the Han River the Pacific Ocean the Times 6.
형용사 앞에 붙는 관사 the rich = rich people the poor = poor people the injured = injured people The rich are not always happy. 7. by the pound by the + 단위를 나타내는 명사(hour, dozen, pound) 8. 그녀가 나의 머리를 쳤어. She hit me on the head. She hit my head. 9. 회화에서의 the in the morning, in the sun, in the wrong, in the right Adam was in the wrong. Eve was in the right? 10. 관사 생략 ① 호격 Doc, I have a fever. ② 가족관계 Mother loves snakes. ③ 관직, 신분을 나타내는 말 President Kim Kim, YoungSam, President of Korea. Kim, YoungSam was elected President of Korea. ④ 건물이나 시설 따위가 원래의 목적을 나타낼 때 go to church go to school go to bed ⑤ 식사, 스포츠, 학과이름 I had lunch. ※ 악기 이름 앞에는 the My wife is playing the piano. 관사 없이 쓰여 다른 뜻을 나타냄. They are at table. They are at sea. 식사 중 항해 중 ☞ 다른 볼일 go to the church go to the school go to the bed ☞ 칭호, 동격, 보어 사람에 의미 머리에 의미
(1) 부정관사 a, an I have an umbrella. He's an honest man. 뒤따르는 단어의 철자가 아닌 발음이 모음이어야. 1. 하나의 I have a wife. 2. 대표단수 A dog(The dog, Dogs) is faithful animal. 3. -마다, -에 = per I take a shower three times a day. 4. 같은 = the same She and I are of an age. 5. -이라는 사람 A Miss Lee came to see you. Q. 다음의 뜻으로 맞는 것은? A fox is cunning. ① 여우 한 마리가 교활하다. ② 여우란 동물은 교활하다. ③ 여우는 한 마리만이 교활하다. ④ 맞는 답이 없다. (2) 정관사 1. 앞에 나온 말을 이어받을 때 There is a beautiful girl in the store. 2. ‘그’ 라는 말만 붙이면 상대가 알 수 있을 때 Open the window. 3. 고유명사 취급을 받지 못하는 것들 the earth, the world, the sun, the moon, the sea, the sky, the equator The sun rises in the east. 4. 관용적인 것 the most, the only, the very, the same, the last He's the very man I've been looking for. The last thing you have to do is (to) tell a lie. 5. 고유명사엔 관사를 붙이지 않는 것을 원칙 역, 항구, 호수, 다리, 공항, 공원 잡지이름 ☞ 관사 〇 ☞ 관사 ✗ 산맥, 강, 바다, 배, 군도, 연방정부, 공공건물, 신문∙
⑥ a(an)나 the와 동거하지 않는 관용표현들 by bus, by boat, by ship, by taxi, by airplane, by train, on foot, by phone, by mail ⑦ 밀접한 관계를 갖는 두개의 명사 mom and dad day and night day by day side by side 1
step by step (3) 풍수지리 ① 다재다능한 인물 He met a doctor and patient. He met a doctor and a patient. ② such, quite, so She's such a wonderful girl. She's quite a wonderful girl. She's so wonderful a girl. 소혁명 = so +형 +(관사) + 명 ③ all, both, half + the(소유격) + 명사 All the workers in our department are busy. Both the workers in our department are busy. Half the workers in our department are busy. I waited for her half an hour. ④ as, too +형, 부 관 +명 뒤에 명사가 붙으면 She's not as pretty a girl as my wife. She's too good a girl to lose. ☞ as, too + 형 +
I discussed about my wedding matter. ✗ ☞ I discussed my wedding matter. 〇 The thief entered the room. The president didn't attend the meeting. “ 나는 그녀와 결혼했다. ” I married with her. ✗ ☞ I married her. 〇 ☞ I was married to her. 〇 I was married to her last year. I got married to her last year. (3) 동사의 시제 [ 현재 ] 1. 현재에 동작이 미치는 일 Don't mister me. 2. 현재의 상태 She's ugly. 3. 현재에 영향을 미치는 습관적인 동작 He smokes everyday. 4. 불변의 진리 The sun rises in the east. Our love is forever. > Our love will be forever. 5. 떠나다, 도착하다(왕래발착동사) She arrives here tonight. arrive = get to 6. 조건을 나타내는 부사절 I go to school. I broght her here. A baby cries. 1 She looks pretty. 2 She sang a song. 3 She made me happy. 5 She gave me a cat. [ 과거 ] 1. 과거의 습관 He would go shopping with her. would = will의 과거형 ; -하곤 했었다. 2. 역사 Columbus discovered America in 1492. 3. 과거완료 대용 그는 그의 강아지를 때리고 나서 소주를 마셨다. After he beat his puppy, he drank SoJu. 〇 After he had beaten his puppy, he drank SoJu. 〇 [ 미래 ] <단순미래> <의지미래> will - 긍정문 - will shall shall will shall shall will if, when If it rains tomorrow, I won't go to New York. I wasn't born yesterday. 수동태 나는 그녀와 함께 결혼했 다. 같은 장소에서 함께 결혼
(1) 동사네 집안사람들 우리말 - 나는 당신을 좋아한다. 영어 자동사 타동사 완전자동사 SV 불완전자동사 SVC 완전타동사 SVO 불완전타동사 SVOO.C + 수여동사 SVOI.OD.O (2) 동사의 운명 동사의 운명은 정해지지 ✗ A hare runs fact. I run a supermarket. A big tree stands on the riverside. I can't stand the pain. 4 - I love you.
shall shall shall - 의문문 - shall I will die. (=I will kill myself) I shall die. You shall die. = I will let you die.
