Lahore Business School

Organizational Behavior

Program: MBA Semester: Fall 2010

Topic: Expectancy Theory of Motivation Submitted To: Madam Aqsa Akbar Submitted By: Mazhar Rasheed (ID# MBA01091-028)

and role perceptions of the tasks other than motivation. and others. you must know human nature. Human nature is the common qualities of all human beings. . And provide criticism on this theory and finally give proposed theory of motivation on the basis of expectancy model. you must be able to understand and motivate them. peers. After reading some research papers I am coming to this results that expectancy model ignores some areas which cause the motivation level decrease in the employees. People behave according to certain principles of human nature. traits. To understand and motivate people. instrumentality) some others factors are also affecting the motivation level of an employees like biasness. Performance is also affected by individual abilities (to perform the tasks). underestimation or overestimation of skills of employees. motivation was not only dependent upon the three variables of expectancy model (valance. seniors. Based on these findings my conclusion is. To gain their support. whose support you need in order to accomplish your goals. expectancy. As a leader. you need to interact with your followers.Introduction The basic purpose of study was to critically examine the expectancy theory of motivation and investigate that what motivates the employees to provide high-quality feedback in order to improve the performance of an organization and what factors de-motivate.

Expectancy and Instrumentality: . The expectancy theory says that individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they have certain expectations. Positive motivation is a response which includes enjoyment and hopefulness about the tasks that you are involved in.Expectancy Theory of Motivation Motivation: Motivation is a desire to achieve a goal. Negative motivation involves undertaking tasks because there will be undesirable outcomes. to initiate work-related behavior. However the choice that was made by the employee depended entirely on the employee's level of motivation. The expectancy theory of motivation suggested does not concentrate on needs. by Victor Vroom of the Yale School of Management. eg. failing a subject. intensity. Vroom s Expectancy Theory is based upon three variables or beliefs that he calls Valence. (Pinder. This theory is about choice. Expectancy theory: The Expectancy Theory of Motivation was developed. and to determine its form. He was of the opinion that people made a conscious choice while deciding whether or not to perform at the workplace. and duration. but rather focuses on outcomes. combined with the energy to work towards that goal. 1998) Positive and negative Motivation: Some time distinction is made between positive and negative motivation. if tasks are not completed. Work motivation is a set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individual s being. in the year 1964. direction. it explains the processes that an individual undergoes to make choices.

This formula can be used to indicate and predict things as: job satisfaction.Valence: Strength of an individual s preference for a particular outcome. Expectancy: Probability or strength of belief that a particular action will lead to a particular first level outcome. occupational choice. This force can be calculated via a formula: Motivation = Valence x Expectancy (Instrumentality). . The belief that if I complete certain actions then I will achieve the outcome . Instrumentality. free time. In other words. for the valence to be positive. Expectancy refers to the strength of a person s belief about whether or not a particular job performance is attainable. benefits] or intrinsic [satisfaction] rewards. Valance is the outcome get of any value. Vroom says the product of these variables is the motivation and suggests that an employee s beliefs about Expectancy. In this way they create a motivational force. Simple it is the belief that if I am able to complete the actions has different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing. and Valence interact psychologically. such that the employee will act in a way that brings pleasure and avoids pain. the person must prefer attaining the outcome to not attaining it. it is the belief that if you perform well that a valued outcome will be received. and the effort that one might expend at work. The depth of the want of an employee for extrinsic [money. the likelihood of staying in a job. It refers to the emotional orientations which people hold with respect to outcomes [rewards]. promotion. Instrumentality: The degree to which a first level outcome will lead to the second level outcome.

and the expectation that their formative feedback would lead to increased value for them. Based on these findings. Multiple regression analysis was employed to test both the valence and force equations. engineers utilize kaizen: a structured process for continuous improvement that heavily involves the floor operator. Wisconsin. it is important for . 2.E. This paper describes expectancy-value motivation theory from a social-cognitive perspective and proposes how the kaizen process fits within this theoretical framework to increase worker motivation.(Research Papers on Expectancy Theory) 1. The implied motivational power of the kaizen process has not been studied using modern psychological motivation theories. Lean Kaizen Motivational Influence Explained Utilizing Expectancy-Value Motivation Theory Bradley D. What Motivates Students to Provide Feedback to Teachers About Teaching and Learning? An Expectancy Theory Perspective Jay Caulfield Marquette University Milwaukee. The successful implementation of lean requires kaizen to motivate floor operators to both learn and apply industrial engineering principles to their individual tasks. USA Abstract: To implement the lean manufacturing philosophy. Statistically significant results indicated that students motivation was dependent upon the importance to them of improving the value of the class and of future classes. was used as the conceptual framework for the study. their peers in the classroom and for students in future classes. P. Miller. USA Abstract: The purpose of this empirical research study was to investigate what motivates students to provide formative anonymous feedback to teachers regarding their perceptions of the teaching and learning experience in order to improve student learning. Expectancy theory. University of Houston. Department of Industrial Engineering. specifically Vroom s Model.

