strain hardening σt σt = σoεn fracture K Y ε 1 • Tresca (maximum shear stress) yield criterion: τflow = σflow / 2 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.

J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 17 .Energy / unit volume (u) u = ∫ σ flow dε = ∫ τ flow dγ 0 0 ε1 γ1 ∴ Δγ = 2 Δ ε by Tresca (maximum shear stress) criterion ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.

S. Colton © GIT 2009 18 .Working temperature Recrystallization temperature = 0.6 Tmelting(K) – no strain hardening effect g – strain rate effect & σ = Cε m ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.4 Tmelting(K) 04 – strain hardening effect – no strain rate effect σ = Kε n • Hot: T > 0. J.5 Tmelting (K) • Cold: T < 0.

J.Forging ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 19 .

Forging g g ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 20 .S. J.

Old Hammer Forge ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.S. J. Colton © GIT 2009 21 .

J. Colton © GIT 2009 22 .S.Forging g g • Part formation by pressing between dies – Dies are hard metal shapes • Temperature – Hot (usually) – Cold • Dies – Open (no lateral constraints) – Closed (lateral constraints) ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.

S. Colton © GIT 2009 23 .Open Die Forging ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.

Colton © GIT 2009 24 . J.Ring Forging ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.S.

J.S.Open die forging Forging force Platen Forging Platen Forging force ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 25 .

Colton © GIT 2009 26 .S. J.Closed Die Forging ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.

Colton © GIT 2009 27 .S.Closed die forging Forging force F i f Flash Forging Forging force ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.

J.Forgings • • • • Coins Landing gear Crank shafts Turbine h ft T bi shafts ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.S. Colton © GIT 2009 28 .

S.Forging presses • Large machines – hold dies – form parts ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 29 . J.

Colton © GIT 2009 30 .S.Press types yp • • • • Hydraulic presses y p Mechanical presses Screw presses Hammers – gravity d i drop – power drop – counter blow (two rams) – high pressure gas ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.

000 ton 50 000 t press ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J. Colton © GIT 2009 31 .50.S.

J. Colton © GIT 2009 32 . (b) Mechanical press with an eccentric drive.Forges Schematic illustration of the principles of various forging machines. (continued) ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.S. the eccentric shaft can be replaced by a crankshaft to give the up-and-down motion to the ram. (a) Hydraulic press.

Forges Schematic illustration of the principles of various forging machines.S. (c) Knuckle-joint press. ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. (e) Gravity drop hammer. J. Colton © GIT 2009 33 . (d) Screw press.

S. Colton © GIT 2009 34 .Dies • Final part shape determined by die p p y accuracy • Multiple parts can be made in one die • Progressive shaping can be done in one die set • Need to be stronger than highest forging stress ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.

5.000 Power drop 500 . J.18.000 18.Forging hammer capabilities Moving mass Energy at strike (J) ( g) (kg) ( ) Gravity drop 500 .000 rate forming 5.000 6.000 hammers 75.000 hammers 600. Colton © GIT 2009 35 .000.000 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.S.000 High energy 500.

2 5 0 kN 3 0 0 .200 100 . Colton © GIT 2009 .60 20 500 Pow er (k W ) 3 .s p e e d . in c lin a b le H ig h .25 M N 2 .30 10 .15 H y d r a u li p r e s s e s lic U n iv e r s a l F o r g in g p r e s s e s 4 .500 M N 150 1000 36 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.Forging press parameters Load c a p a c ity M e c h a n ic a l p r e s s e s O p e n -b a c k .2 .100 2000 .40 M N 3 .S.1 .6 MN 2 . s tr a ig h t s id e L a r g e r s tr a ig h t s id e T r a n s fe r p r e s s e s F o r g in g p r e s s e s 1 5 0 .10 100 . J.20 50 .0 0 0 KN 1 .80 M N S tr o k e s p e r m in u te 200 .

5 1 2 4 6 8 10 13 16 20 Strokes/min St k / i 90 65 60 45 35 30 27 25 23 20 Power (kW) P 5 10 15 25 40 50 60 90 110 150 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J. Colton © GIT 2009 37 .Hot upsetting machine parameters Rate i (mm) R t size ( ) (upset diameter) 25 38 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 Forging force F i f (MN) 0.S.

Colton © GIT 2009 38 .S. J.Forging steps • Prepare slug – saw – flame cut – shear • Cl Clean slug surfaces l f – shot blast – flame ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.

Colton © GIT 2009 39 .Forging steps g g p • For hot forging – heat up and descale forging – make sure press is hot • Lubricate – oil – soap – MoS2 oS – glass – graphite ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.S. J.

J.Lubrication purposes • Reduce friction • Reduce die wear • Thermally insulate part – t keep it warm to k ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 40 .S.

Colton © GIT 2009 41 .Forging steps • Forge • Remove flash – trim – machine • Check dimensions • Post processing.S. if necessary – h t treat heat t t – machine ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.

• Grains can be made to flow flow.S. Colton © GIT 2009 42 .Effect on grain structure • Large grains are broken up. J. ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.

J.Main forging defect • Surface cracks – due to sticking and barreling. leading to tensile forces on the surface. forging operation ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 43 .S.

Forging Defects ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. Colton © GIT 2009 44 . J.S.

Colton © GIT 2009 45 .Summary • Types of deformation processes • Material deformation review • Forging introduction ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof.S. J.

Colton © GIT 2009 46 .ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S.

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