= I will make you die = I will kill you. Shall I go? Seek, and you shall find. He will not say a word at table. The door won't open. be going to = be about to I'm going to marry her. Q. Will Will make his will at his will? [ 완료 ] 1. 현재완료 have +과거분사 과거의 어떤 시점을 기준으로 해서 말하는 현재 순 간까지 동작이 완료 과거에 출발해서 현재까지 계속되는 것 I have finished my home work. I finished my homework. ① 완료 ② 경험 ~ times Have you ever been to KyungJoo? have been to ; -에 가본 적이 있다. Did you go to New York? 단순한 과거시제 Have you ever been to New York? 완료형 Have you gone to New York? ✗ have gone to ; -에 가고 없다. ☞ Has he gone to New York? ③ 결과 She has gone. ④ 계속 since, for, always, all one's life She's been ill since last week. He's been dead for ten years. ※ I have met her yesterday. ✗ yesterday, last week, ago just now(= a shot time ago) ☞ 과거시제 just, now ☞ 현재시제 2. 과거완료 had +과거분사 과거보다 더 앞선 과거(대과거)를 출발점으로 해서 과거까지 행해진 일 ① 완료 When I got there, she had already been dead. ② 경험 I broke with the girl who my sister had introduced to me. ③ 결과 just, now, already, today ever, never, often, before, once, I've done the work. 예언 습관 고집
My wife had gone to bed before I came home. ④ 계속 He had loved his wife until he died. 나를 버리고 가시던 님은 10리도 못 가서 발병 났 다. He had not gone 10 Li before his feet hurt. not - before ~ ; -하지도 않아 ~하다. 나를 보자마자 그녀는 기절하였다. No sooner had she seen me than she fainted. No sooner - than ~ ; -하자마자 ~하다. = Hardly when(before)~, Scarcely when(before) ~, as soon as 3. 미래완료 will(shall) have + 과거분사 ① 완료 I will have been married by 20. ② 경험 I shall have got married three times if I marry July. ③ 결과 I will have met her before I die. ④ 계속 We will have known her for full three years by July. [ 진행형 ] 1. 현재진행형 be 동사 +동사의 원형 -ing ; 하고 있다 ① 현재 진행 중 I'm having breakfast. ② 가까운 미래 We're having married soon. 2. 과거진행형 was(were) +동사의 원형 -ing ; 하고 있었다. When I visited my friend, he was beating his wife. 3. 미래진행형 will(shall) be + -ing ; 하고 있을 것이다. When I arrive at the White House, President Clinton will be having dinner with his wife. 4. 예외 < 상태동사 > ① 있다 I'm in Seoul. ② 가지다 I have an apple. ③ 속하다 You belong to me. 3
☞ Never did I see such a beauty. He rarely studies. ☞ Rarely does he study. (3) may 1. 허가 May I use your money? May I have the cake? No, you may not.
※ We're having dinner. 〇 < 지각동사 중 무의지동사 > - 의지적 행위를 나타 낼 때는 진행 시제 가능 hear, see, small, feel ※ We're seeing the night sights of New York. 〇 look, watch, listen +진행형 listen hear 의지에 의한 동작 가만히 있어도 들리는 것 Listen H e ' s to me, OK? hard of hearing.
No, you must not. 2. 추측 -일지도 모른다. He may be angry if I call him SOB. 3. 기원 May you succeed! 4. 특수용법 may well -하는 것도 당연하다. -할 만하다. You may well be proud of your kids. may as well = had better -하는 게 낫다. You may as well go back home at once. 5. 과거형 might ① 시제일치 He said, "I may go to Seoul." ☞ He said that he might go to Seoul. ② 희박한 가능성 I might get married to Cindy. (4) must 1. 필요, 의무 You must say, 'Yes'. must = have to ☞ had to, will(shall) have to 2. 강한 금지 You must not go out with him. 3. 강한 추측 -임에 틀림없다. She must be married. You must be feeling on top of the world. (5) shall Korean shall prosper forever. [ should ] 1. 의무 You shouldn't overstay your welcome. ※ 오늘날에는 ‘-하는 게 좋다.’ 정도로 쓰임. You must go home. You should go home. 2. 비난 4
(1) can 1. 능력 I can fly. 미래형 ☞ I will be able to fly. 2. 허가 Can I take your wife to the movies? can = may 3. 특수용법 cannot - too, cannot - enough 아무리 -해도 지나치지 않다. You can't study too hard. I can't thank you enough. (2) do 1. 부정문 I don't know who you are. do(does) + not ☞ don't(doesn't) didn't I don't know ☞ I do not know. 강조 You turkey! 2. 의문문 Does he know I'm a spy? Do my hips look cute? = My hips look cute? = Are my hips cute? 3. 강조 I do know you're a turkey. 4. 대동사 She speaks English better than I do. 5. 도치문 I did never see such a beauty.
I should have married Rambo. should have + 과거분사 ☞ 후회, 비난, 원망 3. 희망, 제안, 요구 등의 동사 뒤에 오는 종속절 Joe demanded that SoJu marry MaGulLi. 요새는 그냥 동사의 원형을 그대로 씀. demand, request, order, suggest, propose, insist, desire, wish 4. 무가치한 존재 It is + 형 + that + 주 + should natural, pity It is natural that man should die. (6) will 1. 의지 I will kill you. 2. 고집 My car won't start. 3. 부드러운 명령 You will leave here tomorrow. 4. 의뢰, 권유 Will you lend me some money? would > will 정중함 5. 습성 The man will pray for hours before dinner. 6. 추측 She will be your fiancee. [ would ] 1. 공손한 표현 Would you please pass me the salt? 2. 고집 He would not take the money. 3. 과거의 습관 He would came to Seoul to try some kimchee. 4. 과거의 추측 He would be only 15 when he was at college. 5. want to = wish to If you want, I would go with you. 6. would like to I'd like to smuggle some goods. 3대 lies 는? ① 처녀, 시집 안간다. ② 장사, 밑지고 판다. ③ 노인, 어서 죽어야지. 7. would rather - than ~ ~하기보다는 차라리 -하고 싶다. necessary, strange, right, wrong, curious, odd, wonderful, surprising, regretable, a
I would rather go home than stay overnight with you. -, ~ 원형동사 (7) used to Father used to say that money isn't everything. 상습적 동작 There used to be a big ginko tree next ti the house. 과거의 상태 would는 습관을 나타내지만 상습적, 영속적인 면이 약하다. ※ be used to +명사, 동명사 -에 익숙해지다. I'm used to fighting with my wife.
(1) 능동태 수동태 I die. ☞ I'm killed. He kissed her. ☞ She was kissed by him. 1. 진행형 수동태 There were building the house. ☞ The house was being built by them. They were repairing the bridge. ☞ The bridge was being repaired by them. be being P.P ☞ 비빙삐삐 2. 의문사를 대동한 수동태 Who beat up my boy? ☞ By whom was my boy beaten up? ☞ Who was my boy beaten up by? 3. 목적어가 두개지만 수동태는 하나 I made her a paper plane. ☞ She was made a paper plane by me. ✗ ☞ A paper plane was made (to) her by me. 〇 4. 일반인은 생략 we, you, they, people They elected XX President. ☞ XX was elected President (by them). 5. 목적어가 명사절 They say that he is a penny pincher. ☞ It is said that he is a penny pincher. ☞ He is said to be a penny pincher. 6. 합성동사 I took care of my baby at home last Sunday. ☞ My baby was taken care of by me at home last Sunday. 동사(타동사) + (a) + 형용사 + 추상명사 + 전치사 5
While I was away, she took a good care of my baby. ☞ While I was away, a good care was taken of my baby by her. 7. 명령문 Make friends be made. 부정문을 만들 경우 Touch her. ☞ Don't let her be touched. ☞ Let her not be touched. (2) by + 목적어가 통용되지 않는 농땡이 군단들 1. know Everybody knows the actor. ☞ The actor is known by everybody. ✗ ☞ The actor is known to everybody. 〇 I know Mr. Clinton is. I know who Mr. Clinton is. be known by 판단 A man is known by his friend. 2. snow Snow covers the mountain. ☞ The mountain is covered by snow. ✗ ☞ The mountain is covered with me. 〇 3. of, from Books are made of paper. Paper is made from wood. of 변하지 않는 그 자체 from -곳에서 다른 곳, 변화 4. 기쁨, 슬픔, 놀람 보통 수동태로 표현, 전치사 at, with 이용 I'm pleased with my new wife. 5. 잡동사니들 be interested in -에 흥미가 있다. be tired from -로 피곤하다. be tired of -에 싫증이 나다. be crowded with -로 붐비다. be disappointed with -에 실망하다. (3) 수동태의 필요성 1. 능동태의 주어보다 수동태의 주어를 더 강조할 때 My boy was run over by a car. 2. 행위자를 드러내지 않는게 좋을 때 My watch has been taken away. 3. 문장연결상으로 Mike studied hard and was praised a lot by his
parents. 4. 능동태의 주어가 분명치 않을 때 He was killed in the korean War. 5. 능동태의 주어가 일반인을 나타낼 때 Korean is spoken in LA, too. 6. 형태는 수동태, 수동태의 의미가 거의 없이 자동 사처럼 쓰이는 경우 I was born in Mars. 7. 피해를 당하는 경우 be injured be drowned (4) 주의 1. get, remain He is buried in the National Cemetery. 상태 He got buried in the National Cemetery last year. 동작 He remains buried in the National Cemetery last year. 강한 상태 2. 형식-능동태, 뜻-수동태 This book sells well. This book reads well. This onion peels well. 3. have + 목적어 + 과거분사 I had my watch stolen. 4. 수동태 = 능동태 He's to be blamed. = He's to blame. I have a lot of books to read. ☞ I have a lot of books to be read.
(1) 시제의 일치 1. 종은 주인을 따른다. She always says I'm handsome. 2. 주절의 시제가 현재라 할지라도 이치상으로 종속 절의 시제는 과거인 경우 그녀는 젊었을 때 예뻤다고들 한다. = They say that she was pretty when she was young. ☞ They said that she had been pretty when she was young. 3. 주절이 동사가 과거가 되면 종속절의 현재완료는 과거완료 I think he has finished the work. ☞ I thought he had finished the work. 6
4. 쿠데타 ① 진리는 항상 현재형 He knows the earth moves around. ☞ He knew the earth moves around. ② 현재의 습관은 항상 현재형 I know my mom gives me a hug about at six every morning. ☞ I knew my mom gives me a hug about at six every morning. ③ 발생은 과거에 이루어졌지만 현재까지 영향이 미 치는 일은 현재형 She said she is in Seoul now. ④ 역사적인 사실은 항상 과거시제 They taught us the Second World War broke out in 1939. ⑤ 가정법 종속절 동사의 시제는 주절의 시제가 변 해도 변하지 ✗ I wish I could fly. ☞ I wished I could fly. ⑥ 주절이 과거가 되더라도 추측을 나타내는 must be는 불변 Everybody said she must be a widow. 추측이 아닌 경우 주절이 과거가 되면 must는 had to로 해도 되고 그냥 두어도 됨. Everybody said that you must work hard. = Everybody said that you had to work hard. ※ ought to, had better, should, need He said that I should go home right away. (2) 화법이란 무엇인가? 직접화법 ☞ 간접화법 Sam said to me, "I'm happy." ☞ Sam told me that he was happy. 1. 평서문의 화법 ① 전달동사의 변화 say ☞ say say to ☞ tell ② 때와 장소를 나타내는 부사를 이치에 맞게 변화 Mom said, "I arrived here two days ago." ☞ Mom said that she had arrived there two days before. here ☞ there this ☞ there these ☞ those now ☞ then ago ☞ before today ☞ that day
yesterday ☞ the day before, the previous day tomorrow ☞ the next day, the following day last week ☞ the week before, the previous night next ☞ the next, the following 2. Yes, No의 간접화법 She said, "Yes." ☞ She accepted. ☞ She agreed. ☞ She answered in the negative. She said, "No." ☞ She refused. ☞ She denied. ☞ She answered in the negative. 3. 의문문의 화법은 어떤 식으로 ① He said to me, "How much did you make?" ☞ He asked me how much did you made. 의문사가 있으면 그대로 둠. 주어 +동사의 순으로 나열. 4. 명령문의 화법은 어떤 식으로 전달동사는 tell, ask, beg, order, command, bid, advise, request, forbid 피전달문은 to 부정사로 연결 Father said to me, "Break up with her." ☞ Father told me to break up with her. The maid said to me, " Please go shopping for me." ☞ The maid asked me to go shopping for her. The doctor said to me, "Don't sit up too late." ☞ The doctor advised me not to sit up too late. She said to us. "Let's play go-stop." ☞ She suggested (to us) that we should play go-stop. 5. 감탄문은 간접화법을 어떻게 만드는가? 전달동사는 cry (out), shout, exclaim, remark My wife said, "How happy I am!" ☞ My wife remarked how happy she was. = My wife remarked (that) she was very happy. He said, "Hurrah! I've won." ☞ He cried with joy (that) he had won. Hurrah ☞ with joy, with delight, joyfully 6. 기원문의 화법전환은 어떻게 He said, "May god bless me!" ☞ He prayed that God might bless him. 7. 여러 문장이 이어질 때, 간접화법은? The lady said, "A thief appeared and took my 7
bag away." ☞ The lady said that a thief had appeared and that had taken her bag away. Mom said to me, "Hurry up, or you'll be late for work." ☞ My mom told me (that) I would be late for work if I didn't hurry up.
조건절 : should, were to 주절 : should, would, could, might [ 가정법 과거 ] 현재 사실에 반대되는 내용 If 주어 +과거형, 주어 +should, would, could, might 1. I wish +가정법 과거 I wish I could meet a mermaid and get married. = I'm sorry that I can't meet a mermaid and get married. 2. It is time +가정법 과거 It is time we had dinner. It is time we went to bed. [ 가정법 과거완료 ] 과거의 사실에 반대되는 내용 If I had been rich, I would have bought a lot of land. = As I was not rich, I couldn't buy a lot of land. I wish +가정법 과거완료 I wish you had married me. [ 잡동사니들 ] Unless he were honest, I wouldn't vote for him. unless = if - not ~ If I were you, I would join the army right now. = Were I you, I would join the army right now. ※ if절의 독점에 배 아파하는 무리 but for = without But for water, man couldn't live. as if = as though She speaks as if she were a miss.
(1) 직설법 있는 사실대로 서술하는 표현방식 He has two faces. The old man is very greedy. (2) 명령법 1. 명령법 +and -하라, 그러면 ~할 것이다. = If you -, ~ Get divorced, and you'll be happy. = If you get divorced, you'll be happy. 2. 명령법 +or -하라, 그렇지 않으면 ~할 것이다. = If you don't -, ~ Get divorced, or you'll be unhappy. = If you don't get divorced, you'll be unhappy. 3. let Freeze! Let's go. Let us go. 4. 명령문이 아니더라도 동사가 앞에 오는 경우 (Would you) Care for some sweets?
(3) 가정법 [ 가정법 현재 ] 현재, 미래의 불확실한 사실 If it be fine tomorrow, we will go on a date. (가 정법) If it is fine tomorrow, we will go on a date. (직 설법) If 주어 +현재형(원형), 주어 +현재형(미래형) If he be dishonest, I will fire him. = If he is dishonest, I will fire him. [ 가정법 미래 ] 성립될 수 없는 사실 If she should show up tomorrow, I would marry her. 1. 명사적 용법 주어, 보어, 목적어 역할 -하는 것을 To work is to made money. He likes to make money. 2. 형용사적 용법 -할 I have no friends to count on. I have no girl to go out with. I have no food to eat. 3. 부사적 용법 ① 목적 -하기 위하여 He lived to die. 8
She left home to make money. I go to work to make money. ② 원인 -하다니 I'm very glad to see you again. I'm sorry to hear that. ③ 결과 -해서 ~가 되다. He grew up to be a beggar. He grew up to be hundred. 4. 의문사 +부정사 = 명사구 목적 -을,를 I don't now what to do. You have to decide where to go. I know when to leave. 5. 그 밖의 나머지 공부팀 ① seem to She seems to be happy. ② be to 가운의 예의 Nothing was to be seen in the cave. (가능) Bruce Lee was to die young. (운명) You are not to dump her. (의무) The President is to be here soon. (예정) If you are to succeed, you harder. (의도) 6. 부정사의 의미상 주어 네가 백만장자가 되는 것은 불가능한 일이다. = To be a millionaire is impossible for you. ☞ It is impossible for you to be a millionaire. It - for ~ to 행위자가 중요하지 않을 때는 for +주어 생략 It to ~ It's good to get up early. It's easy to study English. It - of ~ to It's honest of you to pick up my wallet. 7. 부정사의 부정 It is important not to make a mistake. in order to = so as to ☞ in order not to = so as not to 8. 부정사의 시제 She seems to be a princess. I expect to see you again. 9. 원형부정사 ① 지각동사 (현재시제) (미래시제) have to work
hear, feel, see, look at, watch I saw her sleep on the grass. 수동태가 되면 to 부활 She was seen to sleep on the grass by me. ② 사역동사 make have let 강제성을 갖고 -하게 하다. 강제성 없이 -하게 하다. 허락하여 -하게 하다.
What makes you think so? I had her get married. They let me go. help는 모두 welcome I help you to make money. = I help you make money. 10. 익혀둬야 할 부정사들 ① enough to -할 만큼 충분한 The bag is cheap enough for me to buy. ② too - to ~ 너무 -해서 ~못한다. She is too young to die. ③ 대부정사 You may die if you want to.
(1) 현재분사 동사의 원형 +ing, 능동·진행 My wife is talking about something. There is a woman talking about my ex boyfriend. (2) 과거분사 동사의 원형 +ing, 완료·진행 We have many uninvited visitor. She was standing lonely by broken windows. (3) 분사의 성격 1. 분사 뒤에 다른 식구들이 달라붙으면 생사고락을 함께 한다. Is your boss standing blankly there? The gentleman wearing a straw hat is my father. 2. 분사가 대명사를 수식할 때는 뒤에 붙는다. Those invited are encouraged to get dressed up. 3. 분사가 부리는 요술들 ① -하고 있는 9
He seems to have got a new job. (완료시제)
She looked down at her sleeping baby. The swimming lady is my wife.. ② -하면서 He stood looking up at the full-moon. ③ -인 채로 He sat surrounded by beautiful girls. ※ 분사의 여러 용법 ① the +분사 보통명사로 ~한 사람들, ~한 사람 추상명사로 ~한 것 The unknown is always mysterious and attractive. ② 명사(형용사 +부사) +분사 형용사 역할 good-looking, hard-working, computer-run ③ 부사적 용법 The night was freezing cold. (4) 분사구문의 탄생 (접속사 +주어 +동사)를 처치 ☞ 주절의 동사를 제 조 When IlSung saw his son in hell, he ran away. ☞ Seeing his son in hell, IlSung ran away. (5) 분사구문의 성격 1. 때 As I was walking along MyungDong street, I met GunMo. ☞ Walking along MyungDong street, I met GunMo. 2. 이유 As I lived right next to her apartment, I could hear her fighting with her friend. ☞ Living right next to her apartment, I could hear her fighting with her friend. 3. 조건 If you stop smoking right now, you may live long. ☞ Stopping smoking right now, you may live long. 4. 양보 Though I worked hard all night long, I'm still OK. ☞ Working hard all night long, I'm still OK. 5. 부대상황 We sang and danced together, and we had fun. ☞ Singing and dancing together, we had fun. (1) 동명사의 탄생 1. 동명사형 동사의 원형 +ing 현재분사와 생김새는 같으나 쓰임새는 다름. 현재분사 : 진행형과 분사구문의 재료, -하고 있는 (동작·상태) 동명사 도·목적) ① smoking a smoking room ② sleeping 10 : 주어, 보어, 목적어 역할, -하기위한 (용 (8) 독립을 주장하는 분사구문 After dinner was over, we went to church. ☞ Dinner being over, we went to church. As it was fine, we went on a picnic. ☞ It being fine, we went on a picnic. ※ 관용적으로 쓰이는 독립분사구문 generally speaking speaking, judging from, stricktly (7) 완료형과 수동태의 분사구문은 어떻게? 1. 완료형이 분사구문 After I had finished my homework, I played cards. ☞ Having finished my homeworks I played cards. 2. 수동태의 분사구문 Since she was kissed by a stranger guy, she's been warried. ☞ Being kissed by a strange guy, she has been worried. ☞ Kissed by a strange guy, she has been worried. Because he was a good boy, he was loved by his family. ☞ Being a good boy, he was loved by his family. ☞ A good boy, he was loved by his family. (6) 분사구문에 웬 접속사가? Opening the refrigerator, I saw a live monkey in there. = When opening the refrigerator, I saw a live monkey in there.
a sleeping car ③ dancing a dancing girl 현재분사 : 명사에 악센트 동명사 : 동명사에 악센트 2. 일거수일투족 ① 주어, 보어 Teaching is learning. =To teach is to learn. ② 목적어 I like flying a kite. Thank you for inviting me. ※ 부정사는 명사적 용법이라도 전치사의 목적어 ✗ Thank you for inviting me. 예외) expect 뜻으로 There is nothing but to keep going. 〇
pretend, choose, promise 3. 동명사, 부정사를 모두 고용하는 동사 ① 의미 차이 없이 like, love, hate, dislike, begin, start, continue, intend ② 의미 차이 발생 remember -ing ~해야 할 것을 기억하다.(미래사실) to ~ ~한 것을 기억하고 있다.(과거사실) forget -ing~해야 할 것을 잊어버리다.(미래사실) to ~ ~한 것을 잊어버리다. need try mean stop -ing to ~ -ing to ~ -ing to ~ -ing to ~ (6) 동명사의 관용적 표현 ① There is no -ing = It +is impossible There is no selling heaters in Africa. ② It is no use -ing It is no use crying over spilt milks. ③ cannot help -ing I can't help smoking. I can't help it. ④ on -ing = as soon as On hearing the news, she killed herself. ⑤ It goes without saying that It goes without saying that you'll succeed in the future. (능동) (수동) ~하려고 노력하다. ~해보다. ~할 작정이다. ~하는 것을 의미하다. ~하기를 멈추다. ~하기위하여 멈추다. (과거사실)
Thank you for to invite me. ✗
(2) 동명사의 의미상 주어 I don't like going to heaven. I don't like your going to heaven. I don't like his going to heaven. I don't like your sister's going to heaven. 명사일 경우 소유격으로 하지 않는 게 보통 (3) 동명사의 완료형이란? 1. 완료형 He is proud of having gone with many girls in his school days. = He is proud that he went out with many girls in his school. 2. 제멋대로 행동하는 무리 I forget getting drunk last night. = I forget that I got drunk last night. I remember getting drunk last night. = I remember that I got drunk last night.
(4) be 동사의 동명사형 being He likes being helped. He hates being treated as a child. (5) 동사의 식성 1. 동명사만을 목적어로 고용하는 동사 give up, postpone, practice, finish, mind, deny, escape, consider, avoid, enjoy, admit 2. 부정사만을 목적어로 고용하는 동사 (1) 명사의 종류 1. 보통명사 I'm a man. She's expecting a baby. I laid an egg. ※ the +보통명사 = 추상명사 ① the heart 애정 My daughter is lack of the heart. ② the cradle 유아기 11
From the cradle to the grave. ③ the beggar 거지근성 When one is poor, the beggar will come out. ④ the pen 문 ⑤ the sword 무 The pen is mightier than the sword. 2. 집합명사와 군집명사 Her family is large. Her family are all fine. There are three families in the house. ① people 사람들(복수의미) 민족 (단수의미) There are many people in Seoul. There are many peoples in Seoul. ② police policeman policemen policewoman policewomen police officer police officers Several police are patrolling neighborhood. Who has a pull with the police? pull = string = connection police = cop = fuzz ③ cattle Cattle are grazing in the meadow. 3. 물질명사 ① a school of fish 물고기떼 There are two fish. There are two fishes. deer, sheep ② a cake of soap 비누 한 장 ③ a piece of chalk 분필 한 개 a one-piece dress a two-piece dress a cup of tea a sheet of paper a pack of cigarettes a piece of cigarettes two scoops of strawberry 4. 추상명사 I wish you happiness. 셀 수 없기 때문에 a, an을 거부 some, much, a little을 이용 양을 표현 가능 news, information, advice는 a piece of의 도움으 로 a piece of news, a piece of information, a piece of advice로 사용
① 추상명사 +itself = all +추상명사 = very +형 용사 My wife is happiness itself. = My wife is all happiness. = My wife is very happy. ② of +추상명사 = 형용사구 She is a woman of beauty. He's a man of wisdom. 5. 고유명사 사람이름, 지명, 월, 직급 Mr. Kim A Mr. Kim He's a Kim. the +고유명사 복수형 -의 일가 The Clintons live right next door to us. (2) 인간은 셈을 하는 동물 ① s, x, ch, sh로 끝나는 말은 es를 붙인다. ② f나 fe로 끝나는 단어는 f를 v로 고치고 es를 붙 인다. wolf ☞ wolves wife ☞ wives ③ 자음 +y는 y를 i로 고치고 es를 붙인다. lady ☞ ladies ④ 몇 가지 예외 heroes, potatoes, stomachs, roofs, safes, Marys ⑤ 나머지는 s만 붙이면 OK 2. 농땡이 군단들 ① 사람, 여자, 신사, 발, 이빨, 거위, 생쥐 women, gentlemen oo ☞ ee foot ☞ feet tooth ☞ teeth goose ☞ geese ② 단수형 = 복수형 Japanese, Chinese, series fish, trout, salmon, carp, deer, sheep ③ 그 밖에 oasis ☞ oases phenomenon ☞ phenomena. mouse ☞ mice ④ 복합어 father-in-law ☞ fathers-in-law looker-on ☞ lookers-on passer-by ☞ passers-by manservant ☞ menservants womanwriter ☞ womenwriters 12
⑤ 복수가 되었다고 속까지 바뀌는 녀석들 custom ☞ customs 관세 good ☞ goods 상품 pain ☞ pains 노력 sand ☞ sands 사막 arm ☞ arms 무기 ⑥ 복수 애호가들 scissors, socks ⑦ 항상 복수형 악수를 하는 일 서로 친구가 되는 일 차를 갈아타는 일 I shook his hand. He's gonna make the bars all night. ⑧ 학문집안 사람들 mathematics physis economics We shook hands. We made friends. I charged buses. spectacles, trousers, pants, shoes,
cock, hen hero, heroine host, hostess heir, heiress lion, lioness prince, princess actor, actress god, godness
(1) 인칭대명사 They say that he is an easygoing person. (2) 소유대명사 Your girlfriend is pretty and mine is prettier. 잡다한 것들과 잘 어울리지 않는다. This is mine. (3) 재귀대명사
(3) 소유격 1. 생물인 경우 보통 ‘s를 붙인다. my girlfriend's bro a girls' high school 2. 복합어 my mother-in-law's car 3. 무생물인 경우 of the legs of the de나 4. 무생물이라도 의인화되면 ‘s를 하사 fortune's smile the ocean's whisper 5. 소유격 다음에 명사를 생략 my aunt's house ☞ my aunt's 6. 관사와 지시대명사는 소유격과 친하지 않다? my a friend ✗ ☞ a friend of mine my wife's a brother ✗ ☞ a brother if my wife's my brother's this computer ✗ ☞ this computer of my brother's 7. 무게, 시간, 거리, 가격은 's a pound's weight today's paper a mile's distance one dollar's worth (4) 명사의 성 male, female
인칭대명사의 소유격 +self s로 끝나는 것은 목적격에 self를 붙인다. 1. 재귀대명사란? 주어의 동작이 주어자신에게 다시 미친다. 2. 강조하는 힘 I myself helped her. I helped her herself. 3. 관용구들 say to oneself 중얼거리다. beside oneself 제 정신이 아닌 by oneself 홀로 for oneelf 혼자 힘으로 (4) 의문대명사 who, when, where, what, why, how ☞ 5W1H Who the hell are you? What is your boyfriend? Which person is your sister. ※ 간접의문문 의문사 +주어 +be 동사 I don't know who you are. think, imagine, guess, believe, suppose와 만나면 의문사는 선두주자로 Who do you think he is? (5) 지시대명사 1. 지시대명사의 역할은? 13
명사의 반복을 피하는 일 The hair of myself is longer than that of mine. 2. this와 that this 가까이 있는 물건이나 사람 that 보다 멀리 떨어진 물건이나 사람 I like 고추장 and 햄버거; this is not so hot as that. 3. 이런 말 Clinton said this, "Easy does it." 4. as such I'm a lady and must be treated as such. Such a girl as she is very rare. = A girl such as she is very rare. 5. so So he is. So am I. So does she. So long. So so. Is that so? (6) 부정대명사 1. 태양도 one, 우리도 one One should keep one's promise. one = a(an) +보통명사 ① one과 it I need a girlfriend. Can I borrow one? I want the pen. Can I borrow it? ② one과 the other another = an +other the other = the +other I have two sons ; one is tall and the other short. ③ some -, (the) other ~ Some people like to dance, and the other short. ④ the one - the other ~ I have a son and a daughter. The one is rich and the other is poor. 2. another ① 또 다른 하나(의) Try this one. Please, show me another (one). one -, another -, a third -, a forth -, One is red, another yellow, and a third orange, and a fourth -, the third orange one after another
one by one ② each other과 one another SoonJa and ChulSoo helped each other. SoonJa, Chulsoo, and July helped one another. ③ - one thing, ~ another To love is one thing, and to marry is another. 3. Some은 긍정문에 any는 의문문, 부정문, 조건문 에 Do you have money? Do you have any money? Do you have some money? some 긍정의 답변을 예측한 의문문 상대방에게 권유·의뢰할 경우 Would you like to have same 막걸리? 4. no = not - any none = no +one I don't have a girlfriend. I don't have any girlfriend. I have no girlfriend. 형용사 No credit! No parking! No compromise! No objection! No can do. None can do it = No one can do it. None of your business! 5. all(단복수) every(단수), both(복수) All are happy. All is calm. 6. 부분부정 ① All is not gold that glitters. ② every는 혼자서는 아무 짓도 못한다. Every girl is not pretty. Every bird can not sing. Every man is not brave. ③ Both of them are not dumb. 7. neither no +either = neither either 둘 중에 하나 neither 둘 중에 어느 쪽도 아니다. Either of the backpack is mine. Neither of the backpack is yours. None of us is chubby. 모두 단수 취급 14
either 부정문에서 -도 역시 I'm happy, too. I'm not happy, either. = Neither am I. I'm not happy, too. ✗ ① Neither am I와 So am I I don't blame you, either. = Neither do I. I blame to you, too. = So do I. neither은 부정문에, so는 긍정문에
④ 선행사가 인간과 동물, 인간과 사물이라면 that A boy and a dog that are playing together looks very tired. ⑤ who가 앞에 오면 that Who that knows her wants to marry her? ⑥ that의 까다로운 식성 전치사와 이웃 ✗ He's not the man for whom I've been waiting. 〇 He's not the man for that I've been waiting. ✗ He's not the man that I've been waiting for. 〇 4. what 선행사 ✗ What I see is what I learn. = The thing which I see is the thing which I learn. This is what I've earned. I'm not what I was. He is what we call a penny pincher. what we call = what is called = so called Reading is to the mind what food is to the body. A is to B what C is to D. A 와 B = C와 D I was very unhappy, and what was worse, very tired. what is +비교급 더욱 -한 것은 what is better 더욱 좋은 것은 what is worse 더욱 나쁜 것은 what is more surprising 더욱 기가 차는 일은 What with the debt and (what with) the recession, our business went sour. what with A and (what with) B 한편으로는 A로 또 한편으로는 B로 5, 생략 This is the house (that, which) I sold last month. This is the house in which I used to live. ☞ This is the house I used to live in. 6. 한정용법과 계속용법 We have five sons who never study. We have five sons, who never study. 계속용법일 경우 관계대명사 = 접속사 +대명사 7. 관계대명사의 흉내 There is no law but has exception. (2) 관계부사와 관계대명사 15
(1) 관계대명사의 종류 1. 관계대명사의 종류 선행사 인간 주격 who 소유격 whose whose, of which 목적격 whom which that man who wanted to see you
물건·짐승 which 인간·짐승 that This is the
yesterday. I have a friend whose mother is a pianist. She is the famous wrestler whom I know very well. 2. 선행사가 사람이 아닐 경우 The apple which is on the table is mine. There is a big mountain whose(of which) top is covered with snow. This is the house which I bought last year. 3. that 소유격이 존재 ✗ He belted his boy that made up an excuse to cut school. My father went out to sell the fish that I caught. ① the only, the very, the same This is the only girl that can make me happy. This is the very man that I wanted to hire. This is the same watch that I lost. ② 선행사에 최상급이 붙었거나 서수가 오면 that이 초빙 She is the most beautiful girl that I've ever seen. ③ 선행사가 all, everything, anything, no, little 등 이면 that That's all that I can do.
관계부사 = 접속사 +부사 This is the place. He lived here for a while. = This is the place where he lived for a while. 1. 연관성 where = in(at, to) +which when = on(at, in) +which why = for +which how = the way in which This is the apartment where my parents lived. = This is the apartment where my parents lived. Today is Sunday when I go to church. = Today is Sunday on which I go to church. I don't know the reason why for which you can't buy a car. You should know how I got here. = You should know the way in which I got there. 관계부사는 선행사 생략 가능 2. that으로 대용가능한가? 그렇다. the day when = the day that the reason why = the reason that how = the way in which = the way how = the way that 선행사가 같아도 내용에 따라 관계대명사일 수도, 관 계부사가 될 수도 있다. This is the house where I live. This is the house which I built. 3. 한정용법과 계속용법 when과 where만 We were having breakfast at seven, when my lost son showed up right in front of me. July ran away from me to the States, where she died. 이 때, 관계부사 = 접속사 + 부사 4. 누구든 먼저 오는 자가 상을 받을 것이다. ① 관계대명사 친족들 whoever(no matter who) whichever whatever(no matter what) Whoever comes first will get the prize. Whichever you like, just take it. Whatever you say is OK with me. ② 관계부사 친족들 whenever wherever
however Whenever you may come, you're welcomed. Wherever you may go, you won't be welcomed. However hard I worked, I couldn't make any money.
1. 서술용법과 한정용법 A country bumpkin is stupid. A country bumpkin is a stupid guy. 2. 식성이 까다롭네. ① 주어를 설명하는 서술용법 afraid alive alone asleep I'm afraid of people. The flea is still alive. She stays alone in a country. I fell asleep while studying.
content, fond, worth ② 명사를 책임지는 한정용법 a drunken girl a golden wedding a wooden table my former wife your elder brother the inner life 3. 기분파 형용사 무리 I was late for work. The late Mr. Kim made a big noise at that time. Everybody was present at the meeting. The present first lady is very talkative. 4. 형용사에도 서열이? Those three tall pretty young clay manikins belong to me. 지시, 수량, 대·소, 성질·상태, 신·구, 재료 ☞ 지수대 성신재 5. 형용사와 친척관계의 표현들 good = great A good many ladies like to lose weight. many, much = a lot of = lots of = plenty of He has a lot of money. He has a lot of friends. ※ many a가 가능한가? Many a man wishes to live long. I speak Korean different than that. not A so much as B = not so much A as B = A 라기보다는 B 16 and English. This is more
She is not so much a beggar as a poor person. not so much as = 조차 못하다. He can not so much as speak a word. 6. little과 few ① little과 a little little 부정의 뜻(거의 -없는) a little 긍정의 뜻(조금의) I have little money with me. I have a little money with me. ② few와 a few few a few 부정의 뜻(거의 -없는) 긍정의 뜻(몇몇의)
1988 nineteen eighty-eight 3. 분수 2/3 two-thirds 1/2 a(one) half 1/4 a(one) quarter 4. 소수 3.45 three point four five 5. 전화번호 016-637-3112 zero one six, six three seven, three one one two 6. 시간 10시 55분 five to(before) eleven 10시 5분 five minutes after(past) ten 5시 15분 quarter after five 5시 45분 quarter to six 7. 수식 ① 덧셈 1 +2 = 3 One plus two equals three. One and two is(are, makes) three. ② 뺄셈 2 - 1 = 1 Two minus one equals one. One from two leaves one. ③ 곱셈 2 * 2 = 4 Two times two is four. Once, twice, three times, four times, ... Two multiplied by two equals four. ④ 나눗셈 4 ÷ 2 = 2 Four divided by two equals two. 8. 날짜 June. 22 June twenty two June the twenty second June twenty second the twenty second of June 9. 돈계산 $ 40.50 forty dollars (and) fifty (cents) (3) 수사의 관용적 표현 dozens of 수백의 hundreds of 수백의 thousands of 수천의 Nine hundred people were swimming naked in the ocean. 17
I have few friends in Seoul. I have a few friends in Seoul. ③ ‘적은’을 부정하면 ‘많은’ not a few not a little party. Not a little water is in the pond. 7. no no가 명사 앞에 오면 형용사가 된다. I have no money. = I don't have any money. Long time no see. 8. enough We don't have enough food to share with them. = We don't have food enough to share with them. 명사의 앞뒤는 가리지 않지만 형·부가 나타나면 뒤로 간다. You're old enough to die. (수가) 많은 = many (양이) 많은 = much
Not a few men were invited to my birthday
(1) 수사의 탄생 기수 +째 (한국어) 기수 +th ☞ 서수 first, second, third, fourth, ... 서수와 함께 쓰일 때 the를 붙임. the Second World War = World War 2 = World War Two You'd better try it a second time. (2) 숫자를 읽는 방법 1. 정수 1988 one thousand nine hundred eighty-eight 2. 연도
You speak English well. (4) 기타 수사의 무리 1980년대에 in the nineteen eighties Ten years is a long time. Ten years have passed since I came back from the moon. Two million dollars is not a large sum of money. Well do you speak English. 4. very와 much very 형용사·부사·현재분사·원급 Her pants are very good. Thank you very much. Soccer is a very exciting game. much 과거분사·비교급 I'm much interested in her.
1. 부사의 족보 때 장소 빈도 정도 now, then, today, tomorrow, early, late, before here, there, near, far, in, out, down, up rarely, sometimes, often, always almost, enough, very, little, only
My wife is much better than your wife. 5. before와 ago before 과거형, 완료형 I worked there before. I've met him before. ago 과거형 I made the kimchee two days ago. Q. She told me that she had got divorced two years ( ). 6. only는 안티-풍수지리자 Only I love him. I only love him. I love only him. 7. 아리송해! He's already married. Has he married yet? He hasn't married yet. 예외) Have you already done it? yet 긍정문에 아직의 뜻으로
긍정·부정 yes, no, not, perhaps, probably, maybe 2. 부사의 생김새 ① 형용사와 생김새가 동일한 말 He got up early. He's an early riser. ② 형용사 +ly I had a late breakfast this morning. He's getting busy lately. She plays tennis very hard. She hardly play tennis. My birthday is drawing near. I was nearly killed. 3. 부사의 풍수지리설 ① 부사 +형·부 She's very beautiful. ② 동사 +부사 A hare runs fast. ③ 부사 +문장 Unfortunately he lost his only son in a war. ④ 장소 +부사 +시간 They didn't live there happily last year. ⑤ 빈도부사 조동사 뒤, be동사 다음, 일반동사 앞 never, seldom, often, sometimes, usually, always ⑥ 대명사 Put your clothes on. Put on your clothes. Put them on. Put on them. ✗ ⑦ 부사의 강조
1. 비교급 ‘보다’ er / 최상급 ‘가장’ est 불규칙 변화 many, much good, well bad, ill little ① far 거리 비교급 최상급 016-637-3112. ② late 시간 순서 18 farther farthest 정도 further furthest - more - better - worse - less - most - best - worst - least
2. 한 뿌리에서 두 가지 얼굴이 탄생
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비교급 최상급 usual. the latest news at the latest
① 원급과 비교급으로도 최상급의 의미를 나타낼 수 있다. Nothing is so(as) precious as mu wife. = Nothing is more precious than my wife. = My wife is more precious than my wife. = My wife is the most precious of all things. ② This is the deepest lake in the world. This lake is deepest at this point. This point is the deepest in this lake. ③ 임꺽정 is a most famous person in my village. a most ≠ the most = a very = 아주 ④ 모택동 is the second strongest kid in my
You may come to work tomorrow later than
He come in last in the race. second to none second to last the last but one Which part of the story do you like, the former or the later? ③ old 연령, 신구 비교급 최상급 older oldest 형제자매 elder eldest
class. the +서수 +최상급 = 몇 번째로 가장 -한 ⑤ The most beautiful girl can't change his mind. ⑥ 최상급의 여러 가지 표현들 do one's most at +(the) best most least latest earliest worst 최선을 다하다 기껏해야 기껏해야 적어도 늦어도 일러도 아무리 나빠도
3. 원급으로 비교? I'm not so(as) rich as you (are). 4. 나는 그의 몸무게의 다섯 배다. I weigh five times as heavy as he. = I weigh five times heavier than he. 5. as soon as possible Go to bed as soon as possible. 6. 형·부의 비교급 +than Your legs are two inches longer than mine. = Your legs are longer than mine by two inches. Your wife is much older than mine. 7. headache 선물 보따리들 ① Jenny is the prettier of the two. 둘 중에서 더 -한 = the 비교급 of the two ② He was more unhappy than unlucky. 동일인이나 동일물의 성질비교엔 er 대신 more ③ He worked the harder because he got paid more. because나 for가 뒤따르는 문장에선 비교급이라도 the를 모신다. ④ than 대신 to senior ↔ junior, superior ↔ inferior My wife is 10 years senior to your wife. ⑤ the +비교급 -, the +비교급 ~ -하면 할수록 ~한 The more you have, the more you want. ⑥ more and more +원급 점점 더 -한 He became more and more wicked. 9. 형용사의 최상급엔 the
not - in the least 조금도 -않다. He didn't care his scandal in the least.
Put it on. Pit it on the desk. 1. 전치사와 공간과의 관계 ① on과 beneath There is an apple on the desk. There is a piece of gum beneath the desk. ② over와 under A wasp is flying over my head. There is nothing new under the sun. ③ above와 below The moon rose above the hill. The sun went below the horizon. ④ across와 along I swam across the Han River. Come along. = Follow me. = Come after me. ⑤ around와 round Sitting around the table, we had Ramyun. 19
The earth moves round the sun. ⑥ between과 among Between you and me, he stole my wallet. A lot of birds are laughing at me among trees. ⑦ die of와 die from Eve and Adam died of their old age. My farther died from overwork. ⑧ of와 from The desk is made if wood. Wine is made from grapes. ⑨ to와 into He was hungry to death. Water is frozen into ice. 2. 장소를 나타내는 전치사 at 비교적 좁은 장소 in 넓은 장소 The plane will stop one hour at Seoul. My ex-wife lives in this village. 3. 때를 나타내는 대표적인 전치사 ① at at noon, at first, at midnight ② in in January, in spring, in 2002 ③ on on my birthday, on a rainy day, on January 5 ④ in, within, after in a week, within a week, after a week ⑤ by, till = until I have to get married to her by tomorrow. I am going to wait for her till tomorrow. ⑥ during, for, while, through during vacation, for a week, while I was laughing, through the night 4. 전치사와 잘 어울리는 표현들 ① The village is fifty miles east of Seoul. ② I went to New York by Anchorage with her. ③ Keep off the grass. ④ The grapes are sold by the pound. ⑤ Write it with a pencil. ⑥ I bought this pants for twenty dollars. ⑦ I drove at a speed of 60 miles per hour. ⑧ I voted for him, but my friends against him. ⑨ Don't put off your clothes with the windows open. ① He was dressed in white. ※ with +명사 +형용사, 분사 He sat with his legs crossed.
He was standing silently with his arms crossed. We can't play tennis with wind blowing. He showed up with his hat on.
1. and ① 명령문 -, and ~ = -해라, 그러면 ~할 것이다. Throw all your money, and you'll become a beggar. ② 동사 +and +동사 = 동사 +to +동사 Go and buy it. = Go to buy it. = Go buy it. ③ 명령문 -, or ~ = -해라, 그렇지 않으면 ~할 것 이다. Get lost, or I'll punch you. ④ A is not B but C = A는 B가 아니라 C다. She is not my mother, but my wife. 2. that That he is honest is certain. ☞ It is certain that he is honest. The point is that you marry first and make money. I don't think (that) it will be fine tomorrow. I think it natural that he gets paid a lot. = I think that he gets paid a lot natural. He must be crazy that he is swimming in the icy water. 판단일 때 -하다니, -하는 것을 보니 He realized the fact that his friend had betrayed him. that 이하는 동격의 명사절 3. if와 whether I don't know if(weather) the person is a male or a female. Weather she's married is really questionable. = If she's married is really questionable. ✗ = It is really questionable if she's married. The bottom line is if he will pay us the money. ✗ ☞ The bottom line is whether he will pay us the money. 4. as와 when When I was a boy, I was kind of ugly. As I was jumping off the house top, I heard a beautiful voice from the heaven. As I entered the room, everybody applauded. When I entered the room, everybody applauded. 20
Do as you wish. Rich as she is, she's not happy. = Though she is rich, she's not happy. 명사·형용사·부사·동사 +as +문장, 주절 5. as와 that This is the same wallet as I lost. This is the same wallet that I lost. 6. 이유를 나타내는 접속사들 As it's snowing, you should put the chain on the car. Since it's snowing, you should put the chain on the car. Because it's snowing, you should put the chain on the car.
② do I do hope you want dump me. Who did take my money? ③ very This is the very boy that tried ti rape me. ④ I know nothing whatever about it. ⑤ It is - that ~ It is the watch that I stole. It is you who are to blame. ⑥ 반복 She cried, cried, cried ⑦ and, and, and I came home and I took a shower and I cook dinner and I fought with my husband. ☞ I came home, took a shower, cooked dinner and fought with my husband. ⑧ 최상급 +possible She ran at the highest speed possible. ⑨ 재귀대명사 It is a skunk's fart itself. 3. 생략생략 ① I wish you a Merry Christmas and Happy New Year. ☞ Merry Christmas and Happy New Year! I wish you a Good morning. ☞ Good morning. ② If a man is out if sight, he'll go out of mind. ☞ Out of sight, out of mind. ③ I'll see you later. = I'll catch you later. ☞ See you later. = Catch you later. I'll see you around. ☞ See you around. ④ To some people life is short ; to others life is long. ☞ To some life is short ; to others long.
도치, 강조, 생략
1. 문장의 도치 ① There is -의 구문 A crazy man lived in the village. ☞ There lived a crazy man in the village. ② 기원문의 도치 May you live long! ☞ Long may you live! If I had met her a little earlier, I should have got married to her. ☞ Had I met her a little earlier, I should have got married to her. ③ 목적어의 도치 I'm going to buy the Empire State Building. ☞ The Empire State Building I'm going to buy. = The Empire State Building am I going to buy. She did not say a word for a few days. ☞ Not a word did she say for a few days. ④ 보어의 도치 There who smile all the time are happy. ☞ Happy are those who smile all the time. ⑤ 부사(구)의 도치 I never saw such a beautiful girl. ☞ Never did I see such a beautiful girl. He studied well. ☞ Wall does he study. 2. 강조를 위한 특별조치들 ① on earth, in the world, the hell What on earth are you talking about? = What in the world are you talking about? What the hell are you talking about?