expectancy theory is applied to construct a conceptual framework as well as a measurable model on bloggers motivation to blogging. Hasking. One of the latest popular tools is the Internet-based blog.teachers who request students to participate in providing anonymous feedback to emphasize that this feedback is a valuable tool to assist in improving current and future teaching and learning experiences. Few previous studies explored and examined user motivations of blogging. expectancy theory provides a framework for conceptualizing alcohol use and abuse by identifying individual differences in alcohol-related cognitions. Expert interviews and survey instrument were used in this study.S. WHY PEOPLE BLOG: AN EXPECTANCY THEORY ANALYSIS Su-Houn Liu. 3. A blogger with higher blogging intention is willing to take more time to maintain their blog and post more articles on the blog. Abstract: The evolution of Internet offers new tools allowing ordinary people to become content creators. However. Abstract: Grounded in social cognitive theory. although expectancy theory has the potential to describe aspects of drinking behavior. Interviews with bloggers were first performed to verify the questionnaire items of the attractiveness of possible outcomes resulting from blogging. 4. it does not account for the effect of behavioral factors such as individual coping strategies. They also assigned the highest probabilities to these rewards. The collected data shows that bloggers with high (both intrinsic and extrinsic) motivation for rewards have higher level of blogging intention. . and Tian P. a survey was conducted and 177 bloggers were asked to respond the questionnaire. Chung Yuan Christian University. After the construction of the questionnaire. From the 10 motivations examined in this study. In this study. Incorporating Coping into an Expectancy Framework for Explaining Drinking Behavior Penelope A. as their two most valued rewards. The interactive effects of outcome expectancies. bloggers ranked pouring out feelings and connecting with people respectively. By including deal with in an expectancy framework it is possible to gain a better understanding of drinking behavior.

allowing a more complete test of social cognitive theory constructs. ease of system use. The empirical study used 154 responses by faculty. The results found that ease of system use impacts both self-efficacy and outcome expectancy/usefulness. USA) Abstract: A theoretically sound model linking background of an organizationally new software implementation to behavioral intentions to use this software is presented and empirically tested. and coping were discussed within the framework of reciprocal determinism and the limited research investigating the combined effects of these variables was reviewed. which in turn influences behavioral intentions to use Digital Measures. The organization is a university in the United States and the users are primarily faculty. The past history of previous computer experience. Including coping strategies in an expectancy framework will promote investigation of how cognitive and behavioral determinants of drinking behavior interact. and administrator support for the software are linked to behavioral intentions to use the software through self-efficacy and outcome expectancy/ usefulness and then attitudes toward the software. Expectancy Theory and Behavioral Intentions to Use Computer Applications Lori Baker-Eveleth and Robert W.self-efficacy. It was proposed that the understanding of drinking behavior requires investigation of both the independent and combined effects of all three variables. Stone (University of Idaho Moscow. The model was estimated using structural equations modeling. . The software context examined is an implementation of Digital Measures that is used to develop a storehouse of faculty activities and to generate a variety of faculty-oriented reports. 5. which both then impact attitudes towards Digital Measures.

. we find that effort levels are invariant to changes in the distribution of the noise term. expectancy and agency theory: An experimental study Randolph Sloof and Mirjam van Praag University of Amsterdam and Tinbergen Institute February 25. 7. An important implication of this model is that. noisier performance measures do not lower work motivation.6. Measured performance equals actual performance plus noise. We compare a stable environment where the noise is small with a volatile environment where the noise is large. 2005 Abstract: Theoretical analyses of (optimal) performance measures are typically performed within the area of the linear agency model. Our results thus confirm standard agency theory and reject this particular aspect of expectancy theory. The Effect of Noise in a Performance Measure on Work Motivation: A Real Effort Laboratory Experiment Randolph Sloof. to expectancy. for a given compensation scheme.e. our experimental design allows us to control expectancy exactly as in Vroom s (1964) original expectancy model. Subjects exert significantly more effort in the volatile environment than in the stable environment. We conduct a real effort laboratory experiment to assess the relevance of this prediction in a setting where all key assumptions of the linear agency model are met. C. In contrast. the agent s optimal effort choice is unrelated to the amount of noise in the performance measure.finding is in line with standard agency theory and contrasts a distinct element of expectancy theory. Mirjam van Praag Abstract: This paper reports the results of an individual real effort laboratory experiment where subjects are paid for measured performance. Performance measurement. expectancy theory as developed by psychologists predicts that effort levels are increasing in the signal-to-noise ratio. In this setting. i. Moreover. This .

or because they may have an inadequate or vague perception of how to perform necessary tasks. The application of this theory is limited in this case also that reward is not directly correlated with performance in many organizations. This means that it can only predict how people should make decisions to act. etc. rather than how they actually do make such decisions. individuals may exert considerable effort without a corresponding increase in performance Normative model This model is a normative model. effort. . responsibility. In reality. It is related to other parameters also such as position. Individuals may not possess the necessary abilities needed to achieve high levels of performance. Without an understanding of how to direct effort effectively. and not a descriptive model. few people are well-enough informed on all the possible choices and all the possible outcomes to make balanced judgments about which behavior it would be best for them to adopt. traits. education. such as individual abilities. Performance is also affected by factors other than motivation. In addition the expectancy theory seems to be idealistic because quite a few individuals perceive high degree correlation between performance and rewards. The expectancy theory also ignores the central role the emotions which play an important role on effort and behavior. Ability A worker believes that he can convert his expended effort into a specified and level of performance. and role perceptions. performance. and satisfaction.Criticism: Biasness From my point of view Expectancy theory ignores the factor of biasness because due to this factor we can not measure the performance accurately hence the employees whose have rights on rewards remains get nothing. If the foreman assigning an under skilled worker to a complex task this can effect a worker's motivation.

Proposed Theory VALANCE X EXPECTANCY X INSTRUMENTALITY Management must ensure that there is no biasness occurs and tasks assigning to employees are according to their ability. MOTIVATION .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful